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Bibliography of Theses and Dissertations on Indigenous Peoples – 2007 Jan.

This bibliography contains items not included in my ‘Bibliography of ‘Arctic Social Sciences’ Theses and
Dissertations.’
This is very much a work in progress, and despite the fact that it contains 963 entries this bibliography is
undoubtedly missing a great many theses and dissertations – especially those written in languages other than
English. Notification of omissions (and of typos and other errors) would be oh-so-greatly appreciated!
The abstracts are those prepared by the authors of the theses and dissertations. The spellings of some words have
been standardized to facilitate searching by keyword.

Abadian, Sousan. (1999) "From wasteland to homeland: Trauma and the renewal of indigenous peoples and their
communities." Ph.D. Dissertation, Harvard University. 524 pp.
Why is it that the descendants of the original peoples of North America living today on reserves and
reservations continue to suffer disproportionately from poverty, poor health, violence, alcohol and substance
abuse? What are effective means of bettering substandard conditions?
This study suggests that unresolved or poorly resolved individual and collective trauma is an often
overlooked, key causal variable which helps explain present-day conditions in many indigenous communities.
Parts I and II explore the 'trauma thesis' and suggest that the experience of trauma may profoundly distort
individual perceptual filters, values, and behaviour, with damaging social ramifications. Prolonged and
extensive trauma can distort institutions and destroy productive social capital, fostering the antithesis of a
'civic culture' -- a 'subculture of trauma' -- with dire implications for economic and political life.
Multiple generations of native peoples have experienced individual-level trauma in the context of massive
collective traumatization. This coupling of individual and collective trauma is particularly deadly because,
among other things, it cripples the capacity of individuals to heal. Under these circumstances, trauma is
likely to be replicated through time and space, and manifest in substandard conditions.
In addition to exploring root causes, this study has aimed to provide some insight into possible means of
reversing substandard conditions and enhancing well-being. To this end, Part III utilizes psychological
theory on the processes of healing from trauma as well as field cases from North American native
communities. Part III suggests that a set of interventions employed by increasing numbers of aboriginal
communities in various guises, described as 'culture as treatment,' are effective means of countering
traumatically-induced social pathologies on reserves and reservations today (the 'culture as treatment
thesis').
I conclude with an accounting of what culture as treatment might ideally entail: psychological, cultural and
spiritual renewal. Renewal does not mean mere restoration of what was lost, even if that were possible, but
may require a degree of adaptation to the changed realities of present-day circumstances.
Moreover, I suggest that cultural renewal/psychological healing and economic development are not
necessarily at odds with one another. The economic and sociocultural imperatives can go hand-in-hand: they
are compatible and indeed may support one another.

Abbott, Kathryn A. (1996 ) "A history of alcohol as symbol and substance in Anishinabe culture, 1765-1920." Ph.D.
Dissertation, University of Massachusetts Amherst. 241 pp.
This dissertation examines the history of alcohol among the Anishinaabe (also known as the Ojibway or
Chippewa) people from the middle of the 18th century until the enactment of National Prohibition in 1920. As
early as the 18th century, alcohol was an integral part of the gift-giving which preceded negotiations for the
French -- and later British and American -- fur trade. Some Anishinaabe people incorporated alcohol into
funerals, and there is also evidence that the Anishinaabeg had reasonable social controls around drinking
into the 20th century.
Alcohol was also pivotal in shaping non-Indian stereotypes of Indian people. In the 19th century, the drinking
habits of the Anishinaabeg were seen first as a sign of cultural weakness. The rhetoric of American
missionaries emphasized that once the Anishinaabeg had accepted Christianity, they would choose to give up
alcohol. However, these same missionaries also argued that in order to become Christian, the Anishinaabeg
first would have to reject liquor.
By the early 20th century, the stereotype of the culturally inferior Indian combined with scientific racism to
create the image of racially inferior Indians. These images served as the justification for Anishinaabeg

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dispossession in the early years of the 20th century.
Further, as Prohibition agitation increased in the early 20th century, non-Indians used the Anishinaabeg in
Minnesota to wage an ideological war not only about alcohol in white society but also about the extent of
federal power in enforcing treaty provisions on non-Indians lands. Hence, the Anishinaabeg became the
rhetorical vehicle for a complex debate which at times only marginally included them.
By focusing on one Indian group at a particular point in time, this dissertation seeks to historicize one Indian
group's experience with alcohol and to move away from generalizations about 'Indians' and drinking. By
presenting as full a picture as possible of the diversity of the Anishinaabe experience with alcohol, this
dissertation hopes to emphasize both their humanity and their history.

Abigosis, Betty J. (2003 ) "Seeking a double understanding: Constituting local First Nations governance." Ph.D.
Dissertation, University of Saskatchewan (The). 345 pp.
As we turn the corner into the new millennium we see the indigenous peoples of Canada move toward
reclaiming their inherent rights. Having advanced their political status within the governing elites of the
colonial governments, First Nations are striving to become self-determining. The research study that was
conducted falls in line with the movements of the indigenous peoples.
In an attempt to achieve a 'double understanding,' this study engaged in a research process that aimed to
learn the traditional philosophies of one First Nation and build these understandings within a contemporary
form of local governance. To achieve this purpose, the study sought the knowledge of those who are closest to
the past, the elders and those who were leading the First Nation at the time of the study. From the
philosophical findings that resulted from their participation, and through a collaborative process with
members of the First Nation, a local level constitution was developed specifically for their First Nation.
To provide a background on the concepts associated with indigenous philosophy a literature review was
conducted. Through the review, the study provided insight on the traditional philosophies of indigenous
peoples, and the values they share in common. More specific to the Anishinabe people, the study provided
insight on the philosophies that guided their way of life in traditional times. The literature review also
provided explanation of research approaches that aboriginal people consider legitimate. From this stance,
discussion on the concept of 'knowledge-keeper' was offered.
The study also reviewed the historical events that have lead the movement of First Nations governance in
Canada. Describing the events that unfolded in the evolution of First Nations governance, the study provided
an overview of the historical relationship shared between the indigenous peoples and the colonial
governments. As well, the study examined the contemporary options for First Nations self-government in
Canada, from the comprehensive perspective to the narrowed view of local governance. The role of leaders
in the development of local governance was also discussed.
The research process that was conducted in this study evolved through a staged process. The staged process
provided description of the study's evolution and provided explanation of the role of participants.
Incorporating a collaborative course of action throughout its design, the study enabled members of the First
Nation to become directly involved in the research process. By conducting the research from this stance,
participants of the study acted not only to protect the integrity of their community, but more significantly, to
corroborate the trustworthiness of the research.
As a result of the study's findings, a modern-day governance mechanism that the First Nation could utilize
was developed. Designed specifically for the First Nation a community-based constitution that illustrated
their external political position and provided internal principles for governance at the local level evolved.
Therefore, the overall results of the study not only benefited the advancement of academic knowledge but also
provided the First Nation with a tangible result that could ultimately advance their struggle for self-
determination further.
Recommendations for further development with the community itself were offered. As well, considerations on
how to improve the research practice were cited. In addition, recommendations for further academic
research were put forward.

Ackley, Kristina L. (2005) ""We are Oneida yet": Discourse in the Oneida land claim." Ph.D. Dissertation, State
University of New York at Buffalo. 290 pp.
Land claim movements make an important contribution to how Oneidas construct their identities. The idea of
an Oneida community is defined and imagined in multiple ways -- as physical, political, social, cultural, and
spiritual spaces. Paradoxically, for the Oneida the idea of community has been concurrently based on
mobility as well as on a steadfast belief in an aboriginal fixed place. The collective history of activism that is
based on securing Oneida title to the aboriginal territory is based on family forces as well as a nascent

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Oneida nationalism.
There is a belief in the coherence and possibility of relationships between the three Oneida communities
existing as one nation. While it is important not to romanticize this and thereby envision that the Oneida are
culturally, spiritually, and politically united, one should not completely discount the centrality of the idea of a
unified Oneida Nation. On a basic level, there does exist a sense of nationhood among the communities, a
sense of connection and kinship between Oneidas when they meet individually, even if it is sometimes absent
in public discourse or if official relations between the communities are adversarial.
A number of core principles that shape the framework in which the Oneida land rights have been argued.
Consistently, the goal of a reconstituted unified Oneida Nation in the homelands is advocated. The act of
defining oneself in terms of a land base that many Oneidas no longer have access to is a complex process in
which geography plays a central role. Location also affects the ways the Oneida situate themselves when they
argue for the return of land. A sense of traditionalism also frames the debate. Throughout the process, the
land claim is placed within a unique sense of the past that is informed by the reality of the present.
Thus the land claim exists not only as a focal point of conflict, but also as a nexus of hope -- with dreams of
unity and the strengthening of the sovereignty envisioned. The land claim is a way to remain "Oneida yet."

Adelson, Naomi. (1992) ""Being alive well": Indigenous belief as opposition among the Whapmagoostui Cree." Ph.D.
Dissertation, McGill University. 284 pp.
Through an analysis of Cree concepts of well-being, I challenge conventional social scientific definitions of
health. In this dissertation I argue that there exists a fundamental biomedical dualism in health studies and,
using cross-cultural examples, explore an expanded notion of 'health.' I then introduce the Cree concept of
miyupimaatisiiu ('being alive well') and explain that for the Whapmagoostui Cree there is no term that
translates back into English as health. I present the core symbols of 'being alive well' and in their analysis
find a persistence of traditional meanings. For the Cree 'being alive well' is consonant with 'being Cree',
simultaneously transcending the individual and reflecting current political realities. Miyupimaatisiiu for the
adult Cree of Whapmagoostui is a strategy of cultural assertion and resistance and hence situated within the
realm of political discourses.

Agoes, Irid F. (1999) "Indigenous Jakartans and globalization." Ph.D. Dissertation, State University of New York at
Buffalo. 186 pp.
This thesis examines the impact of economic globalization on Indonesians. To understand the thesis, it is
important to know the background of the study. Initially, the study was to interview Indonesian former
student activists who fought for the future of Indonesia in 1960s and who have become leaders in the
government and business. What was their dream for Indonesia back then and how did they think of the
economic globalization now? But I found that they did not think about the impact of economic globalization,
except that it had made them rich. The study changed, the objective remained: What is the impact of
economic globalization? The new focus was on Orang Betawi, indigenous Jakartans. As I started writing the
thesis, economic globalization had a direct impact on me. Without warning and without being actively
involved in the global economy, many 'innocent' Asians went bankrupt, because of the 'Asian economic
collapse.' The story of the indigenous Jakartans and the story of my life blended. Self-portrayal became part
of my ethnography not only because of the self-understanding that came from sharing the experience of
Orang Betawi, but also from suffering the same dispossession and impoverishment as they did. The first
chapter, The Day Heaven Fell, describes feelings of the writer and of the families who lost their land. The
second, Jakarta Catching Up with the World, describes Jakarta's effort to become one of the world's
metropolitan metropolises. The third chapter, Jakarta in the Global Outreach, is about Indonesia's
infatuation with globalizing values. Chapter four, The Values Within, explores Betawi values. The fifth
chapter, When Dreams Become Nightmares describes the disruption results from the economic collapse, the
beginning of deeper problems that continue to convulse Jakarta and Indonesia as a whole. This chapter ends
with a section called Electronic News, a mosaic of relevant news from the Internet, a collage created through
an instrument of globalization and representing the effects of the globalization. The final chapter of this
thesis is (In)conclusion, reiterating the problems wrought by globalization as it continues to exist unless we
question its existence.

Ahokas, Marianne M. (1992) ""As distinct as nature has formed them": Race, class, and nation in the early Republic."
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Minnesota. 152 pp.
"No nation imagines itself coterminous with mankind," Benedict Anderson has declared. But that was the
idealistic implication of the natural rights rhetoric that justified the founding of the United States, the first

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state to consciously authorize its own existence on the basis of universal human nature and human rights.
One of the paradoxes of the early national period is the apparent contradiction between that universalist
humanist rhetoric and the material facts of life for those who were systematically denied the rights that were
being defined as the most basic of human entitlements. How was the exclusion of particular humans from the
national project made possible? In this dissertation, I consider how new essentialized identities were being
constructed in the last quarter of the 18th century, and the extent to which those identities were made
possible by the same discourses that authorized American independence: the political philosophies of natural
rights and civic humanism. The public persona that was invented for Phillis Wheatley in the 1770s
illuminates how earlier, premodern identities based on innate social rank lingered into the early modern
period, but were themselves on the brink of transformation in the late 18th century by the new rhetoric of
liberalism -- a transformation that paved the way for the biologized racial identities of the 19th century. In
Notes on the State of Virginia, Jefferson rewrites America's aboriginal inhabitants as avatars of democracy,
and the New World as the home of man in the state of nature, to respond to, and ultimately discredit,
Buffonian environmentalism. In so doing, Jefferson defines the parameters of membership in the American
polity, based on a naturalized 'political ethnicity.' In Royal Tyler's 1797 novel The Algerine captive the
factionalism of the '90s exposes the vaunted 'human nature' of liberalism and republicanism as shallow, self-
interested, and gullible. So chaotic is the stateside scene that the republican national character can only be
rehabilitated and reconstructed overseas, in an Orientalist fantasy-cum-captivity narrative that permits the
protagonist to reinvent both himself and his nation, and at the same time to erase slavery as a feature of the
republican landscape.

Akers, Donna L. (1997) "Living in the land of death: The Choctaw people, 1830-60." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of
California, Riverside. 317 pp.
The history of the Choctaw people in Indian Territory began with their dispossession and exile from the
Southeast. In the 1830s, they arrived in their new lands in the future state of Oklahoma. The culture and
identity of Choctaw people was intimately connected with the geography of the Mississippi homelands.
Deprived of this foundation, Choctaws devised new cultural institutions and relationships to replace those
that did not survive. From 1830 to 1860, Choctaws redefined their society and kinship structure to fit the
exigencies of their exile. They adapted some institutions and ideals from white society. However, the history
of the Choctaw people in these years is not one of progressive assimilation. Choctaws retained many
traditional beliefs, institutions, and relationships, demonstrating the persistence of a unique Choctaw culture.
Gender roles remained much the same in the new land. Men and women continued to conduct their lives
along traditional lines, emphasizing a strong matrilineal heritage. Women retained many traditional legal
and political rights unknown to white women of the day.
In addition to refuting the assimilation paradigm, this study examines racial and ethnic group relations
which helped mold society and political responses and actions between native groups and between Choctaws
and whites. Unlike the Euro-American society that surrounded them, Choctaws built a society in which native
people were pre-eminent. Choctaws consciously guarded against the encroachment of white society and its
institutions and selected a path of isolation from the intrusion of the world market system. They rejected
Euro-American political, social, and economic ideals that might weaken Choctaw hegemony. Instead, the
Choctaw people tried to insulate themselves from attempts by whites to repeat the dispossession of the 1830s.
This study demonstrates that Choctaw recovered from the tumult of the 1820s and 30s, although they paid a
huge price in human lives and anguish. They succeeded in forming a new Choctaw identity, society, and
economy, that lasted until the United States government abrogated its treaty obligations at the turn of the
century.

Aks, Judith H. (2000) "Re-evaluating rights at the intersections of power: Indigenous women's legal mobilization in
the United States and Canada." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Washington. 241 pp.
Indigenous women have great difficulty making political and legal claims. Often the strategies that are
available speak only to their indigenous identity or their gender, but not to both simultaneously. This sets up
a kind of double bind, when remedies for domination based upon one aspect of one's identity actually
entrenches domination based upon another identity facet. This is a study of power, law, and identity, which
assumes that legal norms have multiple interpretations, hierarchies are deeply entrenched yet also change
over time, and domination and resistance happen simultaneously. Given these theoretical underpinnings, how
can indigenous women mobilize the law? This study urges legal scholars to interrogate the problematic of
intersectional power, such as the combined effects of race and gender domination.
An in-depth comparative analysis of 'marrying out' cases in the US and Canada helps elucidate how

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indigenous women might mobilize the law. These are cases where indigenous women marry men who are not
members of their tribe or band. By marrying out of their tribes/bands, these women either lose their 'Indian'
status, or are unable to pass such status on to their children. In examining these cases, conflicting legal
strategies become apparent, showing that indigenous women have few legal tools that allow them to
articulate their unique identities. The analysis of these cases focuses on discourse and considers legal
arguments within six discursive frames: (1) individual civil rights; (2) sovereignty rights; (3) membership
standards; (4) tradition; (5) jurisdiction; and, (6) economic and material forces. These frames show the
plurality of legal tools which serve to further domination over indigenous women, and provide seeds for their
future resistance. The study concludes that the impact of indigenous women's legal mobilization should be
assessed in terms of the potential for future democratic participation, or new opportunities re-evaluate the
meaning of rights. The democratic value of rights discourses lies in the possibility for ascribing new
meanings to them. While such ongoing political participation opens up new opportunities for resistance, it is
important to note that such opportunities can also work to re-inscribe domination. Therefore, through the
lens of intersectional power, legal mobilization becomes an act of simultaneous domination and resistance.

al-Khaldi, Mubarak R. (1998) "Other narratives: Representations of history in four postcolonial Native American
novels." Ph.D. Dissertation, Ohio State University (The). 204 pp.
Ever since its emergence as a mode of critical and cultural analysis, postcolonial theory has been generally
marked, as many have indicated, by its avoidance of American culture. This avoidance has been justified by
reference to the United States's early independence from England compared with other British colonies, or to
its development into an imperialist power, or both. This line of reasoning, however, ignores the fact that the
founding of the United States has been made possible through the subjugation and dispossession of the
original inhabitants of North America.
Given Native Americans' condition of internal colonization in the United States, Native American novels, as a
major tributary to Native American literature, are worthy of consideration in postcolonial culture studies.
This study proposes to demonstrate the postcolonialism of the Native American novel by analyzing
representations of history in four novels: Denton R. Bedford's Tsali (1972), James Welch's Fools crow
(1986), Louise Erdrich's Tracks (1988), and Linda Hogan's Mean spirit (1990).
Chapter One reviews the definitions of postcolonialism formulated by some of the prominent postcolonial
theorists and critics. It synthesizes a working definition for the purpose of this study, and explains the
analytic approach adopted in this study. Chapter Two analyzes Bedford's writing of the story of the Cherokee
hero, Tsali. Chapter Three deals with the historical and cultural recovery in Welch's Fools crow. Chapter
Four analyzes the depiction of the collapse of the Chippewa society in Erdrich's Tracks. Chapter Five
examines the portrayal of the effects of the US policy on the Osages in Hogan's Mean spirit. Chapter 6 sums
up the points raised in each of the four novels, and concludes that Native American literature must not be
overlooked in postcolonial studies.

Alderete, Ethel. (1996) "Western development and the health of indigenous peoples. behavioural aspects of cultural
change and cultural persistence in the Andes." Dr. P.H. Dissertation, University of California, Berkeley. 290
pp.
A case study was conducted in the province of Jujuy, Argentina, to asses the impact that changes in the native
belief system and behaviours, fostered by Western models of social and economic development, have on the
health and well being of Indigenous Peoples. Indigenous Peoples of the Kolla nation constitute the majority
of the population in this province. The research approach integrated ethnographic and statistical methods.
The rural and urban ecosystems were constructed as typologies representing the Andean-traditional and
Western-modern ways of life respectively. The theoretical model was derived from multidimensional models
of disease causation. Culture and acculturation were the dimensions of main interest. Theoretical
perspectives from sociopsychological and anthropological disciplines were integrated, as well as
contributions from South and North American scholars. Statistical data was indicative of the failure of urban
environments to provide healthier living conditions for populations of low SES, compared to the also
economically depressed rural settings. Infant mortality, housing sanitation, and health care indicator
variables derived from the provincial Primary Health Care Program database, showed that the capital city
and its suburban areas have not attained significant improvements, compared to some less urbanized and
more rural and traditional areas. Despite scarcity of economic resources and a continuous drainage of
human resources, the traditional Andean way of life in the mountainous rural communities of Quebrada and
Puna seems to provide a supportive, stable, and cohesive psychosocial environment. Elements consistent with
the traditional ways of life, that enhance the ability for achieving improvements in health and well being in

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this area were: traditional social networks, supportive family environments, non conflictive cultural
identification and self esteem, and a cohesive integration of individuals to their social and cultural world. On
the other hand, conditions of social disintegration and anomie prevail among poor urban neighbourhoods in
the capital city of the province of Jujuy. Problem drinking, interpersonal and family violence, lack of
motivation and fatalistic attitude were widespread conditions among males. Although a rare finding, problem
drinking was encountered among poor urban women. Problem drinking and lack of motivation were common
among poor urban adolescents. Although an incipient phenomena, drug use, violence and gang activity are
on the rise among urban young boys and girls. Strain factors related to cultural change, identified among the
urban poor were: perceived racism and discrimination; acculturative stress induced by racism, by the
education system, and by the media; perceived economic inequalities; and the disarticulation of networks of
social support. Differential impact was found across gender and age. It is apparent that men are more prone
than women to lose motivation, to assume a fatalistic attitude, and to readily engage ill problem behaviours.
Both male and female, children and adolescents, suffer compounded effects of acculturation stress. Findings
may be indicative that in time, and across generations, women's resiliency well be debilitated as well.
Problems related to family and community disintegration such as violence, alcohol abuse, and consumption
of drugs, have been shown to be related to health indicators such as infant mortality and birth weight.
Therefore, further deterioration of the health status of the urban poor in Jujuy may be expected.

Alfred-Smith, Andrea H. (2002) "Reviving Kwak'wala language." M.A. Thesis, Royal Roads University. 112 pp.

Alfred, Taiaiake. (1994) "Heeding the voices of our ancestors: Kahnawake Mohawk politics and the rise of native
nationalism in Canada." Ph.D. Dissertation, Cornell University. 452 pp.
The purpose of this dissertation was to examine the formation of political goals and strategies in North
American Indian communities. The particular focus of the research was the resurgence of a set of goals and
strategies oriented toward the achievement of a form of Native sovereignty, as opposed to a further
integration with Canada or the United States. The Mohawks of Kahnawake were selected as a case study
because of their prominence in the assertion of what has been termed Native sovereignty. Initial probes led to
the adoption of a theoretical framework based upon theories of nationalism. Inadequate formulations were
rejected in favour of a re-conceptualized notion of nationalism appropriate to the Mohawk experience. The
data used were collected historical documents and surveys of Mohawk history, previously uncollected
government documents, key informant interviews, two small-n sample surveys, and extensive structured
observations. A theoretical model for understanding contemporary Native nationalism was put forward. It
stated that a Native community's political goals and strategies in the aggregate constitute a form of
nationalism characterized by a specific content and intensity which may be gauged along a spectrum ranging
from localized to state-power assertions. The model was supported by data from the Kahnawake case. The
community's autonomous goals were linked to the Mohawks' alternate set of cultural symbols which have
been used to preserve a distinct identity, a traditional political culture leading to the creation of alternate
institutions, and interactions with the state which have resulted in the near complete rejection of integrative
goals.

Ali, Saleem H. (2001) "Environmental resistance and aboriginal development: A comparative study of mining
ventures in the United States and Canada." Ph.D. Dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
This dissertation asks the question: why do indigenous communities support environmental causes in certain
cases of mining development and not in others, when technical indicators of environmental impact may in
fact be comparable? The empirical research question I am trying to address is: When does environmental
resistance arise in native communities in the United States and Canada that are faced with the prospect of
mining development? Native people in the United States and Canada have endured widespread
environmental harm at the behest of mining ventures. During the past two decades, the enactment of
environmental laws and the recognition of treaty violations by settler governments have collectively led to a
politics of retribution in both countries. However, conflicts surrounding mining development and indigenous
people continue to challenge policy-makers on both sides of the border. I use qualitative social science
research techniques such as deviant case analysis, process tracing, congruence procedures and
counterfactual analysis to study four instances of mining development (cases involving both the prevalence
and non-prevalence of environmental resistance in each of the two countries). After using a process of
elimination procedure in my initial scoping analysis for the case studies, I test process-oriented hypotheses
anchored in theories of negotiation involving social movements and linkage politics. My study reveals that
contrary to common belief, neither scientific studies (technical impact) and economic considerations nor

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external influence of civic society adequately explain the emergence or prevalence of resistance. Instead the
negotiation process, particularly the way in which issues are linked, strategic alliance formation and the
articulation of sovereignty are the key determinants of environmental resistance in aboriginal communities. I
conclude with some lessons for both the US and Canada in terms of public policy and negotiation processes
that can be most conducive to environmentally responsible and effective planning of mining ventures on or
near aboriginal land.

Allen, Chadwick. (1997) "Blood as a narrative/Narrative as blood: Constructing indigenous identity in contemporary
American Indian and Mäori literatures and politics." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Arizona (The). 457 pp.
Following the end of World War II and the formation of the United Nations organization, indigenous
minorities who had fought on behalf of First World nations -- including record numbers of New Zealand
Mäori and American Indians -- pursued their longstanding efforts to assert cultural and political
distinctiveness from dominant settler populations with renewed vigour. In the first decades after the War,
New Zealand Mäori and American Indians worked largely within dominant discourses in their efforts to
define viable contemporary indigenous identities. But by the late 1960s and early 1970s, both New Zealand
and the United States felt the effects of an emerging indigenous 'renaissance', marked by dramatic events of
political and cultural activism and by unprecedented literary production. By the mid-1970s, New Zealand
Mäori and American Indians were part of an emerging international indigenous rights movement, signalled
by the formation and first general assembly of the World Council of Indigenous Peoples (WCIP).
In 'Blood as narrative/Narrative as blood' I chronicle these periods of indigenous minority activism and
writing and investigate the wide range of tactics developed for asserting indigenous difference in literary and
political activist texts produced by the WCIP, New Zealand Mäori, and American Indians. Indigenous
minority or 'Fourth World' writers and activists have mobilized and revalued both indigenous and dominant
discourses, including the pictographic discourse of plains Indian 'winter counts' in the United States and the
ritual discourse of the Mäori marae in New Zealand, as well as the discourse of treaties in both. These
writers and activists have also created powerful tropes and emblematic figures for contemporary indigenous
identity, including 'blood memory', the ancient child, and the rebuilding of the ancestral house (whare
tipuna). My readings of a wide range of poems, short stories, novels, essays, non-fiction works,
representations of cultural and political activism, and works of literary, art history, political science, and
cultural criticism lead to the development of critical approaches for reading indigenous minority literary and
political activist texts that take into account the complex historical and cultural contexts of their production -
- local, national and, increasingly, global.

Allen, Wayne E. (1998) "Sustainable resource economies versus extractive surplus economies in the Canadian
SubArctic: A reassessment of Hardin's 'tragedy of the commons'." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of
California, Santa Barbara. 291 pp.
Advances in evolutionary biology have revealed that acts of altruism in most species are in fact genetically
selfish. Where it appears an individual is sacrificing itself on behalf of others it is in fact doing so to assist its
close genetic kin. These phenomena come under the dual headings of 'inclusive fitness' and 'kin selection.'
The 'tragedy of the commons', as formulated by Garrett Hardin, does not take into account the fact that for
99.9% of human evolution the actors utilizing common-property resources were close kin. Extant hunter-
gatherers and our nearest primate relatives, whose systems of social organization are kin based, represent
the best scenarios we have for studying territorial and exchange behaviours analogous to those of our
hunter-gatherer forebears. In such contexts one might find a solution to the dilemma posed by the tragedy of
the commons. Nepotism and kin-directed altruism in the form of resource pooling and sharing, along with
concomitant territorial behaviours, evolved through natural selection for the purpose of promoting the
inclusive fitness interests of social cohorts who share high coefficients of relatedness. In this way evolution by
natural selection created evolutionarily stable systems whereby close kin defend a territory containing
common-property resources that they conserve, share and pool. Such a system is broken down when
population increases to the point that kinship mechanisms can no longer mediate cooperative exchanges. It is
population pressure and increasing exchanges between strangers that create the competitive conditions
necessary for Hardin's tragedy of the commons to occur. Data were collected over a 15 month period among
Dene Athabascans in the Canadian SubArctic for the purpose of analyzing land tenure, social organization,
settlement patterns, subsistence practices, and exchange networks. Data collection methods included
participant observation, formal and informal interviews, questionnaires, and surveys. The results revealed
that there is indeed a kinship bias in traditional Dene land-use patterns and resource-sharing networks that
should be characterized as a risk-minimizing strategy among cooperating kin. These findings bring into

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question many of the rate-maximizing assumptions about human economic behaviour that characterize
formal microeconomic theory, as well as Hardin's formulation of the tragedy of the commons.

Almaguer, Tomás. (1979) "Class, race, and capitalist development: The social transformation of a southern California
county, 1848-1903." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California, Berkeley. 375 pp.
This study analyzes Anglo-Mexican relations in California during the last half of the 19th century. This was a
period in which California was transformed from a semi-feudal Mexican society to an Anglo-dominated
capitalist society. The social transformation that occurred at this time proves the critical context for
examining the changing nature of class and race relations established between Anglo Americans and
Mexicans. Unlike other studies of Mexicans during this period, this dissertation employs a comparative
framework. Anglo-Mexicans relations are examined in light of the experiences of Anglo Americans with other
racial minorities. This comparative approach is utilized in both sections of this dissertation. The first section,
Chapters One and Two, outline a broad overview of the historical experiences of the Mexican, Native
American, Black, Chinese, and Japanese populations in the state from 1848 to 1900. This section argues that
important differences existed in the social, political, and economic relations established between these
minority groups and Anglo Americans in the state. One overriding feature of the Black, Chinese, and
Japanese experiences was the existence of widespread conflict between them and the Anglo-American
working class and petit bourgeoisie. Anglo relations with Native Americans during this period is
characterized by opposition to the Indian population by the entire Anglo population. Unlike that of other
racial minorities, the principal conflict that existed among Mexicans and Anglo Americans was between the
dominant classes within each population. The struggle between the Mexican ranchero class and Anglo
capitalists for control of land in the state overshadowed the conflict that existed between the Anglo and
Mexican working class and petit bourgeoisie. A number of social, political, and economic factors contributed
to this unique feature of the Mexican experience in the state. It was only after the turn of the century that
white working-class antagonism toward Mexicans reached the same intensity as it had with the Asian
populations in the 19th century. The second part of this dissertation, which is the major focus, applies this
framework to a case study of the southern California county of Ventura. Anglo-Mexican relations in Ventura
County are examined during the period from 1848 to 1900. The case study begins with an analysis of the
'decline' of the Mexican ranchero class in the county. It examines the various legal and extra-legal methods
utilized by Anglo-American speculators and developers to gain control of the major ranchos in the area.
Attention is given to the way in which Anglo control of local politics facilitated the capitalist transformation
of the political economy of Ventura County. The Ventura County case study also details the emergence of
capitalist agriculture from 1870 to 1900. This includes a discussion of the subdivision of former rancho
estates by new Anglo owners, the transitional development of a small farmer stratum, the shift from extensive
to intensive agricultural production, and the expansion of the capitalist labour market during the closing
decades of the 19th century. Another key feature of this case study is an examination of the impact that
capitalist agricultural production had on the minority population in the country. This study examines the
overall pattern of white/non-white placement in the county occupational structure from 1860 to 1900. Special
use is made of the federal manuscript census to quantitatively analyze the divergent class positions of the
Mexican, Native American, Chinese, Japanese, and Anglo-American populations in the county. Variations in
Anglo attitudes toward the employment of the minority population in various sectors of the local economy are
also discussed. The case study contains an analysis of the Oxnard Sugar Beet Workers' Strike of 1903. This
chapter uses the issues and events surrounding this strike as a vehicle for understanding the nature of class
and race relations operant at this time in the county. The Oxnard strike is also used as a basis for
comparatively assessing the divergent attitudes of white labour toward Mexicans and other non-white
minority groups. The final chapter outlines the salient features of Anglo-Mexican relations discussed in both
the overview in part one and the case study that comprises part two.

Altman, Heidi M. (2002) "Cherokee fishing: Ethnohistorical, ethnoecological, and ethnographic perspectives." Ph.D.
Dissertation, University of California, Davis. 202 pp.
As a discrete, undocumented semantic domain, Eastern Cherokee language about fishing affords a dynamic
context in which to examine (1) the relationships between language, environment and culture; (2) the
maintenance and adaptation of traditional ecological knowledge to dramatic local changes; (3) dialectal and
idiosyncratic variations of Cherokee language fish names; (4) changes in subsistence practices over time; (5)
the parallels and divergences between Cherokee language and English vernacular language about fish; and,
(6) discourse about fishing that reveals attitudes about location, tourism and the construction of
contemporary Cherokee identity. These aspects of Cherokee language and culture also provide avenues

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through which to document the semantic domain of fishing. In its totality this research provides both
documentation -- of names, practices, and native scientific knowledge -- and new perspectives on the
processes of language and cultural change.

Altman, Jon C. (1982) "Hunter-gatherers and the state: The economic anthropology of the Gunwinggu of north
Australia." Ph.D. Dissertation, Australian National University.

Alvarez Litben, Silvia G. (1995) "Inter-ethnic relations in the coast of Ecuador: The indigenous condition as a basis
for a project of autonomy." Ph.D. Dissertation, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona. 710 pp.
The main themes in this dissertation are the inter-ethnic relations that have taken place, since the colonial
period until today, in the Santa Elena Peninsula (Ecuador). The analysis takes as a starting point the existing
archaeological information on the Manteno-Huancavilca society, which is characterized as a highly complex
sociopolitical organization, that occupied a large part of the coastal space, and which extended its long-
distance exchange relations as far as Mesoamerica and the Central Andes. Considering the Huancavilcas, as
trade intermediaries and indispensable purveyors of goods, especially of Spondylus (Mullu), and information
to the Incas, helps to better understand their integration and differentiated social reproduction within the
newly established capitalist commercial relations imposed by the colonial system. These ethnic groups, which
survived demographic collapse, quickly managed newly introduced concepts: as exchange value, trading,
and the accumulation of gain, taking advantage of the opportunities offered by a transient market that
communicated and supplied the colonial settlements controlled from distant Lima. Parceled out in
Encomiendas, and later concentrated into Reducciones, then into Parcialidades, these indigenous groups
began to reconstruct their social organization, and their ethnicity, in a continuous process of ethnogenesis
that resisted and opposed the dominant colonial society. During the first 200 years of colonization the
'Goancavilcas' selectively adopted, to their benefit, those cultural components of Spanish society that best
served their needs for social reproduction and survival (language, dress, currency, cattle, and legal
practice). This 'acculturation' did not result in a loss of their native condition, of their 'authenticity', nor
constitute an assimilation into the hegemonic culture, it meant that new resources were appropriated and
used, giving them a new meaning that was used in their confrontation with the colonial society. The strategies
followed throughout historical time oscillated between collaboration and confrontation, integration and
differentiation, adaptation and resistance. Within the Reducciones the indigenous productive system
demonstrated being capable of generating commercial excedents that allowed them to pay tribute, and to
obtain a high level of liquidity that was invested in the acquisition of new land holdings. From the 18th to the
19th century, in the Sant Elena Peninsula area large tracts of land were bought and registered in favour of
the 'Comun de Indios' until they conformed 'large indigenous communities' that were maintained until the
'Ley de Organizacion y Regimen de Comunas' was expedited by the Ecuadorian government in 1937. This
new 'comunidad', distinct from the original, found its strength in the occupation of a common space,
differentiated from the Spanish colonial space. Ethnic space became the pivot around which ethnic identity
was constantly rebuilt. Since 1937, the large territories were broken up into 62 communes that manage the
5,000 sq. km. of collective property.

Alwyn, Eleanor. (2004) "Traditions in a colonized world: Two realities of a First Nation." Ph.D. Dissertation,
University of Toronto. 268 pp.
Set on the rugged south shore of the Island of Newfoundland against a backdrop of ongoing colonial
oppression by church and state and despite all odds, Miawpukek First Nation at Conne River, NF, is the only
Mi'kmaq Band in the province to achieve federal Status. In less than 20 years, the Chief and Band Council
have taken community life from subsistence level to a place where every member is engaged in work and
living conditions that are typically mainstream Canadian. This critical ethnography traces their Mi'kmaq
historical roots in New Brunswick and Nova Scotia and provides a history of more than a century of life from
the perspectives of the People.
This researcher spent more than a year living in the community and participating in ongoing daily activities,
special celebrations and sacred ceremonies. It became profoundly evident that Miawpukek First Nation is, as
are most First Nations peoples, caught between two worlds: the Eurocentric world of surviving in the 21st
century and their traditional culture which is based on a spiritual relationship with the land. The question is
posited about whether Canada's religious freedoms are being denied as aboriginal peoples' lands are
systematically usurped. Although the nature of housing, education and livelihood has changed for
Miawpukek First Nation, there is a spiritual crisis -- as evidenced by ongoing alcoholism, abuse, and suicide.
Most have lost a traditional understanding of how their universe works and their place in it. However, there

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is increasing interest among some community members to regain traditional knowledge, language and
practices in order to encourage sacred values.
To further this endeavour this dissertation includes a brief outline of some traditional philosophy and
practices and a listing of plant and animal medicines. A discussion of healing, religion, and traditional
understandings which are based on principles of balance and relationships rather than universal laws has
important implications for virtually all First Nations peoples. Efforts to achieve healthy individuals in healthy
communities can incorporate, but must go beyond, the 1986 Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion which
does not consider the unique cosmology and needs of Canada's aboriginal peoples.

Anders, Gary C. (1978) "Dependence and underdevelopment: The political economy of Cherokee Native Americans."
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Notre Dame. 209 pp.

Andersen, Christian. (2005) "Courting colonialism? The juridical construction and political aftermath of Metis rights
in R. v. Powley." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Alberta. 351 pp.
This dissertation is the culmination two goals. The primary goal centred on an investigation of juridical
constructions of Métis Aboriginality through an examination of the court files of a recently decided
Aboriginal rights case, R. v. Powley. Analyzing factums, expert reports, testimony and the court decisions at
both the Court of Appeal for Ontario and the Supreme Court of Canada, I investigated how legal actors
positioned Métis Aboriginality in light of their (apparent) 'mixed bloodedness'. Using insights harnessed from
various bodies of critical legal theory and Pierre Bourdieu's concept of social fields, I analyzed the various
discursive constructions of Métis Aboriginality with respect to the purpose, meaning, proper chronology and
role of 'blood quantum' in its inclusion in section 35 of the Constitution Act, 1982. In doing so, the
dissertation demonstrates the persistence in contemporary Canadian jurisprudence of racist discourses of
racial and cultural purity which originally anchored nineteenth century Canadian constructions of
Aboriginality. Although Métis were finally ordained as 'fully Aboriginal' at the Supreme Court of Canada,
Aboriginality was itself still positioned as a historical, pre-colonial phenomenon. This is discouraging for
Native communities formed after (and in reaction to) the colonizing projects of the Canadian state, since they
fall outside the protective ambit of section 35 Aboriginal rights.
The secondary goal, pursued more briefly, consists of positioning 'Law' as an antagonistic and fissured set of
social fields to demonstrate the shortcomings of attempts to understand 'Law' as constitutive. That is to say,
this research demonstrates how different fields of 'Law' compete with each other in a hierarchical playing
field such that court victories can be used by Métis political organizations at the expense of other areas of
'Law'. This fracturing necessitates an analytical movement away from understanding 'Law' as a single entity
to an analytical lens which attempts to understand the tensions and antagonisms involved in the reproduction
of 'Law'. Although the smoke has yet to sufficiently clear from the Powley decision, the fact that at present we
fail to hold a clear understanding of the court case's effects should give pause to theorists who seek to imbue
'Law' with a constitutive power it neither possesses nor deserves.

Anderson, Carolyn R. (1997) "Dakota identity in Minnesota, 1820-1995." Ph.D. Dissertation, Indiana University. 557
pp.
This ethnohistorical and ethnographic study of Dakota identity in Minnesota examines the dialectical
relationship between Euro-American cultural constructions of the Indian and Dakota conceptions of
themselves as a people. This study eschews ethnicity models, employing Foucault's 'knowledge/power' and
Bourdieu's 'symbolic domination' approaches. From 1820 to 1851 the Dakota lost their status as producers
in the fur trade and negotiated a series of treaties with the United States. Placed on a reservation, the Dakota
rebelled in 1862, and were subsequently removed from Minnesota. Ultimately resettled at Santee, Nebraska,
individual Dakotas left there and returned to Minnesota, a group of them rebuilding a community at Prairie
Island. Their efforts to establish a land base, make a living, maintain independence, practice Dakota values,
and express identity are explored. Late 20th century issues include casino gaming, entitlement and
enrolment, factionalism, and opposition to nuclear waste storage near the community. Dakota identity
changed from a kinship network of individuals for whom 'being Dakota' meant enacting Dakota values in
individual practice to a multi-layered, situational system of identity that is primarily ideational. Resistance to
the dominant society evolved into an ideology of opposition based on supratribal consciousness, while the
political and economic functions of the tribe took precedence over a practice of peoplehood.

Anderson, Jon C. (1984) "The political and economic basis of Kuku-Yalanji social history ." Ph.D. Dissertation,
University of Queensland.

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Anderson, Karen L. (1982 ) "Huron women and Huron men: The effects of demography, kinship and the social
division of labour." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Toronto.
Many contemporary theorists concerned with the nature of male/female relations in non-capitalist societies
continue to ask the same questions Engels raised a century ago in Origins of the family, private property and
the state (1884). Is an egalitarian status possible for women? On what basis can we explain the relative
statuses of men and women? What brings about a decline in women's status relative to that of men? But if
there is accord over the questions to be asked, there is discord over the answers given. Nowhere is the
disagreement more evident than over whether women's status is best explained in terms of their roles as
producers or as reproducers. This thesis addresses that debate through an examination of the 17th century
Huron. The Huron are a particularly good case to which we can address questions concerning male/female
relations in non-capitalist societies. Huron women occupied an extraordinarily undominated position relative
to that of men. More importantly, that status did not decline after the introduction of the fur trade. This thesis
proposes that the key to understanding male/female relations among the Huron lies in tracing out the
connections between demography, the social division of labour, and kinship as social relations of production.
By contrast, explanations that concentrate solely on women's role as producers or as reproducers are
unsatisfactory. What is called for instead is an examination of the social division of labour as the basis on
which society is partitioned into the categories male and female and an examination of kin relations as social
relations of production which function to combine men and women into viable units of production,
consumption and reproduction. Finally, the question 'under what conditions does the status of women decline
relative to that of men?' is asked. This thesis argues that the link between the social division of labour and
kinship as social relations of production must be destroyed. Women are open to domination by men when
they no longer have direct access to the means of production or the product of social labour in their own
right but gain that access only through a relation to some property holder (often their husbands or fathers).

Anderson, Robert B. (1997) "Economic development among First Nations: A contingency perspective." Ph.D.
Dissertation, University of Saskatchewan (The). 299 pp.
This dissertation explores the economic development objectives, strategies, and activities of the First Nations
in Canada with three objectives: (i) to identify the approach to development among First Nations; (ii) to
develop a theoretical perspective capable of providing insight into this approach; and, (iii) to investigate the
activities of the First Nations in Saskatchewan to determine if they are consistent with the expected
characteristics of the First Nations' approach to development and the proposed theoretical perspective.
To address the first objective, a wide range of sources are reviewed to determine First Nations development
objectives and strategies. Based on this review, the First Nations' development approach emphasizes the
creation of profitable businesses competing in the global economy. These businesses are usually collectively
owned and often involve partnerships with non-First Nation corporations. A review of development theory
follows to accomplish the second objective. Both the orthodox and radical perspectives are rejected. Instead,
a 'contingency perspective' based on regulation theory, the postimperial perspective and
alternative/indigenous development approaches, is developed.
To address the third objective, research was conducted in three parts: (i) an investigation of the economic
development activities of the 70 Saskatchewan First Nations; (ii) a study of the approach of non-First
Nations companies to business alliances with First Nations; and, (iii) a case study of the development
activities of the Meadow Lake Tribal Council.
Based on the first and third parts of this research, 69% of First Nations businesses are owned by First
Nations alone or First Nations in joint venture with non-First Nations businesses. These businesses account
for 89% of the total estimated annual revenue of all First Nation businesses. Only 24% of First Nations
businesses target the local market, the rest compete in broader regional, national and international markets.
Part two of the research shows that a growing number of non-First Nations corporations are adopting a
strategy of business alliances with aboriginal people. Five factors motivate this corporate behaviour: (i) a
shift in the global competitive environment from a Fordist to a flexible regime of accumulation; (ii) society's
changing expectations about what constitutes socially responsible corporate behaviour; (iii) legal and
regulatory requirements and restrictions; (iv) the growing aboriginal population, and its increasing affluence
and level of education; and, (v) the rapidly growing pool of natural and financial resources under the control
of aboriginal people. These results confirm the eight characteristics of the First Nations' approach to
economic development and are consistent with the proposed contingency perspective.

Andolina, Robert J. (1999) "Colonial legacies and plurinational imaginaries: Indigenous movement politics in Ecuador
and Bolivia." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Minnesota. 385 pp.

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This dissertation asserts that ideology is a key element for understanding both the action and impact of social
movements. It examines the formation, behaviour, and consequences of contemporary national indigenous
peoples' movements in Ecuador and Bolivia. Most treatments of social movements see ideology as a glue and
mobilizing force behind social movements. This dissertation goes further in arguing that ideology is
constitutive of the movement itself and consists of both strategies and identities, in turn shaping movement
emergence and evolution. While most theories and concepts of social movements are grounded in first world
contexts or derived from theories grounded in those contexts, this thesis calls for analytically situating 'third
world' indigenous movements and social movements within colonial and global relations of power as well as
national political contexts. As I demonstrate in this thesis, contemporary Andean indigenous movement
ideology is founded on contesting (neo)colonial political practices and ideologies. On the basis of this
ideology, indigenous movements communicatively engage other political actors, such as labour unions, non-
governmental organizations, political parties, or the state. Moving away from the traditional focus on
protests, lobbying, boycotts, and armed struggle as the most important social movement tactics, I find that
indigenous movements use these 'traditional tactics' to carry out what I call an 'authorization politics' that
challenges the legitimacy of the political regime, redefines the bases of its political alliances, and convenes a
broad audience around indigenous peoples' demands and political platforms, packaged as the construction of
a 'plurinational state.' In doing so, indigenous movements in contemporary Ecuador and Bolivia have moved
indigenous peoples from being a completely marginalized sector to one whose members, such as Victor Hugo
Cardenas and Nina Pacari, are being elected to the highest political offices of each country. Substantively,
indigenous movements have reshaped political agendas, reconstituted social identities, and redefined the
principles on which legitimate state rule is based in Ecuador and Bolivia.

Andrade, Carlos L. (2001 ) "Ha'ena, ahupua'a: Towards a Hawai'ian geography." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of
Hawai'i. 322 pp.
This dissertation is a journey of exploration. It is an exploration that will attempt to accomplish three
objectives. The overarching objective is to contribute to the construction of a Hawai'ian geography (as
opposed to a geography of Hawai'i). The purpose of the exploration is to search for elements and ways of
thinking that might be useful in understanding the foundation upon which the aboriginal people of Hawai'i
constructed the relationships that they had with the world in which they lived. The second objective concerns
the concept of ahupua'a developed by the aboriginal people in the process of dealing with the practical issues
of survival that confront all people who inhabit different portions of the earth. The issues of who gets what,
when, where, and how. The concept of ahupua'a will be used in order to better focus our exploration towards
a Hawai'ian geography. The exploration will be done as much as possible through the eyes and life
experiences of the aboriginal people as it is expressed in the place names, oral history, language, and
everyday practices that have been and still continue to be attached to the land. In grounding this exploration
in the real world, a single ahupua'a will be the selected. Examples of aboriginal experiences as they
transpired in Ha'ena, an ahupua'a located in the north-western portion of Kaua'i Island, will be the examples
used to illustrate the points being made in the discussion.
This dissertation is an exploration. It is not presented as a definitive study or a treatise on an all
encompassing Hawai'ian geography. Rather, it is a voyage, perhaps in the style of the early navigators and
wayfinders, and certainly in the genre of many Hawai'ian mele. It is an excursion to visit an ancient place, to
see it through older eyes, and a different language. A journey to a place where people are connected by
genealogy, spirituality, identity, and aloha 'aina to the world in which they live.

Andres, Brian S. (2002) "A qualitative phenomenological analysis of the critical incidents in the Native Hawai'ian
peacemaking process of "ho'oponopono"." Psy.D. Dissertation, Wright Institute (The). 122 pp.
"To set right" and "conflict resolution" are the most widely used and accepted general meanings attributed to
the indigenous Native Hawai'ian process called "Ho’oponopono". Ho’oponopono has been used to restore
interpersonal relationships in Hawai'i for several centuries. Ho’oponopono is often noted as an intervention
to regain the homeostatic balance in families, groups, communities as well as the individual.
The psychological phenomenological methodology approach was used to analyze the subject haku
(Ho’oponopono facilitators/leaders) participants perspectives of their world and ho’oponopono process. The
study attempts to investigate the content and structure of the participants' consciousness, diversity of life
experiences, and to further analyze their essential meanings.
Participants in the study have gone through the ho’oponopono process in the study. The critical incidents of
the hakus are analyzed in the following categories: family mediation, forgiveness and reconciliation. Past
research on ho’oponopono note the importance of the haku 's mental, emotional, and spiritual preparation

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and appropriateness are important aspects of the process. Also Native Hawai'ian spiritual and cultural
values most often noted are pono (balance), ohana (family), and lokahi (unity) from this study and past
research in this area. The investigator found the common theme of harmonious balance in the individual,
family, and community was often emphasized by all haku . The implications for use of ho’oponopono as a
family and/or group intervention with people of Hawai'ian as well as other cultural groups is discussed.

Angom, Georgia E. (1998) "Diversity in the Canadian public sector: Understanding the factors that inhibit inclusion."
M.P.A. Thesis, University of Manitoba (The). 147 pp.
In recent years, Canada has experienced more demographic changes than ever before. This is due to the
influx of people from diverse origins. This demographic mix means that the provision of services should be
such that it meets the needs of a diverse population. In addition, the huge influx of women into the workforce
raises their expectations about their participation in the labour force. Disabled persons are becoming more
visible in the larger society as well as in the labour force. Aboriginal peoples are demanding for their rights,
and for recognitions. The public service, as the main provider of essential services to Canadians, is faced
with the task of providing these services to citizens and involving citizens in the provisions of services. One of
the concerns in Canadian society is that the public service workforce does not reflect the make up of society.
This, in turn suggests that diverse needs might not be given appropriate consideration, in policy and
administrative terms. A guiding theme that runs through the paper is the need to strengthen and sharpen the
legal and political commitment to the pursuit of greater equality of opportunity for employment in the public
service for all Canadians regardless of origin or physical abilities. There is need to link policy to
transformation in political attitudes and action.

Arato-Bollivar, Juliette. (2004) "In their own words. Exploring survival factors in suicidal Aboriginal youth: A critical
incident study." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of British Columbia (The). 116 pp.
This study explores the survival factors that suicidal Aboriginal Youth used to keep themselves alive. The
purpose of this study was to develop categories that would identify themes in the events reported by
Aboriginal individuals, by exploring the research question: "What are the critical incidents contributing to
survival in suicidal aboriginal youth?"
The research method involved interviews with 20 adult (18 and over) Aboriginal volunteers (all residents of
British Columbia) who possessed the ability to articulate, identify and discuss their stories of survival. The
Critical Incident Technique (Flanagan, 1954) was utilized to elicit 254 incidents from 20 participants. 14
categories were created from the analysis of all events reported. Thorough validation techniques were
applied in order to test the soundness and comprehensiveness of the categories. In addition, efforts were
made to examine fit with the literature of the categories and expert commentary concerning the results was
provided. The categories reflected that survival factors included: Responsibility to Others, Connection
to/Love of Family, Professional Support, Support of Non family/Non Professional Individuals, Cognitive
Shift/Change in Thinking, Avoiding a Negative Environment, Formal Education, Connection to Cultural
Heritage, Getting Sober, Normalizing One's Difficult Experiences/Learning You Are Not Alone, Spirituality,
Connection to Nature, Self Acceptance/Love/Care, and Sense of Purpose/Making a Difference.
In addition, gender differences were examined and, through incidental commentary of the participants,
factors hindering survival were identified.
The findings of this study contribute to the field of counselling psychology by providing a scheme of
categories that attempt to describe, from the perspective of Aboriginal people, what has aided them in
surviving suicidal thoughts, actions and behaviours, in their youth. This research suggests promising
developments in Aboriginal survival and contains implications for practice and research.

Archibald, Samantha L. (1996) "Contested heritage: An analysis of the discourse on The Spirit Sings." M.A. Thesis,
University of Lethbridge. 348 pp.
This thesis contributes to the knowledge of museology, anthropology and Native American studies. It is an
analysis of the discourse that surrounded The Spirit Sings: Artistic Traditions of Canada's First Peoples, an
exhibition prepared by the Glenbow in Calgary as the 'flagship' of the Olympic Arts Festival in 1988. After
the Lubicon Indians of northern Alberta called for a boycott of The Spirit Sings, in attempt to draw critical
attention to their long outstanding lands claim, a large and heated debate ensued involving several
disciplines, particularly anthropology and museology. Much of this debate took place in the print media,
therefore a large body of material remains to be reviewed and studied. The intent of this thesis is to illustrate
that the issue of museological representation of First Nations was one of the most central themes discussed in
the discourse, but to argue that the major players dealt with this issue on only the most concrete level and

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therefore largely neglected to recognize that the issue of First Nation's representation was not just a concern
over museum interpretation but more importantly an issue of the contested authenticity of national and
cultural claims.

Armstrong, Janet M. (2001) "A political economy of native marginalization: A study of the appropriation of aboriginal
water rights. The case of the Mishkeegogamang First Nation." Ph.D. Dissertation, Queen's University at
Kingston. 277 pp.
This study is a historical political economy of native marginalization. The analysis focuses upon aboriginal
water rights in the case of the Mishkeegogamang First Nation. The appropriation of water rights has played
a major factor in the marginalization of this community. Traditionally, the debate about native
marginalization has been dominated by legal and administrative approaches. This study moves beyond these
approaches by looking at issues of class formation, primary accumulation, and the role of the state and the
law. In one instance this is a case study about water rights. However, it is hoped that this case study will also
add insights to the broader theoretical debate on native marginalization. The Mishkeegogamang live at
Osnaburgh, in north-western Ontario. Their reserve, known as I.R. 63A and I.R. 63 B is located at the
headwaters of the Albany River on Lake St. Joseph. The Mishkeegogamang, in times past, fished from the
waters of Lake St. Joseph, the Albany River, and the surrounding lakes for subsistence and trade. In 1905, the
Mislikeegogamang became signatories to Treaty No. 9, known as the James Bay Treaty. The Treaty
Commissioners assured the community that they would be able to continue to hunt, trap and fish as their
ancestors had done. However, just 30 years later, Ontario Hydro constructed a dam at Osnaburgh that
caused serious flooding. The flooding damaged the fishery and altered the shoreline of the reserve. In the
1950s, when the generating station was no longer required, Ontario Hydro diverted the waters of Lake St.
Joseph into Lac Seul causing fluctuating water levels. It is argued that the Treaty, and subsequent acts of
expropriation can best be understood as examples of primary accumulation. It is also demonstrated that the
law was simply ignored by the state for the sake of expediency. Crown appropriation of the aboriginal fishery
also contributed to the marginalization of the Mishkeegogamang. Beginning in the 1930s, non-aboriginal
people began to obtain commercial licenses for Lake St. Joseph. The fishers of Mishkeegogamang became
primary producers for local fish dealers who profited from the resource. It is demonstrated that the
appropriation of the fishery is also an instance of primary accumulation. The liberal ideology of equality in
the marketplace was used to justify this appropriation. Because this study attempts to move beyond existing
legal and administrative approaches to native marginalization, non-governmental sources are used wherever
possible. The most important of these sources is the oral history gathered during visits to the community in
1996 and 1998.

Arndt, Leah M. R. (2004) "Soul wound, warrior spirit: Exploring the vocational choice of American Indian law
enforcement officers working for non-tribal agencies." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Wisconsin --
Madison (The). 120 pp.
This study explored the role and function of vocational choice for American Indian (AI) law enforcement
officers. Extended Case Method (Burawoy, 1991) was used to examine complex patterns of coping, over time,
with intergenerational and historical trauma, or soul wound (Duran, 1990; Duran and Duran, 1995; Duran
et al., 1998). Specifically, the study sought to identify how vocation might serve to either facilitate or hinder
healing of soul wound, and how this choice may be reflective of traditional warrior traditions, and thus a
culturally congruent vehicle of healing available to AIs in largely non-AI settings. Results indicated that
participants saw their law enforcement roles as congruent with traditional warrior roles, particularly the
roles of minister and mentor to the people, and that this worldview held spiritual meaning. Proximity of large
scale, intergenerational soul wound events affecting AI cultural transmission was associated with being more
likely to identify with the traditional warrior roles of protector (soldier), punisher, and dispenser of justice,
and a lower value being placed on spirituality in relationship to vocation. The present study has implications
for expanding vocational and ethno-cultural theories in the field of psychology, and for reworking theoretical
and methodological traditions for research on AIs, traumatized populations, culture/ethnicity, and vocational
choice. Limits and implications are presented in the discussion section.

Arnold, Brent J. (1999) "Principled compromise or compromised principles? Aboriginal land claims and the problem
of liberal property." M.A. Thesis, Queen's University at Kingston. 104 pp.
This thesis examines the nature of Canadian aboriginal conceptions of property as they have been articulated
in the period which began with the federal government's infamous White Paper of 1969 and continues to the
present day. It is argued that there is a common and identifiable pan-aboriginal notion of property in the

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writings by and about aboriginals of this period which is fundamentally incompatible with western liberal
notions of property. The improbability that such a commonality should exist, and the issues which spring
from the fact that it does, are also discussed. Despite this incompatibility, both conceptions are currently
being combined within the same institutions as the relationship of aboriginals to the Canadian state is
renegotiated. How such a seemingly impossible combination has become acceptable to those involved is the
primary focus of this thesis.
The characteristics of aboriginal and western property are delineated and contrasted. Each is then placed in
the context of the general worldview from which it arises, demonstrating that competing notions of property
are part of whole systems of belief and understanding which, if taken as seriously as they are offered in the
texts which explain them, must be seen as irreconcilable. This irreconcilability is further illustrated through a
critique of pluralist models of political organization from the standpoint that such models can succeed only
by understating the essential difference between aboriginal and non-aboriginal understandings.
The fact that apparently irreconcilable notions are being combined in new institutional arrangements is
explained by examining the context of the combination. The power relations which determine the nature of
the struggle for aboriginal empowerment, which is to say, the gross power imbalances between aboriginal
peoples and the various branches of the non-aboriginal Canadian state are shown to necessitate, shape, and
circumscribe the discourse of aboriginal property. The result is a discourse which appears intractable in
theory and unrealizable in practice. The result is a discourse which appears intractable in theory and
unrealizable in practice. The study concludes with comments on the current struggle, and about the nature of
discourse in general.

Atkinson, Judy. (2000) "Lifting the blankets: The transgenerational effects of trauma in indigenous Australia." Ph.D.
Dissertation, Queensland University of Technology.
The two specific aims of the fieldwork were to understand: (a) the phenomena of violence in the lives of a
group of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people (the later by invitation of the Aboriginal people), living
within a central coastal region of Queensland; and, (b) cultural and individual processes of recovery or
healing from violence related trauma.
More specifically the questions that guided the field studies were:
-- What is the experience of violence?
-- How do experiences of violence contribute to experiences/behaviours that influence situations of inter-and
transgenerational trauma?
-- What assists change or healing in such behaviours?
-- What is healing and how do people heal?
-- What cultural tools promote change or healing, and how can these be supported to promote individual,
family and community well-being?
Through the literature review the thesis considers cultural processes Aboriginal peoples previously used to
deal with the trauma of natural disaster or man induced conflict. The literature review is then used to
consider the impacts of trauma on the lives of people generally. Finally the literature make links to locate the
violence of contemporary Aboriginal communal environment to levels of trauma transmitted across
generations from colonising processes.
The thesis is based on evolving Indigenous research methodological approaches, as it uses an Aboriginal
listening/learning process called dadirri which is described as a cyclic process of listening and observing,
reflecting and learning, acting and evaluating, re-listening and re-learning, and acting with insight and
responsibility both in the field and with integrity and fidelity within the dissertation.
The thesis demonstrates dadirri in Chapter Four as it allows the voices of six participants to tell their stories
of trauma and of healing in meaningful painful conversation with each other. These six participants represent
some of the six hundred people who participated in the fieldwork over the years of the study. It is from this
conversation that the data for the explication of the trauma experience and the healing processes has been
drawn.
Chapter Five of the thesis is the explication of the trauma experience. In this chapter links are made between
the violence experience, thoughts and feelings and resulting behaviour; feelings of inadequacy as a result of
childhood experiences; victim perpetrator survivor roles in family and community violence; the relationships
between alcohol and drugs to trauma; suicidal behaviours as a result of trauma; the fractured self, and
finally the transgenerational effects of trauma.
Chapter Six is the explication of the healing processes as they were narrated by the participants. Healing was
defined by participants as educating them selves about who they are. The themes on healing that emerged in
chapter Four are: healing as an awakening to inner (unmet) needs; healing as an experience of safety;

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healing as community support; rebuilding a sense of family and community in healing; healing as an ever-
deepening self-knowledge; the use of ceremony in healing; strengthening cultural and spiritual identity in
healing; healing as transformation, and transcendence and integration in healing.
Chapter Seven presents a synthesis and integration of the material and a model proposed for understanding
trauma and healing from an Aboriginal perspective.
The thesis is an exploratory study. The findings and conclusions will be of use in the development and
delivery of programs for community action in primary prevention and critical intervention in family violence,
alcohol and drug programs, social and emotional well-being programs and crime prevention strategies. The
thesis could be used as a foundation for future studies into violence and into healing within Aboriginal
situations within Australia.

Auger, Josephine C. (1999) "Walking through fire and surviving: Resiliency among aboriginal peoples with diabetes."
M.Sc. Thesis, University of Alberta. 105 pp.
The purpose of the evaluation of the Aboriginal Diabetes Wellness Program (ADWP) in Edmonton is to
determine whether or not individuals attending the ADWP are healthier as a result of the services that the
program provides. The research is quantitative based. A limitation of the study is that it does not include
qualitative data to assess what causes some people to improve their health and others not. This thesis utilized
explanatory models as a guide to interview a total of 12 aboriginal peoples with diabetes, their family
members, and a health care professional from the ADWP to understand the lived experience of Aboriginal
peoples with diabetes. The aboriginal peoples were of Cree, Ojibway, and Métis heritage. In addition to the
12 explanatory models, a focus group with staff members and two semi-structured interviews with an elder
and cultural helper were obtained. There was a broad range of explanatory models due to the age, gender,
and geographic location of the people interviewed. 12 themes were extrapolated, including causes of type 2
diabetes, impact of prior knowledge about diabetes, levels of exercise, the consumption of fatty foods, support
systems, care-giving, native spirituality, humour, residential school experience, alcohol consumption,
socioeconomic status, grieving and fears related to complications. These results reflect the experience of
resiliency among aboriginal peoples living with diabetes. This research complements an evaluation of the
Aboriginal Diabetes Wellness Program that was outcome based.

Augsburger, Deborah. (2004) "Language socialization and shift in an Isthmus Zapotec community of Mexico." Ph.D.
Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania. 361 pp.
The history of indigenous languages in Mexico has been one largely of gradual displacement by Spanish;
nevertheless many communities persist in using their ancestral languages despite widespread ideological
forces favoring the national language, Spanish. Increasingly, this resistance is supported in some
communities by countervailing ideologies linked with cultural revitalization efforts. The present research
explores such a case among the Isthmus Zapotec of Oaxaca. The study has two broad theoretical aims. First,
it examines the roots and development of the ideological forces in favour of indigenous languages. Why have
these countervailing forces arisen in this community, how are they sustained and developed? Here the focus
is on the extraordinary long-term culture-historical persistence of pro-Zapotec attitudes among the local
population and the rise in the twentieth century of several intellectual and political movements supporting the
maintenance of Zapotec. Second, the study explores the interplay of competing practices and ideologies in
order to identify the crucial dynamics affecting long-term language maintenance in such a case. Here the
research emphasizes the key role played by the intergenerational socialization context. On first glance, in the
Isthmus Zapotec case there seem to be important contradictions between the expressed ideological support
for Zapotec and everyday practices that support language shift. The apparent contradiction stems from the
way the various practical and ideological pressures come together in the socialization context. On the one
hand, parents attempt to reconcile the competing ideological pressures by sequencing the acquisition of the
two languages so as to produce eventual bilingualism; on the other hand, the practical realities of the family
and the community keep this strategy from producing the expected results and in present form ultimately
cannot deflect the steady pressure towards Spanish. As a result, parental strategies designed to promote
bilingualism are contributing to the unintended consequence of language shift. Efforts to promote the long-
term maintenance of Zapotec and other similarly situated indigenous languages will have to attend to this
language socialization dynamic.

Augustine, Stephen J. (1999) "A culturally relevant education for aboriginal youth: Is there room for a middle ground,
accommodating traditional knowledge and mainstream education?" M.A. Thesis, Carleton University. 106
pp.

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This thesis aims to show how a culturally relevant education can play a significant role in making learning
interesting and meaningful, and therefore be a key factor in having more aboriginal students stay in school.
The goal is to propose a new approach to education that would combine traditional knowledge, values and
ways of learning with academic curricula in the modern context.
The middle ground approach proposed here searches for a learning environment that would combine
mainstream educational subjects with traditional knowledge components and would also accommodate
teaching and learning styles that would stimulate young students' abilities and creativity. These teaching
methods would have a more holistic approach to learning, community circles, encompass family involvement,
and artistic means of expression. This thesis explores the reasons and the roots of the extremely high
incidence of drop-out rates among aboriginal students in North America, with a particular focus on the
Mi'kmaq experience. In the Mi'kmaq Creation Story, there exists a foundation of knowledge based on the
holistic nature of relationships which are expressed more especially between the people, the land and their
environment.
The thesis includes an historical analysis; a comparison between the aboriginal traditional concepts of
education and the European assimilative approach; a review of contemporary policies for education of
aboriginal peoples; a presentation of Traditional Aboriginal Knowledge with a focus on Mi'kmaq knowledge;
a case study of the Big Cove First Nation; and finally a literature review on major aboriginal educational
theorists and thinkers whose works will help support the conclusions of this research.

Austin, A. Aukahi. (2004 ) "Native Hawai'ian risky behaviour: The role of individual, social, and cultural factors in
predicting substance use and violence." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Hawai'i. 169 pp.
This study examined alcohol use, drug use, and violence experience among Native Hawai'ians living in four
communities using both qualitative and quantitative methods to understand the factors that predict these
behaviours. The methods employed were designed to be culturally appropriate to the communities being
surveyed in terms of the recruitment and engagement strategies employed, an equal representation of both
problem behaviours and well being in the instruments that were used, and the use of Hawai'ian thought in
interpreting results.
Qualitative data derived from focus group sessions in each community centred around themes such as
community-specific strengths and weaknesses, typical substance use and violence patterns, and the role of
Hawai'ian identity and culture in definitions of health.
Quantitative data on demographic characteristics, alcohol and substance use practices, and violence were
collected from 405 Native Hawai'ians living in four geographically and economically diverse communities
including Hilo, Hawai'i, Papakölea, O'ahu, Waimänalo, O'ahu, and Phoenix, Arizona. The
representativeness of the survey sample was examined using Census 2000 data for each of the areas sampled.
In addition, a smaller subset of the sample participated in test-retest reliability and cross-informant
reliability analyses. The instrument was found to be reliable across time and reporters.
By community analyses suggested that the groups were overall more similar than different in their substance
use and experience with violence. Hierarchical regression analyses using gender, religious practice, network
density of use, age at first use, reasons for use, and negative thoughts about use predicted 19.5% of the
variance in 30-day alcohol use and 25.2% of the variance in 30-day binge drinking. 17% of the variance in
30-day marijuana use was explained by age, income, network density of use, age at first use, and negative
thoughts about use. Network density witnessing, perpetrating, and being a victim of violence explained
between 15.8 and 57.8% of the variance in 30-day experience of these same behaviours. Although
depression, hopelessness, and own-group ethnic identity were tested, they were not significant predictors of
substance use or violence experience in this study.

Avery, Quinn. (1997) "Student absenteeism: An American Indian/Native American community perspective." Ph.D.
Dissertation, University of Arizona (The). 145 pp.
Boloz and Lincoln (1983) conducted an intervention study concerning Native American student absences in
the public schools in a rural setting. There is little known about Native American student absences in the
public school in metropolitan areas. To address this issue, a qualitative study was conducted with the
community members from an American Indian community in a metropolitan area. This community was
chosen as a result of a pilot study that indicated there may be reasons for student absences not previously
identified. The present research (a) documented the parents' and community members' understanding of
student absenteeism in an American Indian community; (b) explored parents' and community members'
values regarding school attendance in light of the values in the American Indian community; (c) examined
the local district policy regarding absenteeism; (d) explored the congruence/incongruence of the local

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district policy with the family values in the American Indian community; and, (e) explored collaborative
problem solving directions the school district and community could consider.
19 people were interviewed. All had different positions within the community, including tribal administration,
school personnel, parents and relatives of school children. Many interviewees functioned in more than one
capacity such as tribal administrator and parent. Individual interviews and focus group sessions were
analyzed using themes and categorical analysis to discern the community attitudes toward student
absenteeism in the public schools.
The study revealed that community members all valued education and school attendance. There were
differences among people regarding their understanding of excused or unexcused absences. Parents and
community members defined what they felt were responsibilities for themselves, school personnel, and tribal
administration. School district policy defined student absences by using a coding system, yet parents and
community members defined student absences in terms of family needs not district policy (e.g., there were
many interpretations of what constituted illness). Parents and community members preferred to deal with
school personnel on an individual basis although they expressed discomfort entering the schools. Several
recommendations were made, based on parent and community member comments, for further dialogue
among the parents, tribal administration, community members, school personnel, and district administration.
Neither the American Indian community nor the school district were identified in this study to maintain
anonymity for the American Indian people involved.

Avison, Shannon M. (1996 ) "Aboriginal newspapers: Their contribution to the emergence of an alternative public
sphere in Canada." M.A. Thesis, Concordia University. 225 pp.
This thesis explores the contribution of the regional Indian, Métis and Inuit newspapers to the development of
an alternative political public sphere for aboriginal peoples in Canada. It argues that although the
development of the newspapers was an important aspect of the political and cultural development, these
newspapers were, to use Habermas' terminology, 'feudalized' by the political organizations that created them,
the Canadian state that funded them and the marketplace that determines their fate today. Using Jurgen
Habermas' concept of the public sphere, this thesis considers the contribution that these publications made to
the process of public opinion at the regional and national levels in Canada. It concludes that the regional
newspapers did contribute to the national aboriginal public sphere, but that state policies and financial
exigencies limited their contribution and prevented them from realizing their full potential in the lives of
aboriginal Canadians.

Awakuni-Swetland, Mark J. (2003) "Umonhon ithae the, umonhon bthi n; I speak Omaha, I am Omaha. Omaha
language choice, 1971-2001." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Oklahoma (The). 225 pp.
The creation of an indigenous language program at the University of Nebraska is the impetus for this study.
It is informed by the local and national movement in native language revival and maintenance. This study
examines the efforts of, and difficulties in, the reversal of language shift by the Omaha Tribe of Nebraska.
The transmission of cultural knowledge/language is negatively impacted by social, political, economic, and
colonial pressures on the family and community. The family is cited as the preferred site of language and
culture learning. Individuals generally shift responsibility for the revival and/or maintenance of the Omaha
language away from themselves and onto the public school and tribal government. There is an absence of
consensus within the Omaha community. A grounded theory approach is used to maximize the local
perspective in the data, drawn from qualitative interviews with ten community leaders. Respondents describe
their language ideology, and what they are doing to act upon those attitudes. A first person participant
observation account of native language use and change spans the years from 1971 through 2001. Topics
include the development of the 1977 Omaha dictionary; vignettes of native language performance, emergence
of the language programs at Omaha Nation Public School and the University of Nebraska, recent research
narratives, orthographic debates, and language assessment reports. The problem in reversing language shift
resides in the nature and goals of the imposed western-model government and social structure. They do not
encourage consensus decision-making. This study suggests a shift to programming and institutions that
maximize pre-reservation ideals of community-wide fusion, interdependence, and action in the face of
divergent ideologies. The principles and approaches of the successful Punana Leo preschool immersion and
Kula Kaiapuni Hawai'ian immersion schools are offered to the Omaha community. The next step in this study
is to develop questions to elicit ideas about ways to motivate the English-only Omaha parents into a
groundswell of action. The hesitant speakers must be encouraged to risk the embarrassment of
mispronunciation and become active models of the language. The practice of critical ridicule without proper
modeling must change. The fundamental key to this, or any action, requires the complete commitment of the

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parents.

Bachman-Prehn, Ronet D. (1989) "American Indian homicide: A multimethod, multilevel analysis." Ph.D.
Dissertation, University of New Hampshire. 205 pp.
This study investigates the aetiology of American Indian homicide. Its triangulated methodology combined
both the quantitative multivariate analyses with in-depth interview data from American Indian male homicide
offenders. At the national level, a descriptive analysis was performed that compared American Indian, black,
and white disaggregated homicide rates. Although black homicide rates are far greater than either American
Indian or white rates, American Indian rates are more than double that of the white population. American
Indian homicide is more likely to involve knives while both black and white homicide is more likely to involve
handguns. However, when handgun and other gun categories are added together, they account for over 40%
of all homicides regardless of race/ethnicity. Homicide victims are more likely to be acquaintances involved
in conflict situations with the offender in all racial/ethnic groups. And although homicide is a predominantly
male phenomenon for all groups, both black and American Indian populations have a significantly higher
percentage of female perpetrated homicides than the white population. Multiple regression models estimated
American Indian homicide at both the state and SMSA levels. Economic deprivation theory was supported at
the reservation state level while a subculture of violence theory was supported at the SMSA level. The
qualitative analysis of interview data not only supported the same causal forces of economic deprivation and
a subculture of violence, but also illuminated other contributing factors as well. Sources of social
disorganization culture conflict and alcohol/drug use were also found to play an important role in these
offender's lives. This data provided tremendous insight into the nature and extent of the psychological pain
that manifests as a result of these structural and cultural conditions. A theoretical model of American Indian
Homicide was formulated from the results of both quantitative and qualitative analyses. It includes elements
of economic deprivation, a subculture of violence, social disorganization, and culture conflict and perceived
powerlessness, with alcohol/drug abuse placed in the model as an intervening variable.

Badine, Terry D. (2003) "First Nations women clients: Experiences in dual relationships." M.S.W. Thesis, University
of Northern British Columbia. 110 pp.
Dual relationships are of concern to professional therapists. All professional regulatory bodies caution their
members to avoid dual relationships with their clients: it is a matter of ethical boundaries. However, it is now
also acknowledged that in small and rural communities dual or overlapping relationships with clients are
unavoidable. The concept of dual or overlapping relationships is also of concern to professionals who work
in First Nations communities. Nevertheless, like in other small or rural communities, where the counsellors
live and are in constant interaction with the clients, dual relationships in First Nations communities do
occur. Using a phenomenological approach, this study explores First Nations women clients' experiences of
dual relationships with alcohol and drug abuse counsellors indigenous to the clients' communities. The goal
of this study was to provide a description of the nature of this experience from First Nations women clients'
perspectives. Descriptive data for the study was gathered through conversations with three Firsts Nations
women who live in rural communities in British Columbia and Alberta.

Baer-Opazo, Margaret. (1991) "Imag(in)ing Indians: Representations of native people in Rudy Wiebe and W.P.
Kinsella." M.A. Thesis, University of Waterloo. 132 pp.
The representation of native people in Canadian literature written by whites has generally reflected the
marginalization of native people in Canadian society. However, writer have begun to shift attention towards
Canada's aboriginal legacy, both past and present, and among contemporary authors, Rudy Wiebe and W.P.
Kinsella stand out for their unusual placing of natives at the centre of their stories, and for subverting
conventional racist images. Although vastly different from each other, Wiebe and Kinsella create native
characters who are neither symbols of evil nor of nobility, they are instead rich in human complexity. The
thesis begins by introducing these two authors, and briefly surveying the historical and critical context of the
native in Canadian literature. Chapters Two and Three examine Wiebe's works that deal with native
experience, focusing on his 1973 novel, The temptations of Big Bear, which reconstructs the demise of the
Plains Cree way of life in the late 1800s. Chapter Four turns to Kinsella's six collections of short stories
(1977-89), set on the Hobbema Cree reserve in Alberta, in which he traces the legacy of the treaties and
reserve system a hundred years after Big Bear's time, and the lives of contemporary native people in the
midst of the dominant white Canadian society. The study of these two authors highlights many complex and
sensitive issues, including the relation between history, facts, authenticity, and myth, fiction, imagination; the
criteria for distinguishing between racist symbols and realist portraits; the authority of artists to imagine,

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and their responsibility to historically oppressed minorities; the appropriation of voice, and the power of
story and language to heal and bridge cultural misunderstanding.

Baker, Brian A. (1996) "A nation in two states: The Annishnabeg in the United States and Canada, 1837-1991." Ph.D.
Dissertation, Stanford University. 235 pp.
The Chippewa and Ojibway bands of the Lake Superior region of the United States and Canada share the
same historical and cultural nexus (best characterized as Annishnabeg). Although the Annishnabeg share a
distinct ethnic identity that stretches across the Canada/US border, they have existed under the influence of
two dissimilar institutional regimes.
When the US and Canada expanded in the Lake Superior region in the 19th century, treaties served as the
vehicle by which the Annishnabeg were politically incorporated by each country. Because the Annishnabeg
bands on both sides of the border maintained hunting and fishing rights to the treaty regions that were
created, their ethnic identity was entrenched in the institutional regime of each country. However, the specific
manner in which the Annishnabeg have enacted those claims in both the historical and contemporary periods
has been different in each county. I argue that the dissimilarities in the reorganization of Annishnabeg ethnic
identity are rooted in the differences in the institutional regimes between these two countries.
The study utilizes qualitative evidence to explain the national differences in the reorganization of
Annishnabeg ethnic identity. The research is grounded in theories of the nation-state, internal colonialism
and ethnic mobilization. For the historical period (1837-1916), I establish differences in the structure of
internal colonialism at the national and sub-national levels in each country with respect to Annishnabeg
hunting and fishing rights. For the contemporary period (1972-91), I focus on the different strategies of
mobilization employed by the Annishnabeg to reclaim those rights in both countries, which were shaped by
differences in the institutionalized political regimes. While the Annishnabeg pursued a strategy of negotiation
in Canada, the Annishnabeg in the US pursued a strategy of litigation. While the Annishnabeg in Ontario
were unable to produce a shift in the institutional regime, the Annishnabeg in Wisconsin were successful.
Comparatively, this difference is explained by the fact that the Annishnabeg have a sovereign status as Indian
nations in the United States where treaties are the supreme law of the land.

Baker, Howard R. (1996) "Law transplanted, justice invented: Sources of law for the Hudson's Bay Company in
Rupert's Land, 1670-1870." M.A., University of Manitoba (The). 166 pp.
Upon its creation on 2nd May 1670, the Hudson's Bay Company received territorial rights to a vast land that
would become the Canadian North West. These were chartered rights that carried with them the obligations
of providing good governance of the territories and maintaining order throughout "Rupert's Land", the name
given the territory by the Company's charter. The Hudson's Bay Company remained the overlord of these
territories -- both de jure and de facto -- for nearly two hundred years.
The Company, while it never transplanted the formal English common law all at once, brought bits and
pieces of law to Rupert's Land. Some came in the baggage of the Company's servants, such as the common
law of master and servant that governed the lawful employment relationships in the Company's factories and
forts during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. The Company exercised its legislative power to create
rules and regulations for the governance of Rupert's Land. Throughout the eighteenth century, however, this
aggregation of laws that governed Company servants, both written and unwritten, touched only Company
servants. Trading practices and marriage alliances adhered to Aboriginal customs, and the Company did not
transplant criminal and civil law to Rupert's Land.
The judicature established m the colony at Red River, therefore, had no Company model to follow. Sir
George Simpson, governor of Rupert's Land in 1835, established in that year the first regularly convening
court of law. Rather than relying on Adam Thom (the first recorder of Rupert's Land) or his expositions on
English law, the men who staffed the courts largely invented justice as they went along.

Baker, Matthew J. (2000) "Essays in the economics of hunter-gatherer and indigenous peoples." Ph.D. Dissertation,
University of Connecticut (The). 131 pp.
I apply economic theory in the analysis of some of the enduring institutions of hunter-gatherer, peasant, and
tribal societies. In Chapter One I synopsize the development of economic anthropology as a field and the
study of traditional societies in economics.
In Chapter Two I study the interrelationship between two common hunter-gatherer institutions: shared
access to resources and shared output. I study production incentives created by output sharing rules. Sharing
introduces interdependency among resource users; agents care about the effects production decisions have
on others. The shared access/shared output system does not require that the actions of individuals be

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observed or monitored. Sharing rules can both solve the commons problem and also result in an equal
distribution of output. I discuss sharing and resource access among Kalahari Desert hunting-foraging
peoples.
In Chapter Three I study the ecological conditions behind the emergence of land ownership. I apply tools
from the economics of conflict and analysis of spatial oligopoly. The result is a theoretically sound exposition
of economic defensibility models common in anthropology. Different ownership regimes can emerge,
depending on the relative scarcity of resources, the variability of resources, and the technology that groups
use to defend land. I discuss indigenous land ownership among Kalahari Desert peoples.
In Chapter Four (written with Thomas Miceli), we study land inheritance. We explain the economic forces
underlying different inheritance rules. In our model, potential heirs make land-specific human capital
investments prior to the date of inheritance. The testator then decides how to allocate his land in the best
interests of his family. Allowing the testator discretion over land distribution leads to wasteful competition
between heirs. A fixed rule eliminates competition, but disallows beneficial reallocation of land if the
prespecified heir turns out to be a less able producer than another potential heir. Land markets render the
rule irrelevant; if heirs can buy (sell) land, they buy (sell) land until they have acquired the efficient amount.
Knowing this beforehand, heirs invest efficiently. We study inheritance rules using a cross-cultural data set
comprised of approximately 400 world cultures.

Ball, Thomas J. (1998) "Prevalence rates of full and partial PTSD and lifetime trauma in a sample of adult members of
an American Indian tribe." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Oregon. 172 pp.
A research study was designed to assess the prevalence rates of lifetime trauma and post-traumatic stress
disorder (PTSD) in an adult sample of an American Indian tribe, and assess the impact of the 1950s era
federal policy of termination within adult members of this tribe.
The research incorporated an historical perspective which included the use of a post-colonial stress disorder
(PCSD) diagnosis resulting from 500 years of oppressive colonial policies directed toward the indigenous
people of the North American continent. This historical perspective provides a conceptual basis for
understanding the broad range of negative social statistics associated with American Indian people.
The research instrument utilized to assess PTSD was the Modified Posttraumatic Symptom Scale (MPSS).
The MPSS was further modified to assess termination trauma and resulting PCSD symptoms. Subjects were
randomly selected from the tribal enrolment list. Data were collected by American Indian research staff
specially trained to conduct culturally sensitive interviews.
The results validated the theory that the prevalence rates of lifetime trauma and PTSD were higher in the
adult population of American Indians studied, as compared to a previously published community sample of
adult non-Indian subjects. In addition, the concept of post-colonial stress disorder (PCSD) was supported.
Results from the research suggests that trauma from colonial and federal policy may be a contributor to the
negative social outcomes found in some American Indian people. Understanding the concept of Post Colonial
Stress Disorder will provide means for both policy initiatives and treatment interventions.

Band, Ian H. (1993) "Race relations: Native peoples and the Royal Canadian Mounted Police: Canada's challenge."
M.A. Thesis, University of Manitoba (The). 169 pp.
This thesis is an examination of the relationship between Canada's aboriginal peoples and the Royal
Canadian Mounted Police, and how over time, this relationship has evolved. More and more, native peoples
are calling for increased control over their own affairs, including native-controlled policing programs. Thus,
in order to respond to these pressures there is a need for alternative approaches to the issue of federal,
provincial, and local responsibilities for the delivery for policing services to native communities and
reserves. Further, the recent political developments in relations between aboriginal peoples and government
have enhanced the position of native peoples in society by emphasizing their unique rights, aspirations and
cultural identities as individuals and communities. As the consolidation of special status becomes more firmly
rooted in various services and programs, government has been, and will continue to be under pressure to
deal with the policing needs of native peoples in more direct terms. These developments are premised on the
simple notions that aboriginal communities are entitled to effective and culturally sensitive law enforcement
services just as is any other community within Canada.

Bannerman, Brenda B. (2001) ""A search for healing": A phenomenological study." M.S.W. Thesis, University of
Northern British Columbia. 107 pp.
In the social work and related literature the issue of alcohol addiction and treatment has been examined from
a white, male perspective. Theories in relation to alcohol abuse and treatment modalities have also been

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developed from this perspective and do not speak to the unique experience or needs of aboriginal women.
Although little research exists in relation to non-aboriginal women overall, research that examines the issue
of aboriginal women and recovery from an alcohol addiction is basically non-existent. This descriptive
phenomenological study applies a feminist perspective to explore the lived experience of four aboriginal
women who had attended an aboriginal residential treatment program at least two years ago and have been
clean and sober since that time. The goal of this study is to listen to the voices and stories of these women and
to gain an understanding of the essential lived experience of attaining and maintaining sobriety and/or
healing. What do the women themselves consider to be helpful and healing in relation to the journey through
treatment and beyond? What or whom do the women consider as having facilitated their healing journey and
why? From the analysis of interview data a core theme of a search for healing was identified, along with
seven interconnected themes as follows: acceptance and belonging, reclaiming the link to ancestors,
reclaiming cultural esteem and identity, reclaiming cultural expression, group process, mentors and role
models and community supports. These categories are thematically woven together to become a symbolic
research/healing basket that will contain an essence of a lived experience.

Bansal, Anita. (2001) "Childhood sexual abuse in Native American women: Its effects on later sexual risk-taking."
Ph.D. Dissertation, Kent State University. 79 pp.
Decreasing of risky sexual behaviour has long been targeted in HIV prevention interventions. Investigation of
precursors to engaging in sexual risk taking, such as childhood sexual abuse, has received increasing
research attention. This relationship, in addition to the relationship between other forms of childhood
victimization, was investigated in the current study. In addition, because childhood abuse has not consistently
been linked to later risk taking, it is hypothesized that certain protective factors may attenuate this
relationship. For the current study, the resources of social support, self mastery, and communal mastery were
considered as moderating variables between early abuse and later behaviour. These relationships were
investigated in a sample of 160 young, unmarried, Native American women living in Montana, who have
been found to have high rates of HIV infection. Utilization of a Native American population also allowed for
the investigation of these relationships within a communal culture. A series of hierarchical linear and logistic
regressions were conducted to investigate the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and sexual risk
taking in adulthood, as well as the moderating effects of social support, self mastery, and communal mastery.
Results indicated that childhood victimization was associated with increased risk behaviours in adulthood.
There was a moderate relationship between childhood sexual abuse and sexual risk taking. There was also a
significant relationship between physical abuse and later risk taking, indicating that both physical and sexual
abuse are important precursors to sexual risk taking. There was limited support for the hypothesis that
personal resources moderate the relationship between childhood abuse and later behaviour in this
population. Future research should focus on exploring cultural-specific resources that may benefit Native
American populations.

Barajas, Manuel. (2002) "An extended case study of the Xaripu community across borders: Interactive colonization in
the 21st century." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California, Riverside. 427 pp.
Mexican transnational migrants are among the poorest and most socially marginalized people in the 21st
century, and this extended case study on the Xaripu community examines how a history of social inequalities
extends into the present and impacts the nature of their political-economic and social integration in the
United States. Among the main objectives of this study were to develop a critical theoretical framework --
Interactive Colonization -- that advances the understanding of racism, patriarchy, and economic oppression
in a global context of national inequalities, and to examine how these inequities impact labour-migration,
community, and family.
The subjects of analysis are Xaripu-origin persons from Michoacán, Mexico (n = 25) and California, United
States (n = 31). Oral histories, in-depth interviews, participant observation, letters, newspapers, and other
sources were used to gain a qualitative understanding about their labour, migration, community, and family
experiences. Among the questions examined were the following: What has shaped Xaripus migration
experiences? How have they been economically incorporated into the United States? How have labour-
migration experiences impacted their communities on both sides of the border? How have migration and
employment experiences affected the family?
How have these experiences influenced gender relationships within the family on both sides of the border?
The Interactive Colonization model -- emphasizing colonialism, dialectics, and interactionism -- examines
Xaripus' experiences in relationship to the hegemonic group/nation and to intra-community stratifications.
The applied aspects of this study are broad, but will primarily serve to inform more humane immigration and

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labour policies, and will advance the understanding of the processes of community/family production and
reproduction within a global context of political and economic inequalities.

Barker, Joanne M. (2000) "'Indian-made': Sovereignty and the work of identification." Ph.D. Dissertation, University
of California, Santa Cruz. 343 pp.
This dissertation addresses the relationship between indigenous sovereignty and identification as represented
by three 'case studies.' While scholarship to date has treated these cases as if they were discrete, this study
shows that they are in fact related.
Canada's Bill C-31 of 1985 partially reversed the patrilineal requirements for Indian status under the Indian
Act of 1876. The focus of my study is on the emergence of First Nation women's movements during Canada's
patriation from England and the impact of those movements on debates about the definition of First Nation
government in Canada's Constitution Act of 1982. The US Indian Arts and Crafts Act of 1990 provided that
only enrolled members of recognized tribes can sell or display their work as “Indian-made.” My study
examines the commodification of American Indian identity within racialized discourses of authenticity as
registered by the “Indian-made” art market. The Human Genome Diversity Project proposes to map out the
history of human origins and migrations by populations. I analyze the impact of the criticisms of this project
by indigenous nations, organizations, and advocacy/rights groups, focusing on the incommensuratability of
populations with indigenous self-definitions as nations.
The dissertation argues that nation-state policies and cultural practices defining who counts as indigenous
and, especially, who does not, mediate the terms and conditions of ongoing sovereignty struggles. Towards
those ends, the study draws from inter-disciplinary methodological perspectives on policy, law, science, and
globalization from the fields of Indigenous, American, and Women's Studies.

Barnes, Virginia T. (2000) "Thirsty hearts: Drinking, domestic violence and evangelical conversion in a Oaxacan
village." Ph.D. Dissertation, Arizona State University. 227 pp.
The recent growth of evangelical Christianity in southern Mexico, especially among indigenous people, has
produced a new religious orientation that focuses on self-transformation by denying the 'vices' of drinking,
violence, and other activities 'of the street' in favour of promoting abstinence, peacefulness and domestic
harmony.
This transformative experience is presented through the testimonies, or life stories of religious conversion, as
experienced by 12 Chatino Indians from a small village in Oaxaca, Mexico. These stories trace the hardships
centering around poverty, illness and especially drunkenness that led these individuals to accept the alien
religion of evangelical Protestantism. Since 1980 approximately one third of the village of Santa Maria
Magdalena Tiltepec has converted into Protestantism in an attempt to find a more satisfying life experience
in the face of growing personal and socioeconomic pressures. As Tiltepec and other areas in the Sierra
Madre del Sur converted land from subsistence farming to coffee production, indigenous peasants found
themselves less able to maintain traditional religious rituals associated with the cargo system and
compadrazgo. Although alcohol had long been important in social and religious activities, the cash newly
earned from peon labour led to increased consumption. The travelling evangelists who first brought
Protestantism to Oaxaca preached a gospel of sobriety and abstinence that offered an escape from addictive
and self-destructive behaviours that had become intolerable to some of the villagers. Although most recent
research on the growth of evangelism in Latin America has focused on the economic incentives that
encourage conversion, individual testimonies reveal the subjective and very personal ways in which both
men's and women's lives have been reshaped and reinterpreted by their changed beliefs and practices.
The evangelical Protestants try to maintain lives of sobriety and family unity and harmony. For men,
valorization is found as heads of families and as religious leaders rather than as participants in the sex-
segregated life 'in the street.' Although village evangelists are not more prosperous or more modern than
their non-evangelical neighbours, they have internalized a new sense of self-worth and purpose that helps to
alleviate the hardship of their lives.

Barnett, Rachael A. (2001) "The representation of internal colonialism in contemporary American ethnic fiction."
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Washington.
The representation of internal colonialism in contemporary American ethnic fiction argues that
contemporary literature by American Indians, African Americans, and Mexican Americans challenges
traditional histories of dominance by recognizing the colonial history of the United States and by identifying
the ongoing practice of colonialism in the 20th century. Works by Linda Hogan, Leslie Marmon Silko, Ralph
Ellison, Paule Marshall, Américo Paredes, and Ana Castillo illustrate the individual or familial struggle with

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identity and agency in the face of the effects of internal colonialism. Among the critics used to examine these
works are Robert Blauner, Frantz Fanon, Paulo Freire, Ronald Takaki, George Frederickson, Toni
Morrison, Elizabeth Cook-Lynn, and Satya Mohanty. In rendering the lives of individuals, families, and
communities, these novels themselves resist and suggest avenues of resistance against internal colonialism.

Barrera, Laura C. (1992) "The Canadian Métis and the Mexican Mayas: A cross cultural study of native land
struggles." M.A. Thesis, University of Calgary. 213 pp.
This research focuses on the development of two native social movements during the 19th century; the Maya
Caste War of Yucatan (1847-1901), in Mexico and the Western Canadian Métis movements known as Riel
Rebellions (1869-85). The analysis concentrates upon the internal elements that created the development of
both movements, in order to demonstrate that these movements were not only reactions against
dispossession. Central in this study is the idea that before the second half of the 19th century these groups
were in control of their social organization, and thus were autonomous communities. The movements are
shown as struggles to maintain the autonomy and social organization of the Maya and Métis groups. The
analysis is based on a combination of primary and secondary sources, taken from Mexican and Canadian
archives and libraries.

Bartlett, Ben. (1998) "Origins of persisting poor Aboriginal health: An historical exploration of poor Aboriginal health
and the continuities of the colonial relationship as an explanation of the persistence of poor Aboriginal
health." M.Ph. Thesis, University of Sydney. 378 pp.
The thesis examines the history of Central Australia and specifically development of health services in the
Northern Territory. The continuing colonial relationships between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australia
are explored as a reason for the persistence of poor Aboriginal health status, including the cycle of self-
destructive behaviours. It provides an explanation of the importance of community agency to address
community problems, and the potential of community-controlled Aboriginal health services as vehicles for
such community action.

Basham, Jennifer J. L. (2002) "He puke mele lahui: Na mele Kupa'a, na mele ku'e a me na mele aloha o na kanaka
maoli." M.A. Thesis, University of Hawai'i. 184 pp.
Following the overthrow of the Hawai'ian Kingdom in 1893, Kanaka Maoli composed numerous mele lahui
in commemoration of the events. These mele were published in Hawai'ian language newspapers, the place
where Kanaka Maoli reported the events of their time as well as their opinion about those events. Through
the mele lahui which they composed and published, the Kanaka Maoli reported the historical details of the
overthrow and the period following. In the mele are recorded the people's loyalty to their nation, along with
their resistance and protest to the abuse of their rights to independence. The composers use language of
insult and disparagement in their portrayals and descriptions of those who played vital roles in the
overthrow. There are also many mele which are prayers and request the assistance and the blessings of
Hawai'ians Gods as well as the Christian God. In addition, there are even more mele whose main purpose
and theme are expressions of aloha for the Hawai'ian Kingdom, the native people, and their Queen. From
that time until today, Kanaka Maoli have continued to compose mele as expressions of our lives and our
history, as protest against the continued dominance and subjugation of our people, and as admiration for the
loyal and steadfast support of the rights of our land and our people.

Bastido Munoz, Crescencio. (1997) "Five hundred years of resistance: Self-determination and political strategies for
rejuvenation among indigenous peoples of Mexico." M.A. Thesis, Carleton University. 176 pp.
This thesis analyzes the struggle for self-determination by Indian peoples of Mexico, emphasizing on the last
decade. Indian peoples have been purposefully denied their rights by the Mexican state throughout history,
resulting in their impoverishment and ongoing armed rebellions, culminating in the current economic and
social crisis in the country.
Indians have used political strategies through political organizations (armed and peaceful). A theory of
symbolic politics is used to analyze the process by which Indians of Mexico have: reclaimed their cultural
identities; developed political ideologies of opposition against those of the dominant society reflected through
Indianismo versus indigenismo, and attempted to negotiate the terms of a new political relationship by means
of constitutional amendments which would recognize a fourth level of government by/for Indian peoples. It is
concluded that the most effective resolution for Indian peoples' demand for self-determination may be to
implement a fourth level of government.

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Bauermeister, Maxine L. (1998) "The children of the mist: Enculturation in a New Zealand kohanga reo." Ph.D.
Dissertation, University of Nebraska -- Lincoln (The). 223 pp.
The purpose of this study was to discover and interpret how a group of Mäori children in New Zealand
experience enculturation in a kohanga reo early childhood program. A qualitative ethnographic approach
was used to guide the research project. To gain the depth of understanding that comes from personal
experience, fieldwork was conducted with a sub tribe of Mäori people in New Zealand for six months.
A rural kohanga reo was purposefully selected as the research site. Young children, from infant to age 5,
teachers, and families at the kohanga reo were the primary participants. Additional participants included the
members of two Mäori families with whom I lived, and the participants in Mäori village life at the marae.
Supporting data were generated from Mäori community life and a second kohanga reo.
The results of this study indicate that children enrolled at kohanga reo are meeting the two primary goals set
by Te Kohanga Reo National Trust. Children are learning the Mäori language and their Mäori culture as
they experience enculturation. Data analysis revealed three themes in response to the research questions:
(1) The children are learning cultural characteristics which include behaviour patterns related to the
following categories: (a) communicating the native language; (b) expressing feelings; (c) viewing and
participating in art; (d) respecting nature; (e) practicing spiritual concepts; (f) developing a sense of family.
(2) The children are learning about their culture through mechanisms of enculturation. This includes
interaction with the curriculum which is embedded within the physical, social, and temporal environments of
the kohanga reo. Two key elements that facilitate enculturation are active participation and educational
leadership.
(3) The children are learning to reconcile the contrasts among the Western culture, their contemporary
Mäori culture, and their traditional Mäori culture. They are able to participate effectively in both group-
oriented and individual activities. They are able to understand and meet different behaviour expectations in
different situations.
The implications and limitations of the study are discussed and recommendations for future research are
presented.

Baumgartner Di Giusto, Carla J. (2001) "Combating racial discrimination: Aboriginal peoples' access to the legal
profession." M.A. Thesis, Carleton University. 137 pp.
In the years 1999 and 2000, three reports, 'Addressing discriminatory barriers facing aboriginal law
students' and 'Lawyers. The challenge of racial equality: Putting principles into practice,' and 'Virtual
justice: Systemic racism and the Canadian legal profession' were created for legal associations in order to
address the barriers Aboriginal peoples face in the legal profession and make recommendations for
overcoming the barriers. This thesis explores the issues and recommendations made within the reports, and
evaluates their potential effectiveness in addressing racial discrimination. In conducting my analysis of the
reports, two conceptual frameworks, critical race theory and aboriginal perspectives, were used; in most
ways the two conceptual approaches support the reports. While the reports are supported by the approaches
(and therefore have the potential for having a positive impact in addressing racism), I argue that the reports
are only one step and not a final solution for addressing the barriers aboriginal peoples face in the legal
profession. Racial discrimination in the profession has existed for many decades and will continue for years
to come. Therefore, in continuing to address and fight racial discrimination, the profession must continue to
develop effective measures to fight this discrimination.

Beal, Carl. (1995) "Money, markets and economic development in Saskatchewan Indian reserve communities, 1870-
1930s." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Manitoba (The). 473 pp.
It is widely-held that Indian reserves were peripheral to Canada's economy from the time of their
establishment, and that reserve economic conditions in Saskatchewan from the 1870s to the 1930s remained
unchanged or worsened over the entire period. However, statistical, archival and other sources, showed that
Indians were pivotal to the development of markets and the monetization of Saskatchewan's economy. The
first two decades of the 20th century saw reserve economic growth and growing participation in the money
economy, followed by a decade of stability. Indian reserves achieved modest economic successes in spite of
government policies. Barriers to production for and participation in markets were circumvented. Population,
income and property data by agency revealed regional variations in the size, composition and temporal
pattern of earnings. These arose from the differing resource bases, production orientations and market
conditions. Greater economic success was associated with better access to markets: economic conditions
worsened when the links between reserves and markets were broken. During the depression decade, the
reserve economy was virtually dismantled; the link between reserve economic activity and the money

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economy was broken.

Beard-Moose, Christina T. (2004) "Public Indians, private Cherokees: Indigenous identity at the intersection of
tourism, acculturation, and cultural continuity." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Iowa (The). 339 pp.
This dissertation argues that tourism is the most prevalent acculturative agent at work on indigenous
populations in the United States at the present time. To discuss this, I present a case study examining the
situation of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians in western North Carolina. This work is concerned with
the ways in which tourist venues exist within the physical space that is also simultaneously autonomous,
specific Eastern Cherokee physical space. As such, mass tourism represents one current of a ‘mainstream
American' lifeway that runs continuously through Cherokee land and lifeways. Cherokee-Americans
currently face many of the same problems with the federal government that their ancestors have faced for
centuries. Among these are the struggle for land; the struggle for language retention; the struggle for
autonomy, and the struggle with dependency on a Euro-American culture. These issues were and are
especially salient in a gendered context. For women, roles in society have depended on the continuity of
Cherokee lifeways and identities. For men, roles in society have been disrupted over and over again by
lingering post-colonial presence that has led to male anomie. Within the frame of mass tourism as the
acculturative agent, I examine the relationship between the generalized ‘Indian' identity created specifically
to promote the tourist industry, and the continuous, individuated Cherokee identity that is maintained and
negotiated as an integral part of the Cherokee worldview. I focus on how Cherokee identity is affected in
some knowable way by the tourist industry. As mass tourism and the ‘Disneyfication' process continue their
prodigious worldwide growth, cultural change is occurring at an ever-increasing rate for indigenous
populations. ‘Traditional' meanings, languages, and practices for indigenous populations are rapidly being
lost within nation-states, where forced change to a globalized economy is the norm. However, if Eastern
Cherokee perceptions are indicators of the results of long-term indigenous contact with mass tourism, there
remains a distinctly private space to retain and live an indigenous identity.

Beatty, Bonita. (1996) "The transformation of Indian political culture in northern Saskatchewan." M.A. Thesis,
University of Regina (The). 152 pp.
This thesis examines how northern Indians transformed their traditional group systems to adapt to the values
of a greater Anglo-world over which they had limited power and control. Although they lost much of their
former dependence upon subsistence foods, the social patterns of reciprocal exchange between family groups
are still protected by the persistence of the mixed economy in the north which still depends upon families to
work together in their hunting and trapping pursuits on their furblocks. These group organization systems
form the basis for Indian political culture. Changes to these political cultures have usually been precipitated
by major external events that caused internal conflicts between old and new values. While the process of
conflict resolution is sometimes long, it eventually subsides to create a new value system or adaptation. In
short, a new political culture. While there are many factors involved in any transformation of a society, this
thesis will only focus upon the major external influences to northern Indian societies and their concurrent
adaptive strategies.

Becker, Marc. (1997) "Class and ethnicity in the Canton of Cayambe: The roots of Ecuador's modern Indian
movement." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Kansas. 355 pp.
My research examines changes in ideologies of class and ethnicity within rural movements for social change
in Ecuador during the 20th century. It explores how popular organizations engaged class analyses and ethnic
identities in order to influence strategies of political mobilization among indigenous and peasant peoples.
Although recently ethnicity has come to dominate indigenous political discourse, I have discovered that
historically the rural masses defended their class interests, especially those related to material concerns such
as land, wages, and work, even while embracing an ideology of ethnicity. Through the study of land tenure
and political mobilization issues, this project examines the roles of leadership, institutions, economics, and
class relations in order to understand the formation of class ideologies and ethnic politics in Ecuador.
Although various indigenous revolts occurred during the colonial period, these were localized and lacked a
global vision for social change. In contrast, beginning in the 1920s Indian organizations emerged which
understood that immediate and local solutions would nor improve their situation, but rather that there must
be fundamental structural changes in society. Moving from narrow, local revolts to broad organizational
efforts for structural change represented a profound ideological shift which marks the birth of Ecuador's
modern Indian movement.
An examination of how these early organizations and movements developed and operated elucidates the

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emergence of subsequent indigenous organizations. This study utilizes a sequence of organizing efforts in the
Canton of Cayambe in the northern Ecuadorian highlands from the formation of the first indigenous
sindicatos (peasant unions) in the 1920s to the promulgation of agrarian reform legislation in 1964 as a case
study. This story reveals the demands of indigenous movements, the organizational strategies which they
implemented to achieve those demands, and the influence which this history had on the formation of
Ecuador's modern Indian movement. It is the thesis of this study that Ecuador's indigenous movement has its
roots in leftist organizational efforts, and that its character must be understood as an integral part of that
history. In fact, it is the nature and content of that relationship with the left which has led to Ecuador
witnessing perhaps the strongest indigenous movement in Latin America in the 1990s.

Beckett, Cynthia D. (2002) "Navajo children and families living with fetal alcohol syndrome/fetal alcohol effects."
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Arizona (The). 289 pp.
The aim of the study was to develop a culturally sensitive Grounded Theory of Navajo parenting for families
who are living with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)/Fetal Alcohol Effects (FAE). The research question was:
What are the social and cultural factors and processes that Navajo families use to mange care for a child
with FAS/FAE?
The philosophical perspectives that guided the study were: the Navajo philosophy, or view of life; resilience
(middle range theory); the Family Stress Theory; and the Resiliency Mode of Family Stress, Adjustment, and
Adaptation. Resilience was used as the over arching conceptual perspective for the study.
A Grounded Theory of Navajo Parenting emerged from the data. Key categories to support the emerging
theory were identified. The core category was Versatility through Transcendence. The supporting categories
were: Strategies for Managing Challenges; Transcendence in Parenting; Intergenerational Alcohol Abuse,
Violence and Suffering; and Knowledge/Acquisition of Needs. The families described their stories of
transcendence through substance abuse, suffering, and violence to be able to parent their children who were
living with the primary and secondary challenges of prenatal alcohol exposures.
Further research is needed to test and expand this emerging theory of Navajo parenting of children with
FAS/FAE. The challenges that were related to FAS/FAE were more easily managed with patterns of
resilience within the families. Factors that influenced family's abilities to parent will be disseminated to assist
other families who are managing the problems associated with FAS/FAE.

Bell, David W. (1999) "Ambivalence and response polarization toward native people: A motivational perspective."
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Western Ontario (The). 126 pp.
The current research investigated a motivational explanation for ambivalence-induced response polarization
in the intergroup context. Ambivalent attitudes toward a group are based on conflicting evaluations of the
group, containing both positive and negative dimensions (Katz and Hass, 1988; Olson and Zanna, 1993).
This ambivalence may lead to response polarization, which occurs when the responses of individuals toward
a group vary between positive and negative situations (e.g., positive information about the group leads to a
more positive attitude toward the group, whereas negative information about the group leads to a more
negative attitude toward the group). Individuals who hold ambivalent attitudes may display response
polarization because they are motivated to attempt to avoid the negative feelings arising from ambivalence
(see Hass, Katz, Rizzo, Bailey, and Moore, 1992; Monteith, 1996). The first study provided a demonstration
of response polarization in a new context, whereas the second study provided support for the motivational
explanation of response polarization. In Study One, 119 participants completed open-ended measures of
stereotypes, symbolic beliefs, and emotions to determine their ambivalence toward Native people. They then
read a positive or negative essay on Native land claims. It was expected that only participants who were
ambivalent toward Native people would display response polarization. Results supported predictions;
ambivalent participants displayed a significant difference between the positive and negative message
conditions in their attitudes toward Native people. In contrast, nonambivalent participants did not differ
between message conditions in their attitudes toward Native people. In Study Two, 253 participants
completed the same measures as in Study One, and received a motive manipulation as well. The negative
motive manipulation consisted of an essay which emphasized the disadvantages of seeing both the good and
the bad in another person or situation (i.e., ambivalence was negative), whereas the positive motive
manipulation consisted of an essay which emphasized the advantages (i.e., ambivalence was positive). It was
expected that ambivalent participants who received the negative motive manipulation would display response
polarization, whereas ambivalent participants who received the positive motive manipulation would not
display response polarization. Results supported the predictions, providing evidence for the motivational
explanation of response polarization.

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Ben, Leon W. (1991) "Wellness circles: The Alkali Lake model in community recovery processes." Ed.D.
Dissertation, Northern Arizona University. 113 pp.
Native American communities throughout the Americas have had devastating experiences with alcohol and
drug abuse. There is not a Native American tribal group that has come forward to claim they are not
adversely affected by alcohol and drug abuse. This study was undertaken to gain insights on how the
Shuswop Indian Band of Alkali Lake, British Columbia, was able to attain a recovery rate of 95% in their 15-
year battle with alcohol and substance abuse. This study took place between 1970 and 1985. The single-site
in depth qualitative study was done with the use of an embedded interview instrument. The data were
collected through a focused one on one interview with the citizens in Alkali Lake, British Columbia, in May
1989. Some of the key healing activities identified in the study included the various community support
circles, use of the Alcoholics Anonymous concepts, primary residential treatment, New Directions training,
and cultural/spiritual rebirth. Based on the results of this study, the methodology for recovery, as used by the
Alkali Lake community, was a successful way to treat a community that was totally dysfunctional due to
misuse of alcohol and drugs. The Alkali Lake model has been presented to other Native American
communities since the discovery of their 95% sobriety following their international gathering in 1985.

Benavides, Carlos M. (2002) "Class mobility and equality of opportunities in the context of erratic modernization: The
Peruvian case." Ph.D. Dissertation, Pennsylvania State University (The). 188 pp.
This thesis use new data on intergenerational mobility for analyzing class mobility and equalities of
opportunities in the context of the 'erratic' modernization of Peruvian society. The thesis begins by proposing
and validating a distinctive class schema for Peru, arguing that the main differences with processes of class
formation in mature industrial countries are related to the institutionalization of the informal relationships in
Peruvian labour market.
The Peruvian case will be discussed as one where huge disparities between upper and lower classes still exist
in the social structure, at the same time that important equalization of opportunities occurs at the
intermediate and lower levels. This leads to a radical transformation of the Peruvian class structure by
generating regions of communication between classes but without improving significantly equality of
opportunities for classes that are socially distant.
I argue that the Peruvian social mobility pattern corresponds to the pattern of societies where
linguistic/ethnic barriers have played an important role in shaping the social structure, such as Hong Kong.
In this sense, I consider this pattern to be different from those experienced by the western European countries
and also by other societies such as Israel and Poland.
The impact of the race/ethnic dimension in social mobility is minor in comparison with the class aspect. It is
more centred on the effect that the race/ethnic dimension has on the class position for the previous
generations than for the more contemporary ones. However, differences in equality of opportunities between
indigenous and whites are still present.
The access to educational resources in a country such as Peru is still unequal across different social classes.
Nevertheless for those who have access to higher levels, education seems to have been doing a good job in
improving equality of opportunities by reducing the association between class of origin and destination. In
other words, at higher levels of education, the problem of equality of opportunities is more related to the
access to education than to the returns to it.

Beneria-Surkin, Jordi. (2003) "Power, conservation, and indigenous livelihood: Guarani strategies for conquering
political space in decentralization in Izozog, Bolivia." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California, Los
Angeles. 370 pp.
In 1995, the Capitania del Alto y Bajo Izozog (CABI), an Izoceño-Guarani Indian organization, became co-
manager of the Gran Chaco Kaa Iya National Park (GCNP), one of the largest protected areas in the world.
During the mid-1990s, CABI also became involved in numerous facets of decentralized governance and
development. Many in academic and policy circles have embraced such processes of decentralization as an
alternative, better form of governance. Yet, there is insufficient analysis of the contexts in which it is possible
and its results. I examine these pressing questions through a case study of CABI's unprecedented
achievements, which, to date, in addition to co-management of the GCNP have included: (1) co-management
of the USAID funded Kaa-Iya Project; (2) creation, along with multinational gas companies, of the
Indigenous People's Development Project; and, (3) participation in local governance.
I argue that CABI's successful ability to become a significant actor in these multiple decentralised settings
was the result of two factors: (a) a positive policy context resulting from the recasting of Bolivia's
sociopolitical universe through decentralization and a series of land and social policy reforms; and' (b)

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CABI's hybrid organizational structure, a combination of Guarani tradition and modern institutional forms
of management which is the result of historical interaction with other socio-cultural, spatial, and economic
milieu.
I argue that local livelihood strategies in Izozog are heterogeneous and highly linked to seasonal migrant
wage labour. In the region, there are also important levels of social, ethnic and religious differentiation. In
this context, decentralization has produced greater biodiversity conservation, land tenure security, and
improvements in social conditions. By contextualizing this example of decentralization, I demonstrate how
structural and discursive conditions limited CABI's access to power and its ability to transform greater local
autonomy into alternative, more equitable development rooted in local socioculturally based livelihoods and
capacities.
This research was conducted at various sites in Bolivia including Izozog, Santa Cruz and La Paz. Data was
collected through participant observation, household surveys, structured and open-ended interviews, and
archival research.

Bennett, Marlyn L. (2003 ) "Perspectives on engaging the participation of First Nations peoples in the development of
child welfare under self-government." M.A. Thesis, University of Manitoba (The). 198 pp.
This focuses on some of the experiences and challenges on how First Nations citizens have been engaged in
public discussions that will inform the development of contemporary First Nations governing institutions.
This research combines an overview of the literature focusing specifically on self-government in relation to
child welfare and First Nations people. The literature review also looks at the role First Nations peoples
have played in community consultations concentrating specifically on the ways First Nations peoples and
communities have been engaged to participate in other consultation initiatives carried out by Aboriginal and
non-Aboriginal governments and/or non-government organizations. The review of the literature is
supplemented by an examination of two very specific child welfare initiatives currently underway in the
Province of Manitoba, with more attention paid primarily to the Manitoba Framework Agreement Initiative.
The examination of these two initiatives is then followed by an in-depth data analysis of interviews carried
out with a select group of child welfare professionals from within and outside Manitoba who shared their
perspectives on aspects of engaging First Nations people's participation in shaping the future of child welfare
under self-government.
This research will be of particular importance to First Nations communities, governments and child welfare
authorities who are interested in engaging and empowering First Nations peoples' to participate in public
discussions on the decision making process that might be instrumental for informing the vision, philosophy,
structure and the consultation aspects of self-determining efforts of First Nations peoples.

Benyshek, Daniel C. (2001) "The political ecology of diabetes among the Havasupai Indians of northern Arizona."
Ph.D. Dissertation, Arizona State University. 182 pp.
The village of Supai, centred in a tributary canyon of the Grand Canyon in northern Arizona, is home to
some 450 full-time residents of the Havasupai Indian Tribe. Like many reservation communities in North
America and other indigenous, minority, and migrant populations world-wide, the Havasupai are faced with
a disease of epidemic proportions -- type 2 diabetes (formerly known as non-insulin-dependent diabetes
mellitus [NIDDM]).
The overwhelming majority of physicians, biomedical researchers and medical ecologists today explain the
astoundingly high prevalence rates of type 2 diabetes among the Havasupai and other high prevalence
populations in terms of a yet-to-be-identified genetic predisposition. Recent experimental and
epidemiological research, however, has identified an etiologic alternative to the genetic-predisposition
model. This body of research suggests that type 2 diabetes may result initially from prenatal malnutrition
followed by calorically adequate diets in adulthood, and propagated in subsequent generations via
hyperglycemic intrauterine environments. Populations at greatest risk for type 2 diabetes today are the ones
most likely to have endured political and economic oppression in their recent histories, conditions which are
the most conducive to the diabetic developmental sequence outlined above.
Ethnographic data for the present study were gathered during the course of fieldwork on the Havasupai
reservation, and provides the basis for a biocultural examination of the etiologic bases of diabetes outlined
above, and the implications of this model for intervention programs. Specifically, the study focuses on the
economic and nutritional history of the tribe over the last century along with Havasupai perceptions,
attitudes and beliefs about the nature, causes, course and treatment of diabetes.
The present study offers supportive evidence for the proposition that the aetiology of type 2 diabetes among
the Havasupai (and other high prevalence Native American populations) has as much to due with phenotypic

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adaptations to extended periods of nutritional stress than a racially determined genetic predisposition.
Important applied implications derived from this research are discussed, including the promise of future
community-based diabetes intervention strategies that focus on prenatal nutrition to significantly reduce the
incidence of diabetes in high prevalence communities, and why such programs are likely to enjoy improved
community support and participation.

Berardy, Sandra. (1991) "Secondary post-traumatic stress disorder in Native Americans." M.S.N. Thesis, Southern
Connecticut State University. 89 pp.
Many Native Americans exhibit a variety of behaviours that are signs of family dysfunction. This study
examined and described dysfunctional behaviours and their relationship to secondary post-traumatic stress
disorder in an urban Native American community in northeast USA. A minimum of 30 participants have been
interviewed by the researcher with a questionnaire designed in accordance with Roy's nursing model of
adaptation. The findings indicated that some dysfunctional behaviours such as depression, suicide, child
abuse, and separation had a positive correlation with secondary post-traumatic stress disorder. This study
indicates that future research on a larger scale is warranted.

Berg, Lawrence D. (1990) "Aboriginal people, aboriginal rights, and protected areas: An investigation of the
relationship between the Nuu-chah-nulth people and Pacific Rim National Park Reserve." M.A. Thesis,
University of Victoria. 219 pp.
This thesis examines the relationship between seven different Indian bands and Pacific Rim National Park
Reserve. The West Coast Trail unit of the Park Reserve traverses reserve lands of the Nuu-chah-nulth
Indians. In total, there are 28 Indian reserves belonging to seven different Indian bands, either adjacent to
the park or enclosed within its boundaries. The park is part of a larger area traditionally used by the Nuu-
chah-nulth people, and it is fully encompassed by their comprehensive land claim. Because there are so many
different bands with lands in the park, it is difficult to characterize relations between the Nuu-chah-nulth and
Pacific Rim National Park Reserve. It is best described as falling on a spectrum of views, ranging from 'good
relations' to 'poor relations.' There are a number of issues which can be addressed by park managers and
Nuu-chah-nulth people to improve relations. A cooperative management regime, such as that planned for
South Moresby National Park Reserve is posited as an appropriate means to improve relations.

Bergland, Renée L. (1997) "Possession and dispossession: Native American ghosts and the haunted national
imagination." Ph.D. Dissertation, Columbia University. 207 pp.
American literature is haunted by the ghosts of departed Native Americans. In the first years of nationhood,
Philip Freneau and Sarah Wentworth Morton peopled their works with Indian phantoms. At the start of the
19th century, Charles Brockden Brown, Washington Irving and Samuel Woodworth centred their nationalist
fictions on ghostly Indians. In the 1820s and 1830s, at the height of Indian Removal, Washington Irving,
Lydia Maria Child, James Fenimore Cooper, William Apess, Nathaniel Hawthorne and many others
represented Indians as ghosts who haunted the national imagination. During the late 19th and early 20th
centuries, Native American ghosts figured prominently in speeches attributed to Chief Seattle, and also to
Black Elk and Kicking Bear, two of the best-known voices of the Ghost Dance religion. Today, Stephen King
and Leslie Marmon Silko plot best-selling novels around ghostly Indians and haunted Indian burial grounds.
Yet although spectral Indians appear with startling frequency in the literary works of the United States, the
implications of describing Native Americans as ghosts have never been thoroughly investigated. The
dissertation entertains a number of theoretical perspectives, relying primarily on Sigmund Freud's essay,
'The uncanny', Terry Castle's work on phantasmagorical spectacles in The female thermometer, and Priscilla
Wald's work on the uncanny aspects of United States citizenship in Constituting Americans. It argues that the
representation of Indians as ghosts works to establish American nationhood. The discourse of Indian
spectralization removes Indians from American territory by internalizing them as ghostly figures within the
white imagination. When white Americans conceive of themselves as haunted by Native Americans, they
construct themselves as sharers in a national imagination. However, the horrors of Indian spectralization are
clear, and so the discourse questions the very nationalism it constructs. Indians who are transformed into
ghosts cannot be buried or evaded, and the spectre of their forced disappearance haunts the American nation
and the American imagination. Indian ghosts signify national guilt and horror, but they are also figures of
national pride and pleasure. Possession and dispossession tells the story of a terrifying and triumphant
American aesthetic that repeatedly transforms horror into glory, national dishonour into national pride.

Berry, David S. (1993) "Aboriginal self-determination under international law: Reconciling distinct historical rights

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with existing international law models." LL.M. Thesis, Queen's University at Kingston. 271 pp.
All self-determination claims can be analyzed in terms of a 'sliding scale' which encompasses potential forms
for application of the right. Possible modalities for aboriginal self-determination include: (1) control over
specific institutions or programs; (2) municipal/provincial levels of self-government; (3) federal models; (4)
international integration with other states/territories; (5) secession and formation of independent states; and,
(6) free association at international levels. Existing examples of aboriginal self-determination are discussed
for each of these modalities, as well as suggestions for future developments. Two case studies are examined:
the Six Nations Confederacy, and the James Bay Cree Nation. The former seeks some form of greater
autonomy, potentially sovereignty and independent statehood. The latter presents a claim in the context of a
future secession by Québec from Canada, and appears to seek exercise of self-determination rights through
international integration or greater recognition of sovereignty and autonomy. Both of these claims show
entitlements to a right of self-determination under international law. But at what level, or which modality of
exercise, these rights can be utilized will to a large extent be dependent upon the cooperation of the
international community and surrounding states. Nonetheless, rights of self-determination for aboriginal
peoples exist under international law, and states and the international community are obligated to respect
and implement them.

Biever, Nicole L. (2005) "Wild cat dreaming: The dreaming experience as a means of constructing the individual in
Mudrooroo Nyoongah/Colin Johnson's novels." M.A. Thesis, South Dakota State University. 99 pp.
This thesis explores Mudrooroo Nyoongah/Colin Johnson's employment of the form of the novel as a means
of negotiating identity. Mudrooroo uses the novel as his primary genre, even though this western genre seems
to contradict his emphasis on his Aboriginal heritage, and his claim of identity as an Aborigine is further
challenged by evidence that he may have no Aboriginal heritage at all. An examination of several accounts of
Mudrooroo's biography demonstrates a cultural and personal struggle to determine the writer's identity. This
study argues that Mudrooroo is able to successfully negotiate he interpretations of identity imposed by other
voices and construct his individuality by employing the novel form. Mudrooroo's employment of the
Aboriginal concept of the dreaming in his novels -- including Wild cat falling (1965), Doctor Wooreddy's
prescription for enduring the ending of the world (1983), Master of the ghost dreaming (1991), and Wildcat
screaming (1992) -- allows him to reconcile those conflicting interpretations of his identity and construct
himself as an individual. Through the Aboriginal experience of the dreaming, both the writer and his
characters construct their individualities by resolving internal and external interpretations of identity.

Biglow, Brad M. (2001) "Ethno-nationalist politics and cultural preservation: Education and bordered identities
among the Wixaritari (Huichol) of Tateikita, Jalisco, Mexico." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Florida. 315
pp.
This dissertation examines the relationship between “indigenously controlled” education and cultural
preservation among the Wixaritari, or Huichol, of the Sierra Madre Mountains of Jalisco, Mexico. Studies of
indigenous identity and schooling are still lacking in anthropological fieldwork. While such studies have, in
the past, focused on native education in the United States, there has been little research done on the impacts
of indigenous-controlled education on the enculturation process of Indian youth, particularly in Latin
America, and whether such educational environments really serve to fortify indigenous identity, and if so,
how it is done. Recently, there has been resurgence in ethno-nationalism or self-determination among the
indigenous peoples of Mexico and Latin America. This study examines the role of so-called indigenous-
controlled community schooling in fight of these larger pan-Indian movement goals, showing that indigenous
people are themselves divided over the process of cultural preservation due to their own changing sense of
ethnic identity. Conflict results, creating a reliance on notions of an “imagined community” to unify social
actors in a drama of power-knowledge relationships in which intellectuals, not traditionalists, control the
educational process, channelling knowledge to meet the goals of the “imagined community” which may or
may not be shared by all social actors.

Biolsi, Thomas. (1987) "Organizing the Lakota: The implementation of the Indian Reorganization Act on Rosebud
and Pine Ridge reservations." Ph.D. Dissertation, Columbia University. 304 pp.
The Indian Reorganization Act (IRA) was a reform measure in the administration of Indian affairs in the
United States which altered the relationship between reservation Indians and the Office of Indian Affairs
(OIA) in major ways. Among these, the IRA provided for Indian self-government in the form of tribal councils
based on constitutions drafted by the non-Indian reformers. The dissertation analyzes the politics of the
implementation of the self-government provisions of the IRA by focussing on the several intentions of the

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federal officials who carried out the provisions and on the various Indian responses to the bill. Three
branches of the federal government were involved: (1) the Interior Department solicitor's office which
drafted the tribal constitutions and formally supervised tribal council actions; (2) the Washington office of
the OIA which directed the organizing of tribes under the IRA and protected the bill from hostile attack in
Congress; and, (3) the local OIA superintendents who administered the reservations and did most of the
actual work of organizing the tribal councils. Each branch had its own interests and agendas regarding the
IRA and the Lakota tribal councils. Because the IRA altered the relations between the Lakota and the OIA,
there was a range of Lakota responses. Some Lakota zealously embraced the idea of Indian self-government
and sought tribal council and personal power in ways unintended by the OIA. Other Lakota rejected the IRA
tribal councils as culturally-alien institutions foisted on them; they organized a formidable resistance
movement. The OIA used its power to attempt to prevent wide deviations in Indian behaviour from its model
of Indian self-government. Conclusions are drawn from the analysis regarding the conceptualization of
culture change on North American Indian reservations. While it is necessary to move beyond traditional
acculturation studies in order to understand the role of power in acculturation, it is argued that global
perspectives such as the underdevelopment model also miss the politics of Indian policy. An appreciation for
the strategic actions of individuals competing for power in social fields not limited to micro- or macro-levels
is found useful.

Bisson, Antonio F. (1972 ) "A demographic study of the Fort Resolution native population, Northwest Territories."
M.A. Thesis, University of Manitoba (The).

Blackburn, Carole R. (2003) "Negotiating rights, reconciling history: The Nisga'a treaty and the terms of inclusion in
the Canadian state." Ph.D. Dissertation, Stanford University. 206 pp.
In 1998 the Canadian government concluded a historic land claims and self-government agreement with the
Nisga'a people of north-western British Columbia. Based on a multi-sited ethnographic field study and
archival research conducted in Canada during 1999 and 2000, this dissertation argues that the public debate
over the Nisga'a treaty involved a series of questions about modernity, history, progress, and the production
and protection of national identities and state sovereignty. These questions were shaped by a set of local,
national and transnational factors, including (1) the increased recognition of aboriginal rights by Canadian
courts and the Canadian constitution; (2) the fact that aboriginal land claims create uncertainty over
property, which was believed to drive away international investment in regional resource development; and,
(3) the growing salience of human rights discourses internationally, matched with an international political
trend toward addressing past human rights violations through reconciliation and apology. These factors
were crucial in shaping both how the rights of the Nisga'a were negotiated and the terms of the treaty itself.
More specifically, this dissertation shows that in the process of discussing and defining Nisga'a peoples'
rights, particular legal and political discourses emerged in the areas of citizenship, property, reconciliation,
and economic certainty. Each of these discourses attempted to mediate between, respectively, the prenational
rights of aboriginal people and the more recent temporal origins of the Canadian state, between aboriginal
title and western property law, between historical injustice and future reconciliation, and between aboriginal
claims to land and the state's need to secure certainty of property rights in order to attract increasingly
mobile transnational capital. In and through each of these emergent discourses, the conceptual categories
and power of western law emerged as the means to both recognize aboriginal rights and title and, by
capturing them in a treaty, protect Canadian sovereignty and create national and regional landscapes
suitable for economic investment. Broadly, this dissertation is a study of nation-making that occurs over the
grounds of an aboriginal rights issue, through the law, to meet the economic conditions of late 20th century
capital.

Blair, Hilary K. (1999) "Settling Seabird Island: Land, resources, and ownership on a British Columbia Indian
Reserve." M.A. Thesis, Simon Fraser University. 134 pp.
After Reserve Commissioner Gilbert M. Sproat provisionally designated Seabird Island, near Agassiz, BC, as
a reserve in common for seven Indian bands in 1879, a long struggle ensued over the island and its
resources. This thesis examines the processes whereby the Seabird Island band came into being, and how the
land, despite great opposition, was retained for the aboriginal residents. It argues that the complex history
reveals an inconsistent administration by the Department of Indian Affairs, characterized by policy reversals,
and that the department sometimes acted in contravention of its own mandate. This intensified the inter-band
dispute which had been set in motion by pressure from non-aboriginal neighbours who wished to settle on the
island. It is a story of complex interactions not only between, but also within, diverse groups of people.

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Aboriginals and Euro-Canadians were both highly differentiated groups, and neither had a single vision for
the island. The diversity of opinion among native peoples may represent the continuity of pre-existing tribal
affiliations. Divisions within and between governments hindered efficient Indian administration. The study,
therefore, deepens our understanding about the complicated nature of inter-governmental, native-white, and
intra-native relations, further informing us about the processes of colonization and federal Indian
administration in British Columbia.

Blythe, Martin J. (1988) "From Mäoriland to Aotearoa: Images of the Mäori in New Zealand film and television."
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles. 486 pp.
The people of New Zealand consist of approximately 85% from British or European descent (the Pakeha) and
approximately 12% from indigenous descent (the Mäori). This dissertation is an analytical narrative of how
Pakeha New Zealanders have represented the Mäori in film and television images and thus their own image
in the reflection this provided. The dissertation begins with an introduction to the ethical dilemmas -- the
'double binds' -- generated in/by cross-cultural studies of this kind. It then analyses over 50 films and
television programs produced since 1900 as if they were allegories of national and cultural myth-making: the
myths of authenticity, the Fall, the Noble Savage, spiritual and cultural essence, national identity, and so on.
The films are grouped in genres. Structurally the dissertation divides chronologically into three parts:
Mäoriland (1900-1930), New Zealand (1930-1960), and Aotearoa (1960-1990), reflecting the transitions
from the imperial era through the national era to the present era and contemporary debates about
nationalism and postmodern internationalism, biculturalism and multiculturalism, the rise of Mäori
nationalism, and so on. ' Mäoriland' highlights two key genres: the timeless and the historical romance. The
former removes the Mäori from imperial time and into another space; the latter annexes the Mäori into the
national identity. Other contemporary genres -- the ethnographic and tourism romances -- are hybrids of
these. 'New Zealand' discusses the evolution of the newsreel from the war years into the social problem
documentary (the Mäori-as-social-problem) and ultimately the pilgrimage documentary (the Mäori-as-
source-of-authenticity). This was the era when the Integration Math and a national identity were at their most
persuasive. 'Aotearoa' discusses four recent filmic responses to the Mäori renaissance and the current double
bind: the politics of silence; the politics of self-blame (the guilt of colonization); the politics of repression (of
the Mäori); and the politics of irony (as cross-cultural discourse becomes increasingly ambiguous). The
conclusion discusses the first self-consciously Mäori film-making in the 1980s and attempts to resolve or
evade the double bind.

Bobb, Bonnie E. (1999) "Cohort differences in the acculturation of a Native American Indian population:
Individualism/collectivism, locus of control, attributional style, epistemological assumptions, and
spirituality." Ph.D. Dissertation, Pennsylvania State University (The). 143 pp.
The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the applicability of theoretical models of acculturation
to a sample of Native American Indian people, the Western Shoshone or Newe. The goals of this investigation
were (1) to make a contribution toward differentiating some of the psychological components that contribute
to the concept of culture; (2) to study the effects of acculturation and resistance to acculturation in a group of
indigenous people within the United States; and, (3) to examine whether current psychological theories need
modification when applied to certain non-Western populations. Specifically, the research investigated
possible changes in traditional self-referential thinking styles among the Newe, due to their exposure to the
dominant Euro-American culture.
First, three theoretical models of acculturation were introduced: a single continuum model, a two-culture
matrix model, and a multidimensional model. Then, a brief history and ethnography of the Western Shoshone
nation was presented.
Participants were Newe living in one of three residential settings: trust lands, colonies (similar to trust lands,
but located near to or within towns), or urban areas, and stratified into three age groups: 18-25, 26-45, and
45+. Inventories measuring collectivism-reference, individualism of self-reference, cultural identification,
locus of control, depression, attributional style, and epistemelogical style were administered to each
participant. In addition, a Western Shoshone Cultural Interview with a Spirituality sub-scale, devised by the
author, was included.
Data were analyzed using MANOVA and ANOVA. No differences were found between residential groups on
the any of the hypotheses at the p < .05 level of significance. However, because of the exploratory nature of
the study, borderline significant effects and trends are reported for future analysis with larger sample sizes.
The findings support a multidimensional model of acculturation with traits acculturating independently. In
most cases, the three residential groups appear to be more alike than different. However, the three groups

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appear to be very different from the dominant Euro-American culture. Evidence for a collective orientation
and a hunter-gatherer heritage are discussed. Appropriateness of some of the inventories with this sample is
questioned. Findings are related to the three original goals of the study.

Bohn, Diane K. (1993) "The health effects of domestic violence before and during pregnancy among urban American
Indian women in Minnesota: An exploratory study." D.N.Sc. Dissertation, Rush University, College of
Nursing. 260 pp.
The purpose of this study is to examine rates of domestic abuse, abuse during pregnancy and the health
effects of abuse among Native American women. This study is a combined retrospective-prospective
exploratory study that examines individual and cumulative physical, sexual and emotional abuses
experienced during childhood and adulthood. 30 pregnant Native American women from one urban clinic
participated in the study. Data collection included prenatal and postpartum chart reviews as well as personal
interviews.
The majority of study participants (90%) reported having experienced some type of abuse, including
childhood abuse (physical: 27%; sexual: 40%; either: 47%), sexual abuse as adults (40%; 17% current
partner), abuse by an intimate partner (87%; 70% current partner), battering during pregnancy (57%; 33%
current pregnancy).
70% of participants had experienced multiple abuses. An Abuse Events variable was created to examine the
effects of cumulative abuses. Significant relationships were found between increased abuse events and
chemical dependency, depression, increased preterm birth/low birth weight (PTB/LBW) risk scores and child
abuse.
Significant relationships were found between current abuse and decreased birth weight and inadequate
prenatal care; between childhood abuse and chemical dependency; and between battering during pregnancy
and increased Index of Spouse Abuse scores. Perceived cultural acceptance of violence against women was
significantly related to current abuse, battering during pregnancy and increased abuse events. Other
relationships of clinical, but not statistical significance were found between various types of abuse and
inadequate weight gain, sexually transmitted diseases and substance use during pregnancy, suicide attempts,
depression, PTB/LBW and miscarriage.
The results of this study indicate that Native American women may be a population at great risk of abuse and
health problems including substance abuse, suicide and pregnancy complications. Overall rates of abuse and
health problems and risks are interpreted using a model of abuse and dysfunction that includes an historical
analysis of native cultures and the intergenerational post-traumatic stress disorder caused by historical and
current abuses of Native American peoples. Culturally specific nursing interventions are discussed. Further
research to examine culturally specific forms of abuse and to expand the current study are recommended.

Bomberry, Victoria J. (2001) "Indigenous memory and imagination: Thinking beyond the nation." Ph.D. Dissertation,
Stanford University. 210 pp.
This dissertation is a study of the ways in which cultural productions of indigenous women affect local,
national and international discourses and is furthering an emergent hemispheric consciousness on the part of
native people. The dissertation focuses on the novels of Leslie Marmon Silko, N. Scott Momaday, and a
protest march and a video initiated by the cocaleras, the women coca growers, of Bolivia.
The first chapter explores the question of an indigenous women's epistemology and deals with the issues of:
(1) A comparison of the tribal social movements of the late 18th and early 19th century that unified the
eastern part of what is now the United States against increasing cultural and physical encroachment by the
United States; (2) The imaginary topography of the United States that has been coded as the “space of
death” because of the genocide that was perpetrated on indigenous people; and, (3) Analysis of two novels
by N. Scott Momaday that played an influential role in shaping the identity politics of the 60s and 70s and
contributed to the process of the masculinization of indigenous knowledges.
The second chapter, “Indigenous Hemispheric Consciousness” deals with two of the novels written by Leslie
Marmon Silko Ceremony and Almanac of the dead which examine the concept of what I call an emergent
“hemispheric consciousness.” This concept reinserts native women as active producers of knowledge and
refeminizes the imaginary. Silko uses prophecy that allows access to a past that is like yesterday and a future
that is known and spoken in the present moment. For Silko there is no single prophet, but ways of reading,
deciphering, repairing and adding to the ancient texts of the Americas.
The third chapter, “Postmodern Dystopias: The War on Drugs and Indians at the end of the Millennium”,
stretches Silko's map south into Bolivia. It describes the situation in Bolivia during the 90s and its effects on
indigenous people.

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The fourth chapter, “The War on Drugs is a War on Women,” records and analyzes a 31 day march planned
and executed by the cocaleras in the Chapare region of Bolivia. By 1995 the militarization of the war on
drugs had become unbearable because of the day by day disruption and violation of women's lives. The
march marked a turning point for the ways in which indigenous women assert their citizenship.

Bonnell, Jennifer L. (1999) "Mapping songs, mapping histories: The negotiation of cultural perspectives on Gitxsan
territory." M.A. Thesis, University of Victoria. 93 pp.
Behind political and legal conflicts over aboriginal land and resource rights in British Columbia lies a more
fundamental impasse in cultural perspectives. For aboriginal people, a dilemma emerges between the
compulsion to communicate their principles and values in terms that non-aboriginal people can understand
(at the risk of sacrificing important context), and the compulsion to preserve 'absolute meanings' at the risk of
sacrificing communication. This thesis explores theoretical approaches to translation as a way of moving
beyond this impasses in Crown-aboriginal relations. It follows the efforts of the Gitxsan First Nation -- both
in the courts and in practice initiatives -- to translate aspects of an aboriginal perspective as evidence of
their claim to the land.
This thesis examines three examples of impasse in cultural perspectives, and the Gitxsan's response to that
impasse. The first occurs in historic disputes over trapline registration in the 1930s, when different cultural
conceptions of 'trapline' led to conflict and, in isolated circumstances, to negotiation. The second occurs in
the trial of Delgamuukw v. The Queen (1991), where differences over the nature of aboriginal title and the
presentation of aboriginal evidence led to an impasse in communication in the trial, and to a negotiation of
meanings in subsequent appeals. In the third example, the Gitxsan explore ways of facilitating cross-cultural
communication through the translation of aboriginal evidence into graphic maps. The maps demonstrate a
Gitxsan understanding of territory in which cultural rights are inextricably connected to the ecosystems on
which they are based.
In each case, differences between western and aboriginal concepts remain constant; the potential for conflict
or, alternatively, for negotiation builds in correlation with developmental pressures. Taken together, the
examples show how the Gitxsan have adapted their claim of ownership and jurisdiction of the territories to
different political environments, using different technologies. By presenting evidence from an aboriginal
perspective, the Gitxsan encourage the Crown to begin its own process of translation: to make room for
aboriginal concepts of title, and aboriginal methods of presenting evidence, in order to reach equitable
agreements. The Gitxsan's approach has implications not only for their own development plans, but also for
those of other First Nations.

Bopp, Michael. (1985) "Education for development." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Alberta.

Borrows, Jennifer A. (2000) "The Chippewa experience with the therapy process: Stepping stones to healing." Ph.D.
Dissertation, Kansas State University. 246 pp.
The treatment of the Canadian Anishinabe people, commonly referred to as Chippewa, presents unique
challenges to mental health services providers and researchers. There has been a need to understand the
First Nations peoples' perception of therapies and the healing process to ensure that service providers will
help, not harm, this population. This study employed a hybrid of ethnographical and phenomenological
methods to collect experiences of therapy/healing from ten Chippewa participants from a band in southern
Ontario. Information was collected by interviews and field observations.
Many Chippewa people sought services as a result of oppression and both present and historical trauma.
Common healing experiences, which were identified, included requiring the service provider to heal him or
herself, be trustworthy, be non-judgmental, know the band's historical trauma, use silence, and listen. Many
left or returned to the reservation to begin the healing process. They attended traditional ceremonies with the
goal of being in harmony with nature. Follow-up services were important. A wide variety of mental health
services and providers were accessed. Both mainstream methods and Chippewa 'traditional' means had been
utilized by all of these participants. Different modes of services had specific functions at different stages in
their healing journeys. Healing integrated holistic (i.e. spiritual) elements. Substance abuse had been used to
deal with grief.
The reasons for attending therapy/healing were to connect with self, connect with the band/community and to
connect to the Chippewa culture. Participants felt the duty to assist others in the healing process, as they
started to heal themselves. Participants, who had used family therapy services, were more likely to access
them during times of crisis and did not expect to attend more than four sessions. Implications included
marriage and family therapists' networking with multiple services providers, evaluating the trajectory of

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healing frequently, and being available for follow-up services. Implications and ideas for future research
were outlined.

Bose, Pablo S. (2000) "Damning development: The rise of the 'new grassroots' in the Clayoquot Sound and the
Narmada Valley." M.A. Thesis, Simon Fraser University. 145 pp.
Over the course of the past century, environmentalism has emerged as an important social and political
movement. The birth of this movement has been necessitated by a wealth of factors, particularly the
dominance of the western industrial development paradigm. Yet while it can be argued that there now exists
a broad ecological awareness throughout the world, it is equally true that the environmental movement is
composed of many disparate elements. This thesis focuses on one of these elements, on what are known as the
'new grassroots' movements. These groups are a recent evolution within environmentalism, organizations
dedicated to the cause of social and ecological justice in many parts of the world. The rise of these 'new
grassroots' movements has been attributed by many critics to the failures and problems with other traditional
and mainstream forms of environmentalism. This thesis, therefore, undertakes a closer examination of the
established environmental traditions in order to better understand their perceived flaws. For the same
purpose, this thesis also explores the historical and theoretical basis for many of our modern conceptions of
the relationship between humankind and nature.
Having identified the background from which the 'new grassroots' emerge, this study goes on to examine in
greater detail two particular 'new grassroots' movements -- one in India and one in Canada. The purpose is
to understand the context out of which such groups arise and document the methods they utilize to effect
social and ecological change. The overall goal of this thesis is to learn practicable and applicable lessons as
a result of these various inquiries. By examining the shortcomings of mainstream environmentalism we can
identify problematic strategies and tactics that ecologically-motivated groups would be wise to avoid. By
learning from the victories and defeats of the two subjects of study, we can provide broad recommendations
for ways in which to achieve effective environmental advocacy. Only be having such a thorough and self-
reflexive vision of environmentalism can we embark on finding just and equitable solutions to the modern
ecological crisis.

Boswell, Marion J. (1978 ) "Civilizing the Indian: Government administration of Indians, 1876-96." Ph.D.
Dissertation, University of Ottawa.

Boughter, Judith A. (1995) "Betraying their trust: The dispossession of the Omaha nation, 1790-1916." M.A. Thesis,
University of Nebraska -- Omaha (The). 341 pp.
In 1854, the government forced the once-powerful Omaha Indian tribe onto a small reservation in
northeastern Nebraska. Resenting the Omahas' ownership of this fertile farmland, settlers and land
syndicates campaigned relentlessly to alienate the Indians from their property. Due to the words and actions
of only a few tribal 'progressives,' the Omahas became the prototype for several disastrous government
programs during the assimilationist era. Omaha allotment preceded the 1887 Dawes Act by five years;
whites leased Omaha lands long before leasing became an official government policy; and the Omahas were
the first tribe to begin losing their lands as the result of competency commissions. All of these 'firsts' had
disastrous effects on the Omaha people, and by 1916, many Omahas were landless and facing uncertain
futures. But reformers and government officials learned little from the Omaha tragedy, and expanded these
programs to include Indian tribes throughout the United States.

Boulanger, Lori A. (1999 ) ""Resisting coercive assimilation": Identity, empowerment and activism in the native
Hawai'ian movement on Hawai'i Island." Ph.D. Dissertation, State University of New York at Albany. 378
pp.
Hawai'ians are engaged in an oppositional critique of the social and political structure which dominates
island life. No longer content to be coercively assimilated by Western culture and colonialism, they have,
since the 1970s, been organizing themselves at the grassroots level. Sovereignty, self-determination, cultural
identity, and land issues form the basis for activism on every island whom grassroots organizations have
emerged as part of the Hawai'ian Movement.
This dissertation is a study of Native Hawai'ians on Hawai'i Island who are engaged in this Movement, and
in particular of three organizations: The Pele Defence Fund, Ka 'Ohana, O KaLae, and Free Association.
The original intent of this research centred around three questions which focused on the construction of
cultural identity in the Movement, the way in which the past is used and represented, and the relationship
between activists and anthropologists.

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While activism and cultural identity have been the dominant themes throughout this research, the issue of
identity as a construction has been overshadowed by a concern with how Hawai'ians in this Movement
experience their activism in the daily struggle for survival. What became most apparent is that Hawai'ian
activists are occupying contested lands both for political reasons, and in an effort to create places of refuge
from the dominant society. By appropriating lands, building Hawai'ian cultural villages, and protecting
natural and historic sites, Hawai'ian are clearly defining who they are while demarcating the boundaries
between Hawai'ian and non-Hawai'ian cultural spaces.
This dissertation explores the inner workings and variations within the Hawai'ian Movement among the
organizations studied, as well as within the greater Movement. These variations were found to include gender
and class distinctions which were tied into degrees of assimilation into American society. I show that rather
than ignoring the forms of asymmetry and inequality present in this Movement, their investigation provides a
way to better understand the internal politics of the Movement and how these interact with the external forces
of domination that are present. Such an understanding can strengthen a position of solidarity, as it helps to
clarify the complex relations between dominant and dominated, as well as within oppressed groups.

Bourgeault, Ron G. (1986 ) "Class, race and gender: Political economy and the Canadian fur trade, 1670s to 1820s."
M.A. Thesis, University of Regina (The). 223 pp.
This study investigates the relationship established between the Indian and the European in the fur trade.
Based on the thesis of unequal development, the study discusses the class relations established between
Canadian Indians, in the production of fur, and the British bourgeoisie, engaged in the accumulation of
capital. This study also examines the structural relationship established between Rupert's Land as a
periphery and Britain as a centre area in the accumulation of capital. The methods employed in the
investigation of this relationship are those of historical materialism. Specifically, two structural relationships
are investigated. First, class is examined from the point of view of the integration of the Indian into the
international division of labour and capitalism as a world-system. A division of labour was created between
the Indian and the European which became the basis of a racial division of labour. Indian women are
examined in the context of the integration of the communal sexual division of labour into the international
division of labour. Class and race divisions were created and imposed on Indian women, Indian women in
turn were exploited in a manner unlike that of Indian men. The result was the special subjugation of Indian
women. At the basis of the division of the labour in Canada between Indian and European was the different
value accorded labour power dictated by the need to accumulate capital in Europe. Second, the fur trade is
examined in the context of British dominance over Rupert's Land. A structural relationship was created,
based on class formations and unequal exchange, which resulted in the underdevelopment of Rupert's Land
and contributed to the development of the capitalist mode of production in Britain. The productive forces in
Rupert's Land were increased for the purpose of fur production, but thereafter there was little change.
Capital accumulation internally in Rupert's Land during the first century and a half was non-existent.
Capitalist relations of production were imposed in the early 19th century which allowed for the internal
accumulation of capital, but in an extremely regulated fashion. The result was the unequal development of
capitalism between Rupert's Land (periphery) and Britain (centre).

Bowman, Barbara J. (1994 ) "Differences in the development and expression of a sense of coherence between Euro-
Americans and Native Americans." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of North Dakota (The). 170 pp.
This study addressed the development and expression of Antonovsky's (1987) Sense of Coherence (SOC) in
individual lives in a cross-cultural context. Two groups of subjects were examined using a survey format.
One group was from the Northern Cheyenne Reservation in Montana and the other from UND. The
psychological and physical health of these subjects, their family interaction patterns, and the coping
strategies they use were examined to assist in increasing our understanding about how people from different
cultures manage stress and stay healthy. Both groups appear equally healthy, both mentally and physically,
and scored equally well on measures of SOC. Negative correlations between SOC and measures of
depression, anxiety and physical symptoms were found for both groups. Despite these similarities, the
pathways by which the two groups achieved SOC appeared to differ. T-tests indicated that UND students
were from smaller families of higher economic status who were more likely to stress independence,
achievement, and active recreation than the Dull Knife Memorial College students. DKMC students were
more likely from larger families of lower economic status who were more likely to stress moral and religious
values and to use cognitive restructuring as a coping strategy than the UND students. Discriminant analyses
suggested that membership in each of the two groups could be predicted by: (a) socioeconomic status; (b)
cohesiveness of the family unit; (c) the use of cognitive restructuring as a coping strategy; and, (d) anger of

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the subject. Multiple regressions suggested that a strong SOC could be predicted in the DKMC sample by
frequency of childhood prayer and emotional expressiveness. A strong SOC could be predicted in the UND
sample by active recreation, cognitive restructuring, family organization and, interestingly, the number of
people in the present family suffering from addiction.

Boxberger, Daniel L. (1986) "Resource allocation and control on the Lummi Indian reservation: A century of conflict
and change in the salmon fishery." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of British Columbia (The).
This study focuses on the Lummi Indian fishers of northwest Washington State, and the manner in which they
have been included in and excluded from the commercial fishing industry over the past 100 years. The
approach to be taken in this situation of internal dependency is to examine access to resources. The control
of productive resources -- land, water, timber, minerals, and fish -- that Indians own or have access to,
presents an ideal starting point for understanding Indian underdevelopment. Prior to and immediately after
the time the Lummi were confined to a reservation, they were engaged in a traditional fishery that met their
needs for subsistence and had the potential to develop into a viable commercial endeavour. The penetration
of capital into the commercial salmon fishery of North Puget Sound initially utilized Lummi labour, but the
development of new extractive technologies and an increase in the availability of labour of other ethnicities
rapidly circumvented the need for Indian labour. Concomitantly, throughout the early 1900s, efforts by the
State of Washington to curtail Indian fishing resulted in the Lummi being confined to a small reservation
fishery of insignificant commercial potential. In the 1940s, when Lummi exclusion from the fishery was
almost total, the need for fishers suddenly became acute, and the Lummi were once again incorporated into
the commercial salmon fishery. Nevertheless, the post-war era again saw new developments in the salmon
industry, and, no longer needed by the processors, the Lummi were once again squeezed out of the industry.
Sympathetic court cases in the late 1960s and early 1970s guaranteed commercially significant fishing
opportunity for the Lummi. Nevertheless, the present Lummi salmon fishery is not going to provide the
Lummi with a viable economic base. The manner in which the fishery has developed is causing the majority
of the economic yield of the fishery to be siphoned off to non-Lummi interests. Utilizing ethnohistorical and
ethnographic data, this study examines a dependency approach to understanding Lummi underdevelopment.
By focusing primarily on economic and political dependency on the United States Federal Government, this
study shows how the Lummi community was incorporated into the dominant society and became a dependent
community suffering from chronic underdevelopment, despite access to and utilization of a valuable natural
resource.

Braatz, Timothy. (1997) "The Yavapais: A history of Indians in north-central Arizona to 1910." Ph.D. Dissertation,
Arizona State University. 543 pp.
The Yavapai Indians once occupied a large territory in what is now north-central Arizona. Yavapai families
lived in small, independent, and highly-mobile camps and maintained a hunting and gathering economy, in
places supplemented with small-scale agriculture. Relations with neighbouring Indian groups along the
Colorado and Gila rivers included military alliances and rivalries, trade, and resource sharing. Very few
non-Indians entered Yavapai territory before 1860, but most Yavapai camps felt their influence as the arrival
of European livestock, crops, technology, beliefs, and disease transformed the North American southwest.
In the 1860s, large numbers of whites invaded Yavapai country in search of gold and farmland. Yavapai
camps responded in different ways; some tried to accommodate white demands while others turned to
military resistance. The growing presence of whites disrupted the Yavapai economy and United States
military power forced Yavapai families to move onto reservations. In 1873, most surviving Yavapais were
concentrated at the Rio Verde reservation in the heart of Yavapai lands. At Rio Verde, they generally
cooperated with US demands and began adjusting to a sedentary, agricultural lifestyle. But in 1875, US
officials forced them to relocate to the San Carlos Reservation in western Apache territory. Yavapai families
spent the next 25 years in exile. They adopted non-Yavapai traditions of livestock-raising, large-scale
agriculture, and wage labour, and around 1900, with permission from reservation officials, gradually
wandered back to their homelands. Through political lobbying and persistent occupation, the Yavapais
acquired new reservation lands in the early 20th century, thus restoring to them a small part of their original
territory.
This study draws on ethnographic materials and numerous US Indian Office and Army documents to analyze
how Yavapais reacted to the influx of non-Indians into their territory. Other studies of Arizona history have
reduced Yavapai responses to the knee-jerk violence of 'savages.' However, an examination of early Yavapai
life and relations with other Indians and with Spanish explorers reveals a variety of practices, motivations,
and strategies which informed the way Yavapais dealt with whites in the 19th century. Yavapais struggled

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constantly to survive in their harsh desert environment, and thus their efforts to maintain economic and
territorial integrity in the face of disruption and dislocation are the central theme of this account.

Bracken, Christopher J. (1994) "White gift: The potlatch and the rhetoric of Canadian colonialism, 1868-1936." Ph.D.
Dissertation, University of British Columbia (The). 320 pp.
This dissertation examines the irony of Canada's discourse on 'Indian affairs' by reinterpreting the postal
literature generated around the banning of the potlatch in British Columbia from 1868 to 1936. To explain
the logic behind the antipotlatch law, the first section, 'Folding,' examines a set of texts which draw an
absolute limit between Europe and the coastal First Nations. The gift is the privileged sign of this limit: it
divides the societies which potlatch from a Euro-Canadian society which claims to be a system of exchange.
Ironically, the moment such a limit is put into writing, it folds together everything it sets apart. The second
section, 'Giving,' situates the antipotlatch literature within the context of this ironic fold. By banning the
potlatch, Canada aimed to Europeanize the coastal First Nations: to collapse them into the white collectivity
even though the collectivity defined itself by excluding them from its borders. To kill the potlatch was to erase
the gift, the mark distinguishing Canada from the cultures it wished to absorb. Yet the potlatch which Canada
banned did not correspond with the potlatches which the First Nations performed. The legal text gave its own
potlatch to the world. The dissertation is, above all, an attempt to explain the mechanics of this textual gift.
The antipotlatch law also banned something it called the 'Tamanawas' dance, which was alleged to be a form
of ritual cannibalism. Section three, 'Eating,' argues that the effort to kill the potlatch was an act of
cannibalistic white nationalism. The two authors of the only serious attempt to enforce the law -- William
Halliday and Duncan Campbell Scott -- interpreted Canada's relation to the First Nations as a relation of
incorporation. Their texts think whiteness as an act of mourning, where to be white is to belong to a nation
that recalls itself to itself by interiorizing the memory of an aboriginal other who has died. Yet the other
refuses to die. The thought of whiteness finds itself tied to, and opposed by, the memory of a death which is
projected onto the horizon of an endlessly deferred future.

Brade, Cassandra R. (2002) "The relationship between participation in aboriginal cultural activities/languages and
educational achievement for native Canadians: An analysis of the 1991 Aboriginal Peoples Survey." M.Sc.
Thesis, University of Manitoba (The). 131 pp.
This research examined the associations between cultural retention, various aspects of identity formation,
and mobility on levels of academic achievement of Canadian aboriginal people. A secondary analysis of a
sample of 636 respondents to the 1991 Aboriginal Peoples Survey was conducted. The variables examined
included: participation in cultural activities and native language(s), perception of parental and family
support, having aboriginal teachers, aboriginal language(s) being used in the classroom, aboriginal
language facility, liking what was taught in school about native people and history, and number of schools
attended. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses indicated significant relationships between educational
attainment and aboriginal language facility, liking what was taught about aboriginal people in elementary
school, and number of high schools attended. Recommendations for future research include the use of more
precise data on the variables of interest in order to confidently predict the factors which affect educational
achievement among Canada's aboriginal people.

Brady, Patrick. (1991) "An analysis of program delivery services in First Nations, federal and provincial schools in
Northwestern Ontario." M.Ed. Thesis, Lakehead University. 174 pp.
This study compares federal, provincial and First Nations schools' delivery of specific educational services to
Native students in Northwestern Ontario. Areas of comparison include those which the Indian Education
Paper Phase One (INAC, 1982) regarded as "determinants of program quality" (p. 20): (a) curriculum and
standards; (b) staffing; (c) staff support and supervision; and, (d) student support services.
The results of the study indicate that all three educational systems have programs in place to provide the
above educational services to the Native students enrolled in their schools. There are, however, significant
differences among the systems in the manner in which these services are implemented. Differences were
found in the provision of a Native cultural component in the curriculum, the professional qualifications
required of teaching staff, the employment benefit packages provided to educational employees, the nature of
supervisory relations, and the provision of student support services. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Brealey, Kenneth G. (2002) "First (national) space: (Ab)original (re)mappings of British Columbia." Ph.D.
Dissertation, University of British Columbia (The). 689 pp.
Before contact First Nations in what is now British Columbia were not mapmakers. Territory was

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demarcated experientially, by genealogy, oral narrative, ceremony, and the social arts. Since contact,
however, and especially since the beginning of the comprehensive claims process in the early 1970s, First
Nations have become mapmakers -- not because they especially wanted to but because they had to. They have
recognized that cartography -- whether in court, at the treaty table, or for pedagogical purposes -- is a way
of validating aboriginal title and rights. They have also recognized, however, that committing their
geographies to maps is a risky endeavour. Much of what distinguishes First Nations' geographical space
does not translate well in a cartographic register and Euro-Canadians generally lack the cultural equipment
to interpret and evaluate what does. This dissertation tries to open a space where translation can occur.
Drawing on both native and ethnographic sources and guided by my experience and some of the postcolonial
literature, I show that First Nations' maps are both a record of an encounter that has always turned on the
ability of one side to dominate the representational terrain of the other and a window on a world that most
non-natives have hitherto apprehended only in the faintest outline. The questions raised by this dissertation,
then, are of a theoretical sort, but the answers are matters of fact and future practice. Land claims, if they are
about anything at all, are about the struggle over geography -- both the terrestrial object, and the perspective
through which that object is territorialized -- for aboriginal title and rights, if recognized by law, mean
nothing without the territories to which they refer. At issue is not whether the 'map of First Nations' is more
true than the 'map of British Columbia' -- though I will defend such a claim -- but whether or not, in
mirroring one against the other, a space of mutual understanding can be reached.

———. (1995) "Mapping them 'out': Euro-Canadian cartography and the appropriation of First Nations' territories in
British Columbia, 1793-1916." M.A. Thesis, Simon Fraser University. 296 pp.
In this thesis I use a 'materialist hermeneutic' to interpret and understand the way in which maps made by
European discoverers, explorers, and colonizers during the imperial and (post)colonial periods helped
actualize the territorial dispossession of the (ab)original inhabitants of what is now British Columbia.
Beginning with the charts of George Vancouver and Alexander Mackenzie, and finishing with the reserve
plans of the 1916 Royal Commission, I illustrate this thesis by tracing the cartographic encirclement of the
First Nations of the northwest coast between 1793 and 1916. There are three essential themes: (a) the
'positioning' of the map artefact in an ideological power network; (b) the subjective emplacement of the
objective 'other' in the geographical perspective authorized by the network; and, (c) the representational
discourses on the 'surface' of the map that comprise the rules under which that emplacement is achieved and
maintained. Our entry (and exit) point is the 1991 BC Supreme Court case Delgamuukw vs. A.G., in which
maps were used as evidence by both the Gitksan and Wet'suwet'en nations (the plaintiffs) and the Crown (the
defence). Given the manner in which the Court interpreted this evidence, the thesis has implications not only
for our understanding the social function of maps in historical or contemporary land claims, but also for the
way in which we establish, sustain, and defend our own territorial legitimacy at the expense of another.

Bredin, Marian. (1995) "Aboriginal media in Canada: Cultural politics and communication practices." Ph.D.
Dissertation, McGill University. 518 pp.
This dissertation considers the relation between culture and communication with respect to the development
of aboriginal media in Canada. It introduces and elaborates a concept of cultural politics with which to
interpret the history of contact between aboriginal and non-aboriginal people. This concept is further applied
to an analysis of Canadian cultural and communications policy and the intervention of native broadcasters in
policy procedures and discourses. The dissertation undertakes a critical review of existing research on
aboriginal media. It assesses the usefulness of interpretive tools drawn from poststructuralist philosophy,
ethnography and postcolonial theory in understanding the relation between cultural politics and
communication practices. These tools are then implemented in the presentation of a case study of Wawatay
Native Communications Society, a regional native broadcasting organization based in north-western
Ontario.

Brelsford, Taylor. (1983 ) "Hunters and workers among the Namaska Cree: The role of ideology in a dependent mode
of production." M.A. Thesis, McGill University.
This thesis extends the analysis of persistence in James Bay Cree economy and society by examining the role
of ideology in the stability of a dependent mode of production. Using Althusser's notion that ideology
interpellates individuals, this study asks about the reproduction of collective and individual commitments to
the subsistence sector as a livelihood. The findings identify a number of challenges to the traditional sector,
but suggest that a substantial proportion of the population, still the majority, continues to be drawn to a
primary commitment to the hunting and trapping livelihood. Neither schooling or consumerism is seen to

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have substantially eroded this commitment to date. More broadly, the role of ideology in this articulation is
seen to be subordinate to the political practices which, in policy initiatives from the 1930s until the James
Bay Agreement, have done much to reinforce the material conditions of subsistence production.

Brenneman, Dale S. (2004 ) "Climate of rebellion: The relationship between climate variability and indigenous
uprisings in mid-18th century Sonora." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Arizona (The). 359 pp.
A series of indigenous rebellions took place in mid-18th century Sonora that caused Spain to alter its colonial
policies, depending less on the Jesuit mission system and more on a professional military force for pacifying
and controlling the region. The rebellions coincided with a shift toward a drought-dominant climate pattern
that began in the late 1720s. This study explores the relationship between that climatic shift and the
rebellions by narrowing the focus to several disturbances and insurrections among the Seris, Pimas Bajos,
and Yaquis during the period of 1725-42. Research centres on climate variability, the relationship between
climate patterns and indigenous subsistence practices, and whether Spanish colonial policies and institutions
rendered these practices more or less vulnerable to environmental perturbations. Because the same
environmental factors shaping indigenous subsistence strategies also affected Spanish decision-making, the
development of Spanish colonization in Sonora is reviewed within an ecological framework as well,
recognizing the interaction among the environment and political, economic, and demographic factors.
This study adopts a multidisciplinary approach integrating paleoclimatic, ethnohistorical, ethnographic, and
archaeological sources of data to establish patterns of precipitation and reconstruct indigenous subsistence
systems within their local environments, both before and after Spanish colonial rule. The research presents
evaluations and English translations of numerous Spanish texts that include description of local
environments; indigenous land use, reliance on crops versus wild resources, scheduling, harvest, and/or
storage; significant climatic events such as droughts or floods; and the events of specific insurrections.
The research also considers Spanish policies and institutions as they developed in Sonora, and changes they
engendered in indigenous subsistence organization and the environment. This study assesses the effectiveness
of those changes in the face of climate fluctuations, and scrutinizes Seri, Pima Bajo, and Yaqui disturbances
and insurrections as responses to Spanish-induced subsistence changes under escalating colonial pressures
and climate-related environmental stresses. On a broader level, this research demonstrates the potential of
the documentary record, when combined with advances in climate research, for increasing our
understanding of human vulnerability to climate change, human responses and coping strategies, and the
impacts of human behaviour on climate.

Briggs, Peter D. (1999) "Community development with indigenous communities: Facilitating the creation of
appropriate environments." M.L.A. Thesis, University of Guelph. 108 pp.
This thesis proposes an integrated framework for organizing information and subsequently acting as a
diagnostic and predictive tool for those working in the area of community development with indigenous
peoples, but with potential universal scope. Discussion within the thesis utilizes examples and information
from work with indigenous peoples in Australia, Canada and New Zealand. The framework is composed of a
hierarchy of community development (derived from Maslow's hierarchy of human needs) integrated within a
value system, and a hierarchy of cultural influence. Discussion of the framework is divided into three areas:
(1) essential needs and the ethics of crisis-control; (2) community function and planning paradigms; and, (3)
community actualization and how design theory applies to developing meaning in the landscape. Theoretical
and practical support are given for this framework, and operationalization of the framework is offered within
a paradigm of community development through participatory self-determination.

Bright, Marilyn A. (1999 ) "Teaching and learning experiences of Dogrib teachers in the Canadian Northwest
Territories." M.Ed. Thesis, University of Alberta. 156 pp.
The study is a narrative inquiry which records the learning and teaching experiences of eight Dogrib
aboriginal teachers in the Canadian Northwest Territories, in the midst of the rapid changes occurring
within their communities. The Dogrib people belong to the Canadian Athapaskan or Dene group of First
Nations people. Within their life span, the way of life in their communities has changed from a predominantly
hunting and gathering lifestyle to a wage-based, global technological lifestyle. The study describes the results
of such rapid change on the cultural traditions and the social environment of the people in the communities
and the impacts of the change on the public education system. It articulates the cultural differences between
the Dogrib culture and the mainstream Euro-Canadian culture which have implications for the educational
system in the Dogrib school division. It explores the needs, as expressed by the Dogrib teachers who were
interviewed, for continuing in-service support and professional development in their roles as teachers.

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Briones, Claudia N. (1999) "Weaving "the Mapuche people": The cultural politics of organizations with indigenous
philosophy and leadership." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Texas at Austin (The). 495 pp.
Since the late 1980s, there has been a global transformation of native peoples into subjects of international
law. Within this context, amendments to the constitutions of several Latin American countries include for the
first time the collective rights of indigenous groups. Specific trajectories of state- and nation-building have
affected both the form that the politics of recognition of indigenous rights has adopted and the content of the
indigenous groups' demands.
This dissertation analyzes the cultural politics of organizations with Mapuche philosophy and leadership and
traces the direction that their struggle for recognition has taken in a country like Argentina, where the
emergence of organized indigenous activism is a new phenomenon. This study focuses on the rise and the
demise of Taiñ KiñeGetuam (or “to be one again”), a coalition of several indigenous organizations that since
1992 has claimed to represent politically “the Mapuche People” and has undertaken many different protests
and actions to challenge hegemonic constructions of aboriginality and to unite the indigenous constituency.
An ethnographic account of indigenous cultural productions, rallies, and communiquès serves as the
analytical foundation to explore the politicization of culture and the culturization of politics which
characterize Mapuche activism. The former process involves deploying “culture” as a political resource to
promote Mapuche communalization and to demonstrate distinctiveness vis-à-vis non-indigenes. The latter
consists of monitoring the political moves of “allies” or “antagonists” to develop indigenous tactical courses
of action, that are interpreted as an exclusively aboriginal way of “doing politics”, radically opposed to
Wigka or non-indigenous politics.
Through ethnographic analyses of the indigenous politics of representation, the dissertation examines the
relevance of concepts such as “strategic essentialism”, “induced agency” or “self-orientalization”, that
have been used to explain contemporary indigenous activism in Latin America. It also contextualizes the most
apparent -- and, for many people, annoying -- contradiction in the agenda of Mapuche activism: their a
constant demand for non-interference by the state and relentless critique of non-indigenous democratic
principles go hand in hand with their equally consistent request for state assistance, and respect for
democratic guarantees.

Brock, Kathy L. (1989) "The theory and practice of aboriginal self-government: Canada in a comparative context."
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Toronto. 503 pp.
This thesis addresses three questions. How has aboriginal self-government developed in Canada? How is the
development of this issue in Canada different from its development in the United States and Australia? Have
features of the Canadian political system, which are responsible for differentiating the Canadian experience
with aboriginal self-government from the American and Australian experiences, complicated the development
in a peculiarly Canadian manner?
The thesis concludes that the Canadian experience with aboriginal self-government has been paradoxical
and distinctive: the Canadian political system has offered both incentives and impediments to the
development of the issue not found in the American and Australian cases. Compelling features of the
Canadian political system, namely executive dominance and intergovernmental tensions, caused the issue to
unfold in a way which frustrated demands for constitutional entrenchment of the right to self-government.
However, the constitutional talks stimulated the development of aboriginal self-government on a community
basis through land claims, legislation, negotiations and agreements, division of the Northwest Territories,
and administrative changes. The evolving Canadian conception of pluralism and the traditional practices of
reconciling individual and collective rights and minority and majority interests, provide the framework for
the acceptance of aboriginal self-government at the community level.

Brown, Elaine C. (1991) "Tribal peoples and land settlement: The effects of Philippine capitalist development on the
Palawan." Ph.D. Dissertation, State University of New York at Binghampton. 396 pp.
This dissertation explores the processes and effects of land settlement and capitalist development in the
homeland of an indigenous people. The case of the Palawan of southern Palawan island, Philippines
provides insights into socioeconomic, political and environmental transformations that have undermined
their ability to engage in sustainable land use and maintain their lifeways. Research was carried out in a
multiethnic village of 400 households and the area's administrative centre. A census was taken of village
households. Informal interviews were used to learn about local history, social relations and economic and
environmental issues. Structured interviews provided information on the first wave (1910-30) of Christian
Filipino settlers and the registration of land claims. Questionnaires generated data on cropping patterns in
three ecozones for 107 ricefields and 80 second season fields, and on the livelihoods of a stratified sample of

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100 households. A survey of 67 fields provided insights into the privatization of the state-owned uplands.
Early settlers established administrative structures, privatized land, started export agriculture and linked
southern Palawan to the national economy. After the Pacific War, other settlers filled the frontier and
reorganized villages. Settlers took Palawan lands on the coastal plain, and so Palawan moved to the uplands.
Displacement of Palawan has been peaceful and piecemeal, which has hindered Palawan identification of
enemies and resistance. Palawan remain the majority (63% of village households), and yet they are less
powerful and visible than non-Palawan. Palawan still intercrop rice varieties and other cultivars, but they
cultivate fields more intensively than when land was abundant. Rice yields have declined. To buy rice,
households produce for the market. They have less access to land, credit, and technological information than
non-Palawan, and thus they are less productive. Palawan households cannot meet their requirements by
farming and foraging. To overcome food shortages, every household must work off-farm. Palawan value their
heritage, but deculturation and acculturation are eroding their lifeways. Discrimination by non-Palawan
creates barriers that prevent Palawan from being fully incorporated into the socioeconomic system. The
contemporary distinctiveness of Palawan is the result of Palawan resistance to domination and non-Palawan
discrimination.

Brown, Jennifer A. (1999 ) "'Our native peoples': The illegitimacy of Canadian citizenship and the Canadian
federation for the aboriginal peoples." M.A. Thesis, Carleton University. 158 pp.
It is often assumed that because aboriginal peoples reside within the boundaries of Canada they are
'Canada's aboriginal people.' It is because of this assumption that the aboriginal peoples face difficulties
achieving the recognition of their inherent right to self-determination.
This thesis presents an examination of how aboriginal peoples became Canadian citizens. It is argued that
this inception into the Canadian definition of citizenship was done without their consent. The result is that
Canadian citizenship is illegitimate for the aboriginal peoples. It is further argued that because Canadian
citizenship is illegitimate so to is the framework on which our definition of citizenship is based.
The goal is to develop a model of association which will remain consistent with Canadian values which
federalism espouses, as well as ensuring the legitimacy of association for the aboriginal nations. The
framework achieved combines elements of treaty and Althusian federalism with aspects of non-territoriality
and multiple citizenship status. The result is a celebration of Canada as a multi-nation state.
This model was tested for its validity and flexibility among three groups of aboriginal nations as well as with
the federal government. The model demonstrated congruency with the aspirations of the aboriginal nations
examined. However, it is not clear that the federal government is willing to accept the notion of Canada as a
multi-nation state as proposed by the framework. The framework remains a goal to strive for to achieve a
legitimate Canadian federation.

Brown, Jennifer S. H. (1976) "Company men and native families: Fur trade social and domestic relations in Canada's
old northwest." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Chicago (The).

Brown, Kimberly L. (2005 ) ""To fish for themselves": A study of accommodation and resistance in the Stó:lo
Fishery." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of British Columbia (The). 243 pp.
Fisheries regulations, implemented in the 1880s, banned the sale of Indian 'food fish' and resulted in the
creation of the categories of "food fishing" and "commercial fishing." While simultaneously accepting and
rejecting that place in the margins of this fractured fishery, Stó:lo people have consistently maintained that
their aboriginal right to fish cannot be cast in these false categories that separate the economic and social
components of their way of life.
Stó:lo fishers have been fighting for their Aboriginal right to fish since the their first encounters with the
Xwelitem. This thesis addresses that struggle within a context of accommodation and resistance. In this
historically situated ethnography, I offer an examination of a problem, not a people. By selecting three
distinct responses to fisheries regulation on the part of peoples identifying themselves as Stó:lo I reveal a link
between the histories of the individual Stó:lo communities and their specific responses to regulation,
demonstrating that connected to those histories are as many different Stó:lo fisheries as there are species of
salmon.
The responses examined in this thesis are, in the words of the Stó:lo themselves, rooted in tradition; tradition
having become the short answer to questions regarding the Stó:lo and their aboriginal right to fish. As a part
of my examination, I seek to uncover the long answer; more specifically how tradition has come to support
these separate and distinct responses to over a century of interference into their way of life.

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Brown, Leslie A. (1997) "Administrative work in aboriginal governments." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Victoria.
283 pp.
Aboriginal governments are organizations like any other, but they have some important differences that stem
from the cultures of aboriginal peoples and the history and construction of aboriginal governments in
Canada. Colonization brought particular conceptions of work and administration that are not always
compatible with aboriginal cultures. Aboriginal governments are grounded in their respective communities
and cultures and at the same time exist within a Canadian political system that reflects the values of a
western, non-aboriginal society. The practice of administrative work in aboriginal governments is therefore
complex and internally conflictual for the organization as well as for administrators. The institutional and
financial arrangements of aboriginal governments in Canada only further complicate the work.
Understanding the distinctiveness of administrative work in aboriginal governments is important for both
aboriginal and non-aboriginal governments and administrators as a new relationship between Canadian and
aboriginal governments is forged.
This study explores the work of aboriginal administrators working in aboriginal governments. It considers
the administrative environment of aboriginal government, particularly the complexities of accountability and
the interrelatedness of culture, politics and administration. It suggests that aboriginal governments are
expressions of the cultures, politics, spirituality, economics, values and emotions of aboriginal peoples. These
governments are social movements as well as ruling bureaucracies. Government in this context is a complex
and holistic notion as it does not necessarily separate church from state, politics from bureaucracy, or the
personal from the professional.
Within this context, the study examines the actual work of particular administrators and thereby develops a
distinct picture of administration as it is practiced in aboriginal governments. While such administrative
practice is found to be more holistic in this context, the study further suggests that the construction of the
actual work is influenced by key factors of accountability demands, cultural relevance and integrity, and the
need for education of all people engaged with issues of governance. Given the dilemmas found in each of
these factors, aboriginal administrators face the unique challenge of integrating the discordant demands of
their communities, organizations and professions.

Brown, Malcolm B. (1996) ""Is it not our land?": An ethnohistory of the Susquehanna-Ohio Indian alliance, 1701-54."
Ph.D. Dissertation, Oklahoma State University. 368 pp.
This dissertation describes and analyzes the development, consolidation, and decline of the Susquehanna-
Ohio Indian alliance, an intercultural alliance among the Eastern Woodland Indians of the Susquehanna and
upper Ohio Valleys during the first half of the 18th century. This includes the peoples of the Iroquois
Confederacy, the Lenapes (Delawares), Shawnees, Wyandots, Miamis, Susquehannocks, and other groups.
The standard colonial primary sources for this era were used, including sources recently uncovered by
modern researchers in the field. The study also utilized ethnohistorical sources and tapped disciplines such
as archaeology, ethnography, cultural anthropology, weapons history, and material culture studies to further
illuminate the history of these native peoples. Under the direction of its greatest sachems during its first three
decades, the Susquehanna-Ohio Indian alliance was an elastic and durable structure that easily met the
needs of its members for peaceful intercourse and the resolution of problems among themselves and with
Euro-Americans. The alliance survived during the 1740s and early 1750s despite increasing factionalization
and polarization among its peoples and the meddling of French and British colonials. The alliance's downfall
in 1754 was due primarily to the invasion of the Ohio Valley by the French and British militaries and
secondarily to the inability of its leaders to modify their thinking to effectively resist such aggression.

Brown, Stephen G. (1997) "Teaching to hybridity: Beyond a pedagogy of the oppressed." Ph.D. Dissertation,
University of South Florida. 410 pp.
The aim of this dissertation is not merely to describe the diverse factors problematizing writing instruction on
and Athabascan Indian Reservation, nor merely to proffer a series of critiques: of the aims, assumptions, and
activities of Basic Writing pedagogy; of the limitations of Mary Louise Pratt's 'contact zone' and of Gerald
Graff's model for conflict pedagogy. The primary purpose of this dissertation is to posit a strong theoretical
and practical rationale for a radical pedagogy foregrounding the lived realities of borderland learners.
This inquiry into borderland pedagogy is driven by a number of questions: are the aims, assumptions, and
activities of Basic Writing pedagogy practicable in such a setting? What might be the pedagogical
alternatives to basic writing praxis in such a milieu? Is the acquisition of academic or critical literacy of any
practical or ethical value to such students? To what extent are the bush teacher and the reservation school
complicit in the process of cultural genocide? And finally, is there some pedagogical means of bridging the

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gap between knowledge and morality? Is there some means of representing the Other that does not reinscribe
colonizing gestures of domination, that enables the Other to remain as such?
Throughout this dissertation I draw on the diverse discourses of postcolonialism, resistance pedagogy, and
Native American resistance struggle in an effort to discover connections between them and to enunciate an
emancipatory borderland pedagogy. I necessarily engage in issues currently being contested in this
interdisciplinary arena: canonicity, representation, marginalization, identity, agency, and authenticity. If the
first half of this work emphasizes the theoretical over the pedagogical, the second half inverts this
relationship.
Finally, this dissertation attempts to articulate a pedagogy that is an eclectic fusion of autobiography, critical
ethnography and case study, of canonical and non-canonical texts, of the Foxfire Program and conflict-
oriented pedagogy: a pedagogy which was as much a hybrid as the subaltern students it sought to engage -- a
praxis which, in the last analysis, argues the efficacy of teaching to hybridity.

Browne, Annette J. (2003 ) "First Nations women and health care services: The sociopolitical context of encounters
with nurses." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of British Columbia (The). 285 pp.
Health care provided to Canadian aboriginal peoples continues to unfold against a backdrop of colonial
relations. This study explored the sociopolitical and historical context of encounters between nurses and First
Nations women. Using an ethnographic design and Dorothy Smith's standpoint perspective as the method of
inquiry, interactions between nurses and First Nations women were observed in a northern hospital setting.
Subsequently, in-depth interviews were conducted with First Nations women, nurses, and three other health
professionals (n = 35).
Incorporating aspects of postcolonial and feminist theories, this study illustrates how dominant ideologies
and professional discourses intersect to organize the knowledge and attitudes that nurses bring to their
practice. Three related frames of reference were examined: (a) theories of culture, (b) liberal notions of
egalitarianism, and (c) popularized images and discourses of aboriginality. In the absence of competing
frames of reference, embedded assumptions about aboriginal peoples, culture and 'difference' influence the
relational aspects of nurses' work with First Nations women.
Using vignettes from the data, I explain how women's social positioning, material circumstances, past
experiences and pragmatism shape their patterns of relating with nurses, their efforts to 'get along with all
the nurses,' and their perceptions of nurses as 'all good.' Turning their analytical gaze inward, women
focused on how they were perceived by health professionals, and how they could best position themselves. To
unpack the layers of subtext embedded in women's accounts, critical consideration is given to mediating life
circumstances and to particular methodological issues.
The study concludes by analyzing strategies for challenging taken-for-granted assumptions and discourses
that inadvertently perpetuate colonial relations in health care. The concept of cultural safety, positioned
within postcolonial perspectives, is discussed as a means of fostering critical consciousness. By directing
nurses to examine historically mediated relations of power, long-standing patterns of
paternalism/maternalism, and assumptions about 'race', culture and class relations, cultural safety has the
potential to shift nurses' knowledge and attitudes. Locating heath care interactions within these wider
historical and sociopolitical contexts can help nurses to more fully contribute to social justice in the realm of
aboriginal health.

Bruyneel, Kevin M. (2001 ) "Politics on the boundaries: Indigenous people's politics in the United States." Ph.D.
Dissertation, New School for Social Research. 425 pp.
The politics of indigenous people is one of the least understood components of American political life, and is
rarely addressed in the field of political science. My dissertation defines and illustrates a logic of indigenous
political practice and purpose, which I call 'politics on the boundaries.' Politics on the boundaries refers first
to the practice of indigenous politicians seeking to secure rights and resources within the American political
system while, at the same time, arguing for greater self-government outside that same system. The purpose
here is to secure a level of sovereignty that is neither complete secession from nor complete assimilation
within the American polity. This form of sovereignty sits between the internal pole of assimilation (first
space) and the external pole of secession (second space) in what I call a post-colonial third space. The
dissertation starts by theoretically exploring the relationship between sovereignty, identity and boundaries in
indigenous political life. The historical narrative begins with the US Civil War, a critical period not only for
America but also for indigenous people. The shift in indigenous-American political relations that occurs at
this time does not significantly alter until the 1960s, where my dissertation assesses the changing terms of
indigenous sovereignty and political identity. Presently, questions about tribal sovereignty and indigenous

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identity are most notable with regard to casino gaming. Thus, I look to the politics of tribal casinos in
California as a vibrant example of politics on the boundaries in the contemporary era. To shed comparative
light on indigenous politics in the US, I also examine the politics of indigenous people in Canada during both
that nation's founding period (just after the US Civil War) and the present era.

Bryant, Michael J. (1989 ) "Canada and U.S. public policy on aboriginal land claims, 1960-88: Alaska and British
Columbia compared." M.A. Thesis, University of British Columbia (The).

Buck, Constance M. A. (2001) "Killing beauty in North America." Ph.D. Dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute. 269
pp.
The first recorded battle after the Battle of the Little Big Horn between Plains Indians and the United States
Army occurred in September of 1876. My great grandfather led an assault against the Plains Indians and
acquired war trophies from the Northern Cheyenne Indians. These objects, held by my family for 122 years,
were returned to traditional society members in the summer of 1998.
This paper is a heuristic and hermeneutic interpretation, amplification and reflection of the consequences of
500 years of denied genocide, a depth psychological analysis of cultural trauma, primitive mental states,
Coyote the Trickster, and group functioning.
Our historical shadow includes our participation in the attempted genocide of Native Americans. Revisionism
-- the cunning assertion that memory is a deliberate lie -- is hatred's ultimate obscenity (Bertman, 2000, p.
62). Our schools have traditionally taught both Indian and Euro-American children a revisionist view of our
heroic conquest of the American West that denies that the Holocaust ever happened. Past and current local
and international political policies support this delusion. Eigen (1993) writes that the intensity of belief
attached to delusions indicates that the individual is trying to hold fast to a terrifyingly important dimension
of his own story (p. 10). Our nation's tendency to idealize itself is a perversion resulting in unrealistic and
unattainable attitudes that are related to our society's affinity for killing beauty. Collectively we continue to
both idealize and denigrate Native Americans, perpetrating the same perversion on ourselves.
The destructiveness of idealization is expressed through primitive mental states that no one fully outgrows.
Primitive intrapsychic affect is linked to primitive expressions in the larger collective. Our lack of collective
awareness of history and our ongoing attempts at cultural genocide are affecting us through a process of
denial that splits us off from the violence of our past that is being expressed by our youth. Individual or
collective perversion results in losses of human vitality and creativity that insult the nature of soul.

Buck, Elizabeth B. (1986 ) "The politics of culture: A history of the social and cultural transformation of Hawai'i."
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Hawai'i. 271 pp.
This study offers an alternative interpretation of Hawai'ian history. Marxist and neo-Marxist theories in the
fields of political, anthropological and literary studies have been drawn on and critiqued for their
applicability to the historical experience of Hawai'i. Marxist conceptualizations of social structures, their
ideological and material reproduction, and their historical transformation are used to trace and analyze
changes in Hawai'i's structural formations at historical conjunctures of competing modes of production,
particularly the radical social restructuration that occurred with the intrusion of capitalism into the islands
during the 19th and 20th centuries. This neo-Marxist interpretation is supplemented by post-structuralist
notions of the power that resides in language and discourse. Hawai'i's move from an oral to a literate culture
in the historical context of Western imperialism, and the subsequent shift from Hawai'ian to English as the
dominant language of discourse, have had far-reaching implications for the structures of power in Hawai'i.
A major focus of the study is the relationship between the changing material conditions of the islands, and
forms of social representation, most particularly chant, hula and contemporary Hawai'ian music. Hawai'ian
music is presented as a site of struggle between Hawai'i and the West, that music used, over time, as part of
contending myths of Hawai'i. From the 19th century to the present, Hawai'ian music has been a site of
struggle between Hawai'ian and western conceptualizations of reality and human relationships, between
indigenous and western forms and practices of musical production, and between the different ideologies that
constrain and inform such practices and that are reproduced by them.
Since contact, Hawai'ian music has been constituted and reconstituted into different objects and practices by
different discourses: into the exotic ritual of the Other by early Western observers; into heathenistic ritual by
the 19th century American missionaries; into cultural commodities by the tourist and recording industries;
and into symbols of cultural identity and nationalism by Hawai'ians. The dialectic between indigenous forms
and Western forms of music that began in the early 19th century continues to the present. The currently
dominant myth is that Hawai'i is an exotic paradise where a multi-ethnic population shares in the social

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benefits of progress. This myth has appropriated Hawai'ian music to entice and entertain tourists. The
alternative myth, that of politically and/or culturally active Hawai'ians, is that Hawai'i was a socially
harmonious society in touch with nature. This counter myth has reappropriated Hawai'ian music as a route
to recovering Hawai'ian history and identity.

Bull, Catherin J. (1990) "Sustainable tourism in remote Australia: Strategies for physical planning and infrastructure."
Ph.D. Dissertation, Harvard University. 385 pp.
Using theoretical and case studies, this dissertation explores how remoteness, tourism and sustainability
relate to the planning of infrastructure for National Parks in remote Australia.
Remote Australia is attractive to tourist activity because of its qualities of difference, uniqueness,
naturalness, vastness, emptiness, ancient culture and "reality". Irregular and extreme natural disturbances,
lack of formal knowledge, a sparse and often unstable population, however, combine with a reliance on
distant markets to constrain how any enterprise proceeds here, including tourism. The characteristics of
remoteness influence the type of planning required to ensure that tourist activity conserves environments as it
interprets them, and suggest that modes of travel based on the experiences of discovery, exploration and
education are the most appropriate.
This thesis presents an evaluative model for sustainable tourist activity. This model links the major criteria
constituting (1) care of the natural and cultural environment, and (2) use for environmental experience, with
(3) the processes controlling them, especially physical planning and infrastructure provision. It is used to
evaluate three cases -- Bedarra Island, Lizard Island and Uluru/Yulara -- over the period of their use and
development.
In terms of care, the major measures are control of mechanical and systemic disturbance in the form of
species invasions, erosion, and aural and visual impacts. Though many techniques were developed to control
disturbance, they were used inconsistently across cases and only where environmental experts were involved.
Staff environments, service areas and networks were consistently underplanned and have become significant
sources of negative impact.
The measure of use is the provision of a rich palette of experiences promoting environmental appreciation.
Lack of interpretation, possibilities for exploration or reflection, and a restricted choice of on-site
experiences were the major weaknesses identified from the cases. Accommodation isolated from major
attractions exacerbated these problems.
These issues, combined with an evolving knowledge base and the administrative division between care and
use, indicate the need for a significant investment in the processes of resource assessment, coordinated
management planning and the clarification of experiential goals, along with a more consistent application of
those strategies which successfully contributed towards sustainability on the case sites.

Burke, Pamela L. (1999) "The globalization of contentious politics: The Amazonian indigenous rights movement."
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Maryland College Park. 248 pp.
In this project, I argue that Amazonian indigenous peoples organized via transnational networks due to the
domestic blockages presented to them in their respective countries. Due to these blockages and the growing
number of transnational political opportunity structures, such as national and international nongovernmental
organizations, inter-governmental organizations, multi-lateral development banks, and multinational
corporations, indigenous peoples mobilized through transnational advocacy networks and eventually formed
transnational social movement organizations. Through a comparative-historical analysis of five Ecuadorian
Amazonian indigenous organizations and two transnational Amazonian social movement organizations, I
illustrate the processes of transnational collective action and its outcomes. This empirical evidence in this
study is based upon two years of fieldwork in Ecuador and archival research.
While many studies of globalization and transnational collective action claim that a global civil society is
forming, the evidence presented in this study also demonstrates a decline in national social movement
organization as transnational collective action increases. This is due to the competition among regional and
local social movement organizations for funding and program development. Thus, while transnational
collective action may increase policy outcomes on local, regional, or transnational levels, it may also
diminish the sustenance of coherent national social movements.

Byers, Lisa G. (2005) "Depression, discrimination, trauma, and American Indian ethnic identity." Ph.D. Dissertation,
Washington University. 134 pp.
Major depression is one of the most debilitating conditions experienced worldwide. The available research
indicates that American Indians experience depressive disorders at higher rates than those reported by the

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general American population. Despite this disparity, the research on depression in tribal populations is
severely inadequate. This dissertation utilizes multiple regression to perform a secondary analysis of data
from a recently completed American Indian mental health study. The dissertation represents the first
application of an integrative theory to the study of discrimination, ethnic identity, historical trauma, and
individual trauma in relation to depression vulnerability. Multiple regression results indicate that traumatic
distress, marginalized identity were significant predictors of current depressive symptom distress. Male
respondents reported significantly more depressive symptom distress. The findings have implications for
social work intervention and prevention programs to decrease the burden of depressive disorders for
American Indians.

Byington, Michelle L. (2001) "Bicultural involvement, psychological differentiation, and time perspective as
mediators for depression and anxiety in Native Americans living on and off-reservation." Ph.D. Dissertation,
Columbia University. 136 pp.
The effects of bicultural involvement, psychological differentiation, and time perspective on depression and
anxiety in 100 Native Americans (n = 100) living on- and off-reservation are measured by: the Bicultural
Involvement Questionnaire (BIQ); Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT); Beck Depression Inventory
(BDI); centre for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D); Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised
(WAIS-R) Vocabulary; Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) Anxiety-Related Disorders (ARD); and Time
Estimate.
Degree of Indian Blood is neither associated with nor predictive of any bicultural measures except "wish" for
more involvement in native culture. As predicted: individuals with high involvement in both native and Anglo
cultures are less depressed than those with low involvement particularly off-reservation; high Total Anglo
involvement, independent of Total Native scores, predicts less depression on both CES-D and BDI, in total
sample, while predicting less BDI depression in off-reservation. Level of bicultural involvement is predictive
of obsessions and traumatic stress. Off-reservation residents show clinical levels of depression, while
reservation dwellers do not. Balanced cultural involvement groups show the least anxiety-related disorders.
However, on reservation residents who are highly involved in both cultures show much less anxiety than
those who reject their native culture while passively aspiring to Anglo values and practices.
As predicted, psychological differentiation discriminates the most accurate Time Estimators who are more
field independent than those less differentiated who show the most time errors. Additionally, groups showing
more anxiety, as well as those with higher levels of involvement in native culture, have the most inaccurate
Time Estimates.
Finally, biculturalism differentially mediates depression in off-reservation residents and anxiety in on-
reservation natives. Furthermore, psychological differentiation predicts anxiety in off-reservation groups
such that the most anxiety is evidenced in the least differentiated groups. Finally, implications among
biculturalism, psychological differentiation, and time estimate in relation to psychological distress and
resilience in on and off-reservation Native Americans are discussed.

Caldbick, Mary L. (1997) "Locke's doctrine of property and the dispossession of the Passamaquoddy." M.A. Thesis,
University of New Brunswick (The). 141 pp.
This work examines John Locke's doctrine of property, as developed in his Second treatise of government, in
the context of colonial expansion in North America. Specifically, the thesis analyzes the role that the Lockean
view of property acquisition through labour played in rationalizing the dispossession of the Passamaquoddy
people of the Maine-Maritime region. Locke's view that humans could come to have ownership rights in
lands upon which they expended labour was used as a justification for displacing aboriginal groups like the
Passamaquoddy. Native peoples in North America possessed a radically different view of the relationship
between humans and Nature. They saw themselves as intimately connected to their surroundings, as part of a
continuum between humans and the earth. Europeans were able to undermine the legitimacy of this
relationship and vindicate the dispossession of the Passamaquoddy by characterizing Passamaquoddy land
use as wasteful.

Callahan, Ann B. (2002) "On our way to healing: Stories from the oldest living generation of the File Hills Indian
Residential school." M.A. Thesis, University of Manitoba (The). 147 pp.
The story of Indian residential schools is a sad one in Canada. The government's policy of assimilating the
aboriginal people into mainstream society began in the early years of the 19th century in western Canada.
One of the strategies the government employed was through the founding of the Indian residential school.
The churches were the 'hand maidens' in bringing about this movement. There were many effects experienced

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by the residents of these establishments. For the most part, the survivors proclaim that this experience was a
negative one while few say that the experience was a positive one. This thesis will examine the various
approaches taken by these survivors to become centred in oneself once again as an aboriginal person, which
is to know one's own identity as a First Nations person. In addition, this paper will specifically examine the
perspectives of the oldest generation of those survivors of the File Hills Indian Residential School (FHIRS),
Balcarres, Saskatchewan of this experience and if returning to or renewing of aboriginal spirituality was a
means of healing from the residential school trauma.

Callahan, Manuel. (2003) "Mexican border troubles: Social war, settler colonialism and the production of frontier
discourses, 1848-80." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Texas at Austin (The). 399 pp.
This study analyzes the social war of the US-Mexico borderlands during the second half of the 19th century.
The more prominent conflicts, or 'brushfire wars' -- the Merchants War, Cortina War, Las Cuevas War, and
the San Elizario Salt War -- are fully elaborated to show a more complex resistance by the Mexican
community. Mexicanos' short-lived and often narrow victories in opposition to Anglo processes of domination
not only reveal the ambiguity of settler colonialism but the ambivalences of ethnic Mexicans and indigenous
peoples who played an integral part in frontier expansion and defence. The research allows for a thick
description of the large-scale violence as well as the 'everyday forms' of conflict, combined with social and
structural violence, which constitute the ongoing social war of the greater borderlands. Data derived from
state-sponsored investigations, military records, testimonies from a variety legal processes, and the urgent
pleas for government protection documents the social war as constituting and constituted by violent episodes
that were as much discursive events as irregular warfare. The study challenges manichean constructions of
domination and resistance by complicating the rigid boundaries that have been constructed as a 'three
cornered conflict' between Anglos, Indigenous peoples and Mexicanos. Frontier defence as a discourse
formation, revealing both the symbolic and material operations of violence, not only erased the contributions
of Mexicanos and indigenous peoples to frontier settlement but also invites a reinterpretation of capitalist
transformation and state formation as ongoing processes linked to the enduring consequences of violence.
The dissertation concludes that the social war in the US-Mexico borderlands unfolded not only as a struggle
between alienation and accommodation to market, state and cultural forces, but also as a complex and
shifting struggle for dignity.

Calverley, David. (1999) "Who controls the hunt? Ontario's Game Act, the Canadian government and the Ojibwa,
1800-1940." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Ottawa. 460 pp.
In 1892 the Ontario government passed the Ontario Game and Fisheries Act. This legislation, designed to
conserve wildlife throughout the province, was applied to Native peoples residing in Ontario. This led to
conflict between the Ontario government, through its Game Commission, the Dominion government, via
Indian Affairs, and Aboriginal peoples throughout the province. Natives, in this thesis the Ojibwa of the
Robinson Treaties, were and are a federal responsibility under the constitution. Ontario, however, was acting
within its constitutional jurisdiction by regulating a natural resource within its provincial boundaries. The
conflict arose over whether provincial legislation can be applied to an area of federal concern, and contrary
to promises contained within the Robinson Treaties that the Ojibwa could continue to hunt trap and fish as
they had “heretofore been in the habit of doing.” Beyond this constitutional and jurisdictional level, political
concerns also played a part. Indian Affairs' bureaucrats were not completely adverse to regulating Ojibwa
hunting as a means of hastening its own policy of acculturation, and they were unwilling to openly challenge
the Ontario government over Native rights. The Ontario Game Commission, and its later incarnation was
unwilling to compromise its control over wildlife which during the 20th century became an increasingly
important resource. The Ojibwa, politically powerless, lost control of the one resource which they were
guaranteed access to by the Crown during treaty negotiations in 1850: wildlife. Ojibwa arguments for
continued access were founded almost exclusively on the Robinson Treaties, but these were agreements
which neither the Dominion nor the Ontario government were interested in.

Campbell, Dean E. (2000) "A search for justice in First Nations communities: The role of the RCMP and community
policing." M.A. Thesis, Carleton University. 162 pp.
In this thesis, I examine the role that the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) has played and is playing
in the lives of Native peoples in Canada; furthermore, I argue that there is the need to refocus policing
efforts. From its beginnings in 1873, the RCMP has slowly evolved as one of the most important institutions
in the imposition of political destructive processes upon Native peoples. As the RCMP carried out its role, the
wounds it inflicted upon Native peoples ran deep. Today, Native peoples have focused themselves upon self-

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determination as the key to revitalizing their communities. In effect, there has been a call for policing in First
Nations communities to respond more to the needs and aspirations of Native peoples. Within this context, I
argue that the RCMP can best accommodate these efforts by becoming a valued partner through community
policing initiatives.

Campbell, Janis E. (1997 ) "The social and demographic effects of Creek removal, 1832-60." Ph.D. Dissertation,
University of Oklahoma (The). 260 pp.
This analysis will show the social and political aftermath of Creek Indian removal in the early 19th century.
To accomplish this, this study explains specific demographic characteristics both before and after removal.
This analysis examines one specific area of Creek social organization -- names -- both before and after
removal. Additionally, this analysis indicates that there was a decrease in Creek population. However,
among the Upper Creeks, there was a less severe decrease and a significant increase in household size,
suggesting increased fertility, from 1832 to 1857/58. Likewise, there was a larger increase in household size
among Upper Creeks and Muskogee Creeks. This analysis uses Creek personal names to show social
changes during this period. Initially, in both pre- and post-removal periods, Upper Creeks were the most
Muskogean, at least using the criteria in this study. In this analysis Muskogean means a group had a higher
percentage of Muskogee clan, town, or title names. Upper Creeks also had more English names. Not
unexpectedly, Muskogee towns had a higher proportion of Muskogean personal names. Furthermore, both
Upper and Lower Creeks increase in Muskogean names; by 1858/59 Muskogean names were more common
than in 1832. Likewise, there was less variety in 1858/59 than in 1832. There was a significant increase in
the percentage of English names between 1832 and 1858/59. All of this suggests that some Creeks adjusted to
removal better and faster than others. This data suggests two strategies for adaptation to Creek resettlement.
The first strategy was a return to and intensification of Muskogean social patterns as shown by an increase in
Muskogean names, particularly political and social titles. The second strategy was to increase relations with
Americans. Both strategies existed before removal, but after resettlement the patterns intensified. In short,
both conservatism and, possibly, innovation, became more important. The latter route to adaptation among
the Creek is well known, but the former has not been discussed in previous works.

Campbell, Karen A. (1999 ) "Community life and governance: Early experiences of Mnjikaning First Nation with
Casino Rama." M.S.W. Thesis, University of Manitoba (The). 92 pp.
Casino gambling offers large profits to support self-government and economic self-sufficiency for First
Nations communities. Casinos also increase the number of problem gamblers, redistribute money from
families with low and moderate incomes, and exacerbate community divisions and cultural conflicts.
This qualitative study explores the experiences of Mnjikaning (Rama) First Nation, approximately one year
after it opened the largest Native casino in Canada. Primary data are from fifty-three formal interviews,
conducted from July to October 1997, and informal discussions between June 1994 and September 1998. The
report focuses on how the casino affected community life and governance.
Casino development gave Rama increased employment, new buildings and more social and administrative
services. It has also been extremely disruptive, with increased traffic, many more strangers in the community,
and a greater incidence of gambling problems among community members. The casino's considerable
influence over community decisions and priorities has serious implications for future self-government
processes.
There are many lessons to be learned from Rama's experience for other First Nations communities that are
considering casino development. Most important is to make explicit the negative impacts associated with
casino development, and to ensure the community is able to retain a measure of control over the project.

Campbell, Tracy A. (1996 ) "Aboriginal co-management of non-renewable resources on treaty or traditional territory."
M.A. Thesis, University of Calgary. 172 pp.
Co-management has been loosely defined as a transfer of decision-making authority to non-traditional actors
in the process of natural resource management. Most co-management agreements have been developed in the
context of land claim agreements in the territories. Co-management has not been utilized to any great extent
in the provinces. This can be traced to a lack of clarification of rights held by First Nations to land and
resources off-reserve. Nevertheless, co-management terminology and theory are increasingly being cited
outside of land claims, within a provincial resource management context. Co-management is not possible
under present circumstances within the provinces. Without a drastic change in the relationship between First
Nations and the provincial and federal governments, co-management is simply an empty promise. In the
absence of equal rights of participation gained through rights to land off-reserve, co-management cannot be

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realized.

Candler, Craig T. (1999) "Healing and cultural formation in a Bush Cree community." M.A. Thesis, University of
Alberta. 146 pp.
This thesis is based on fieldwork conducted with the Cree and Métis community of Wabasca-Desmarais,
Alberta in 1996 and 1997. By comparing three case studies involving Cree traditionalism, northern industry,
and Pentecostalism, traditional knowledge is explored as a critical resource for the formation of healthy and
effective worldviews within rapidly changing circumstances. This process of cultural formation involves
developing models of the world that are both aesthetically meaningful and pragmatically rewarding within
individual lived contexts. If northern development is to be truly sustainable, we must recognize that industrial
activities have an impact not only upon material resources critical to traditional health and healing (e.g.
plants and animals), but also upon the institutions in which traditional knowledge is encoded and
transmitted. The thesis concludes with a set of recommendations as to how such impacts might be recognized,
reduced, or mitigated in the future.

Caouette, Julie. (2004) ""Don't blame me for what my ancestors did!": Factors associated with the experience of
collective guilt regarding Aboriginal people." M.A. Thesis, McGill University. 133 pp.
Egalitarianism is highly valued in Canada and yet some groups are profoundly disadvantaged. This can be
explained by sociological and psychological theorizing that claims advantaged group members are motivated
to maintain a system of inequality from which they benefit. The challenge is to explain the few advantaged
group members who defy self-interest and support disadvantaged groups. My research objectives were to
understand what motivates selected advantaged group members to support disadvantaged groups, and to
understand how the majority of advantaged group members maintain their belief in egalitarianism in the face
of clear social inequality. Results revealed that most advantaged group members value egalitarianism highly,
but only those who define egalitarianism in terms of social responsibility unequivocally support the interests
of disadvantaged groups. Most advantaged group members conceive egalitarianism in terms of equality of
opportunity, rights or treatment, allowing them to legitimize inequality; consequently, they are less willing to
sympathize with the demands for fair treatment by disadvantaged group.

Caplan, Karen D. (2001) "Local liberalisms: Mexico's indigenous villagers and the state, 1812-57." Ph.D. Dissertation,
Princeton University. 462 pp.
After the collapse of the Spanish Empire, Mexico's indigenous citizens and government representatives were
forced to rethink their relationship and rebuild the bases for state legitimacy. When Spain and then Mexico
adopted liberalism as a guide for establishing new governments, colonial ethnic distinctions were formally
abolished. Nonetheless, governments and indigenous people continued to recognize ethnic distinctions in
both institutions and informal agreements about the legitimacy of government. This study argues that these
arrangements were not simply colonial holdovers but rather unique forms of liberalism, constructed around
both colonial and liberal ideals and institutions.
The dissertation examines local politics in two states with large indigenous majorities -- Oaxaca and
Yucatán. It shows how local institutions of government that took shape between 1812 and 1857 were products
of negotiation between indigenous villagers and state agents. In negotiations over land use, taxation, and the
draft, these parties refashioned colonial assumptions about reciprocity in light of liberal ideas and
institutions. Oaxacans and Yucatecans created very different systems, reflecting economic conditions in each
state. Oaxacans used liberal institutions to reinforce a relationship in which non-indígenas indirectly
exploited indigenous goods and labour in tacit exchange for government protection and advocacy. In
Yucatán, by contrast, non-indígenas increasingly used liberal ideas to justify intrusions on traditional
indigenous prerogatives and to tie indigenous labourers to the production of new commodities, leading to
indigenous insurrection by 1847. After that year, both state governments attempted to transform earlier
political compromises. Oaxaca's government couched its reforms in terms of indigenous integration into a
liberal polity, while Yucatán's sanctioned the explicit subjugation of indìgenas, in part in the service of
liberal economic goals.
Historians have often characterized liberalism as having a predictable and largely destructive impact on
indigenous Mexicans -- or as having little impact at all. This dissertation argues instead that liberal
institutions were subject to local interpretations, whereby the ideas and practices of colonialism and
liberalism combined to produce multiple systems with divergent consequences for indigenous people.
Mexican liberalism was not a monolithic set of institutions with predictable outcomes but rather a collection
of local responses to a common ideological and institutional challenge.

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Caragliano, Maureen O. (1997) "Beyond princess and squaw: Wilma Mankiller and the Cherokee gynocentric
system." M.A. Thesis, San Jose State University. 102 pp.
This thesis takes the reader beyond the historically accepted descriptors of princess and squaw for Native
American women. In popular and scholarly literature, Native American women have been overlooked as
leaders in their own communities and as political activists.
Using the Cherokees as an example, my research shows that before colonization Cherokee women held
positions of power and authority. They had political, social, and economic status in their society. After
colonization, Cherokee women ceased to have a voice in government. The patriarchal nuclear family
replaced the matrilineal clan system, and the home, not the field, became the domain of women.
The election of Wilma Mankiller as the first female principal chief of the Cherokees restored women to their
rightful place in Cherokee society. Her political campaign strategy and her successful leadership of the
second largest Native American tribe in the United States serve as a model for all women.

Carey, Janet M. (2001) "Continuing cultural viability via cultural tourism as an economic survival project for Pueblo
Indian people." Ph.D. Dissertation, Northern Arizona University. 408 pp.
This study increases the knowledge of indigenous peoples' quest to utilize their unique life ways for cultural
survival through cultural tourism in the 21st century. Tourism is the fastest growing international economic
endeavour and this study examines the Pueblo Indian tribes within the tourism industry both domestic and
international.
The political culture within the United State southwestern region where the Pueblo have lived since time
immemorial, became dominated by the Western Europeans beginning 450 years ago with exploration and
colonization by the Spanish in 1540, continuing on through the present time with the introduction of
American territorial government in 1848. In relationship to the Pueblo people the political culture of the
states of Arizona and New Mexico in the year 2001 still reflects political characteristics of those original
Spanish and American governmental agents.
The Pueblo tribes, because of their non-nomadic way of life, have been hosts to guests since their cultural
beginnings. Modern tourism came to Pueblo Indian County with the coming of the railroads in 1880. The
Pueblo were a great attraction for tourists from all over the United States and the world. Tourist operators
brought the tourists "out to the pueblos to see the Indians." The tourists still come to the Pueblo villages, both
ancient and modern, to visit and enjoy Pueblo culture. Today, the Pueblo are entering the tourism industry
for themselves, rather than being the in situ destination provided by others in the tourism industry. The
Pueblo strive for their own successful cultural tourism enterprises for their cultural survival.
The outcome of this study provides prescription for successful Pueblo tourism negotiation and enterprise for
their survival in the 21st century. This study also provides information for reciprocal tourism -- agent and
operator participation -- regarding the survival of the Pueblo culture which could insure a sustainable
Pueblo culture in the American Southwest.

Carisse, Karl. (2000) "Becoming Canadian. Federal-provincial Indian policy and the integration of natives, 1945-69:
The case of Ontario." M.A. Thesis, University of Ottawa. 140 pp.
Since Confederation, the federal government has pursued a policy of assimilation toward Canada's First
Nations. Measures such as the Indian Act, the creation of reserves, and numerous treaties were implemented
to “civilize” natives, dispose of aboriginal land rights, and ultimately integrate natives within Canadian
society. However, by World War II, most federal authorities realized that the government's policy had failed.
Thus, other means were adopted to achieve the goal of assimilation. The new method, first elaborated in the
late 1940s, proposed that the federal government devolve its jurisdiction over First Nations to the provincial
governments so that natives could receive provincial services on the same basis as non-natives and thus be
considered “normal” citizens. Consequently, federal Indian administration, the Indian Act, and the special
status of natives could be abolished since they had received full citizenship with all its benefits and
responsibilities. Throughout the 1950s and 1960s, the federal and provincial governments signed agreements
to arrive at this end with Ontario leading the way. However, in 1969, this method of integration met the same
forsaken fate as its predecessors. This thesis will examine the federal government's integration policy from
1945 to 1969 by focusing, but not limiting itself, to the agreements that were signed between Ontario and
Ottawa regarding the delivery of social services. The study will also look at the native reaction toward this
policy and the rise of opposition which led to its demise.

Carlson, Keith T. (2003) "The power of place, the problem of time: A study of history and aboriginal collective
identity." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of British Columbia (The). 406 pp.

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This dissertation historicizes and explains the tensions that arose between localized and regionally dispersed
expressions of group affiliation and political authority among the indigenous people of the Lower Fraser
River watershed after European contact. It accomplishes this by directly engaging indigenous historiography
and epistemology. The period examined covers the late 18th century, just prior to the first smallpox epidemic,
through to 1906 when a delegation of Salish men met with King Edward in London on behalf of all the native
people of British Columbia. I argue that aboriginal collective identity and political authority are and were
situationally constructed products of complicated negotiations among indigenous people and between natives
and newcomers. Multiple options were always available and the various expressions that shared identity
assumed never were the only ones possible. Consequently, among the local indigenous population, history
has always been regarded as an important arbitrator of identity and disagreements over competing historical
interpretations highly contentious.
To a greater extent than has been appreciated, changes in the way native collective affiliations have been
constituted have been informed by reference to ancient sacred stories and an ongoing process of interpreting
past precedence. They are also intimately linked to migrations. Over time and across geography, different
indigenous people have used these stories to different ends. Gendered and class-based distinctions in the way
these narratives have been applied to either the creation of innovative collective identities or to the defence of
older expressions reveal the tensions within aboriginal society and between natives and newcomers that
arose as indigenous people struggled to make sense of a rapidly changing colonial world. The uncertainty
following pivotal historical events allowed these submerged tensions to assume more public forms. Examined
here are the important identity shaping historical events and migrations that indigenous historiography has
emphasized: Creation, the Great Flood, the 1780 smallpox epidemic, the establishment of local Hudson's Bay
trading posts in 1827 and 1846, the 1858 goldrush, the imposition of colonial reserves, the banning of the
potlatch, the 1884 hostile incursions into Canadian native communities of an American lynch mob, and the
government policy to transform Salish fishermen into western-style farmers. Ultimately, Western ideologies,
colonial authority and global economic forces are considered as forces acting within indigenous society, and
not merely as exogenous powers acting upon it.

Carlstroem, Catherine M. (2001) "Homicidal economics in Mark Twain: Legacies of American theft." Ph.D.
Dissertation, University of California, Santa Cruz. 358 pp.
'Homicidal economics in Mark Twain: Legacies of American theft' examines the roles and representations of
money -- economic valuations, definitions, and transactions -- within the context of two critical economic
events in 19th century America: the culmination and virtual completion of Native Americans' dispossession,
and the existence and abolition of race-slavery. I focus on four of Mark Twain's major works: Roughing it,
The adventures of Tom Sawyer, Life on the Mississippi and Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. My thesis,
greatly simplified, is that Twain's work is profoundly informed by particularly disturbing aspects of the
national economy, the homicidal-economy. His vision of economics is fundamentally, irrevocably altered by
the twin realities of American economics, particularly pointed for a Southerner from Missouri: stolen land
and stolen labour. It thereby encompasses a range of interpenetrating issues: the Civil War, murder,
violence, racial prejudice, theories of racial difference -- the civilized and savage -- supporting economic
exploitation, the authority of law, property rights, theft, and the influence of economic valuation on
humanistic values.
My study necessarily generalizes to adapt to these complexly related parts, using a broad definition of
economic, including economic models of framing an issue -- profit and loss, risk and investment -- even with
no strictly financial subject. Indeed, Twain employs this language regularly to describe interpersonal,
political, and religious interactions. The word money serves as shorthand for several different but closely
related and frequently conflated things: currency, the different species of money like gold and coins, which
are symbols of exchange value; property and wealth, which currency represents; ownership as a concept,
and its logical compliment -- robbery.
The foundation of my method is close-textual analysis, with attention to the historical/cultural context of the
works, and to a lesser extent, its biographical context. Since bonds between the larger US homicidal economy
and economics in Twain's texts are sometimes submerged or overlaid, visible only with dose inspection, I rely
on the emergence and repetition of patterns, and the intersection of these within and among the texts to
reinforce my argument, so that it has a cumulative power beyond the individual interpretations of specific
sections and subjects.

Carr, Gerald L. (2004) "Northern Tutchone (Athabascan) poetics." Ph.D. Dissertation, State University of New York
at Buffalo. 261 pp.

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Storytelling is an art form that has been in rapid decline among Yukon First Nation peoples. However, in the
current political environment, storytelling has been stimulated through language revitalization efforts. In this
context, an ethnopoetic survey was conducted among the Northern Tutchone-speaking people of the Little
Salmon/Carmacks First Nation, located in the central Yukon Territory, Canada. Ethnopoetics entails two
goals: first, the textualization and translation of verbal art and, second, the analysis of its constitution.
Analysis of rhetorical structure here was initiated by defining and demarcating the line. To do this, I have
drawn on conversation analysis, ethnopoetics and other areas of anthropological linguistics that analyze
naturally-occurring language data. In the Northern Tutchone texts, the ends of lines are signalled by a
convergence of features constituted in the fields of morpho-syntax, pragmatics, and prosody. Regarding
levels of organization above the line, it appears unlikely that storytellers follow models or templates
comprised of verses and stanzas, or acts. Instead, building on performance-centred approaches and dialogic
anthropology, I conclude that the deployment of linguistic and social resources by storytellers in the
evocation of structure can be seen as a literary device that creates emergent structures to serve
rhetoric/poetic needs in the moment and context of performance. The use of these resources may or may not
be textualized as higher levels of organization in analysis.
One of the most significant domains of storytelling resources is the evidential system. Defining evidentiality
broadly, as metapragmatic commentary instead of strictly a grammatical feature, can better account for the
assertions storytellers are making about the truthfulness and importance of their stories. When the totality of
evidential reflection is considered, we see a relationship between evidentiality and genre. Since all stories are
'true,' the difference between genres is based on how their truthfulness is established and how confident the
storyteller feels she or he is about relaying the content accurately. Furthermore, this discrimination is not
arbitrary; it patterns along the lines of categories in Dene epistemology.

Carranza-Mena, Douglas G. (2003) "Indigenous communities and the ethnography of governmentality in El


Salvador." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California, Santa Barbara. 340 pp.
In this dissertation, I develop an ethnography of governmentality that addresses the deployment of politics
and imaginings on the mode of governing of Salvadoran state. I consider the ideas and the influence of the
Enlightenment in pre-independence days. I also examine the effects of pastoral power and policing of the
Indigenous population through measures implemented in the realm of education, statistical administration,
and genocide. Moreover, even though it has been said that civil society and the public sphere (in the
traditional sense) did not emerge in Central America until this century, I show the emergence of a different
kind of public space, the process of its construction and its implications for public life since the 19th century.
In addition, I examine the recycling of colonial and modern European techniques of governing in El Salvador
that led to dictatorships and to a special notion of democracy. In particular, I critically examine the
techniques employed by the newly created Salvadoran state and argue that they are a hybrid of earlier
Spanish Colonial measures and modern European methods to assert domination over the indigenous
population. Furthermore, the continuing unfolding of these techniques and the over-exploitation of the
indigenous communities led to an indigenous insurrection in 1932 that has been misrepresented by the
official discourse of the state and has also been discursively appropriated by the left. Both discourses have
created the invisibility of indigenous people in contemporary times and have provoked a theoretical
reinterpretation of the rural aimed at supporting the modernization of the state and the implementation of
capitalism. Finally, I explore the effects of globalization and sustainable development in civil society through
the deployment of contemporary administrative techniques and financial support. Sustainable development
has come to substitute the developmental theories and policies of the 1960s and 1970s. This replacement goes
hand in hand with capitalism and its influence in determining the spaces of struggle.

Carroll, James T. (1997) "Americanization or indoctrination: Catholic Indian boarding schools, 1874-1926." Ph.D.
Dissertation, University of Notre Dame. 319 pp.
This dissertation examines the role of four Catholic Indian boarding schools -- Fort Totten Indian Industrial
School (Devils Lake reservation), Fort Yates Indian Industrial School (Standing Rock reservation), Saint
Francis Mission (Rosebud Reservation), and Holy Rosary Mission (Pine Ridge reservation) -- from the
inauguration of the peace policy (1870) to the start of the Meriam investigation (1926). Particular emphasis
is placed on the unique role that Catholic boarding schools played in the program of Indian assimilation.
Institutionally, Fort Totten and Fort Yates were under the jurisdiction of the Bureau of Indian Affairs and
Saint Francis and Holy Rosary Missions were contract schools under the auspices of the Bureau of Catholic
Indian Missions.
The schools were staffed by religious sisters -- Grey Nuns of Montréal, Benedictine Sisters of Pontifical

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Jurisdiction, and the Sisters of Saint Francis -- who were recent immigrants to the United States. This
immigrant background significantly influenced the program of assimilation that was implemented at the four
schools. The sisters struggled to create a cultural 'middle ground' that fulfilled the mandates of the federal
government, but still allowed some integration of Sioux culture. The Indians, for their part, were strong
supporters of these schools and favoured them over other government and Protestant alternatives.
The overall success of these schools was predicated on prudent leadership and a willingness to search for
creative responses to the cultural challenges that emerged during this 50-year period. As a result, both
Indian student and religious sister struggled to create a 'middle ground' between European and Sioux
cultures; these schools were an important part of frontier Catholicism; and through a process of selective
accommodation the students created a bicultural environment that was tacitly acknowledged by the religious
staff.

Cashin, Jeanne. (2000) "Trauma and multigenerational trauma caused by genocide and oppression: A comparison of
western and Native American healing methods." Ph.D. Dissertation, Union Institute (The). 178 pp.
This dissertation examines trauma and multigenerational trauma that is caused by genocide and oppression.
The specific focus is on oppression and genocidal traumatic effects with a comparison of healing methods
from the dominant western culture and Native American culture. The interpretive material helps to define the
literature from western culture on the nature and effect of trauma on people and groups. The literature
reviewed covers the topics of the psychology of trauma and multigenerational trauma, history of trauma
studies, biological origins of traumatic states, neurobiology, emotional responses, trauma transmission,
healing methods, psychotherapy, body-centred therapy, Hakomi, and EMDR. The comparison information
with Native American healing was conducted in open-ended interviews of nine native people who are
involved with native communities in many areas of helping and healing. The research used was qualitative,
heuristic, and decolonizing, using augmentation from interpretive material from Native Americans. The
results of the interviews were sorted by topics and the depth of information gathered. The themes for
discussion were: Multigenerational and Historical Trauma; Silence and Talking, Coming Together;
Individual Healing; Healing Between Native and White People; Healing as a Tribe; and, Healing Sacred
Sites. The findings from the interviews were augmented by interpretive material from Native American
authors, artists and poets. The research suggests different modes of healing within the two cultures,
specifically in the area of individual healing of western culture compared with group healing of tribes. The
key finding suggests group healing vs. individual healing. Groups appear to be a primary value of native
people while individual healing is a strong focus in western culture. The study implies that healing methods
reflect specific cultural values, norms, cultural beliefs, spiritual beliefs, and predispositions in both cultures.

Cassidy, Barbara E. (2002) "Getting rid of the Indian problem: Aboriginal suicide as a manifestation of genocide."
Ph.D. Dissertation, York University. 267 pp.
This dissertation explores the possible links between aboriginal suicide and genocide. I am not attempting to
prove anything but rather to explore the possibilities that aboriginal suicide is less a health-related problem
and more of a political issue. It is a hypothesis-generating dissertation, not a dissertation designed to result
in a concrete solution.
The introduction states what my goals are in the dissertation by discussing my own personal narrative. I also
provide an alternative definition for 'environment' as being not merely the physical realm but also the mental,
emotional and spiritual realms as well. The methodology chapter discusses the issue of ethics in writing
about such a personal and potentially volatile subject. There is an overview of 'western' suicide theories,
along with some theories which arose from the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples in 1996. I further
discuss the issue of aboriginal identities and how the lack of aboriginal identity due to colonialism
exacerbates aboriginal suicide. Then comes a discussion of environmental racism which deals with
aboriginals connections with the land or, more specifically, the loss of land. I provide an analysis of
'ethnostress', a concept that can be used for either individuals or groups. The first chapter on genocide
focuses on the UN Convention on Genocide, 1948 and how each of the five criteria which constitute
genocide, according to the UN, relates to aboriginal suicide. The second chapter on genocide examines
genocide in Canada itself and the problems which have arisen as a result of Canada's signing the UN
Convention's definition of genocide yet includes only one criterion (the actual killing of a group). In a
dissertation such as this, there can be no clear-cut solutions although I present the notion of self-
determination as being a possible way of ending or modifying aboriginal suicide.

Ceppetelli, Gary E. (1987) "The effect of transportation policies on the socioeconomic viability of remote northern

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Manitoba native communities." M.C.P. Thesis, University of Manitoba (The).

Chanteloup, Francoise N. (2002) "Considering the myth of the drunken Indian." Ph.D. Dissertation, Carleton
University. 179 pp.
This project explores the contribution of myth as a way to expand our current understandings of concepts of
alcohol and alcoholism. The paper considers the relationship between aboriginal peoples and alcohol from
the perspective of myth and explores the existence of fundamental differences between aboriginal and non-
aboriginal concepts of alcohol and uses of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA). Designed for Europeans, Alcoholics
Anonymous has gained currency among many other groups as a viable treatment option. Among aboriginal
peoples, the use of AA continues with significant controversy. The transcripts of the public hearings of the
Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples (1997) were analyzed so as to explore narratives of alcohol. In
particular, the myth of the drunken Indian, generally understood as stereotype, is considered as a story thus
permitting an exploration of the way in which this myth can be thought of as articulating important ethics
inherent in an aboriginal worldview. Three myths were identified. Firstly, it is argued that the drunken Indian
is a part of western society's alcohol mythology. It tells the story of how aboriginal peoples became
alcoholics because of an immoral and lazy disposition. Secondly, the myth of the drunken Indian recounted
by the dominant society is the antithesis of that narrated by members of mainstream Alcoholics Anonymous
about themselves. Specifically, the myth of individualism tells the story of alcoholism, a bodily disease,
resulting from the notion of radical individualism. Thirdly, another fundamentally different myth of the
drunken Indian told by aboriginal peoples about themselves. This myth narrates alcoholism as the result of
'diseased' relations between aboriginal peoples and their historical oppressors. It is within this context that
we might reconcile both acceptance and rejection of a 'drunken Indian' by aboriginal peoples. Alcohol has
been a real part of their experience whether or not there has been involvement with the substance on an
individual level, and is heavily implicated in their relationship with the dominant culture. As such, the
discussion also considers alcohol within the context of symbol and the way in which it encapsulates an entire
history of relations.

———. (1994) "modeling drinking behaviour among aboriginal and non-aboriginal males and females in the Yukon:
An analysis of the Yukon Alcohol and Drug Survey." M.A. Thesis, Carleton University. 236 pp.
Due to the descriptive nature of explanations proposed to account for aboriginal drinking behaviour, this
study examined factors associated with heavy drinking among male and female aboriginal and non-
aboriginal residents of the Yukon.
Arguing that the existence of social control mechanisms, specifically the presence of a stake in conformity,
contribute to drinking behaviours, statistical and hierarchical regressions were performed on drinking, 5+
drinks on any one occasion, the maximum number of drinks on any one occasion, and quantity-frequency.
Hierarchical regressions were performed using the variables indicating stake in conformity in addition to
demographic variables. Stepwise regression was performed for the entire sample also using the variables
indicating stake in conformity as well as gender and ethnicity.
Considering that the study was biased against assessing aboriginal situations, it is striking that the drinking
of aboriginal females was more successfully predicted by the variables than drinking by aboriginal males and
non-aboriginal males and females. Furthermore, the fact that respondent characteristics associated with
heavier drinking are markedly different among aboriginal peoples and on-aboriginals has important
implications for research and policy initiatives.

Chapeskie, Andrew J. (1986) "This land is whose land? Aboriginal territories, aboriginal development and the
Canadian state." M.A. Thesis, Carleton University. 250 pp.
Aboriginal peoples in Canada have not yet been able to alter significantly a pervasive Eurocentrism in the
Canadian legal system to the point where that system would recognize them as distinct peoples with
aspirations to determine the ongoing development of their territories. Given the relatively recent evolution of
collective rights norms in the international legal system and the long tradition of the assertion of the right by
aboriginal peoples to self-determination, it is natural that international fora are being made a focus of
increasing activity by those peoples to achieve recognition of their status as subjects of international law. The
contributions by aboriginal peoples in Canada to the evolution of international human rights concepts have
been notable and any possibility of further long term significance change in the international system will
depend upon their increasing involvement in the process.

Chartrand, Larry N. (2001) "The political dimension of aboriginal rights." LL.M. Thesis, Queen's University at

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Kingston. 124 pp.
This thesis critically examines the Supreme Court of Canada's interpretation of s. 35 of the Constitution Act,
1982. In particular, the author examines the Court's legal tests for interpreting the meaning of 'aboriginal
rights.' The author focuses his critique on the Court's inability to understand that each aboriginal right
claimed includes a jurisdictional quality (political dimension). This is true not only for claims that on their
surface involve a jurisdictional element such as an aboriginal right to control gaming, but is also true for all
aboriginal claims including claims for hunting moose.
This jurisdictional quality is present in all aboriginal rights claims because of the collective nature of the
right employed by the community as a whole. Any right possessed by a collective must by its very nature
include an authority to control the exercise by the collective of how the right will be managed. Otherwise, the
right would no longer be considered collective in nature. The author criticizes the Court's failure to
understand the collective nature of Aboriginal rights and the implications of recognizing such rights.
In addition, the author makes the argument that the courts have exceeded their jurisdiction when they apply
the “justification test” formulated by Sparrow to the context of a recognized aboriginal right. Once an
aboriginal right is recognized as being possessed by an aboriginal collective (political society) under s. 35 of
the Constitution, the courts are no longer free to interfere in how conflicts between the exercise of the right,
including the jurisdictional aspect of the right, and federal or provincial government's interests are
accommodated. This is son because the Québec Reference case has held that when two equal constitutional
powers possessed by independent political authorities come into conflict, the matter is a political matter
requiring good faith negotiations. The courts are ill-equipped and do not have authority to interfere in the
resolution of disputes of such a nature. Likewise, the same power relationship exists between an aboriginal
authority exercising power under s. 35 and the federal or provincial governments exercising authority under
s. 91 and s. 92 of the Constitution. Consequently, the Sparrow justification test which allows for one party to
infringe a right as between two equal but conflicting constitutional authorities is inconsistent with the
principles set out in the Québec Reference case. The author concludes that the same result should apply to
the aboriginal context as well as the Québec secession context.

Chen, Xiaojin. (2003) "Life stressors, anger and internalization, and substance abuse among American Indian
adolescents in the Midwest: An empirical test of general strain theory." Ph.D. Dissertation, Iowa State
University. 133 pp.
Agnew's general strain theory (1985, 1989, 1992) has been tested several times since its development in the
last decade. This theory, however, has seldom been applied to minority groups, such as American Indian
population. Using a sample of 212 American Indian 5th to 8th grade adolescents, this analysis tests general
strain theory by tracing the linkage among the measures of perceived discrimination, negative life events,
family conflict, anger and internalization, and early onset of substance abuse. Mediating effects of anger and
internalization were investigated using structural equation models. In addition, the strength of the stressor-
substance abuse relationship was examined across groups with different levels of personal/social resources.
High prevalence of substance abuse and life stressors, such as negative life events and perceived
discrimination were found among these American Indian adolescents. Multiple indicators of life stressors
were found to have positive effects on early onset of substance abuse directly and indirectly through self-
reported anger. Specifically, effects of inconsistent parenting on adolescents' substance abuse were
completely mediated through reports of anger. Negative life events directly affected substance abuse and had
indirect effects on substance abuse through anger. Perceived discrimination led to negative affects such as
internalization symptoms, but did not have significant effects on substance abuse. This study confirmed the
mediating role of anger linking stressors and substance abuse; however, no mediating role of internalization
was found. Furthermore, there was evidence that the strength of the anger-substance abuse relationship
varied across groups with different levels of social/personal resources. With increasing levels of anger,
adolescents with high self-esteem, negative attitudes toward deviance, and low levels of association with
deviant peers were less likely to engage in substance abuse, compared with those with low level of self-
esteem, positive attitudes toward deviance, and high levels of association with deviant peers. The relationship
of life stressors and negative emotion (anger and internalization) was not moderated by social and personal
resource variables. This study provided strong support to general strain theory and broadened its empirical
generality to American Indian adolescents.

Chen, Yi-fong. (1998) "Indigenous rights movements, land conflicts, and cultural politics in Taiwan: A case study of
Li-shan." Ph.D. Dissertation, Louisiana State University (The). 273 pp.
Land rights claims remain the major focus of world indigenous movements. Lands relate to the formation of

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indigenous identity, religious practices, and the material base for indigenous cultural survival. From a
spatial/geographical perspective, this dissertation explores the influences of Taiwan's state policies on
indigenous peoples, their cultures, identities, and human-land relationship. The Li-shan area, in central
Taiwan, is the focus of the research due to the fact that the most severe land disputes are in this area, as well
as longest history of economic interactions among indigenous peoples, the dominant Han people, and the
State, in the postwar Taiwan.
The rise of indigenous movements in the mid-1980s in Taiwan indicated that the indigenous peoples remain
the victims of colonialism. Appreciating this fact, the movements made demands against the State in
struggling for 'ethnic space.' Although the movements drew significant concessions from the State, the
majority Han people systematically fought back with appeals which deny the existence of any indigenous
peoples in current Taiwan and requested the abolishment of Aboriginal Reservation Lands.
Political economy, new cultural geography, and post-colonial theories provide the major theoretical
framework for this study. The perpetual uneven ethnic power relationships between the dominant Han people
and the dominated indigenous peoples are examined from the critical perspective of political economy. The
new cultural geography offers the theoretical backgrounds for discussing cultural and identity politics, and
multiculturalism. Post-colonial theories are especially helpful in explaining the social construction of a new
indigenous/Taiwanese culture through the combination of the colonizing and the colonized cultures, as well
as in deconstructing mainstream social values, and in illustrating the geography of resistance.
Finally, I wish to summarize the impacts of indigenous movements on three aspects of mainstream culture.
First, indigenous movements shatter the mainstream definition of social justice and question the superficial
multiculturalism. Second, the indigenous claim of 'natural sovereignty' challenges the ideological myth
enshrined by modern nation-states. Third, indigenous ecological wisdom injects a new and different ethic
between society and nature. The formation of respect of the indigenous 'situated' knowledge through an
appropriate application in eco-tourism will uphold the improvement of ethnic relations.

Chenault, Venida S. (2004) "Violence and abuse against indigenous women." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Kansas
(The). 175 pp.
Numerous studies have documented widespread and disproportionate levels of violence and abuse against
Indigenous women. In spite of the troubling statistics that have been reported in national studies, little is
known about best practices with this under served population in the social work discipline.
This study explores the phenomenon of violence and abuse against Indigenous women using a culturally-
based empowerment framework. Two primary research questions were considered in this study. What is the
lifetime prevalence and incidence of violence and abuse in a college sample of tribal women? The second
question considered in this study was whether significant group differences on four variables associated with
empowerment (self-esteem, sense of belonging, social support and social action) existed between First
Nations college women who had experienced violence and abuse and those who had not.
Data was collected and analyzed (n = 112) using univariate, bivariate and multivariate analysis. The
overwhelming majority of the sample (86%) reported violence and abuse. The most common form of abuse
was emotional abuse (76%) followed by physical victimization (66%), sexual victimization (36%), being
threatened (28%) and being stalked (27%).
Initial analysis reported no significant differences between groups on the dependent variables. Follow-up
analysis reported lower self-esteem scores for those who had experienced violence and abuse in adolescence
and as an adult. Higher self-esteem, social support and social action scores were reported for those raised on
reservations, tribal lands, pueblos and villages.
The majority of the sample (66%) had never reported the incident to the police or talked to a professional
(64%). Slightly over one-half reported talking to a trusted friend or relative (53%) or using a traditional
healer or ceremony (54%) to overcome the incident. Those who had been threatened, stalked or physically
victimized were more likely to report the incident to police. Those who were sexually victimized were more
likely to talk to a trusted friend or relative. Those who had been threatened and sexually victimized were
more likely to talk to a professional and to use a traditional healer or ceremony.

Cheng-Levine, Jia-Yi. (1997) "Neo-colonialism, post-colonial ecology, and ecofeminism in the works of Native
American, Chicano/a, and international writers." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania. 280 pp.
The mind/body, man/woman, culture/nature dichotomies dominant in Western ideologies have subordinated
women, nature, and minority groups and subjected them to exploitation and oppression. In this study, I
examine how Western civilization has affected the environment and, at the same time, degraded the status of
women since the time of imperialist expansion due to the Western patriarchal traditions and colonial

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legacies. My thesis centres on the relationships between environmental racism, gender-biased colonial
ideology, and ecological imbalance. I historicize such concepts as nature, development, science, and
technology from the 16th century European colonial expansion to the modern neo-colonial stage of
'maldevelopment', as Vandana Shiva terms it. Influenced by Edward Said's theory of 'contrapuntal reading', I
stress the significance of juxtaposing both canonical and non-canonical literary works. The centre chapters,
for instance, focus on writers such as Leslie Silko, Joy Harjo, Pat Mora, and Ana Castillo, in order to
contrast their representations of the land and culture to the dominant European tradition. I also develop the
definition of multi-culturalism beyond US borders and discuss such writers as Mahasweta Devi and J.M.
Coetzee of India and South Africa. Women as subject and its heterogeneity are my focus. I employ Gayatri
Spivak's theory of the subaltern to support my argument that decolonization, accompanied by the growth of
multi-national capitalism, brings more destruction to the land and women than the previous colonial stage. I
conclude with Amilcar Cabral's theory on national culture; Cabral's theory insists that a nation will not
achieve a total economic and political independence unless its mode of production is in harmony with the
land. The purpose of this dissertation is to help develop the common ground between ecology, literary theory,
and literature.

Cheng, Sheng Yao. (2004) "The politics of identity and schooling: A comparative case study of American Indians and
Taiwan Aborigines." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles. 165 pp.
The purpose of this research is to figure out the interaction among indigenous identity, educational
experience, and career aspiration under the context of American Indians and Taiwan Aborigines. Three
major research questions of this study are the followings: (1) Which factors will influence the formation of
Native students' Indigenous identities? (2) What is the relationship between Indigenous identity and native
student's educational experiences? (3) How do Indigenous identities and educational experiences influence
Native students' educational aspiration and cultural aspiration? To interpret these questions, I conducted two
field studies which are one in Taipei and the other in Los Angeles. After three month's classroom
observations and in-depth interviews, I discover that indigenous identities are highly interrelated with their
indigenous blood heritage, tribal language usage at home, traditional ceremony participation,
reservations/tribes visit regularly, and parent's connection with their tribes. Indigenous students who possess
higher Indigenous identities tend to criticize the unbalance of race and ethnicity in the curriculum, pedagogy,
peers interaction, and educational policies which they face in schools every day. In contrast, those students
who keep weaker indigenous identity might feel satisfied with the mainstream curriculum design.
Furthermore, native students who maintain stronger tribal identities like to do something for their tribes and
hope to go back to live in their tribes in the future, but those who just grasp mainstream cultural identities
may not think about doing anything for their tribes. To compare the identity issue between Taiwan and the
United States, the study shows that American Indians live in a more multicultural society than Taiwan
Aborigines so the students don't feel the same degree of stereotype or racial discrimination from their
teachers and peers like Taiwan Aborigines. However, the educational policies for Taiwan Aborigines could
help more indigenous students to go to better schools than those in the United States. Even so, the extra score
policy for Taiwan Aboriginal students also cause some problems between indigenous students and their non-
Taiwan Aboriginal students. Moreover, due to geography, Taiwan Aboriginal students have more
opportunities to visit their tribes, join their traditional ceremonies, and their parents' strong tribal
connection, and urban Taiwan Aboriginal students seem to possess stronger tribal/indigenous identities than
urban American Indian students.

Chilton, Mariana M. (2000) "An ethics of care: Politics and religion in American Indian health." Ph.D. Dissertation,
University of Pennsylvania. 375 pp.
Southern Cheyenne ethics of care, based on notions of humility, social connectedness and active
participation, are almost diametrically opposed to the values of contemporary biomedicine and to the
practice of ethnography. For this reason, many American Indian illness experiences are ignored in the
ethnographic record, and American Indian encounters with biomedical health care systems are often
uncomfortable, ineffective and unjust.
Discourse analysis and experience-centred theories, coupled with four years of ethnographic field research,
bring to light how caring ethics are idealized and practiced in ceremonial healing and everyday life among
Southern Plains Indians in Oklahoma. These caring ethics are viewed in historical context and are
juxtaposed with the coercive rhetoric of care used by the U.S. government and the biomedical system that
define, distance and remove themselves from socially responsible action. A case study of a Cheyenne man's
struggle to survive cancer using traditional ceremonial and hybrid healing practices as well as American

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biomedicine demonstrates how caring ethics are enacted and experienced. In the illness experience, ethics of
care as defined in American Indian life, in medical and governmental systems, and in ethnographic study are
impossible to unravel and disconnect. Instead, these various ethical systems conflate, conflict and
complement each other in the individual and community's attempts to overcome sickness and in the attempt to
portray these experiences in ethnography.
By adapting professional approaches to incorporate compassion and spirituality, the practice of medicine
would improve clinical outcomes and the illness experiences of patients. Similarly, in ethnography, a more
intimate approach to the study of religions and healing experiences would enhance ethnographic theory and
refine its applications while not losing site of its ethical responsibility to those they study.

Chirinos, Sally E. (1991 ) "Cultural restructuring among the Lakota: A case study in forced acculturation and human
adaptation." M.A. Thesis, University of Texas at Arlington (The). 121 pp.
During the mid- to latter the nineteenth century, one indigenous group of the Great Plains, known as the
Lakota, saw their world rapidly deteriorate and disintegrate, leading to a severe dysfunctional state. The
culture did not die however, and began to "mend the broken hoop," via several adaptive strategies including
renewal and revival, reformulation, and Pan-Indian solidarity. Contemporary Lakota are becoming a
respected sociopolitical force, utilizing legal and political means to obtain desired goals. This thesis is an
overview and assessment of a contemporary case of acculturation, and of the coping mechanisms human
beings use to survive.

Chowdhury, Md. Khairul Islam. (2002) "Articulation and dynamics of 'Jumma nationalism': The case of the
Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh." M.A. Thesis, Dalhousie University. 178 pp.
This thesis analyses the process of identity formation known as 'Jumma nationalism' in the Chittagong Hill
Tracts of Bangladesh. Following Stuart Hall, I argue that 'Jumma identity' and the political movement
concerning it are the products of cultural and political work of articulation. My analysis is grounded in
theories of nationalism and ethnonationalism, and I argue that the emergence of an educated middle class in
the CHT and ethnicization of the political system played determinant roles in the development of 'Jumma
nationalism.' Specifically, the nationalist movement in the CHT developed out of struggles with
Bangali/Bangladeshi nationalism; however, it was generally informed by the anti-colonialist and
postcolonialist nationalism of South Asia and other parts of the world. Regarding the phenomena of
ethnonationalism, the case of Jumma nationalism is located at one end of the spectrum, as it is not based on
religious, ethnic or linguistic criteria. Nevertheless, the case found in the Chittagong Hill Tracts is an
example of how far construction of group identities can go.

Christen, Kimberly. (2004) "Properly Warumungu: Indigenous future-making in a remote Australian town." Ph.D.
Dissertation, University of California, Santa Cruz. 384 pp.
This dissertation examines cultural preservation and innovation in practice. Based on fieldwork in Tennant
Creek, Northern Territory, Australia, I explore one community's entanglements with national land rights
legislation, transnational interests in mining, and shifts in cultural tourism. In this network of sometimes-
unlikely partners, I trace the emergence of coexisting forms of aboriginality-through material objects,
cultural performances, and unexpected alliances. Within these collaborations -- old and new -- the
Warumungu sense of "properness" recasts contested sets of actions and events that align with -- but don't
necessarily recreate -- an ideal notion of the past. New partnerships and mutually beneficial projects,
although not devoid of power imbalances, are a necessary part of the community's future. Each chapter
confronts the web of issues involved in these future-making activities: refraining performance as part of
commercial ventures, creating new cultural products, rearticulating generational and land-based
relationships, effectively engaging with consultants to display Warumungu culture, and re-narrating painful
as well as joyous pasts for commercial benefit. These local concerns intersect with and redefine global
indigenous debates over commercial land use, cultural reproduction, intellectual property rights, and non-
Aboriginal access to Aboriginal cultural knowledge.

Christensen, Michelle L. (1999) "The role of ethnic identity and family support in the psychological well-being of
American Indian elders: A comparison of men and women in reservation and urban settings." Ph.D.
Dissertation, Loyola University of Chicago. 122 pp.
In the current study, the role that ethnic identity and family relationships played in the psychological well-
being of older American Indian people was explored. The relative importance of these two variables for men
and women and for reservation and urban residents was also investigated. 96 American Indian people over

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the age of 55 who were living on one of three Midwestern reservations or in one of two Midwestern cities
were included in the study. A strong family support system was related to fewer symptoms of depression,
anxiety, and psychosomatic complaints for all study participants. There was no greater relationship between
family support and psychological well-being for men or women nor for reservation or urban residents.
Reservation residents did, however, report stronger ties with their families whereas urban men appeared to
have the least connection with their families. Ethnic identity was not significantly related to any measures of
psychological well-being in the current study. However, urban residents reported a stronger sense of ethnic
identity than did reservation residents. The ways in which the findings of the current study converge with and
diverge from the extant literature are discussed.

Christensen, Roger B. (1999) "Risk factors in adolescent problem behaviours among native and non-Native
Americans." Ph.D. Dissertation, Utah State University. 106 pp.
The high incidence of adolescent problem behaviours in the United States raises major concerns. These
problem behaviours include: sexually transmitted diseases, unintended pregnancies, suicide, depression,
substance abuse, crime against persons and property, and delinquency. Consequently, there continues to be a
high level of concern and interest in different ethnic populations of adolescents and their level of risk.
This study evaluated the following problem behaviours: substance abuse, suicide, delinquency, and sexual
intercourse; and the risk factors that increase the probability of these problem behaviours occurring.
Specifically, the study identified the profiles of the population in relationship to the problem behaviours
comparing native and non-Native American adolescents. This study also described how both samples of high
school students reported the connectedness of school, home, and community with their perceived feelings of
belongingness and safety, in addition to their reports of problem behaviour. The prevalences of problem
behaviours in native and non-Native American adolescents were compared, the differences in the importance
of risk factors related to problem behaviours in the two groups were examined, and the extent to which the
risks and protective factors predict problem behaviours in native and non-Native American adolescents also
was assessed.
In comparing problem behaviours between native and non-Native American adolescents, there were
significantly higher incidences of problem behaviours in the Native American sample. Statistical analyses
demonstrated that problem behaviours were not consistently predicted by the risk and protective factors for
the Native American females, but they were predictable for the non-Native American female sample. The risk
factors explained less of the variation in problem behaviour for the males than for the females from both
samples. The risk factors explained less variation in problem behaviours for Native American males than
their non-Native American counterparts.
This research demonstrates the need to develop models to better understand cultural influences on
adolescents in order to improve the intervention and prevention techniques necessary to reduce the number
of youth at risk. There is a particular need to better identify the risk factors of importance to Native
Americans.

Chupik-Hall, Jessa. (2001) ""Good families do not just happen": Indigenous people and child welfare services in
Canada, 1950-65." M.A. Thesis, Trent University. 108 pp.
A disproportionate number of indigenous children in Canada were removed from their families into the child
welfare system beginning in the 1960s, a total consistently higher than that of the non-aboriginal child
population. The reason behind these numerous removals has been attributed previously to jurisdictional
disputes between the federal and provincial governments, cultural misunderstandings, and colonialism. This
thesis explores the impact of the early child welfare services provided by the Indian Affairs Branch from 1950
to 1965 upon the subsequent extension of provincial child welfare services to aboriginal communities. The
Branch provided only minimal preventive child welfare services and used an equality rhetoric which justified
the removal of children. The Branch in essence instructed and encouraged mainstream providers to treat
everyone the same. This thesis demonstrates that these were the two key factors which influenced a policy
that encouraged the removal of a disproportionate number of aboriginal children.

Churchill, Elizabeth. (2000) "Tsuu T'ina: A history of a First Nation's community, 1890-1940." Ph.D. Dissertation,
University of Calgary. 584 pp.
Contemporary First Nations' historiography in Canada emphasizes an 'agential' approach in which native
individuals are seen to resist the imposition of European hegemony. Framed within a narrow Marxist-
inspired context of reproduction and resistance, such studies reveal a paucity of social theory in which
agency and structure are treated as dichotomous factors in history. The agency/structure dichotomy,

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however, is very often equated with the opposition between tradition and modernization. The central
difficulty from a theoretical perspective is that these types of formulations leave the historian unable to
conceptualize change and modernization in native cultures through time.
This study, in contrast, presents a revised conceptual framework for the historical development of the Tsuu
T'ina reserve community near Calgary, Alberta. It is intended as a critique of cultural-based perspectives and
economic reductionism. The issue of community identity is not treated as a 'given' but rather as a problem to
be addressed in analysis. Using the structural history approach of Marshall Sahlins, the analysis focuses on
the dialectical relationship between external forces of change and internal factors within Tsuu T'ina reserve
society which resulted in new forms of community solidarity and identity.
The formation of the Tsuu T'ina reserve community is traced in relation to three generations of individuals
between 1890 and 1940. The generational approach provides a means to compare transformations in
religious, political, economic and social dimensions of Tsuu T'ina culture for the time period selected.

Ciborski, Sara. (1990) "Culture and power: The emergence and politics of Akwesasne Mohawk traditionalism." Ph.D.
Dissertation, State University of New York at Albany. 285 pp.
The author offers an interpretive study of efforts by Mohawk (Iroquois) traditionalists to build cultural and
political awareness at Akwesasne, an Indian community located on the US-Canada border. Conceptions that
Mohawks have about Iroquois culture, a specific history of relations with the dominant society, and the
continuing struggle to solve serious social and economic problems in the community -- are all important
contributing conditions to Akwesasne Mohawk traditionalism.
The study is framed by two narratives that raise issues of representation and ethics in the field of Indian-
scholar relations: a narration of the evolution of the author's understanding of traditionalists' efforts, and a
narration of a conflict between some Iroquois traditionalists and a number of prominent scholars in the field
of Iroquoian studies. Traditionalists are defined as those Iroquois people who choose to represent Iroquois
culture and society to both the Indian and non-Indian public. Traditionalist strategies that are considered
include: public elaboration of Iroquois conceptions of culture, tradition, history in journals, media,
conferences, and international forums; leadership in debates internal to the community on culture, identity,
and sovereignty; confrontation of social problems like casino gambling and inadequate education through a
discourse on culture, sovereignty, and community well-being; construction of a sense of mission and cultural
identity through intercultural encounters with non-Indian social activists; contesting of the authority of non-
Indian scholars to define Iroquois culture and write Iroquois history.
The author argues that the cultural expressions and national aspirations of Akwesasne Mohawk
traditionalists are a form of cultural nationalism, insofar as they are responses to the experience of internal
colonialism, a structural relationship to the dominant society suffered by other US racial minorities.

Coffin, Michelle. (2003) "United they stood, divided they didn't fall: Culture and politics in Mi'kmaq Nova Scotia,
1969-88." M.A. Thesis, Saint Mary's University. 188 pp.
The structure and membership of First Nations political organizations can reveal much about the culture of
an aboriginal society. This thesis is an examination of the cultural experiences found within the political
organization of the Mi'kmaq of Nova Scotia between 1969 and 1988. The analysis demonstrates that within
the political realm, the Mi'kmaq of Nova Scotia displayed distinctions with respect to the values placed on
particular aspects of their culture.
The Union of Nova Scotia Indians was established in 1969 to politically represent the Nova Scotia Mi'kmaq
population. By the mid-1970s, however, tensions and divisions were evident that eventually resulted in the
formation of the Confederacy of Mainland Micmacs in 1986. The result was a divided Mi'kmaq political
landscape in Nova Scotia along a geographical boundary -- Cape Breton and mainland Nova Scotia -- with
each organization representing a segment of the provincial population and attempting to control as much of
the sociopolitical space as possible.
The thesis argues that although cultural differences were not solely responsible for the splintering of the first
provincial organization in Nova Scotia, the cultural value placed on language, religion, politics and
economic factors varied between the two organizations.

Cohen, Benita E. (1994) "The development of health services in Peguis First Nation: A descriptive case study." M.Sc.
Thesis, University of Manitoba (The). 286 pp.
This study -- a combination of a history, contemporary case study, and ethnography -- describes the
development of community health services in Manitoba's largest reserve, Peguis First Nation, located
approximately 170 kilometres north of Winnipeg. Using documentation (both contemporary and archival),

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participant observation, and key informant interviews, the development of health services in Peguis is
explored within the context of the overall development of the community as a whole, and within the context of
the major stages of federal Aboriginal health policy and health services delivery in Canada over the past
century. Beginning with the relocation of the reserve to its present site, the study traces health care in Peguis
from the late 1800s to the summer of 1993. The period before 1980 was characterized by the loss of the
traditional medical system in Peguis, and increasing government hegemony over medical services --
coinciding with a period of social and economic underdevelopment of the community. By contrast, the past
15 years have been characterized by relatively rapid community development due to increased political
organization and a determination to achieve local autonomy. It is within this context that control over health
care has begun to shift back to the community -- beginning with local administration of its Health Centre in
1980 and then, in 1991, the signing of a Health Transfer Agreement with the federal government. Peguis'
experience with Health Transfer is examined in detail. However, it is noted that two of the most innovative
examples of health programming in Peguis have occurred outside the mandate of the Health Transfer
initiative -- the Peguis Mental Health Program and the Traditional Program.

Cole, Donald C. (1981) "An ethnohistory of the Chiricahua Apache Indian reservation, 1872-76." Ph.D. Dissertation,
University of New Mexico (The). 397 pp.
It is the purpose of this paper to explore the interaction of Chiricahua Apache Indian culture and Chiricahua
history. The focal point of this paper is the period 1872-77 when a Chiricahua reservation existed. The scope
of the paper touches the extreme ranges of earliest Chiricahua mythic history and the current reality of
Chiricahua experience. Concentrated study has been made of aspects of Chiricahua culture which served to
bring the people to the reservation and later to drive them from it.
Detailed description has been made of Chiricahua cosmology and the relationships of philosophy to the
maiden's puberty ceremony and boy's war novice complex, both of which required raiding and war for their
fullest expression. Other pertinent aspects of Chiricahua culture, particularly equality of sex role
differentiation, democratic and equalitarian leadership patterns, and influence of age and power in the
society, are explored.
From the earliest mythic times, Chiricahua Apache culture emphasized a universe filled with contending
powers in conflict. To meet this challenge, the society developed a warrior society which came into conflict
with neighbouring Indian groups and European settlers in the Southwest. After centuries of conflict with the
Spanish and Mexicans, the Chiricahuas welcomed Americans into their homeland. Within a generation, the
Americans had also become enemies due to scalp-hunting, mining, and expropriation of lands used by
Chiricahuas as agricultural plots.
During the 1860s, the Chiricahuas were at war with or raiding nearly every other group of people in
Arizona, New Mexico, Chihuahua, and Sonora. By 1869 the people's foes in Mexico had formed alliances of
Yaquis, Tarahumaras, Opatas, Pimas, and Mexican soldiery against them. This alliance temporarily drove
the Chiricahuas from the Sierra Madres into the United States. American generals were at the same time
mounting major offensives in Apacheria and the Chiricahuas were forced to seek peace.
Cochise made a number of contacts with United States officials beginning in 1869 which resulted in the
Cochise-Howard agreement of 1872. This established the Chiricahua Apache Indian Reservation with
Thomas Jeffords becoming the Chiricahuas' agent. The people remained armed and free from military
control. The reservation was beset by periodic troubles during its four years of operation. Records of the
Bureau of Indian Affairs disclose that Jeffords suffered yearly problems with budget and supplies. In spite of
the agent's attempts to solve these problems, they were beyond his ability to do so. Bureau officials never
clearly grasped the difficulty and expense of providing subsistence and self-sufficiency to the Apaches of
Arizona. As soon as war was over, they attempted to cut costs, consolidate reservations, and force Apaches
into preconceived patterns of desirable economic and social activity.
For their part, Chiricahuas were unwilling to give up the lavish distribution of goods attendant to the
maiden's ceremony or the violence of the war novice complex. In order to fulfil these requirements, the
Chiricahuas continued to raid in Sonora. Attempts to suppress raiding from the reservation failed.
Alternatives such as limited gold mining by Apaches and conversion of the agent's personal resources into
annuities for ceremonials also failed.
After the death of Cochise in 1874, the situation on the reservation deteriorated. Chiricahuas split into
factions and raiding into Mexico increased. As the result of diplomatic pressure from Mexico and in
accordance with policies of consolidation, the government ended the reservation and transferred the
Chiricahuas to San Carlos. The majority of them fled into the mountains or to Mexico and ten years of
renewed warfare resulted.

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Cole, Peter J. (2000) "First Peoples' knowings as legitimate discourse in education: Coming home to the village."
Ph.D. Dissertation, Simon Fraser University. 329 pp.
This dissertation presents a mutual intercultural conversation about ethics, experience and education, whose
purpose is to share with the academy indigenous epistemologies and methodologies which have existed for
millennia and which, rhizomatically, are in continuous creation and evolution. In this text, indigenous
knowings are not, and never were, alter/native or marginal. As a means of demonstrating this
epistemological standpoint, rather than building on Western ways of taking up histories and theories of
“education”, this research makes central the knowings of its key participants: First Peoples in British
Columbia, as well as Mäori, Koori, Mayan, Kenyan, Malawian, Anishinaabek, and Haudenosaunee.
Drawing upon interviews with Aboriginal people, both university- and non-university-based, as well as on
the published work of indigenous scholars, on a set of conferences concerned with First Peoples and
education, and drawing no less on fiction, poetry, and the measured silences traditional scholarly text finds
itself incapable of representing, this study interrogates from an indigenous standpoint the ethics of research
especially the right of western academics to know “other” cultures by means of what are universally
accepted within the academy as “legitimate” and “ethically approved” research practices. It takes up the
thorny question of what “curriculum” has meant and might mean, and it adds to and enriches an
understanding of how “knowledge” has been understood and acted upon in Aboriginal communities and
contexts concerned with the “upbringing” of children and youth.
Employing a series of conversations in which indigenous epistemologies are foregrounded, the text itself is
composed of poetic, dramatic, and storytelling voices, a rhetorical strategy intended better to reflect the
orality of my own First Nations culture (In-SHUCK-ch/N'Quat'qua Nation of British Columbia) and the
primarily oral cultures of my co-participants. An extended metaphor -- that of a canoe journey -- draws
together these various conversations in a manner that resists the narrative conventions of beginning, middle,
and end. Rather, the text seeks to represent through this literary device, knowledge understood and enacted
as a continuous engagement in storytelling, in conversation. These literary 'tactics' rhetorically accomplish,
then, a significant decolonization, separating Aboriginal being, language and knowing from the violence
wrought upon them by English grammar, syntax, spelling, and other never merely linguistic conventions
which have silenced and absented from serious scholarly attention, indigenous ways of understanding what
'education' was, is, and might yet become for People of the First Nations.
Forcing indigenous people to articulate and understand their educational experiences exclusively in the ways
and means of western academic discourse, it is here argued, constitutes both epistemological racism and
cultural genocide. In resisting any such imperative, trickster discourse, narrative chance and pleasurable
misreadings in this dissertation gesture toward a postpositivist and anti-colonial isomorphing of stories and
epistemologies from indigenous languages into English and back. Indeed, the first and last words of this
dissertation are in my own language, Tl'atl'imx, as a means of imposing a symbolic counter-forcing which
compels listening rather than speaking, and which instantiates however briefly for academic readers a
position of incomprehension, one which, in relation to the education of First Nations Peoples, is long
overdue.

Confer, Clarissa W. (1997) "Turmoil in Indian country: The Civil War experience of the Five Nations." Ph.D.
Dissertation, Pennsylvania State University (The). 242 pp.
Native Americans in Indian Territory experienced the Civil War in a unique way due to their position as
autonomous nations within the United States. The Creek, Cherokee, Choctaw, Chickasaw, and Seminole
nations acted as sovereign entities when forming alliances with the Confederacy. They negotiated treaties
which offered more favourable terms of protection, economic advantages, and political participation than
any previous agreements. However, three of the nations could maintain neither their unity nor their
allegiance to the Confederacy, and the Five Nations became badly divided over the course of the war.
The Cherokee, Creek, and Seminole tribes had a legacy of internal division and factionalization stemming
from the removal crisis in the 1830s. Creeks and Seminoles opposed to the Confederate alliance made by
their nation fled the territory in 1861. They survived a miserable existence in temporary refugee camps in
Kansas for much of the war. The Cherokee faction loyal to Chief John Ross also rejected the Confederate
alliance and joined the Union cause. For the remainder of the war, the Cherokee Nation had northern and
southern governments, under the leadership of Ross and Stand Watie respectively.
The four years of the Civil War proved disastrous for the residents of northern Indian Territory. Both Union
and Confederate armies, as well as guerrilla raiders and bushwhackers, rampaged through the region. While
Indian men served in the Union and Confederate armies, women and children had to survive on their own.
Thousands of families fled their homes, living as refugees in Kansas or the Red River region near Texas. The

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Choctaws and Chickasaws remained true to the Confederate cause, but also suffered the ravages of war and
the pressures of hosting refugee populations.
By 1865, farms were abandoned, homes burned, schools and churches closed, and governments
dysfunctional. Thousands of men had died in the war, and tens of thousands of people were homeless. Then in
1866, the federal government further weakened Indian sovereignty under the terms of harsh new treaties. The
experience of the Civil War forced the Five Nations toward the complete loss of autonomy which came with
Oklahoma statehood.
This study blends the techniques of ethnohistory and social history to present an account that places
American Indians within the context of Civil War history while emphasizing their unique experiences. It
incorporates both native and non-native by utilizing oral history, memoirs, letters, government
correspondence, and military reports. The study draws on both scholarship relating to native people as
autonomous participants and from recent work in military history. It advances the literature of Civil War
history and American Indian studies, and reflects the recent trends in each discipline. An awareness of the
position of America's indigenous people in the most critical test the United States has faced will further
scholars' understanding of this crucial period.

Colin, Jennifer. (2004) "Profile of a suicide attempter in the Sioux Lookout District." M.Sc. Thesis, University of
Manitoba (The). 95 pp.
Many First Nations communities in the Sioux Lookout District have been experiencing a high rate of
completed and attempted suicide over the last decade. The objective of the present study is to identify and
profile the demographic features and other characteristics common to those aboriginal individuals living in
the Sioux Lookout District that have attempted suicide. A retrospective chart review of suicide attempts and
completed suicides from the years 1995 to 2000 was undertaken. A total of 150 suicide attempts and 36
competed suicide charts were reviewed. In addition, six semi-structured interviews also took place with key
informants from Nodin Counselling Centre who had substantial experience working in response to the
suicide situation in the region. Chi-square analysis was used to test for differences between completed and
attempted suicides, male and female suicide attempters and first and previous suicide attempters. Odds ratios
were calculated for the significant x2. The dominant profile for a suicide attempter that emerged from the
results is female under the age of 25 who has a history of repeated attempts. She tends to have lived a life
marked by negative experiences such as a history of alcohol abuse, and more than likely a combination of
physical, verbal and sexual abuse. She also experienced a break-up with a partner/boyfriend or a fight with a
significant other, and used alcohol right before the event occurred. This is consistent with much of the
literature that looks at risk factors for suicide attempts. There are several factors that contribute to the
decision to attempt suicide. Having knowledge of these factors can further the development of effective
intervention and prevention programs to address this issue.

Conte, Christine F. (1985) "The Navajo sex-gender system: The impact of economic development in two northern
Arizona communities." Ph.D. Dissertation, New School for Social Research. 400 pp.
The dissertation investigates the impact of economic development, or the penetration of the market economy,
on the Navajo sex-gender system. Previous studies of economic development and sex-gender systems have
been confined to Third World contexts with relatively little attention given to the unique, but related,
experiences of native North Americans. The dissertation contributes to our understanding of these
experiences in two ways. First, it describes two key components of Navajo women's status; their rights and
duties and the values accruing to these rights and duties. Second, through the investigation of specific
hypotheses, it illuminates the relationship between production, reproduction and sex-gender ideology. To
these ends, comparative analysis focuses on 85 households in two culturally and economically diverse
communities in northeastern Arizona. One is a primary node in the regional dendritic market system and a
reservation border town. The other is a hinterlands reservation community and a tertiary node in the same
regional system. Within each community, all aspects of the gender-based division of labour are described at
key loci of production, consumption and distribution. Analysis of women's kin-based resource networks in the
two communities reveals systematic structural differences between them. These differences are linked to
larger market forces and the social relations of particular types of workplaces. Within each community,
women's resource networks are demonstrated to promote economic autonomy for women and, at the same
time, to contribute to socioeconomic stratification among them. A broader range of diversity in sex-gender
values is exhibited in the wage labour centre and is related to both economic strategies and cultural
meanings. Analysis of the descriptive data does not support the hypothesis that participation of the household
in the labour force either diminishes actual decision-making authority for women or encourages patriarchal

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values. Instead, women's status is more likely to covary with their financial contribution to the household.
The relationship between resource strategies, religious preferences and other cultural factors and Navajo
women's power and authority in the household is also explored.

Contreras, Sheila M. (1998) "Blood lines: Modernism, indigenismo and the construction of Chicana/o identity." Ph.D.
Dissertation, University of Texas at Austin (The). 295 pp.
This dissertation examines the image of the Mexican Indian in three historical contexts: Anglo Modernism of
the 1920s, Chicano cultural nationalism of the 1970s, and Chicana feminism of the 1980s and 1990s. My
research takes a critical perspective on each of these movements, and at the same time theorizes the
transformative potential of textual enterprises that elaborated distinct forms of indigenismo (indigenism). The
three contexts that I address manifest different, although related, representations of the Mexican Indian. In
juxtaposing the work of authors between periods, I foreground the use of the Mexican Indian as a vessel for
authorial critique -- a rhetorical strategy dating back to Enlightenment valorizations of 'the Noble Savage.'
Chicana/o textual projects of indigenismo, then, must be understood in the context of a larger semiotic field
that precedes them. I assess the process by which an 'authentic subject' or the authentication of a claimed
subject position is facilitated by assertions of indigenous identity in Chicana and Chicano literary discourses.
I argue that the mythologization of the Mexican Indian is a strategy that initiates counter-hegemonic
discourse at the same time that it undercuts the emancipatory objectives of its authors. In each of the three
chapters, I acknowledge the radically different contexts of each author, yet bring into relief their common
investment in particular and familiar signifiers of Mexican Indian culture, or 'Indian Mexico.' Further, I
explore the unacknowledged influences of ethnography, Modern Primitivism and Mexican post-Revolutionary
state discourse on Chicana and Chicano indigenismo.
My work insists upon a more acutely critical perspective on representations of the Mexican Indian as cultural
ancestor and foundational trope for resistant Chicana/o discourse. In acknowledging the limitations of
indigenismo as a discursive strategy for a liberatory Chicana and Chicano poetics, I argue for alternative
reading and writing strategies that move beyond a mythologized and dehistoricized Chicana/o Indian
identity.

Conway, Liam A. (2004) "The 'Starlight tours': A study of racist dynamics in a prairie city." M.A. Thesis, University
of Regina (The). 183 pp.
This thesis examines the racist dynamics in evidence when the story of the Starlight tours broke in Saskatoon,
Saskatchewan in 2000. Darrell Night, an Aboriginal man from Saskatoon, filed a complaint against two
Saskatoon Police Service constables for abandoning him on the outskirts of the city on a freezing winter
morning when he was not dressed for the weather. Night came forward with his allegations after the bodies
of two other Aboriginal men were found frozen in the same vicinity where he had been abandoned by the two
constables. The filing of Mr. Night's complaint eventually resulted in the largest Royal Canadian Mounted
Police investigation the province had ever seen, as well as the initiation of a province-wide Aboriginal justice
inquiry. In the wake of Mr. Night's allegations, hundreds of other Aboriginal people around the province
alleged similar treatment at the hands of various police forces using telephone hotlines set up by the Native
Law Centre at the University of Saskatchewan and by the Federation of Saskatchewan Indian Nations. The
thesis argues that, despite attempts to characterize the Starlight tours and the related events as isolated
incidents attributable to rogue elements on the police force, the Starlight tours more accurately represent a
consistent and predictable event given the context of the neocolonial racial order that has developed over
time in Canada. Furthermore, the thesis undertakes an examination of the constitution of this racial order in
the context of colonial policy regarding education and reserve-based agricultural programs, and traces its
evolution to its present neocolonial incantation focusing particularly upon the criminalization of Aboriginal
people by the Canadian criminal justice system. The Starlight tours are placed in this context.

Cook, Samuel R. (1992) "Indian self-determination: A comparative analysis of executive and congressional
approaches to contemporary federal Indian policy." M.A. Thesis, University of Arizona (The). 242 pp.
Scholars of American Indian policy refer to the period from 1960 to present as the Self-Determination Era.
However, President Richard Nixon is commonly credited with making self-determination the fundamental
tenet of contemporary Indian policy through his 1970 message to Congress. The concept of self-
determination embodies three main goals: tribal self-government; cultural survival; and economic
development. Furthermore, Indian participation in tribal activities as well as the federal policy-making
process is a key principle of self-determination. Self-determination, however, is not a single policy, but
rather, a conglomeration of policy approaches originating in different branches of the federal government.

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There has been little uniformity in the executive and legislative approaches to contemporary Indian policy.
As this thesis illustrates, congressional approaches to self-determination policy since 1970 have been more
consistent than those of the executive branch.

———. (1997) "Monacans and mountaineers: A comparative study of colonialism and dependency in southern
Appalachia." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Arizona (The). 429 pp.
For scholars of underdevelopment, Appalachia is an enigma. The vast and diverse natural resources of the
region offer the potential for local prosperity, but much of the region is characterized by widespread poverty.
Accordingly, many writers have tended to characterize Appalachia as a homogeneous region, in spite of its
cultural, environmental, and economic diversity. This study assesses the causes and consequences of
underdevelopment in Appalachia through a controlled comparison of two mountain communities: the
Monacan Indians of Amherst County, Virginia, an aboriginal community located in the Blue Ridge foothills;
and a mining community in Wyoming County, West Virginia, located in the rugged plateau coalbelt. Two
mutually related theoretical approaches are used: the internal colonialism and dependency models. This
study is concerned with the relationship between colonial processes within the region and the variable ways
in which these have been related to conditions of economic dependency.
The study begins with the hypothesis that each community is an internal colony, but that the extent of
colonization and dependency may vary between the two, and that the historical processes of colonization and
dependency may also vary profoundly between the two. To test this, several variables are examined,
including who the initial colonizers were, salient cultural patterns of each community prior to and after
colonization, traditional subsistence patterns, and local environmental factors which may have effected
exploitative processes differentially in each community. It is shown that the differences in these variables
between the two communities have had profound effects on their colonial experiences. Although doctrines of
racial/ethnic superiority were used to justify colonial endeavours in both cases, these were much more salient
in the case of the Monacans. While the Monacan's engagement with colonial forces began much earlier than
that of the Euro-American settlers and their progeny in Wyoming County, various social, economic, and
political changes have converged in recent years to allow the Monacans to break away from the bonds of
colonialism and dependency. In Wyoming County, however, land alienation and a corporate controlled state
government have severely crippled the possibility of local grassroots empowerment.

Cooke, Martin J. (1999) "On leaving home: Return and circular migration between First Nations and prairie cities."
M.A. Thesis, University of Western Ontario (The). 172 pp.
This study uses 1991 Aboriginal Peoples Survey data and interviews with migrants to Winnipeg to investigate
the personal characteristics of Registered Indians who have returned to reserves after moving to cities, and
those who made multiple moves between the two areas. Multivariate analyses of the effects of demographic,
socioeconomic, and some community variables on return migration found that return migrants were little
different than those who did not return. While interviews indicated that circulation was common, models
predicting circulation failed to adequately capture multiple moves.
While there is migration to cities for employment and education, other reasons include the attraction of
urban life to youth, health care, and housing issues. Reasons for return migration included the pull of
community, and the supports of extended family. Social integration into the reserve or urban community
seems to be important in return migration. Return on retirement and commuting may be common strategies.

Cooper, Carol A. (1993) ""To be free on our lands": Coast Tsimshian and Nisga'a societies in historical perspective,
1830-1900." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Waterloo. 485 pp.
This dissertation studies the efforts of the Coast Tsimshian and Nisga'a to preserve their identity and cultural
integrity under the fur trade, missionization and industrialization, which were established in rapid succession
on the northern Pacific coast after 1830. The Coast Tsimshian and Nisga'a, two linguistically and culturally
similar tribes, accepted change and deliberately sought innovations, but often they did so in order to survive
as distinct cultures. A complex process of incorporation was involved whereby such developments as the fur
trade, Christianity and participation in the commercial fisheries became part of their tradition and their very
identity. At the same time, the Coast Tsimshian and Nisga'a consciously endeavoured to preserve many of
their traditional economic activities and sociopolitical arrangements.
While the study acknowledges that Coast Tsimshian and Nisga'a societies were profoundly influenced by
contact with Euro-Canadians, it is not primarily intended as an analysis of Native-Euro-Canadian relations.
Rather, it focuses upon the political, economic and social strategies employed by these tribes and by the
corporate groups which comprised them, in order to maximize their autonomy and retain their cultural

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distinctiveness under changing conditions. Comparative insights are also offered regarding Coast Tsimshian
and Nisga'a responses to contact. The Coast Tsimshian accepted a greater degree of innovation in their
material culture and their sociopolitical arrangements over time, which is understandable since they had
always been the most receptive of the northern coastal tribes in regard to new economic and spiritual
influences and they alone experienced the unbroken presence of non-Natives in their territory after 1834. In
contrast, the Nisga'a benefited by their isolation, for they were able to carry out more of their traditional
subsistence pursuits and ceremonial functions with less frequent intrusion by Euro-Canadians. Thus, they
could incorporate change in a more gradual fashion than the Coast Tsimshian. Yet, regardless of their
differences, neither group surrendered their fundamental identity as Native Peoples. As the century closed,
both remained committed to preserving their cultural integrity and to retaining the land-base from which
their autonomy and identity flowed.

Copenace, Sherry J. (2001) "A group work approach with aboriginal children exposed to parental violence." M.S.W.
Thesis, University of Manitoba (The). 118 pp.
This practicum concentrated on a time limited, structured and closed group work approach with Aboriginal
children between the ages of seven and ten years old who had been exposed to parental violence. All of the
children were living in homes led by single mothers. The majority had sought refuge in women's shelters and
for them the violence had stopped between five months and five years before becoming involved with this
process. The treatment modality was a psychoeducational group work intervention for the children, with the
inclusion of an Aboriginal tradition, a 'mudge.' A total of eight children were involved with this practicum
and all but one child completed the group program(s). Clinical impressions suggested that some of the
clients' objectives were met as many of the children were able to identify their feelings and experiences
related to parental violence, to develop a personal safety plan, and seemed to experience an increase in self
confidence. In general, the children seemed to benefit from a safe, fun and supportive group environment.

Coppersmith, Clifford P. (1996) "Cultural survival and a Native American community: The Chiricahua and Warm
Springs Apaches in Oklahoma, 1913-96." Ph.D. Dissertation, Oklahoma State University. 287 pp.
This study describes how the Chiricahua and Warm Springs Apaches of Oklahoma maintained elements of
traditional culture and tribal identity in the 20th century. Employing ethnohistorical method and the use of
traditional historical sources, the author has attempted to present a more accurate history of the Chiricahua
and Warm Springs Apaches by incorporating their own perspective of the past. This study reviews
Chiricahua and Warm Springs history from pre-history through the 20th century but emphasizes the period
from their release from captivity in 1913 to the present. Findings and conclusions. Despite the federal
government's efforts to erase their existence as a distinct people the Chiricahua and Warm Springs Apaches
of Oklahoma remain a politically organized tribe. While accommodating to the social and economic
requirements of life within the larger Euro-American culture of southwestern Oklahoma tribal members
managed to preserve and pass on distinctive elements of tribal culture such as the Mountain Spirit Dance.
The tribe also maintained its identity by successfully pressing land claims through the Indian Claims
Commission and rejecting federal termination policy. Despite the loss of language and other elements of
traditional culture, the Chiricahua and Warm Springs Apache community continues to exist.

Cormier, Edward F. (1996 ) "A lawless life, unrest and strife? The existence of aboriginal customary law in Manitoba
First Nations communities: An explanatory study." M.A. Thesis, University of Manitoba (The). 118 pp.
The literature dealing with traditional methods of dispute resolution indicate that increasing support is found
for the contention that the application of customary law in First Nations communities is the most promising
route to improving upon the current dismal relationship between First Nations peoples and the Canadian
criminal justice system. There is, however, a lack of information regarding the current state of knowledge of -
- and belief in -- customary law. This is compounded by a lack of clear descriptions of its content. This
research is intended to address these questions through an examination of current attitudes of First Nations
peoples in Manitoba toward customary law. Data were collected through interviews conducted in the
member-communities of the West Region Tribal Council. Respondents are asked to describe what they
believed to be the most appropriate response to several detailed hypothetical instances of deviance.
Respondents were drawn from three age groups: 'older' (56 years and over), 'middle aged' (36-55 years), and
'young' (18-35 years). Analysis of the data showed that the three age groups applied three differing
methodologies for responding to deviant acts. The 'older' group displayed a 'community focus', the middle
aged group a 'family focus' or 'mixed focus', and the young group a 'state focused' approach to deviance-
response. Analysis of the content of customary law shows that context, restoration, prevention, publicity,

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group decision-making, and apology/forgiveness are its central elements. Belief in customary methods of
dispute resolution remains strong among the older respondents. It is concluded that while the application of
customary law is a viable and desirable option for justice initiatives in the future, caution must be exercised
in the design of any such programs to ensure recognition of the complexity of this issue.

Correia, Maria S. (1995) "An anthropological reinterpretation of contact, conflict, and crisis at Oka 1990: From
western authority to postmodernity." M.A. Thesis, University of Manitoba (The). 155 pp.
The Oka crisis is the departure point for a study of prolonged and sustained contact between cultures. Based
upon a central tenet which recognizes the bidirectional nature of contact, the textual body of this thesis is
arranged into the following four broad themes: (1) nations and nationalism; (2) the Indian; (3) the Mohawk;
and, (4) Oka as a postmodern crisis. The contact that occurred between civilizations in the Western
Hemisphere (indeed the contact that occurred between cultures around the world) created a mixed reality of
multiple codes, overlapping histories and shared experience and ideology. Nationalism is a product of
modern, Western ideology. The First Nations became nations in the Western sense through a process of
nationalism developed through contact between traditional aboriginal societies and modern European ones.
Conversely, the transplanted European culture and society developed into the North American sociocultural
complex through contact with the indigenous societies and cultures. The critique of colonialism has
questioned Western authority and presentation in almost all Western disciplines, including anthropology. In
the postmodern age, anthropology now acknowledges the differences within cultures and the similarities
between cultures. The formerly colonized continue to criticize and challenge Western authority,
representation, and knowledge. The breakdown of Western authority positions Oka as a postmodern crisis
and reveals Mohawk society to be complex and heterogeneous, struggling against the Canadian nation state
and those who still accept the Canadian master-narratives.

Cosgrove, Sondra K. (2004) "Biology, culture, and environment: The struggle for hegemony in Arizona." Ph.D.
Dissertation, University of Nevada, Las Vegas. 164 pp.
This is an examination of the various cultural groups who have attempted to extend hegemony control over
what is now the state of Arizona. Each chapter focuses on the ways different societies adapted to the region's
challenging environment; paying particular attention to those that sought to integrate their neighbours into
their own socioeconomic systems, whether by force or through negotiation. The rise and fall of the
indigenous Hohokam civilization marks the first phase in this struggle for hegemony, while conflicts between
Spaniards and Indians characterize the second. The third, and so far, final cycle concludes with Euro-
Americans seizing the region from Arizona's Hispanic and Native Americans residents.
A brief preface introduces this work's underlying, interdisciplinary methodology, while the body of the text
proceeds chronologically from prehistory to 1886. The first chapter examines the various prehistoric people
who took up residence in Arizona. It describes how the Hohokam Indians were able to adopt a sedentary
lifestyle and then translate their Subsistence success into political power. The chapter concludes with the
collapse of Arizona's prehistoric political economy due to climatic change. Chapter two then provides an
overview of the conflicts, beginning in the 17th century and continuing into the early 19th century, between
Athabascan Indians and Spanish colonists. Throughout this period, both groups endeavoured to exert control
over the Southwest's trade economy, yet each blocked the other's efforts.
Chapter three analyzes the American ideology of Manifest Destiny and its role in westward migration: while
the arrival of Americans in the Southwest and their successful quest to capture Arizona's resources is the
focus of the remaining chapters. A brief summation then concludes this work.

Coupland, Mary Ann. (2004) "Neuropsychological deficits and other variables as predictors in the successful
completion of alcohol treatment with Native American population." Ph.D. Dissertation, Capella University.
168 pp.
Cognitive impairment is overrepresented in substance abuse populations and has been considered as a
possible deterrent in an individual's ability to achieve the objectives established while in substance abuse
treatment. The results of this study indicated that there were deficits in the neuropsychological domains of
executive functioning (abstract reasoning, perseveration), memory (immediate, delayed, working, and visual),
complex motor skills, and intelligence levels (Full Scale Intelligence Quotient, Verbal Intelligence Quotient)
with the Native American participants who were enrolled in a 30-day residential substance abuse treatment
facility. A correlation of these deficits with the achievement of the treatment objectives resulted in the
domains of intellectual abilities, executive functioning, and memory hindering the participants from
achieving their treatment objectives.

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Cowger, Thomas W. (1994) "Sovereign nations, shared identity, and civil rights: The National Congress of American
Indians, 1944-64." Ph.D. Dissertation, Purdue University. 282 pp.
The historiography on Native Americans in the 20th century remains uneven and sketchy. Few historians
have investigated the post World War II pan-Indian movements. The focus of the dissertation is on the
activities of the National Congress of American Indians (NCAI) during the critical 'termination period', 1944
to the mid-1960s. The general outline of the termination period is well known. Historical scholarship on the
termination period, however, has tended to focus on federal policy and tended to treat Indians as ancillary
members of American society, as people acted upon by legislators and bureaucrats rather than actors in their
own right.
In 1944 to the NCAI first arose as a national reform pan-Indian organization which campaigned fervently
and on the whole successfully against the termination policy. The NCAI founders included important tribal
leaders who recognized the threat posed by termination and fought to maintain Indians' legal rights and
cultural identity. More importantly, the NCAI became prime movers, increasingly, in determining their own
fate.
The dissertation is based on multi-archival research and oral interviews with participants. As the first
systematic study of the NCAI during its early years, it identifies the goals, tactics, and ideology of the
organization. The study analyzes the NCAI's organizational base, internal structure, conflicts, resources, and
leadership, and how these changed over time. In the bulk of the study I explore the ways in which federal-
Indian relations and political events shaped collective action. Demonstrating that the NCAI did not respond
passively to termination and other political events, I show that the organization was an important vehicle of
resistance to changes in federal Indian policy and served as an important instrument for the preservation of
cultural continuity and identity. To provide context I place Indian affairs in the setting of the postwar period.
In these ways this study of the NCAI stands at the intersection of Native American history, the history of
American reform, and the history of the United States since 1940.

Cradock, Gerald A. (1997 ) "First Nations' political economy in British Columbia: A partnership recovered?" M.A.
Thesis, Simon Fraser University. 173 pp.
First Nations role in the fur trade and early settler periods of British Columbia history has been reconceived
in recent scholarship from simple victimization by European colonial expansion to active participation in
commercial partnerships. This work builds upon this insight. First Nations participation in the British
Columbian economy is traced from its roots in the fur trade, its crucial contribution during the initial
settlement and early industrialization periods of British Columbia through to its eventual demise in the early
decades of the 20th century.
By arguing that First Nations possess cultural barriers to successful economic activity non-aboriginal
interests have justified: land cut-offs, the restrictive regulation of water access, fishing, logging, and hunting,
and the repression of First Nations political activity. These policies extinguished an aboriginal entrepreneur
class and severely limited aboriginal employment opportunity. After World War 2, increasingly capital
intensive practices in the fishery, forestry and agricultural sectors prevented First Nations from competing on
an equal footing. Beginning in the 1960s, a well-educated aboriginal cohort emerged that, while unable to
pursue large scale economic activity, did create an expanding and activist aboriginal bureaucracy.
From the 1980s, aboriginal political activity specifically targeted private corporate interests. This strategy
succeeded in bringing the British Columbian government to the treaty table. Meanwhile, federal and First
Nations' initiatives have supported the recreation of an aboriginal political economy. Some members of the
corporate sector have encouraged these developments as a means of stabilising investment conditions.
Consequently, new business alliances are emerging. It is concluded that First Nations political aspirations
are directly dependent upon a healthy aboriginal economy. Furthermore, this economy will necessarily
require partnerships with the non-aboriginal sector as it functions in the provincial, national and global
marketplace.

Craig, Barbara. (1992) "Jurisdiction for aboriginal health in Canada." LL.M. Thesis, University of Ottawa. 227 pp.
The purpose of this thesis is to determine which level of government has jurisdiction for aboriginal health in
Canada -- the federal or the provincial. As background to the consideration of jurisdiction for aboriginal
health in Canada, three things are examined: the existing legal and policy frameworks for aboriginal health;
the development of the delivery of health services to aboriginal people; and the current health status of
aboriginal people in Canada. The distribution of exclusive legislative powers between the federal and
provincial legislatures contained in sections 91 and 92 of the Constitution Act, 1987 is examined and the
'peace, order and good government' power of the federal Parliament is considered. Legislative jurisdiction

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over health is considered. The extent of the federal power over 'Indians, and Lands reserved for the Indians'
as a result of subsection 91(24) of the Constitution Act, 1867 is explored. Parallels are drawn between labour
relations and health jurisdictional issues, in an attempt to determine where legislative jurisdiction for
aboriginal health rests. The spending power of Parliament, the Crown-Indian treaty process and the nature
of Indian treaties, and the fiduciary relationship between First Nations and the federal and provincial
governments is examined. The final conclusion is that aboriginal health is a double aspect matter, to which
valid legislation of both levels of government can apply. Although there are spheres of exclusive provincial
jurisdiction, e.g. regulation of health practitioners and hospitals, there is no exclusive federal sphere.
However, the federal government does have concurrent jurisdiction with the provinces over the public health
of aboriginal people. The doctrine of paramountcy applies to give valid federal legislation pre-eminence over
inconsistent provincial legislation.
In this thesis, the term 'aboriginal' is intended to have the same meaning it does in the Constitution Act, 1982,
section 35. Section 35(2) states: 'In this Act, 'aboriginal peoples of Canada' includes the Indian, Inuit and
Métis peoples of Canada.' It is my submission that 'Indian' as it is used in section 35 includes both status and
non-status Indians.

Craig, Daniel. (1980) "The social impact of the state on an Aboriginal reserve in Queensland, Australia." Ph.D.
Dissertation, University of California, Berkeley. 293 pp.
Law has many different functions. One of its primary roles in highly differentiated societies is integration.
Legislators in plural societies face the problem of how to incorporate different ethnic minorities into a single
nation-state. This dissertation analyzes the role of law in charting the development of Yarrabah Aboriginal
Reserve in Queensland, Australia. Specifically, it considers the State Government's use of the reserve to
implement a policy of assimilation and evaluates the impact of the Aborigines Acts on the local community.
Queensland's legislation raises a question that has occupied legal scholars for a long time: what is the role of
law in initiating social change as opposed to codifying existing social mores? The Federal Government in
Australia recognizes the Aborigines' right to be different and manage their own affairs. The State
Government however advocates 'one community of Queenslanders.' It opposes the existence of distinct
Aboriginal communities and is trying to incorporate reserve Aborigines into the mainstream of Australian
society. Once considered innovative at the turn of the century, Queensland's laws are now lagging behind the
rest of the country. They force us to reconsider the extent to which a dominant group can, or should, dictate
the course of a minority's development.
This study evaluates the functions of law in terms of (1) its subjective purposes, overt and covert; (2) its
objective consequences, planned and unplanned; and, (3) the public's perceptions of both the legislator's
intentions and the law's effects. The relationship between goals, outcomes, and public opinion is important
because law derives its legitimacy in part from the way in which it is received by those whom it governs. The
consequences of Queensland's Aborigines Acts are evaluated in terms of the four different levels on which the
legislation operates: policies, the laws themselves, local administrators, and the people to whom they
administer.
The dissertation is based upon six months of archival research and 16 months of fieldwork on Yarrabah
(1976 to 1979). It begins with an overview of Queensland's Aboriginal policies from 1859 to 1979. The goal
is to elucidate the ideologies and events that shaped the State Government's attitudes toward indigenes and to
contrast them with Federal policies. The study then describes Yarrabah's evolution from a closed, total
institution under Church administrators to an open institution under the State's Department of Aboriginal
and Islanders Advancement (DAIA). It analyzes the reasons for the Aborigines' rapid conversion to
Christianity and the loss of their traditional culture. In discussing the effects of voluntary and involuntary
resettlement, it elaborates the indigenes' various responses to institutionalization, viz. escape, retreat,
reconciliation, and innovation.
The dissertation describes Yarrabah today in terms of its two constituent subsystems -- white and Aboriginal.
It first considers the DAIA, the bureaucratic nature of its administration, and the extent of its control over the
reserve population. It then describes the Aboriginal community's social organization, which is patterned
according to the constraints of the reserve system. The social consequences of Queensland's laws include
alcoholism, chronic unemployment, health problems, male homosexuality, and steady increases in the
number of single parents and matrifocal families. The Aborigines' responses to the Aborigines Acts include
an emerging sense of ethnic identity and a request to the Federal Government for self-management and land
rights.
The study concludes with an evaluation of Yarrabah's position as an internal colony. It analyzes the
structural reasons for the reserve's failure as a training camp for assimilation. Using Queensland as an

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example, it considers the different functions that law can play in plural societies. It suggests that parametric
or enabling laws are better suited to democracies than prescriptive laws.

Crawford, Jessica L. (1994) "Worlds apart: Conceptualizing mental health knowledge from Dogrib women." M.Sc.
Thesis, University of Toronto. 111 pp.
Dogrib women are the recipients of treatment for conditions designated as 'mental illness.' How do they
perceive and talk about this experience, known to health professionals as 'mental illness'? Informants
include: (1) Dogrib women, who have been receiving long term treatment in the mental health system in the
Northwest Territories; and, (2) men and women from related native organizations. Data were collected
during formal and informal interviews and comprise written field notes. The interpretation is guided by a
framework of semiotics contrasting what the Dogrib disclose, with assumptions and approaches in
professional mental health services. The Dogrib women's talk was seen to focus upon: precipitating factors,
healing approaches, involvement of gender and relationships with health care professionals. A system of
conceptualization tentatively referred to as 'fluid boundaries' is used to organize some of the findings selected
for the semiotic reading. Implications for organizing health services, and suggestions for future research are
noted.

Crawford, Rebecca R. (1992) "Identification of the causes and characteristics of suicide among American Indian
youth." Ph.D. Dissertation, Utah State University. 67 pp.
Blackfeet youth suicide attempters and a sample of non-suicide attempters were compared on the Family
Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales (FACES-III), the Family Environment Scale (FES), the Scale
for Suicide Ideation (SSI), the revised Beck Depression Scale (BDI) and a biographical inventory. The
purpose of this study was to define a set of variables that identify Indian youth with a high potential for
suicide. The study sample consisted of 60 participants between the ages of 15-24, 30 suicide attempters and
30 non-suicide attempters, from the Blackfeet reservation. 15 identified variables were proposed to
differentiate between the two groups. Analyses involving nine variables revealed a significant correlation
between the revised Beck Depression Inventory variable of depression and the Biographical Inventory self-
report variable of suicide attempt. Results indicated that suicide attempters scored higher on the revised Beck
Depression Inventory than did those subjects who did not attempt suicide.

Crelinsten, Rohana. (1999) "Mäori stereotypes, governmental policies and Mäori art in museums today: A case study
of the Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa." M.A. Thesis, Concordia University. 86 pp.
Mäori art in New Zealand museums has a long history extending back to the first contacts made between
Mäori (New Zealand's native peoples) and Europeans. The Europeans settled in New Zealand with a
colonialist attitude, leading to the notion that the Mäori people would soon be extinct. This promoted the
vigorous collection of various samples of Mäori material culture. Museums were then established to store
these artefacts. Governmental policies dating back to the turn of the century, gradually influenced the ways
in which museums dealt with these Mäori holdings.
The current situation in New Zealand, particularly at the Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa is
largely a reaction to the past. Mäori people are demanding that they have more say in the treatment of their
taonga (treasures). Slowly, through decades of debate and reworking of policies, new standards are
developing for the ways in which New Zealand museums collect and exhibit Mäori art. This on-going process
is a result of the enhanced sense of empowerment of Mäori people in New Zealand today. Art educators in
museums and schools can look to museums such as Te Papa Tongarewa for inspiration and guidance.

Crockford, Cairn E. (1998) "Nuu-Chah-Nulth labour relations in the pelagic sealing industry, 1868-1911." M.A.
Thesis, University of Victoria. 150 pp.
This thesis presents an analysis of Nuu-Chah-Nulth labour relations in the Canadian pelagic sealing industry
from 1868 to 1911. During the life span of the industry the dominant economy within British Columbia
shifted from mercantile to industrial capitalism, and the economic role of aboriginal people changed from
independent commodity producers to a wage labour force.
The process by which one set of labour relations replaces another cannot be taken for granted as the
inevitable by-product of capitalist intrusion and dominance. Labour relations in pelagic sealing developed
out of the existing relationship between Nuu-Chah-Nulth commodity producers and coastal traders.
Strategies employed during labour negotiations represented adaptations of strategies used during commodity
exchange. Despite their efforts, capital investors were unable to apply normal capitalist labour relations in
sealing. They could not do so because capitalist labour relations had not supplanted the older form of co-

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operative labour relations.

Culhane, Dara. (1994) "Delgamuukw and the people without culture: Anthropology and the Crown." Ph.D.
Dissertation, Simon Fraser University. 453 pp.
This thesis examines the response of the British Columbia and Canadian judiciary to aboriginal efforts to
obtain legal recognition of aboriginal title and rights, and the role played by anthropology and
anthropologists in this historical process. Specifically, the thesis provides a detailed case study of the longest
and costliest aboriginal title litigation in Canadian history: the Gitksan and Wet'suwet'en case, also known as
Delgamuukw et al v. R. This case is analyzed within the historical and political context of the relationship
between aboriginal and non-aboriginal peoples in Canada. Drawing on current theoretical work in the fields
of anthropology and law, and cultural critique, the thesis argues that law and legal discourse are embedded
in historical and contemporary relations of power and resistance, and shaped by the cultural and political
context in which they are practiced. Law is analyzed as a form of sociocultural reflection, and the courtroom
as a site of political struggle. A critical analysis of the use of the theories and data of social science to
legitimate various ideologies and strategies in the legal forum provides an original contribution to the
theoretical and substantive study of aboriginal and non-aboriginal relations in Canadian society, and to
theoretical development within the discipline of anthropology. Anthropologists have served as researchers
and as expert witnesses on behalf of both the Crown and aboriginal litigants. This thesis focuses on
theoretical analyses and substantive evidence presented on behalf of the governments of Canada and British
Columbia to support the Crown's claims and counter-claims to land title and sovereignty as against
aboriginal peoples. That is to say, this thesis locates itself within the field of anthropological analyses of
'western' cultures, rather than the traditional anthropological focus on the representation of aboriginal
cultures. The methodology adopted is based In a critical hermeneutic, or dialectical, reading of the texts of
anthropologists' opinion reports submitted to courts, transcripts of trials, and reasons for judgment. The
thesis argues that an examination of the theory and practice of Canadian law in relation to aboriginal
peoples and aboriginal land title from a critical anthropological perspective illuminates the inter-
relationship between culture, power, history, and law. In conclusion it is argued that anthropologists may
make a valuable contribution to disciplinary and public debates on aboriginal issues by turning our attention
to an analysis of Canadian society's relationship to aboriginal peoples.

Cummings, Tracie Ku'uipo. (2004) "Hawai'ian sovereignty and nationalism: History, perspectives and movements."
M.A. Thesis, University of Hawai'i. 219 pp.
This thesis analyzes three divergent perspectives regarding the current status of the Hawai'ian nation and
aboriginal Hawai'ians. The disparities over perspectives of the political and legal status of the Hawai'ian
nation and aboriginal Hawai'ians are linked to the disparity over the root of legitimate control, influenced
through significant legislation, international and domestic laws, and informs the actions of nationalist and
anti-nationalist initiatives in Hawai'i. Some nationalists look to International Law and appeal to the
International Court of Arbitration in the face of American occupation. Others follow the de-colonization
process already laid out by international instruments. Yet others prescribe to a strategy that centres on
aboriginal Hawai'ian needs and efforts of reparation and reconciliation through U.S. domestic laws. Each
avenue has positive and negative aspects, which will affect the future of aboriginal Hawai'ian as well as
everyone in Hawai'i.

Cunningham, Alain M. (1995) "Canadian Indian policy and development planning theory." Ph.D. Dissertation,
University of British Columbia (The). 371 pp.
This thesis addresses questions of how development planning theory has influenced policy-making for Indians
in Canada and how it could be improved for making better policies in the future. These questions are
considered around a nexus of central state-Indian relations. There is a focus on the multi-dimensional
problems of poverty faced by many reserve communities, especially of those located in more rural and remote
regions. The thesis criticizes the serious dualism within and between prevailing development doctrines and
proposes remedies through a 'relational' approach.
An original typology categorizes 'substantive' development planning theories into two opposing doctrines.
The more dominant liberal assimilationist doctrine centres on modernization theory and internalizes blame
on Indians for their 'own' problems, but is challenged by radical autonomist doctrine which centres on
underdevelopment theory and its 'internal colony' variant, and contrarily externalizes blame onto the state. A
third body of reformist planning is grounded in the practices of welfare statism.
Relational analysis of the history of Indian policy shows that underdevelopment of Indian communities has

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been caused by the interaction of both external and internal causes. Liberal doctrine strongly influenced the
central state's assimilative agenda during the 'traditional' era of Indian policy, including its oppressive
'reserve system' and landmark 1969 White Paper. It is agreed that radical criticism properly reveals the
racism and economic exploitation underlying state-sponsored process of 'internal colonization', and also
helps to explain the consequent rise of Indian ethnic nationalism. However, it is concluded that radical
criticism does not adequately explain events in the 'contemporary era' where Indian leaders have more
influence over policy-making, but have expended much of their energies pursuing a 'modernist' nationalist
agenda in a power struggle with the central state. The resulting policy vacuum between the deadlocked
liberal state and radical Indian positions has been filled by default with misguided reformist programs of
welfare statism, with terribly destructive effects in many reserve communities.
The criticism of current development theories when applied in practice is reinforced by their criticism as
theories. The deficiencies of current 'substantive' development theories are shown to be endemic because of
shortcomings in their underlying 'process' planning theories. In particular, the reductionist dualism of
extreme liberal and radical development doctrines, which contributes to polarization in practice, is revealed.
Instead of the current practice of applying single explanations and prescriptions to Indian policy-making, a
relational approach is advocated which selectively combines liberal, reformist, and radical perspectives.
The thesis concludes with an exposition of how a relational approach can be applied to examine widespread
poverty and dependency in reserve communities as an interconnected 'external/internal' problem, and,
leading from this, to propose mutually-reinforcing state and community actions.

D'Aoust, Ian L. (1998) "The idea of barbarism in the American mind: Progress, liberty, and the American Indians,
1750-1835." Ph.D. Dissertation, Yale University. 274 pp.
The 18th century idea of barbarism was instrumental in determining how Native Americans were perceived
and treated in the Revolutionary era. The present scholarly tendency is toward viewing American Indians as
anthropologically exceptional, with the presumption that special ideas and interpretive theories were applied
toward understanding the natives' societies and ways. In the 18th century, however, no such exceptionalism
obtained. Those ideas by which Thomas Jefferson and John Adams understood natives were those by which
they explained the histories and genesis and mores of their own societies.
Barbarism in the 18th century consisted of a series of mores and vices to which all peoples were prone. The
Indians did not embody the barbaric mores, exactly, rather they exhibited them to a much greater degree
than did other peoples. The scholarly tendency to believe that Indians needed to forsake completely their
national, Indian character in order to be assimilated and civilized into American culture rests upon a
misapprehension of the 18th century idea of barbarism. Indians, like the ancient, aboriginal French,
possessed a distinct national character and a distinct human character which existed independent of their
barbarism. An assimilated Indian would have remained an Indian, as a Frenchman remained French, but
both would be civilized.
The intellectual trends of the 18th century informed the genesis of civil society as much as they informed an
idea of barbarism. The cyclical theory of history, the growth of human reason, the idea of telos, the necessity
of law, the problem of property, and the requirement to labour all applied equally to Indians as to Americans
and all others. The irony of 18th century American Indian history is that the policies that the Jeffersonians
used in attempting to assimilate the Indians were crafted from the same conjectured histories they employed
to explain their own genesis and civilization. What worked for the Americans failed when applied to the
natives, and the Jeffersonians could not explain this failure without reneging on the ideas of republicanism
and the Revolution.

Dabulskis, Susanne E. (1997) "Outsider research: How white writers 'explore' native issues, knowledge, and
experiences." M.A. Thesis, University of Toronto. 159 pp.
This thesis explores the perceptions of six non-aboriginal, employed knowledge producers (academics, film-
makers, journalists) who are of Euro-Canadian background, and whose work is primarily on aboriginal
issues and peoples. The author, also an outsider researcher of Euro-Canadian descent, begins by noting that
a cultural genocide is presently occurring in Canada with respect to aboriginal people. Through exploring in
depth aboriginal views on knowledge production, including the concept of writing as resistance, the thesis
shows how aboriginal peoples have clearly articulated their need to 'tell their own stories' and how critical
are the issues of access and appropriation to the aboriginal communities faced with cultural genocide.
Exploring the views of white knowledge producers using qualitative research methods, the thesis is able to
show that, often, white writers defend their 'right' to work on aboriginal issues through relying on a
conceptual framework of cultural difference. That is, aboriginal peoples are seen as culturally different from

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the mainstream, as peoples who require 'help' in telling their stories. The thesis concludes that white
knowledge producers will contribute to cultural genocide unless they become critically aware of aboriginal
views, and of the impact of their own activities on a continuing cultural genocide. Relying on roles such as
facilitators or bridges between cultures enables white knowledge producers to minimize the continuing
oppression of aboriginal people in which they play a part. The study is grounded in critical race theory, and
is a reflection of the discourse of cultural difference and its relation to the knowledge production of dominant
groups within society. The importance of social responsibility, tracing one's power and privilege as it enters
into exchanges between Native and non-Native people, and recognizing one's complicity as Euro-Canadian
group members in a racist society like Canada's, is emphasized.

Dahl, Kathleen A. (1990) "Sovereignty, environmental use and ethnic identity on the Colville Indian reservation."
Ph.D. Dissertation, Washington State University. 264 pp.
Over the past two decades, there has been a world-wide upsurge in ethnic and nationalist sovereignty
movements, including the efforts of tribal and indigenous groups to maintain or re-establish autonomous
control over their own territories, resources and destinies. American Indian tribes, as participants in these
sovereignty movements, are regaining political and economic authority over their lands and people. The
Colville Confederated Tribes and the Colville Indian Reservation in Washington state provide a case study of
one Native American group's long and difficult quest for sovereignty. Using an ethnohistorical approach
focusing on the Colville Tribes' use of the environment, this dissertation examines some important economic
and environmental upheavals experienced by the Colville Tribes since the establishment of the reservation in
1872, and analyzes the impact of these changes on ethnicity and tribal identity. Major works by
anthropologists Charles F. Keyes, Leo A. Despres and John H. Bodley provide theoretical foundations for
this analysis. The following historical periods and/or events are examined: the establishment of the Colville
Reservation and its subsequent allotment (1870-1910); the era of the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934
(1925-40); the construction of Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph Dams on the Columbia River (1933-55); the
termination period (1953-71); the Indian Self-Determination Act (1971-89); and the 1990s and the future.
This dissertation ends with a summary of the characteristics that distinguish Colville tribal identity from that
of non-Indians, as well as a discussion of the relevance of Marxist theory to American Indian ethnicity and
sovereignty, and the preferability of the term and concept of 'adaptation' as opposed to 'acculturation' when
examining ethnic change. It is argued that an Indian tribe's ethnic identity is no less valid for having
changed.

Dale, William S. J. (1936) "The Mäori of New Zealand: A socio-educational study in race relations." Ph.D.
Dissertation, Yale University. 411 pp.
This study is introduced by a brief survey of the impacts on native life in New Zealand. From the historical
data presented the inferences are drawn that the development of the native is, in a large measure, one which
he himself prefers to control. The four sections which comprise the main thesis, that the Mäori of New
Zealand can only develop when in a position to control the forces which shape his life, are set out in order of
history, and concern themselves with the following detailed survey:
Section One: Primitive education in New Zealand, in which are shown the influences brought to bear on the
child almost from birth; the delimitation of the duties according to sex and birth (breeding); the relation
between the life of the child and the social organization wherein he is to take a place; the positive
educational institutions which are brought to bear upon him; and, the relation between the individual and the
village as a reflection of this system. A summary of the section shows the relation between the psychological
and the practical.
Section Two: The transition period, when the native first saw the white man as a permanent factor in his life.
The contribution of the sealer, the whaler and the trader in the adjustment of the native to a new mode of
living and a new set of concepts. The work of the missionaries as a definitely educative factor in the life of the
people. The section concludes with an examination of the psychological effects of theses impacts.
Section Three. In this section a critical examination is made of the system of native education, keeping in
mind the definition of the terms as set out in Section One. The historical bases for the system, and the critical
periods are considered for their effects on the people as a whole. The question is also considered from the
native angle and a short consideration is developed of the factors which the native has placed in the way of
development of the factors which the native has placed in the way of development from the pakeha aspect.
The merits of living or learning as the basis for an educational policy to be applied to the Mäori form the
central thought.
Section Four. How best to meet the needs of the people is developed in the last section. If the thesis that self-

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determination is the mainspring of action in the development of the Mäori people then, in the light of modern
psychology, educational and sociological principles the shaping of the pattern for the educational growth
and development must be in accordance with this aim. The system should include not only schooling, but a
development plan that takes in the whole matter of living -- socially, economically, and spiritually.

Dalla, Rochelle L. (1996 ) "American Indian Navajo adolescent parenting: Multiple perspectives within context."
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Arizona (The). 398 pp.
In this descriptive investigation, Navajo Native American teenage parenting was examined. Two goals were
addressed. To begin, despite high rates of teenage parenting on the Navajo Reservation, in comparison with
the country in general, no literature exists examining this topic. In response, the first goal was to examine
Navajo teenage parenting from a broad, inclusive perspective. Bronfenbrenner's (1989) Ecological System's
Theory comprised the theoretical foundation for accomplishing this task.
Second, this investigation was conceptualized in reaction to the extant teenage parenting literature which
paints an oversimplified picture of youthful parenting, and which largely characterizes adolescent mothers as
"deviant." In this investigation, teenage parenting was examined through the lives of those women
experiencing it, divorced from the typically applied "medical model" framework. Principles of Postmodern
Feminism provided an alternative perspective from which to view teenage parenting.
To capture the essence of the ecology of teenage parenting on the Navajo Reservation, three groups of
participants were included: Navajo adolescent mothers provided an individual/personalized perspective,
their own mothers provided an historical/cross-generational perspective, and community members provided
a global/community wide perspective. Each participant was interviewed at length; data were recorded,
transcribed and then analyzed using Phenomenological Descriptive Analysis (Colaizzi, 1978).
Data analysis resulted in the teenage mothers being classified according to their expressed degree of
identification with two roles, namely, those of mother and adolescent. Results suggested that role
identification may be a powerful construct, or developmentally structuring attribute (Bronfenbrenner, 1989),
from which to examine individual orientations and reactions toward teenage parenthood.
Grandmothers were classified according to the amount of support each provided her teenage daughter and
grandchild(ren) and was significantly affected by the youths' role identification. Community members
concurred that teenage parenting was not condoned, but that teenage mothers were supported by their
families or extended kin.
Results from this investigation (a) affirm the heterogeneity both within and among teenage parenting
populations, and their families, and (b) may be utilized to enhance existing models of adolescent parenting
which overlook key individual differences.

Dames, Vivian L. (2000) "Rethinking the circle of belonging: American citizenship and the Chamorros of Guam."
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Michigan. 704 pp.
In this dissertation I explore a fault line in the historicity of inclusion and exclusion in the “circle of
belonging” as equal citizens in the United States through a case study of the experience of the Chamorros of
Guam as US citizens and as an indigenous people in an unincorporated territory seeking decolonization. The
Guam case raises important questions, from an indigenous perspective, about the meaning of citizenship,
equality, national identity, and difference which are absent from the American story. The central questions
are: What is the significance of the Guam story in terms of theorizing and historicizing national citizenship?
In what ways did the grant of formal citizenship serve to integrate the Chamorros of Guam into the national
community and to foster a common sense of “being American”? What is the relation between being a citizen
and being indigenous as national identities? These questions are explored using an interdisciplinary
narrative approach to analyzing text from multiple sources with attention to the themes of indigenous
resistance, formation, and reformation of collective identities. This process is examined diachronically, from
pre-contact to the present, and synchronically, through three recent episodes of opposing claims to national
political, civil, and social rights. This research debunks the myths of the United States as an immigrant
country and as “One Nation Under God” and reframes Guam's quest for commonwealth as not only about
the claiming of individual and collective rights but as creating a political opportunity for the United States to
develop an alternate model of belonging, one that values “deep diversity”, including more diverse forms of
cultural and political membership, and that accommodates rather than subordinates national identities. I
argue that the success of this project of decolonization with inclusion requires a renarrativization of the
Chamorros as a national, not ethnic, minority. Such a reworking would more clearly differentiate Guam's
ambiguous history of “incorporation” and the desire of the people of Guam for greater autonomy within a
mutually negotiated relation with the United States. Rejecting this opportunity in the name of common

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citizenship is likely to promote growing alienation among some Chamorros in Guam and may jeopardize US
interests in the Asia-Pacific region. A fully integrative, multicultural citizenship for these Americans requires
both universal rights, assigned to individuals regardless of group membership, as well as certain group-
differentiated rights or “special status” for the Chamorros.

Dana, Pamella J. (1996) "Commercial enterprise ownership among Aboriginal Australian women: Economic control
through entrepreneurship." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Southern California. 209 pp.
The growing influence of Aboriginal women as emerging entrepreneurs presents them as a significant
component of the Australian economy. Moving from traditional subsistence providers through welfare
dependence, Aboriginal women today are positioning themselves in the normally male dominated, non-
Aboriginal world of commercial enterprise. These commercial entrepreneurs are found throughout Australia
where they own a diverse range of ventures from rural bee farms to urban movie production companies. Yet,
despite their numbers, few non-Aboriginal Australians have heard of even one commercial enterprise effort
accomplished by Aboriginal women.
This study takes a first time look at the phenomenon of Aboriginal women commercial entrepreneurs, and
investigates the various cultural, social, economic, and educational factors which affect them in the
entrepreneurial process. Through interviews with 76 Aboriginal Australian women entrepreneurs, the
research focuses on the reasons advanced for commercial enterprise ownership, the impact which social and
cultural factors have had on entrepreneurial endeavours, the educational and economic issues affecting
entrepreneurship, the varied strategies the women develop to succeed in enterprise ownership, and the
prospects they offer to national development efforts.
This study concludes that while social and cultural factors are vitally important to Aboriginal women in their
entrepreneurial choices and commercial endeavours, the women's motivation to be economically
independent, in control of income, and able to care for domestic needs will supersede the social stigma they
risk from entrepreneurship. Yet, there are greater institutional factors which detrimentally affect, if not
outright impede, the entrepreneurial aspirations of Aboriginal women. In particular, the lack of capital
available to Aboriginal women has been recognized as a leading factor affecting their long-term success in
commercial enterprise. Policy recommendations and future research needs are identified in response to the
critical findings of the study.

Danelski, Christine M. (2003) "Trauma and typology: 'The Last of the Mohicans' and its filmed versions (1909-92)."
Ph.D. Dissertation, Claremont Graduate University (The). 193 pp.
This study compares The last of the Mohicans by James Fenimore Cooper with five of its filmed versions:
Leather stocking (1909), The last of the Mohicans (1920), The last of the Mohicans (1932), The last of the
Mohicans (1936) and The last of the Mohicans (1992). These comparisons demonstrate and comment upon
how American ideas about race and gender have been constructed and reconstructed since the 19th century.
Film adaptations are not only a reworking of the original text, but may include any cultural references that
have accumulated around the original or subsequent versions at the particular time the adaptation is made.
Adaptation is fundamentally a phenomenon of repetition. It formally announces its self-consciously
referential status most often by claiming the original text's title as its own. I situate film adaptation next to
two other modes of repetition -- trauma and typology -- phenomena of compulsive repetition -- to understand
why this particular narrative has been revised so many times.
While traumatic repetition is involuntary and due to disassociation, typological exegesis is deliberate and
formal, fundamentally a narrative technique which recycles narrative in response to cultural anxiety around
issues of identity and historical culpability. I locate the impetus for The last of the Mohicans repetition in an
anxiety about national origins and identity, specifically guilt concerning the extirpation of indigenous
peoples during the colonization of North America. This extirpation is the trauma that the repeated narrative
continually represses. The trauma of the 'massacre' by Native Americans of the British and colonials after the
French victory at Fort William Henry in August, 1757 is substituted for the trauma of the extirpation of
Native Americans during the 18th and 19th centuries. Moreover, more often than not, the trauma of the Fort
William Henry 'massacre' is evaded as well. This historical and cultural analysis tracks the colonial and
national treatment of Native Americans, the development of the Hollywood studio feature and how
colonialism, masculinity and race are depicted and re-enacted in these six texts.

Danielson, Dale L. (1992 ) "Comorbidity of substance abuse and other mental disorders among Native Americans."
Ed.D. Dissertation, University of Tulsa (The). 117 pp.
The purpose of this study was to examine the rate of comorbid mental disorders in a sample of Native

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American substance abusers. The subjects were 90 Native Americans currently receiving treatment for
substance abuse problems. None had been previously diagnosed with any other mental disorder. The subjects
were asked to complete a questionnaire about family environment and family substance abuse in the family of
origin. They were also given either the Diagnostic Interview Schedule Screening Inventory (DISSI) for the
adults or the Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents-Revised (DICA-R) for adolescents. This was
done to screen for DSM-III-R diagnoses.
The results were compared with the rates of comorbidity of substance abuse and other disorders from the
National Institute of Mental Health Epidemiological Catchment Area Studies. The present study showed a
significantly higher rate of comorbidity of substance abuse and other mental disorders (p < .001) than the
ECA Study using the Chi Square method. The comorbid rates for substance abuse and depression and
antisocial personality disorder were also significantly higher (p < .001) than the ECA Study.
It was hoped the data from the questionnaire would yield information regarding the aetiology of comorbidity
in this population. It was predicted that a warm nurturing environment in childhood would result in less
comorbidity. In order to test this, the adjectives from the questionnaire regarding parental caretakers and
home environment were subjected to a factor analysis. Four factors were extracted and compared on rates of
comorbidity. The four factors were nurturing, uncaring, authoritarian, and strife-filled. In general, the results
did not support the hypothesis. However, low scores on the nurturing factor were correlated with drug abuse
disorders, generalized anxiety disorder, depression and antisocial personality disorder. There was no
significant relationship between comorbidity and caretaker's drinking.
Recommendations were made for further study, including epidemiological studies to get getter figures on the
incidence and prevalence of mental disorders, including comorbid disorders in the Native American
population. In addition, the results appear to support the need for more individualized assessment and
treatment planning for dual diagnosis in Native American substance abuse treatment programs.

Dark, Alx V. (1998) "Public sphere politics and community conflict over the environment and native land rights in
Clayoquot Sound, British Columbia." Ph.D. Dissertation, New York University. 421 pp.
Based on seven months of fieldwork and subsequent archival research, this dissertation provides a social
history of a 20 year conflict over logging and native land rights in Clayoquot Sound, which lies on the west
coast of British Columbia, Canada. Due to an early alliance between local environmentalists and Nuu-chah-
nulth (formerly Nootka) Indian political leaders, who were pressing for government recognition of Nuu-chah-
nulth aboriginal title, the two political issues of environmental protection and native land rights have been
closely associated in Clayoquot Sound politics. In later years, counter-environmental organizations (known
collectively as the Share Movement) also formed in the area to oppose reductions in logging, in a series of
political processes which generated friction between environmentalists and Nuu-chah-nulth leaders. In
recounting this history of alliances and opposition between local people, my theoretical purpose is to
examine assumptions in social movement theory about the nature of political relations. I argue that local
residents and representatives of government and industry construct and contest social movements and
government authority through public political 'dramas', such as planning committees and protests. These
social dramas provide a public sphere through which residents and institutional representatives enact,
experience and contest political authority and the legitimacy of political relations. Expanding further on the
cultural construction of political relations, I argue that political interaction between residents has been
organized through discourses about social difference (particularly class, urban-rural differences and race,
but also including gender). Finally, new definitions of 'community' arise from these discourses when residents
of the Sound interpret opposition by other residents as an expression of the coercion or co-optation of local
groups by government and industry (seen as external and therefore illegitimate political forces). Increases in
violence and harassment over logging issues in the 1990s can be interpreted in part as a response arising
from these new conceptions of the local community, besieged not only by conflicts over these land policy
issues, but also disrupted by larger economic and social changes.

Daschuk, James W. (2002) "The political economy of Indian health and disease in the Canadian northwest." Ph.D.
dissertation, University of Manitoba (The). 511 pp.
The dissertation identifies the origins of the present disparity of health conditions between Indian
communities and mainstream society in western Canada. It examines the relationship between economics and
health of Indian populations in the Canadian northwest from the early 1eighth century to the end of the 19th
century. It documents the development of the fur trade in relation to changes in the geographical distribution
of aboriginal societies resulting from the differential impact of introduced European diseases. For a period
of 150 years, infections that came as a consequence of trade were the primary source of mortality due to

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illness among First Nations. In addition, social pathologies resulting from European trade strategies affected
the well being of communities in the northwest. Climate and environment contributed to the differential
success of many groups integrated into the global economy through the fur trade.
Canada's acquisition of the northwest changed this pattern. Its commitment to the terms of treaties opened
the west for agricultural development and settlement. The Dominion's development strategy, the National
Policy, coincided with the extinction of the bison, undermining the ability of plains Indians to compel the
government to deliver on their treaty commitments. To facilitate the implementation of its economic and
political order, the Dominion used its famine relief strategy as a means to subjugate them. By the early
1880s, tuberculosis emerged as a full blown epidemic among the Indians of the plains. The spread of
tuberculosis through the Indian population of the plains was the result of the protracted period of
malnutrition. Punitive measures imposed after the brief armed resistance to Dominion hegemony further
weakened the population already largely infected with the disease. Severe mortality weakened the population
already largely infected with the disease. Severe mortality resulted from the spread of acute infectious
disease among the compromised population. Within 15 years of signing treaties many plains populations
declined to their demographic nadir.

Daubenmier, Judith M. (2003) "The Meskwaki and Sol Tax: Reconsidering the actors in action anthropology." Ph.D.
Dissertation, University of Michigan. 394 pp.
In 1969, Native American activist Vine Deloria, Jr. stunned anthropologists with a blistering critique of their
profession in his book Custer died for your sins. Deloria labelled anthropologists a “plague of locusts” that
descended upon Indian communities each summer, living off grant money and gathering information for
books that were irrelevant to poor Indians. Deloria's critique, however, overlooked an effort 20 years earlier
to practice anthropology in a more ethical manner, called “action anthropology.” In 1948, some residents of
the Meskwaki settlement near Tama, Iowa, delivered their own grass-roots critique of anthropology to
graduate students from the University of Chicago. Through subtle hints and blunt questions, they
demonstrated their resentment at being studied and their expectations of reciprocity from the researchers. In
response, University of Chicago anthropologist Sol Tax and his students committed themselves to
collaborating with community members on goals they set. In the encounter, Meskwaki individuals
manipulated their would-be helpers and set limits on their behaviour. Previous analyses of action
anthropology on the Meskwaki settlement focused on its scholarship program and arts and crafts project on
the settlement, but the project's influence went beyond that. Some settlement residents said contact with the
anthropologists deeply influenced them by allowing them to come to know whites for the first time or making
it possible for them to attend college. A decade of carrying out action anthropology on the Meskwaki
settlement also helped to mold Tax's views on federal Indian policy and to establish his credentials as a
consultant in that field. Tax spent much of the rest of his career promoting themes that emerged in his
experiences at Tama -- self-determination for Native Americans, leadership development in Indian youth,
higher education for Indians, and cultural freedom. Until now, knowledge of Tax's contributions to Indian
activism of the 1960s has been limited to his organization of the 1961 American Indian Chicago Conference.
Tax's career, however, had other links to Indian political activity. A close examination of the effects of Tax's
relationship with the Meskwaki shows his influence on Bob Thomas, who developed the concept of internal
colonialism, as well as Tax's role in summer workshops for youth that brought together many of the next
generation of Indian leaders. Thus, the encounter between the Meskwaki and Chicago anthropologists
emerges not only as another way of doing anthropology but also as another source of 1960s Indian activism.

Davies, Sarah J. (1996) "Appropriate planning for Aboriginal self-determination." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of
South Wales.
This thesis investigates the practice of Aboriginal community planning in order to establish how planning by
Aboriginal people can empower them to pursue aspirations for collective self determination. Planning
empowers people if it adds to the information, knowledge and control they have over decisions that affect
their lives. However, much of the planning that is undertaken by governments acts to perpetuate Aboriginal
oppression. The study used action research methods through which the researcher worked as planning
facilitator with Irrwanyere, a large extended Aboriginal family whose ancestors lived in the Simpson Desert,
and Wallaga, a smaller group of Aboriginal people who live on the far south coast of New South Wales.
Investigation of the basis for community self definition was a necessary starting point for establishing how
planning can be appropriate to each group's aspirations for self determination. 'Country and culture'
provided a central structuring principle for the vision, goals and strategies articulated in each planning
process and for addressing issues related to sustainable development. Each case study implemented a

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participatory, developmental planning process and also documented community plans for use in
communication and negotiation with stakeholders. The study found that planners need a wide variety of skills
to be effective in such contexts but foremost the capacity to work with the authority and skills of community
members. It confirms that planning needs to be an on-going, flexible and adaptive process, integrally linked
to management, if it is to achieve its potential for Aboriginal empowerment. The study establishes the
difficulties that Aboriginal people have in obtaining long term support from governments for their planning
and particularly for implementing approaches to community development that are structured around
sustaining their relationships to land and natural resources. It concludes by proposing a strategy for
improved government support for community based planning by Aboriginal people which would also
facilitate Aboriginal participation in government planning processes and the negotiation of regional
agreements about Aboriginal rights, aspirations and resources for self determination.

Davis, Michael G. (1988) "The cultural preadaptation hypothesis: A test case on the southern Plains." Ph.D.
Dissertation, University of Oklahoma (The). 264 pp.
Recent contributions to the Americanist literature suggest that ecological adaptations and cultural
evolutionary statuses constitute levels of preadaptation for contact with large-scale societies. These studies
suggest that those sociocultural systems farthest removed from the universal human heritage of hunting and
gathering and with the highest levels of sociopolitical organization have an evolutionary-based advantage in
contact situations. The cultural preadaptation literature is reviewed and a testable hypothesis formulated.
This preadaptation hypothesis is tested diachronically from the earliest recorded contacts through the early
1980s using southern Plains Indian materials. The hypothesis was not supported by the data reviewed.

Davis, Tracy R. (2001) "The role of First Nations in oil and gas development under federal regulatory regimes:
Options for change and lessons from New Zealand." LL.M. Thesis, University of Ottawa. 144 pp.
The objective of this thesis is to determine what role First Nations have under federal oil and gas regulatory
regimes and to make recommendations to enable them to participate in oil and gas development. The author
argues that there are persuasive legal and policy grounds to support an active role for First Nations in oil
and gas development within their traditional territories. This position is supported through a comprehensive
analysis of three federal oil and gas regimes (Northern, Offshore and Indian Reserve Regimes), their
legislative frameworks, and recent developments in aboriginal jurisprudence and policy. An assessment of
what role First Nations have under the federal environmental assessment regime is undertaken to supplement
the overall analysis. The thesis is further supported by an international comparative component that
highlights contemporary resource management issues in New Zealand.

De Macedo, Patricia M. (1995) "First Nations and the establishment of protected areas in British Columbia: A case
study of the campaign to protect the Kitlope watershed." M.R.M. Thesis, Simon Fraser University. 110 pp.
Although native groups have historically been marginalized in protected area planning processes and
establishment, there have been several instances in which First Nations have sought permanent protection for
portions of their traditional territory. In doing so, they have utilized a variety of mechanisms, including direct
action campaigns, litigation, treaty negotiations and government-initiated processes. First Nations' concerns
regarding land tenure and aboriginal rights, designation options, joint-management and exclusion from
decision-making, often arise during these processes. At times, aboriginal groups have joined with
environmentalists to further their cause, however due to the often different priorities of the two groups, these
coalitions are sometimes unsuccessful. In the campaign to protect the Kitlope watershed in north-western
BC, the Haisla First Nation and Ecotrust, an environmental organization, formed such a coalition. The two
groups successfully achieved protection of the watershed with a minimum of confrontation with industry and
without the massive public attention of many other environmental campaigns. The Haisla Nation's role in the
campaign was distinctive in comparison to other campaigns involving First Nations and contributed greatly
to the Kitlope's protection. Other factors that influenced the final result were the favourable political climate,
the low timber values, the high ecological values of the area and effective campaign management by the
Haisla and Ecotrust. The government-to-government relationship of First Nations to the province is not
recognized nor is aboriginal traditional ecological knowledge incorporated into the site selection or gap
analysis processes. Finally, there is a lack of coordination with treaty negotiations, a link which may be of
considerable importance to the continued viability of existing protected areas.

De Vere, Katherine M. (1995) "Aboriginal diversity and politics in Canada." M.A. Thesis, University of Windsor. 162
pp.

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In assessing the progress toward a mutually acceptable agreement on aboriginal issues between native
Canadians and Canadian governments, it is apparent that several obstacles have come to derail the process.
This study attempts to identify one of those impediments: diversity within the native Canadian community.
This study outlines two particular types of diversity within the native Canadian community: historically-
based diversity and legally-based diversity. It also outlines the role that native Canadian organizations such
as the Assembly of First Nations and the Native Council of Canada have played in articulating this diversity.
The primary findings of this study are: (1) There is certainly historically-based diversity within the native
Canadian community; (2) there is certainly legally-based diversity within the native Canadian community;
and, (3) legal divisions within the native community, particularly those which dictate whether an individual
or group is granted status, have influenced the level of diversity within the native community by creating
different interests and agendas for status and non-status Indians respectively.
The conclusions of this study are that there is a significant amount of diversity which exists within the native
Canadian community, and that therefore there are a variety of interests held therein. In order for a mutually
acceptable agreement to be reached on native issues, Canadian governments must recognize the existence of
this diversity when formulating policies which affect native Canadians. Similarly, native Canadians must
recognize that diversity within their community makes devising a policy which will be acceptable to all is
virtually impossible.

Dean, Bartholomew C. (1995) "Chanting rivers, fiery tongues: Exchange, value and desire among the Urarina of
Peruvian Amazonia." Ph.D. Dissertation, Harvard University. 353 pp.
This is an ethnographic investigation of the Urarina, an indigenous Amazonian society inhabiting the
Chambira Basin of northeastern Peru. It is both a contribution to the political anthropology of social
inequality and to our basic understanding of symbolic forms. The interplay between the cultural and the
material conditions of Urarina society is the dissertation's primary focus: it is an exploration of the ways in
which the Urarina people organize their lives with regards to both subsistence and petty-commodity
production. Broadly speaking, the dissertation is an analysis of the historical reproduction of Urarina society
as it has both been inspired by, and resisted the violence of the colonial and post-colonial encounters. As
such, it explores the Urarina's involvement in regional and global political-economies, namely petty-
commodity production mediated through relations of debt-peonage. Turning to the 'internal' dynamics of
Urarina society, the dissertation critically examines how affinity and consanguinity are both mediated and
constituted by larger processes of marital and communal exchange, the creation of value and interpersonal
desire. Taking as its point of reference the circulation of phenomena and objects as diverse as narcotic
trance, palm-bast cloth, hunted bushmeats, myths, and shamanic wizardry, the dissertation investigates the
processes of detachment, transformation and equivalence corresponding to the Urarina's engagement with
market relations and the resultant commoditization of social life. The aim of examining the Urarina's
involvement in supra-local economic arrangements is to deepen our appreciation of the ways in which local
actors determine and are shaped by large-scale economic systems. Indeed, the thrust of this dissertation is to
expunge the idea of the isolated Amazonian society by attending to the region's long engagement with
purveyors of international capital, and its responses to the overtures of the 'outside world.' Finally, by
exploring the interplay between social practice, systems of belief, political oratory, and mythopoeic
discourse, the dissertation elucidates the Urarina's profound ambivalence towards their own position vis-à-
vis an assimilationist, self-aggrandizing national society.

Debassige, Brent D. L. (2003) "Navigating the rapids and stumbling through the bush: A study in understanding
resiliency through the lens of Anishnaabe." M.Ed. Thesis, Queen's University at Kingston. 183 pp.
I do not pretend to know about the hardships that my ancestors have faced, and I cannot expect my readers to
appreciate the dismemberment of a culture and way of life. I can only attest to the trials and tribulations that
I have faced, which pale in comparison to my people. I have had opportunities that not all of my people can
appreciate, and I try to be thankful for these things. I managed to accomplish a feat with which some
aboriginal people are having difficulty. I successfully completed a high school diploma, a college diploma,
and a university degree. I am Anishnaabe and I am a success, or am I?
The purpose of this qualitative study was to investigate resiliency (educational and cultural) amongst
Anishnaabe secondary students. To accomplish this purpose, I talked to four participants -- two school
completers and two school leavers -- (ages 21 to 32) about their relationship to culture and their perceptions
of their academic success.
The data displayed a moderate Anishnaabe cultural connection amongst the participants during elementary
school and a limited cultural connection during each participant's high school experience. However, upon

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completion of high school, the high school completers maintained a limited cultural orientation, whereas the
non-completers strengthened their connection with traditional Anishnaabe culture.
I have created a thesis that is both symbolic in style and representational in meaning. Defying convention, I
have a constructed a thesis that was as much a process of self-exploration as it was conventional research.
the bulk of the thesis deals with resiliency through the eyes of my participants as well as through subjective
representation. In the context of holistic thought, I have facilitated a process of putting together a
collaborative work that draws on different ways (i.e. academic writing convention [linear] and storytelling
and experience-related writing [holistic]) of thinking and writing. Although the thesis may feel 'disjointed',
the intentional abruptness in the writing may permit some readers to experience the discomfort of turning the
proverbial holistic switch to the linear academic convention. many First nations students are expected to
switch immediately to an academic environment that may be conducive to mainstream cultural, but not
necessarily individual, maintenance. I hope this thesis helps readers relate, understand, and be confused,
because then varying degrees of aware ness have been achieved.

DeHart De Galicia, Monica C. (2001) "What is 'ethnic' about ethnic development? Cultivating community and local
power in Totonicapan, Guatemala." Ph.D. Dissertation, Stanford University. 245 pp.
This dissertation interrogates what is 'ethnic' about ethnic development in the context of the innovative
programs of Cooperación para el Desarrollo Rural de Occidente (CDRO) in the rural indigenous
communities of Totonicapán, Guatemala. CDRO is an explicitly Maya K'iche' organization that creatively
combines traditional cultural practice and modern technologies to construct a unique development model.
Through this structure, CDRO seeks to cultivate local power relative to the Guatemala state and the global
market. My research provides a detailed analysis of how CDRO uses specific components of local culture --
namely, the pop ('woven mat') organizational system and the community as a collective actor -- as concrete
tools for the development process. However, I problematize the notion of a stable, pre-existent ethnic identity
as the starting point for ethnic development by putting CDRO's notions about culture in conversation with
local perceptions of ethnicity in three Totonicapán communities. Based on my ethnographic study of one
model CDRO community and two non-CDRO communities, I argue that 'authentic' ethnic practice is
constantly redefined within the development process. Dynamic interpretations of local culture and its
relationship to development provide a means through which the rural communities strategically organize and
project their collective identity in their articulations with broader political and economic arenas. This study
also examines the concepts of 'local' and 'ethnic' in the context of two of CDRO's most compelling
development projects: it's gender program and its goal of cultivating poder local (local power). I analyze
attempts to develop a gender policy that complies with international development gender priorities, but which
is grounded in local cultural tradition rather than Western feminist theory. Additionally, I demonstrate how
emphasizing the 'local' offers CDRO a powerful political tool that is simultaneously attractive to the rural
ethnic community, global capital, and the development system, yet also reveals ways in which CDRO's
project has been formulated in conversation with the larger processes it appears to oppose. Throughout the
study, I point to how ethnic development functions as an important vehicle for subverting traditional
development priorities and for laying claim to new identities that disrupt the historical associations between
local/ethnic and development.

Dempsey, Catherine L. (2001) "Post-traumatic stress disorder symptomatology among American Indian Vietnam
veterans: Mediators and moderators of the stress-illness relationship." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of
Colorado at Boulder. 266 pp.
Results from the National Vietnam Veterans Readjustment Study (NVSRS) reported high rates of post-
traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among Vietnam Theatre veterans compared to rates in the Vietnam Era and
others of the veterans' generation. Prevalence rates were even higher among minority groups, specifically
Blacks and Hispanics. Results from the American Indian Vietnam Veterans Project (AIVVP) suggested that
American Indian Vietnam veterans were also at increased risk for PTSD. However, not all American Indian
veterans with high levels of trauma exposure developed PTSD, which suggests that other contributing factors
specific to American Indian populations may also affect their vulnerability to PTSD outcomes.
The objective of this study was to identify potential predictors of PTSD symptomatology across three military
timeframes and to examine the relationships among personal resources, trauma, and PTSD symptomatology
in American Indian Vietnam veterans. It was hypothesized that high levels of social support and ethnic
identity may enhance one's psychosocial resilience to stress, resulting in positive health outcomes. This study
was based on AIVVP data collected by the National centre for American Indian and Alaska Native Mental
Health Research (NCAIANMHR) at the University of Colorado Health Sciences centre.

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Interviews with 621 American Indian Vietnam veterans living on or near their reservations assessed
predisposing factors, characteristics of military service, military and non-military trauma, personal
resources, and PTSD symptomatology. The results of hierarchical linear regression analyses showed a
strong relationship between social support and PTSD symptomatology across all time flames. Although
results did not support the stress-buffering hypothesis, combat trauma and social support during the military
interacted significantly. In addition, post-military social support appeared to mediate the relationship
between trauma and PTSD symptomatology. Identifying a relationship between social support and PTSD has
implications for the development of interventions used to treat PTSD in ethnic minorities. The impact of
personal resources on PTSD symptomatology may be important for traumatic survivors and long-term
strategies for victims of PTSD.

Dennis, Jeffrey W. (2003 ) "American revolutionaries and Native Americans: The South Carolina experience." Ph.D.
Dissertation, University of Notre Dame. 359 pp.
This dissertation examines the impact of Native Americans upon American Revolutionary leaders and the
course of independence in South Carolina. Throughout British North America, members of the colonial elite
engaged with Indians. In the lower South, this interaction was especially extensive and significant to the
creation of the United States. Without their experiences with Native Americans, Thomas Sumter, Francis
Marion and Andrew Pickens would be unknown today; William Henry Drayton may have remained a
loyalist; and Henry Laurens, Christopher Gadsden and William Moultrie might not have achieved the status
and skills needed to help guide their state and nation through the Revolution. Key theatres for South
Carolina's colonial-native experience included the Anglo-Cherokee War, frontier trade and diplomacy, and
western land speculation. Besides helping to facilitate self-sufficiency, relations with Native Americans
helped shape the manner in which leading colonists approached the Revolution. Specifically, conservative
members of the southern elite such as Henry Laurens and John Rutledge identified their patriotism with
greater tolerance towards Indians than radical leaders such as Christopher Gadsden and William Henry
Drayton. The radicals rose to power with the coming of the Revolution and independence. During 1776, they
equated love of country with enmity towards Indians. Great violence was visited upon the Cherokees that
year; additional attacks were mounted thereafter. This violence expressed a deepening racism against
Indians in a region where racism against Africans already was deeply embedded. Following the war, some
conservative revolutionaries such as Andrew Pickens worked to protect the southern nations. Concerned with
national honour, during the late 1780s and 1790s, this leadership envisioned a strong central government
that could order the frontier and promote coexistence between natives and settlers. With the election of 1800,
however, southern radicals regained command. The southeastern nations eventually were removed. Leading
manuscript sources for this dissertation include records from the British Colonial Office, the Lyman
Copeland Draper collection, and various materials from the Charleston Library Society, South Caroliniana
Library, and South Carolina History Society. Many published documents and contemporary sources also are
included.

Desmarais, Diedre. (1998 ) "The Native Women's Association of Canada's struggle to secure gender equality rights
within the Canadian constitution." M.A. Thesis, University of Regina (The). 158 pp.
This thesis examines the evolution of the Native Women's Association of Canada as they embraced the
challenge to secure aboriginal rights for all First Nation women in Canada's Constitution. Between 1978 and
1995, the Native Women's Association vigorously pursued what they believed was their right to participate in
Constitutional negotiations as equal partners. They did not acknowledge present day First Nation political
organizations as being true First Nation governing bodies.
Thousands of Canadian First Nation women have been denied their rights as aboriginal persons due to the
Indian Act and a consequence of that legislation has meant that First Nation women have been marginalized
in Canadian society. Present day First Nation political governing bodies are a product of that legislation and
many political leaders sought to legitimize denial of aboriginal rights to First Nation women citing that true
self government meant the right to determine membership. The Native Women's Association of Canada chose
to challenge that premise using the very political tools which denied their right to now reassert them.
This thesis explores that struggle by examining the approach and position taken by both the national political
organizations and the Native Women's Association of Canada concluding that true self government does
mean determination of membership but that the women's rights to equality was of primary importance.

Devrome, Robert J. (1991 ) "Indian education: Resistance to internal colonialism." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of
Alberta. 165 pp.

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This thesis is about the asymmetrical relations between Canada and the Indian Nations. It reviews colonial
and internal colonialism theory to describe the social, legal, political and economic relations between
superordinate and subordinate cultures. The history of the development of Canadian Indian policy is
described to explain the powers of the Canadian Government over Indian people and the education of Indian
children. Internal colonialism theory is used as a framework for the analysis of the relationship. It is also
used to show how the legal and administrative powers of Canada affect the individual and collective social,
civil and political rights of Indian people. The historical relations between the Joseph Bighead Cree and
Canada are described to show the realities of the asymmetrical relationship, and to provide a historical
context to the resistance of the Band to the structures that control them. Resistance theory is used in this
thesis to explain the social and political measures taken by the Joseph Bighead Band Government to change
the relationship with Canada. The self-defined aboriginal rights and powers of the Band are described. The
ideological support for the resistance, by the parents, students and Elders of the Band, is also described to
show the level of commitment to change that exists among the Joseph Bighead Cree.

Dickson, Elizabeth J. (1988) "Indians, law and land claims problems and postulates regarding juridical self-
determination for the Dene Nation." M.A. Thesis, Simon Fraser University.

DiNova, Joanne R. (2003) "Spiralling webs of relation: Movements toward an indigenist criticism." Ph.D.
Dissertation, University of Waterloo. 295 pp.
This dissertation builds on indigenous theory as evident in the writing of Willie Ermine, Gregory Cajete,
Craig Womack, Jace Weaver, Laurie Anne Whitt, Linda Tuhiwai Smith, Viola Cordova, Dennis McPherson,
and others. It works toward a criticism that, in accordance with the precepts of such theory, is community-
oriented. It argues for an examination of literature in terms of its function for (or against) the community, in
the expansive sense of the term. The examination of texts includes, perhaps emphasizes, critical writing about
native literature and people, such that, in many ways, the dissertation is more meta-critical than critical. It
seeks less to produce exhaustive criticisms of literary works, than to suggest the preparatory need for a re-
examination of prevailing approaches to indigenous literature. It does, however, engage in some limited
examinations of selected works of literature from an indigenist position.
In dealing with indigenous literature, the dissertation suggests that aboriginal theory offers a compelling
alternative to mainstream approaches. Postmodernism (which prevails theoretically in literary criticism) is
characterized by fragmentation, but aboriginal theory, which informs much of the literature, takes a fluid
view of language and existence and emphasizes a vibrant and pervasive connectedness. The criticism that
emerges in this dissertation, then, evaluates critical and literary texts according to the discursive action of
the text for (or against) the community. In addition to examining texts for social function, however, this
criticism reads from and looks for an indigenous worldview and attempts to establish connections of its own
to all of Creation. In other words, the dissertation seeks to infuse the practice of criticism itself with the
aboriginal worldview evident in the literature.

Dion-Buffalo, Yvonne. (1996) "Four generations: A story of a family of Plains Cree women." Ph.D. Dissertation,
State University of New York at Buffalo. 239 pp.
Canadian Indian history is about the gradual and ongoing dispossessions of land, natural resources, rights of
self-determination and other things of value to the indigenous peoples since the arrival of the Europeans. The
losses to indigenous nations included the great buffalo herds and access to other hunting and fishing
resources. Among the stories central to this history is that of the Indigenous women who were enfranchised
after Confederation in 1869. Their day-to-day experiences have gone largely unwritten and the impact of
enfranchisement on their lives remains generally obscured. I have re-examined this issue and how it has
impacted four generations of a family of Plains Cree women living in the prairie provinces of Alberta and
Saskatchewan. In 1946, when Monica Dion-Buffalo married nonstatus Indian and World War II veteran
George Gladeau, she lost her Indian status under Canadian law. She was removed from the Hobbema
membership rolls as were numerous Indian women despite protests from various Indian communities across
Canada. She experienced George Gladeau's family's history of displacement from the Passpasschase reserve
in 1888 -- a people wrongfully deprived of both land and rights as Indigenous nations. Canada has made
little attempt to retrieve the voices of these dispossessed peoples and to hear what has happened to them.
Their stories were muted and their voices relegated to the margins of western society. It can even be said
with some truth that within the native circle they are looked down upon. Sometimes their misdeeds appear in
newspapers with no adequate social context given to their stories. They do not write about themselves for the
most part because they do not have access to a literary education nor to publishers, increasingly, because

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they have forgotten significant pieces of their history. The people within these stories do not understand what
has happened to them and how things got to be the way they are. This dissertation explores one Cree family's
history. First, a background was provided for the personal stories which were framed within an Indigenous
framework. Moving beyond literature read from many different western disciplines, a deliberate shift to
native oracy was made. The development of such a frame includes the evocation of cultural and personal
memory. This dissertation is a work in process and is the production of a distinctive form about the
traditional lives and experiences of four generations of Plains Cree women.

Dion, Susan D. (2002) "Braiding histories: Responding to the problematics of Canadians hearing First Nations post-
contact experiences." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Toronto. 300 pp.
What is remembered and forgotten in the study of aboriginal people and the study of Canada contributes to
an understanding of history that allows, indeed encourages, Canadians to distance themselves from and
abdicate their responsibility for attending to the ongoing conditions of injustice that are a part of the day-to-
day lived experiences of First Nations people in Canada. The Braiding histories project investigates and
describes how teachers and students comprehend and make use of texts that detail post-contact histories
between First Nations people and Canadian communities. It is a two part study that addresses both what it
means to (re)tell and the problematics of hearing. The first strand of this thesis addresses issues and
challenges in producing texts that contribute to a reformation of historical memory. Investigating dynamics
of denial, I explore the problematics of non-Aboriginal people hearing First Nations post-contact experiences
and investigate the pedagogical possibilities and difficulties of presenting testimony bearing on post-contact
First Nations -- Canadian History. Reflecting on the process of writing a series of stories titled Braiding
histories: Learning from the lives of First Nations people I think carefully about questions of (re)presenting
the lived experiences of Aboriginal people in the service of pedagogy. The second strand of the study is a
critical ethnography involving an investigation of what happened when the Braiding histories stories were
taken up in intermediate history classrooms. Using questions initiated by post-structural theory as a guide, I
look at how the teachers' understanding of their responsibilities as teachers, the structure of the school and
the history class in particular affect their approach to teaching the stories. The work of the project reveals
multiple and complex ways in which discourses of professionalism construct an approach to the stories that
reproduces dominant ways of knowing. The research contributes to an understanding of the force of
discursive practices in classrooms and opens up new possibilities for disrupting teaching and learning in
schools.

Dockstator, Mark S. (1994) "Towards an understanding of aboriginal self-government: A proposed theoretical model
and illustrative factual analysis." D.Jur. Dissertation, York University. 218 pp.
Aboriginal self-government will continue to be a major issue in Canada. This dissertation presents the
necessary theoretical background that, although developed from the philosophical teachings of aboriginal
society, serves as the basic framework for a more complete and comprehensive understanding of both the
aboriginal and the non-aboriginal perspective to self-government.
The work is divided into two parts: theoretical model and historical application. The first part sets out a
model based on traditional aboriginal philosophy which analyses the interaction between aboriginal society
and western society. In these five hundred years, the relationship has proceeded through five stages --
separation, amalgamation, divergence, dysfunction, and negotiation -- from the arrival of the first Europeans
in North America to the present negotiations on aboriginal self-government. In every stage, the
characteristics inherent in aboriginal society and western society are discussed, along with the internal
institutions in each society and the way these institutions affected their relationship. From the aboriginal
perspective the model is important in presenting the broad philosophical principles of both aboriginal and
western society which must be understood before there can be any useful discussion of the detailed
institutional arrangements of self-government.
The second part looks at several historical events chosen to illustrate the stages and characteristics of the
model: the Royal Proclamation of 1763, the constitutions of the United States and Canada, the Indian Acts of
1876 and 1927, the White Paper of 1969, the Supreme Court of Canada decisions of Calder (1971),
Nowegijick (1983), and Mitchell (1990), the Constitution Act of 1982, and, finally, the Charlottetown Accord
of 1992. Again, both the aboriginal and the western perspective of these events are discussed, leading to the
conclusion that, by the early 1990s, the basis for a common understanding of the self-government concept
had been established.

Doerr, Neriko M. (2000) "Learning to be different: The creation of subjects at a secondary school in Aotearoa New

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Zealand." Ph.D. Dissertation, Cornell University. 476 pp.
This dissertation investigates the process of the creation of national subjects and the sense of differences in
an educational setting in Aotearoa New Zealand in the 1990s. Aotearoa New Zealand is a former British
settler colony coming to terms with three major shifts: its redefinition of nationhood from an 'England in the
South Seas' to a 'Pacific country;' the re-positioning of the indigenous people, Mäori, and the descendants of
the settlers, Pakeha; and an ongoing dismantling of the welfare state. I argue that, amidst these changes, the
sense of nationhood and ethnic, class, and gender differences are inculcated in students through diverse
practices at school. Each chapter illuminates different facets of this process with detailed analyses of
everyday practices, observed during a long-term ethnographic fieldwork at a secondary school, Waikaraka
College (an alias). First, this dissertation discusses the effects of schooling and argues that the school creates
interchangeable subjects by constantly shuffling students into groups and by forcing them to temporarily
form groups within the given mix of students. Through this process, school transforms students from the
family-based relationship of unique individuals to being national subjects and labour power that are based
on the interchangeability of individuals. Second, this dissertation examines the process by which students
label themselves and its link to the students' positions at school. For example, most students in the bilingual
(Mäori/English) classes identify themselves as being Mäori, while some students outside the bilingual class,
who are potentially considered as Mäori, describe themselves as having Mäori in them. Third, this
dissertation is concerned with the emerging relationship of nationalism and the market. Due to the free
marketization of education, many schools began seeking more non-governmental sources of income, such as
accepting foreign students with high fees. This internationalization of the student body, paradoxically, led to
the strengthening of New Zealanders' sense of nationhood through the foreign students exoticized cultural
performances, which were used to justify this sale of schooling as exposing students to 'different cultures.'
Through these analyses, this dissertation illuminates the minute processes of identification at school and their
relationships to the changing social landscapes.

Donald, Dwayne T. (2003) "Elder, student, teacher: A Kainai curriculum metissage." M.Ed. Thesis, University of
Lethbridge. 206 pp.
Aboriginal education is an ambiguous field of study that presents many challenging dilemmas for educators
today. A major part of this ambiguity stems from the tendency to emphasize traditional cultural values,
Aboriginal identity, and experiences as distinct and unique, and therefore essentially different from
mainstream approaches to education. By drawing upon the memories and narratives of my own Métis family
as well as the history and memories of the people of the Kainai community from the Blood Reserve in
Alberta, I confront some of these dilemmas in both personal and collective ways. Following Eduoard
Glissant, Francoise Lionnet, and Mark Zuss, I explore the character of the Kainai community as a métissage
of texts and genres which overlap, interact, juxtapose, and mix the textual contributions of an elder, a
student, and a teacher (myself) to create a more complicated portrait of the Kainai community that stretches
beyond the 'us versus them' binary. These texts are then interpreted using a (post)colonial framework largely
based upon the works of Frantz Fanon, Gerald Vizenor, Homi Bhabha, and Neal McLeod.

Dorsett, Shaunnagh G. (1996) "The Crown's fiduciary duties to indigenous Australians." M.A. Thesis, University of
Calgary. 259 pp.
In Canada and the United States, the Crown or government's fiduciary obligation to Indigenous peoples can
be a powerful tool in protecting aboriginal rights. Since the recognition of native title in Mabo v. State of
Queensland (No. 2) (1992) 175 C.L.R. 1, attention has turned to the issue of how native title is to be protected
and whether the fiduciary principle could similarly provide protection for aboriginal rights in Australia.
However, significant differences exist between the legal systems of Canada, the United States and Australia.
These differences make it unlikely that the fiduciary principle will play a major role in Australia in the
protection of aboriginal rights. In Australia, the fiduciary principle should be recognized as merely one of a
number of appropriate mechanisms for the protection of these rights. Although North American experiences
in the protection of aboriginal rights can provide a useful guide, care should be taken in applying
jurisprudence from other jurisdictions.

Doty, Colleen. (1996) ""For the peace of the community and the good order of society": Regulating aboriginal
marriage relations in British Columbia, 1870-1940." M.A. Thesis, Simon Fraser University. 121 pp.
Primarily using missionary and Department of Indian Affairs records, this thesis explores the confluence of
interest of three different groups of men who were united in their efforts to reform aboriginal marriage and
sexual relations in British Columbia. Between 1870 and 1940, missionaries, government agents, and Indian

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men lobbied the federal government to initiate reforms that would regulate the relationships between native
men and women. Although these groups had different objectives to reforming the sexual relations of Indian
people, they agreed that the intimate relations of aboriginal people were fundamentally tied to the betterment
of society as a whole. These moral reformers believed that the state of marriage relations was highly
reflective of the state of society in general. In this way, the family was regarded as a microcosm of society.
Not only did the institution of marriage regulate the sexual, gender, economic, and/or rank and status
relations between the specific parties involved, but moral reformers of the late 19th and early 20th century
believed that the institution of marriage regulated 'larger' societal values. Because of this conviction,
missionaries, government agents, and Indian men -- all hoping to improve their society and community
appealed to the state for greater intervention into the sexual relations of Indian people.

Dowling, Peter J. (1998) "''A great deal of sickness'': Introduced diseases among the Aboriginal people of colonial
southeast Australia, 1788-1900." Ph.D. Dissertation, Australian National University. 370 pp.
Palaeopathological studies have sought to build up a picture of Australian Aboriginal health before
European settlement in 1788, and epidemiological studies of Aboriginal health in the 20th century are now
legion. But, despite a growing body of literature on Aboriginal history in the intervening colonial period, this
remains an under-studied period from the viewpoint specifically of Aboriginal health.
This thesis is a contribution to filling that gap through an examination of documentary and skeletal evidence
on the changing bio-medical situation experienced by Aboriginal populations of Southeast Australia from
1788 to 1900. This thesis examines one of the major biological components of this change -- the diseases that
were introduced into Australian Aboriginal populations during the process of colonization. The
epidemiology, timing, diffusion of diseases are considered with specific attention given to infectious and
respiratory diseases that were responsible for causing major epidemics of morbidity and mortality.
A medical model for the contact period in the late 18th and 19th centuries is proposed. This model considers
three major stages in the disease environment of Aboriginal populations in Southeast Australia; a pre-
contact stage with endemic pathogens causing chronic diseases and limited epidemics, an early contact stage
where introduced exotic human diseases cause severe epidemics of infectious and respiratory diseases among
Aboriginal populations, and a third stage where remaining Aboriginal populations were institutionalised on
government and mission settlements and were subjected to a high level of mortality from the introduced
diseases.
The major epidemic diseases during the early contact stage were smallpox, syphilis, tuberculosis, influenza,
and measles. Each of these diseases were responsible for excessive morbidity and mortality. During the
period of institutionalization infectious and respiratory diseases were responsible for over 50% of recorded
deaths on eight separate Aboriginal settlements in Southeast Australia. The major diseases recorded as
causes of death were tuberculosis, bronchitis, pneumonia, diarrhoea and dysentery.
Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australian infant mortality rates are calculated to provide an indicator to
compare the state of health of the two populations. Aboriginal rates were high when compared to the non-
Aboriginal populations of Victoria and South Australia. The rates reveal a substantial health differential
between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations. Aboriginal infant mortality has improved into the latter
quarter of the 20th century but the corresponding improvement in non-Aboriginal infant mortality has been
at a much higher rate. The gap between the health status of each has widened rather than narrowed over the
last 100 years.

Downing, Paul J. (1995) "Applying a post-modern framework to native self-government in Canada." M.A. Thesis,
Concordia University. 122 pp.
Due to their historical occupation of this country prior to European settlement Aboriginal people have
special status in this country. Long viewed as wards of the Canadian state, Aboriginal people are no longer
willing to remain in that position. Today natives are exerting pressure on the Canadian state to recognize
them as self-governing people. This demand for self-government is one of the most complex issues facing the
Canadian state and threatens the sovereignty of the nation-state. To date, a number of attempts have been
made at arriving at a working form of native self-government. The Canadian state has been unsuccessfully
trying to develop a universal concept for self-government, applicable for all natives and binding to all ten
provinces. Instead what it should attempt is a community-based post-modern approach. Where each native
community is consulted as to what type of self-government that particular community wishes to realize.

Doyle-Bedwell, George H. (1998) "Whose face anyway? Images of First Nations protest and resistance in Kahnawake
and Kanesatake, Kanien'kehaka territory 1990: A study in the social construction of voice and image." M.A.

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Thesis, Dalhousie University. 164 pp.
Many images are presented in the mass media coverage of an event. In the case of print media, those images
are found both in print and in photographs. I argue that, following the ideas presented by Berger and
Luckmann (1966) and Herman and Chomsky (1988), the images are neither made by nor are they
representative of the persons being reported on. This is especially true of images of First Nations protest.
Although other writers, Baylor (1996) and Miller (1993) for example, have presented a similar theme, never,
has this topic been written from a perspective that honours a mixed blood Mi'kmaw perspective while
exploring the subject in a Canadian context. Furthermore, I use personal experience methods in the design
and writing of this thesis in conjunction with my mixed blood Mi'kmaw voice. That combination means that
my thesis is also a personal story. Therefore, I wrote it in a story-telling manner.
I compared the images via a content analysis design, both in text and photograph, of the resistance to
colonial oppression by the Kanien'kehaka (Mohawk) at Kahnawake and Kanesatake (commonly known as the
'Oka Crisis') in the Summer of 1990 as presented in the Micmac News, Windspeaker, and Maclean's
magazine. My research was designed as a case study, therefore, it provides an understanding in depth rather
than in breadth.
My results support the Berger and Luckmann and Herman and Chomsky theses, that there was a definite
difference in the reporting of content and cultural context in the three periodicals. Furthermore, the
Maclean's coverage presented a stereotypically violent image of First Nations people. The Micmac News and
Windspeaker expressed information from a personal experience perspective as would be expected from First
Nations Traditions.
Since the Maclean's images represent stereotypical views of First Nations people, I suggest, following Baylor
and Miller, that those images act as a detrimental agent in First Nations and Euro-Canadian relations.
Stereotypical images, after Miller (1993) and Seigal (1989), may, if internalised (as I did), have a detrimental
effect on health. Therefore, i invite future researchers to explore the role of media images as an issue of First
Nations peoples' health.

Dreyer, Doris. (2005) "Impact and benefits agreements: Do the Ross River Dena benefit from mineral projects?" M.A.
Thesis, University of Northern British Columbia. 136 pp.
Impact and Benefits Agreements (IBAs) are arrangements between indigenous communities and industry to
secure long-term local benefits from resource development projects. These local benefits include matters
such as employment, training, economic development, business opportunities, social, cultural and community
services, environmental protection, and cash payments. Despite the increasing use of IBAs in remote regions
such as Alaska and the northern regions of Australia, Canada and Russia only limited information is
available about key requirements for successful IBAs. This thesis presents a case study undertaken in
collaboration with the Ross River Dena First Nation (Yukon). The study analyses the success of two IBAs
negotiated by the Ross River Dena for mineral projects, through the use of a theoretical IBA framework
developed from a review of current IBA literature. As the two analysed IBAs differed in outcomes, it was
possible to suggest criteria for success and failure of the agreements. These criteria can be used as
hypotheses in further study and issues of caution for other indigenous groups entering IBA negotiations with
industry.

Drzewieniecki, Joanna E. (1996) "Indigenous politics, local power, and the state in Peru, 1821-1968." Ph.D.
Dissertation, State University of New York at Buffalo. 544 pp.
This study uses a historical structural approach to analyze indigenous politics in the Peruvian Andes from
1821 to 1968 with particular attention to the distribution of power in the sierra, the political culture of
indigenous people and other Peruvians, and indigenous people's repertoire of political strategies. It is argued
that elite power was limited by various geographical, ecological, economic, and political factors that
provided indigenous people with opportunities to limit domination and advance their interests. Particular
emphasis is given to the role of elite conflicts, the considerable variation over time and space in the economic
situations of all sectors of sierra society, and the strength of indigenous political organization. Addressing
current debates regarding 'Andean culture,' this study concludes that the political behaviour of indigenous
people had its sources in the dynamic interaction of evolving institutional and cultural structures with roots
in Andean, Spanish, and Peruvian criollo traditions. Structures such as indigenous political organization and
legal norms, dualism, factionalism, reciprocity, kinship structure, and Peruvian legal culture were
continually recreated and modified in daily political interactions and had an impact on political behaviour
throughout the period. The term 'Andean culture' continues to be useful once it is redefined to take into
account cultural change and when it is linked to ethnicity. An analysis of indigenous strategies in the

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Republican period based on selected cases shows that indigenous people had a basic repertoire of political
strategies for dealing with the rest of Peruvian society including the maintenance of their own political
institutions, alliance formation, negotiation, lodging of complaints, use of the Peruvian legal system, and
selective use of violence. New findings include the influence of intra-community political behaviour on
dealings with outsiders, the importance of traditional authorities in limiting abuses against indigenous
people, significantly greater intra- and inter-community cooperation on abuses than on land issues, the high
salience of political autonomy as a community goal, and the benefits of alliances on the local and national
levels. The evidence supports other recent research which demonstrates that indigenous political strategies in
the 19th and early 20th centuries were much more effective than previously hypothesized.

DuBois, Joan M. A. (2004 ) "Government termination policy and Canadian Indians: A fourth policy reality." M.A.
Thesis, University of Manitoba (The). 104 pp.
During the past thirty years Canadian 'Indian' policy has undergone significant changes. There is consensus
amongst First Nations people that the 1969 White Paper, although formally retracted by the federal
government in the early 1970s, has provided the framework for subsequent Canadian 'Indian' policy.
In this thesis a distinction is made between 'Indian' and' Aboriginal' policy whereby 'Indian' policy refers to
those groups of people legally defined as Indian according to the Indian Act. The policy distinction is needed
because it is these indigenous peoples that were the focus of the Statement of the Government on Indian
Policy (commonly known as the 1969 White Paper). While the literature shows that Indian policy was
formulated according to three policy goals (civilization, protection, and assimilation), this study will
investigate the extent to which termination and genocide was a fourth, and continued, federal Indian policy
objective. Indian termination policy has usually been discussed in reference to the American Indian
experience. Although termination and genocide are rarely allowed to enter into First Nations and indigenous
'Indian' discourse in Canada, First Nations and non-First Nations writers state that genocide has and
continues to be the indigenous experience in Canada.
As a fourth policy reality in Canada and part of the socio-political ideology of the indigenous 'Indian' or
First Nations in Canada, termination can be termed as the process and procedure in Indian policy while
genocide is the ideological frame of reference. In order to assess to what extent the 1969 White Paper has
influenced 'Indian' policy during the last ten years in Canada, a comparative analysis between the 1969
White Paper and the 1994 Manitoba Framework Agreement, First Nations Governance 2001, and the First
Nations Land Management Act will be included.
Early in the literature search, attention was paid to reviewing Indian policy documents and written materials.
Sally Weaver's 1981 work on Canadian Indian policymaking and the 1969 White Paper served as starting
points. I determined that 1982 would be the 'cut-off' year whereby Indian policy sources written before 1982
would be included. This cut-off date took into consideration the 1982 patriation of the Constitution as I
assumed that the new constitution would have ramifications for Indian policy. Post 1982 policy literature was
also reviewed and a further distinction was made resulting in the placement of Indian policy as part of
overall Aboriginal policy. First Nations policy becomes increasingly part of the discourse as a component of
Aboriginal policy or Indian policy and the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples is included as a
definitive example of Aboriginal policy.
A select grouping of policy documents pertaining to Indians, as defined by the Indian Act, are part of a
comparative analysis that also takes into account Canadian public policy-making in general. It is in this
section of the thesis that Indian termination policy is revealed as one of the three historic policy objectives of
the federal government.
'Generic' policy terms and analyses are applied to Indian policy and this discussion forms much of the thesis
chapters. By bringing public policy-making into the analysis of
Indian policy, any similarities across documents become apparent. The comparative analysis method was
necessary in order to determine the extent that the 1969 White Paper has been incorporated into subsequent
Indian policy.
My research shows that, although formally and publicly retracted by the federal government, the 1969 White
Paper policies were incorporated into future Indian policy initiatives. The important point is that the White
Paper policy proposals would not necessarily find their way into the most recognizable form of Indian policy,
the Indian Act, but would be manifest in related legislation pertaining to Indians and Indian lands. The study
concludes by showing that termination, and ultimately genocide will be a realized policy objective by
termination of 'Indian' ties to Reserve land.

Dudziak, Suzanne. (2000) "The politics and process of partnership: A case study of the Aboriginal Healing and

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Wellness Strategy." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Toronto. 420 pp.
This dissertation explores new aboriginal-Canadian relations that seek to move beyond colonial social
relations and discourses. While both aboriginal and Canadian societies may desire a just and workable
relationship, competing visions and understandings of what constitutes the post-colonial operate as a sub-
text in actual policy negotiations between aboriginal and Canadian governments. Cultural difference, as
articulated through aboriginal epistemology and embodied in the aboriginal vision of co-existence, emerges
as an unexplored terrain in liberal discourse. This helps to explain why many attempts at dialogue fail at the
negotiating table. In addressing the issue of difference I argue that while liberal discourses may recognize
aboriginality as part of a pluralistic worldview, the failure to enter into and embrace the content of that
difference prevents new, truly bi-cultural relations from emerging. Because the content of difference is not
entered into, an important epistemological dimension is left out of most analyses of aboriginal-Canadian
relations. A discussion of aboriginal epistemology and postmodern positions on the issue of difference offers
a partial resolution and way forward. Following Leonard, a move from domination and oppression requires
a dual commitment to difference and to solidarity that is based on a different ethic, that of interdependence.
To understand the implications of this possibility for aboriginal-Canadian co-existence, I analyze the
development of the Aboriginal Healing and Wellness Strategy as a case study in joint policy-making
involving a partnership between aboriginal organizations and government ministries in Ontario. As a unique
exercise, this partnership provides an instructive example of how such relations can be constructed when
aboriginal difference is taken into account and employed. Based on participants' accounts and my own
engagement with aboriginal epistemology, this case study reveals key dynamics in terms of the politics and
the processes that can facilitate and impede movement towards an aboriginal post-colonial vision of co-
existence. The journey from the colonial to the post-colonial involves a shift from dichotomous ways of
conceptualizing difference in relation to sameness towards a more wholistic, inclusive and dynamic
conception that incorporates difference and commonality discovered in the process of co-operating together.

Duran, Bonnie M. (1997) "The struggles and outcomes of colonial and indigenous discourse about Indians and
alcohol: A historic and contemporary analysis." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California, Berkeley. 220
pp.
Alcohol-related problems continue to be a major source of morbidity and mortality among Native Americans
in the United States. While the predominant amelioration theories and approaches used in Public Health are
important sources of intervention, they do not go far enough in illuminating the socio-cultural history of the
problem nor do they describe the popularity or content of current amelioration efforts found in grass roots
'Indian Country.' Public health theories and approaches have been relatively ineffective both in preventing
the problem and in reducing consequences for Indian people and society in general. Using a poststructuralist
framework, this study traces the origins and functions of the drunken Indian stereotype in colonial America,
and Native American resistance to those constructions. Secondly, it investigates present-day American Indian
collective action related to alcohol, and explains its inherent aims, mechanisms of change, and relationship
to older, colonial struggles. This research found that historically, alcohol was used as a metonomy by both
sides of the Indian/White power struggle to define the meaning and value of ethnic identity, and to provide
the colonization and its resistance's moral grounding. Alcohol, as a polysemic cultural artefact, played a
profound role in the production, colonization and subjection of Native people both materially and
symbolically. Contrary to popular culture beliefs, Native people have mounted successful alcohol-related
amelioration efforts throughout history. Alcohol continues to be an important cultural artefact for Native
Americans in the battle over wellness and a self-determined identity. The discourses of current Indian
collective action challenges expert, popular and Native specific views on alcohol meanings and norms, racial
essentialism, cultural identity, and racial hierarchy. The Sobriety Movement positively effects adherents by
providing prescriptions about a substance-free cultural identity, bi-culturalism, and social support networks
to support these changes, while uncovering the discursive processes of internalised oppression and cultural
shame. The movement is beneficial in both Indian Country and American culture by supporting normative
belief and behavioural changes, multiculturalism, and a less divisive conception of racial research and
practice are discussed.

Dyer, Linda C. (1994) "Assessing depression in American Indian children." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of
Wisconsin -- Madison (The). 83 pp.
American Indian people are perhaps the most severely disadvantaged group within the United States. Indian
adolescents exhibit higher rates of suicide, alcoholism, drug abuse, high school drop-outs, and out-of-home
placements than any other group. Recent research efforts are beginning to explore depression and suicide in

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Indian adolescents. However, the research on Indian children is almost completely missing. The purpose of
this pilot study is to assess depression in American Indian children and compare the results with the current
findings of childhood depression in general. The Children's Depression Inventory (CDI; Kovacs andeck,
1977) and the Reynolds' Child Depression Scale (RCDS; Reynolds, 1989) were administered to 33 American
Indian children aged 8 to 12 years. A boarding school environment was used to access a variety of different
tribes. The Teacher Report Form (TRF; Achenbach and Edelbrock, 1986) was administered to teachers, with
a focus on the distress index scales. Differences between the younger group (8 and 9 year-olds) and the older
group (11 and 12 year-olds) were examined for age-related distinctions. The Children's Action Tendency
Scale (CATS; Deluty, 1979) was also administered. The CATS explores behavioural tendencies of
aggression, submission, and assertion and was used to compare the personality characteristics of children
diagnosed with depression. The Children's Hassles and Uplifts Scales (CHS, CUS; Kanner, Feldman,
Weinberger and Ford, 1987) were also given to examine possible relationships to adaptational outcomes.
The efforts of this pilot study were to gain a better understanding of depression in American Indian children,
hopefully leading to future research on prevention before Indian children reach the critical ages of
adolescence.

Edmonson, Jimmie R. (2000) "Hopelessness, self-efficacy, self-esteem, and powerlessness in relation to American
Indian suicide." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of North Texas. 118 pp.
The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between the independent variables of age, gender,
residence, tribal affiliation, and perceived government control over tribal rights and the dependent variables
of hopelessness, self-efficacy, and self-esteem. These attitudes are then explored as to their relationship to
possible feelings of powerlessness among American Indians.
The survey instruments used are the Beck Hopelessness Scale consisting of 20 items (Beck, Weissman, Lester,
and Trexler, 1974), (Reproduced by permission of publisher, Psychological Corporation), the Self-Efficacy
Scale consisting of 30 items (Sherer, Maddox, Merchandante, Prentice-Dunn, Jacobs, and Rodgers, 1982)
(Reproduced by permission of Dr. Ronald W. Rogers), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale consisting of 10
items (Rosenberg, 1972) (Reproduced by permission of Dr. Florence Rosenberg) and a demographic
questionnaire consisting of 6 items. These instruments were administered to 60 American Indians that make
up the sample population of 25 respondents from tribal lands (reservation setting) and 35 respondents from
an urban setting.
Statistical analysis consists of crosstabulations using Chi-Square and t-tests (used to verify Chi-Square) to
determine the significance of the relationship of the independent variables to the dependent variables
previously mentioned. 15 hypotheses (page 10) were tested to explore the relationships between the above
independent variables and the dependent variables. Out of the 15 hypotheses that were investigated two were
supported. The two hypotheses are hypothesis 10 and 11. Hypothesis 10 states: American Indians who live on
a reservation have more hopelessness than those who live in an urban setting. This hypothesis was indicated
to be marginal by Chi-Square analysis but when a t-test was conducted it was shown to be significant.
Hypothesis 11 states: American Indians in urban residency will have more self-efficacy than reservation
residents.
While the data provided minimal support for the theory that hopelessness, self-efficacy, and self-esteem have
a relationship to feelings of powerlessness and thus suicide in the American Indian population the outcome of
the study provides pertinent data for future research.

Edwards, Yvonne J. (2002 ) "Healing the soul wound: The retraditionalization of Native Americans in substance
abuse treatment." Ph.D. Dissertation, California Institute of Integral Studies. 432 pp.
Contemporary Native Americans suffer from a soul wound that is the historical legacy of trauma since the
arrival of Columbus in 1492. Many Native Americans believe that healing this wound requires indigenous
interventions and the retraditionalization of those individuals seeking help. On a deeper level, this soul
wound represents the loss of one's soul and a sacred world.
This research investigates the transformational experiences of Native Americans during the course of their
retraditionalization and treatment for drug and alcohol dependence. 12 graduates of the residential
treatment program at Friendship House in San Francisco were interviewed about the kind and quality of
their healing experiences in this particular program, which provides a comprehensive matrix of Native
American medicine as well as western models of psychological treatment. The purpose of this study was to
understand and document the experience of substance abuse recovery from the perspective of the Native
Americans in treatment.
12 themes emerged from the data analysis (a) feeling cared for; (b) spiritual experience; (c) insight; (d)

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making a commitment; (e) empowerment/self-esteem; (f) releasing emotional pain; (g) remorse; (h)
reconnecting to traditional values; (i) forgiveness; (j) relief; (k) safety; and, (l) gratitude. When these themes
were applied to the grounded theory Conditional Matrix, two models of recovery emerged: (a) the Trauma-
Resolution Model; and, (b) the Self-Esteem Model.
The results of this research suggest that substance abuse treatment that includes a retraditionalization
process provides a necessary spiritual foundation in a spiritual setting so that some Native American clients
are able to heal their soul wound, their childhood traumas, and their addictions to drugs and alcohol.

Elias, Brenda D. (2004) "The influence of the social environment on the health of Manitoba First Nations
communities." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Manitoba. 625 pp.
Manitoba First Nations communities are assuming control over health services, and the way health
information is collected is critical to shape the health and social policies and programs that First Nations
peoples will create. Although identifying poor health and associated risk factors is critical for formulating
health-promoting interventions, the potential still exists that this approach can stigmatize Aboriginal peoples
for the state of their health. It is therefore time to move beyond a biomedical model of individual risk factors
to an approach that can take into account the characteristics of, and processes occurring at, the levels of the
individual and the broader environment. This study is the first ever to take a multilevel approach to
understanding the health of First Nations communities. Of particular interest is the way that the social,
cultural, geographic, economic, health status, risk factor, and health service environment of First Nations
communities independently influences health risk, health status, and preventative health practices. The
primary database used in this study is the Manitoba First Nations Regional Longitudinal Health Survey
(1997). First Nation community level characteristics were derived from this survey and a number of other
data sources. The data was analyzed using multilevel logistic regression modeling techniques. A major
finding of this study is that community level factors, independent of individual characteristics, explain higher
rates of health risk factors, poorer health status, and preventative health practices. Another important finding
is that different social environments and elements of these environments, along with different individual
social characteristics, account for the variation in health risk factors, health status, and preventative health
practices within and between Manitoba First Nations communities. In light of these findings, this study
proposes a number of multilevel social determinant pathways that First Nations policy makers, health
directors, health service providers, researchers, and program developers may consider when addressing the
health of First Nations peoples.

Else, 'Iwalani R. N. (2002) "Modeling psychopathology: The role of culture in native Hawai'iian adolescents." PH.D.
Dissertation, University of Hawai'i'. 170 pp.
This dissertation examines the unique history of native Hawai'ians and the literature on the sociology of
mental health. It examines the role of Hawai'ian culture, along with other structural and explanatory
variables, in understanding the internalizing symptoms of depression and anxiety in a sample of native
Hawai'ian adolescents. This study reviews theories regarding rapid social change, and models that aid our
understanding of cultural loss and presents a theoretical model of how Hawai'ian culture is affected by
structural variables and where culture was learned and how culture, in turn, affects major life events and
support, and how these variables are linked to internalizing symptoms.
Existing data from the Native Hawai'ian Mental Health Research Development Program (NHMHRDP) was
used. These data included information from five high schools on three islands from the state of Hawai'i. Only
Native Hawai'ian students with complete information on the study's variables were included in the analyses
(n = 2,142). Group comparisons and structural equation models were used to examine the role of Hawai'ian
culture in internalizing symptoms.
There were significant differences found in categories of gender, socioeconomic status, and in the
combination of the two. Univariate and multiple regression models indicated that major life events and
family support accounted for the most variation in depression and anxiety. Hawai'ian culture was
significantly related, both directly and indirectly, to depression and anxiety, although it explained a small
amount of variation on both outcomes. When the relationship between the variables was examined with
structural equation modeling, the model for native Hawai'ian females had the best overall fit for the data and
the variables used. Despite this, only small amounts of variance were accounted for in depression (12%) and
anxiety (6%).
Exploring other sociological concepts of anomie, social integration, alienation, and the subtle effects of
racism and discrimination could be fruitful areas of further research in how Hawai'ian culture affects not
only psychopathology, but also overall health and wellness.

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Emberley, Julia V. (1990 ) "Thresholds of difference: Feminist theory, post-colonialism and native women's writing."
Ph.D. Dissertation, York University.
This thesis involves a critical examination of post-colonial theory, its relationship to current trends in
feminist practice and its applicability to a selection of native women's writings in Canada. In the first part of
the Introduction I discuss the recent move within feminist practice towards a materialist mode of analysis: a
repositioning of the sociosymbolic relations between sexual difference, class, race and colonialism. The
second part addresses post-colonial theory and its commitment to cultural intervention as a critical ground
for examining the first worldist ideological centring of a 'Third World.' The articulation of a materialist
feminist practice with post-colonial theory constitutes the theoretical basis of this thesis for the production of
a feminism of decolonization. The first two chapters of this thesis examine post-colonial theorists Edward
Said and Nawal el Saadawi in terms of the contradictions their work holds for a feminist practice applied to
Native women's literature within Canada. In chapter three I examine native women's subjectivity as it is
constituted by the Canadian state and interpreted by feminist analyses in the human sciences. Chapter four
explores the possibility of an alternative method of interpreting native women's subjectivity in colonial
archival history, making use of the New Historicist approach in the work of cultural critics Dominick
LaCapra and Gayatri Spivak. Chapters five and six examine a select group of native women's writings in
Canada which specifically address questions of political and literary representation. Chapter five provides a
critical reading of Jeannette Armstrong's novel Slash, while chapter six includes Maria Campbell's Halfbreed
and Beatrice Culleton's In search of April Raintree. In conclusion, this thesis returns to a set of theoretical
problematics involving the textual violence of ideological containment, its productive and debilitating effects
on native women's writings and the constitution and effacement of native women's subjectivity. The work of
Gayatri Spivak and Teresa de Lauretis provide a point of departure for this discussion which involves a
double movement of investigation into the 'decolonization' of feminism, a critique of its colonialist
assumptions, and the feminism of decolonization at work in native women's writing.

Ennis-McMillan, Michael C. (198) "Drinking water politics in rural Mexico: Negotiating power, justice, and social
suffering." Ph.D. Dissertation, Michigan State University. 373 pp.
This dissertation analyzes political aspects of managing a drinking water system in a rural mestizo
community located in the Valley of Mexico. The study draws from political economy perspectives in medical
anthropology to analyze how stratified social relations influence the suffering associated with inadequate
drinking water supplies. Based on 21 months of fieldwork (1993-96), the analysis examines how differing
groups compete for authority over managing scarce drinking water resources in a semiarid environment. The
research methods included participant observation, archival analysis, and interviews with local authorities.
Community residents with ties to agriculture (i.e., campesinos or peasants) draw on an extensive history of
communal management of surface water for irrigation, and have applied similar practices for managing
groundwater for household consumption. All households have rights to drinking water, provided members
abide by customary monetary and nonmonetary obligations (e.g., civil and religious cargo service, festival
sponsorship involving mayordomias, and obligatory corvee labour or faenas). Recent in-migration from
urban areas and social stratification have challenged local efforts to provide a just distribution of drinking
water. Local authorities deploy their organizational power and resist market-based water management
practices that favour wealthier households. The study examines conflicts and negotiations among residents
regarding: rights and duties associated with drinking water as a communal resource; centralization of water
authority among residents with ties to agriculture (i.e., irrigation users and ejidatarios); women in cargo
service; and withdrawing drinking water as a sanction to those who refuse to fulfil customary obligations.
During water shortages, residents said they were 'suffering from water,' a local idiom that referred to bodily
distress that did not correspond to biomedical categories of disease used by public health programs. The
study analyzes this distress as a form of social suffering that reflected the inequalities people faced in a
socially and ecologically marginal setting. The study examines how differing interests based on
socioeconomic stratification, migration, and gender shaped local views of water-related suffering. The
dissertation discusses implications of conceptualizes drinking water as a crucial but contested and unequally
distributed resource for human health in a changing ecology.

Erickson, Sandra L. (1999) "Probability profiling with urban American Indian youth: Determining priorities for
suicide prevention." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Minnesota. 231 pp.
Urban American Indian youth are among the highest risk for suicide in the US, with overall rates as high as
1 in 4 having attempted prior to age 18. It is the second leading cause of death for this population. The
purpose of this analysis was to develop probability profiles of risk and protective factors associated with

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suicidal involvement in a population of early and middle adolescents to determine priorities for suicide
prevention in clinical and programmatic settings.
Between 1995 and 1998, 569 urban American Indian youths ages 9-15 were assessed using the Urban Indian
Youth Health Survey, a confidential, self-report survey examining health-compromising behaviours,
protective factors, social, contextual, and demographic information. Responses of youths reporting a past
suicidal attempt were compared to those without a history. Probability profiles were created based on odds
ratios derived from logistic regressions. These profiles predict the likelihood of a past suicide attempt given
risk and protective factor combinations.
In this urban sample, a history of attempting suicide was reported by 21.7% of females and 8.4% of males.
Past suicide attempts were significantly associated with substance use and violence perpetration. Positive
affect, family connections, and positive perceived self-image were protective against a past suicide attempt.
Using logistic models, the probabilities of a history of a suicide attempt increased dramatically as exposure
to risk factors increased, i.e., up to a six-fold increase with both risk factors present. More importantly, the
risk factors were more than offset by the cumulative effect of protective factors.
Given that the most accurate prediction of future suicide attempts is a past attempt, probability profiling
dramatically improves the assessment of at-risk young people. Moreover, it identifies a set of risk and
protective factors for suicidality in urban American Indian youth which are amenable to intervention at
individual and population levels. Though it is yet to become the norm in clinical practice, this analysis
highlights the merits of including protective factors in comprehensive assessments, particularly with highly
vulnerable populations such as urban American Indian youth. From a programmatic perspective, probability
profiling can provide a guide for prioritizing interventions most likely to succeed.

Escárcega, Sylvia. (2003) "Internationalization of the politics of indigenousness: A case study of Mexican indigenous
intellectuals and activists at the United Nations." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California, Davis. 359 pp.
This dissertation documents the politics of indigenousness in the international struggle for human and
indigenous rights. Two different processes are used as case studies in which to reflect about the construction
of indigeneity, apart from the dynamics at the United Nations Working Group on Indigenous Populations.
One is the internationalization of the indigenous movement from Mexico since 1997 and the other one,
parallel to the first one, is the empowerment of indigenous women. Lobbying and organizing at the
international arena promotes particular ways in which the meanings and attributes of indigeneity are
negotiated. The discourses on indigeneity forged in international dynamics are important to understand
because today many indigenous struggles for rights, even the most local ones, appeal to international legal
instruments to exert pressure on governments and to validate claims for peoplehood. The premise in this
dissertation is that indigenous intellectuals and activists can challenge and transform hegemonic practices
and discourses, even international law, using their own perspectives. The definition of 'indigenous peoples' is
a delicate issue because claims to peoplehood are dependent on it. Indigenous Peoples have argued for the
right to self-identification and self-definition to define their own boundaries of 'indigeneity,' and, yet, there
are certain cultural images mobilized around the international idea of indigeneity -- closeness to nature,
historicity, collectivity, distinctiveness, self-determination, and so forth. Thus, 'authenticity,' 'legitimacy,'
'representativeness,' and 'rootedness' are factors that arise to determine who is indigenous (politics of
containment). The apparently essentialized cultural images of indigeneity are measured against such factors,
yet, in the process, they are also negotiated and changed (politics of flexibility). I argue that despite
anthropological critiques of essentialism, the use of specific criteria for the identification of indigenous
rights-bearers is crucial for all international actors. At the same time, flexibility to accept alternative ideas is
another necessary strategy used in the international arena. In this context, self-defined cultural authenticity,
legitimacy, representativity, and rootedness, more than being retrograde strategies for identifying rights-
bearers, effectively localize and particularize human rights struggles in resistance to neo-liberal and
assimilationist practices of states and other global agents, creating a moral and powerful arena for debate.

Eshkakogan, Nicole A. (2004) "The double estrangement of aboriginal elders in Canada: The case of Sagamok
Anishnawbek First Nation." M.A. Thesis, University of Alberta. 151 pp.
This thesis presents the double estrangement of aboriginal elders in Sagamok Anishnawbek First Nation. It
identifies how the estrangement of aboriginal elders from mainstream Canadian society and from their own
community stems from an on-going program of enforced cultural colonization. This study has a twofold
objective: (1) to present the extent of aboriginal elders estrangement from Canadian society and within their
own communities; and, (2) to identify how aboriginal elders have become external and at a tangent within
their own community. I present the issues of colonization and how it has caused the estrangement of elders,

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and has affected the development of intergenerational relationships. Based on the words of the Anishnawbek,
I articulate and present: (1) the ways in which elders and their younger community members interact with
one another; (2) the defined social, cultural and traditional roles (or lack there of) of elders in the
community; and, (3) how formal education, tribal nepotism and the loss of language contribute to elder
estrangement.

Eudaily, Sean P. (2002) "The present politics of the past: Indigenous legal activism and resistance to (neo)liberal
governmentality." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Maryland College Park. 290 pp.
Indigenous political movements that challenge liberal governmentality (Foucault 1991) have developed in a
number of (post)colonial settler states. These events run directly counter to social science predictions about
the decreasing salience of ethnic identity and the lessening of ethnic conflict in such 'advanced' western states
(Gurr 2000; Heisler 1990). What are the implications of this development for the theory and practice of
multicultural democracy? This dissertation applies Jacques Derrida's framework of 'spectropolitics' (1993)
to (post)coloniality in order to investigate the emergence of indigenous peoples' movements, advances a
poststructural approach to the analysis of liberal politics based upon the historical sociology of Michel
Foucault, and critically engages the literatures on ethnic politics, critical legal studies, and Multicultural
democracy. In addition, two historical case dossiers (the Mabo v. Queensland decision and its aftermath in
Australia; and the diverse legal strategies of First Nations activism in Canada following the Delgamuukw v.
BC decision) focus on the 'strategic space' in which new indigenous political identities are produced and
performed.

Evans, Susan E. (2001) "Looking for spirits in all the right places: An examination of native and non-native substance
abuse recovery strategies in British Columbia." M.A. Thesis, University of Victoria. 151 pp.
Canadian native peoples are taking back control of community social and health programs through the
Federal Health Transfer process. Questions of program efficacy need to be addressed to assist in the
planning and implementation of effective alcohol and substance abuse recovery strategies. Culturally-
relevant treatment is recommended for native peoples to reclaim their cultural/spiritual identity and to heal
from the spiritual bankruptcy of addiction. Using content analysis and qualitative evaluation of
documentation and ethnographic interviews, this study examines the values embedded in the symbolic
healing strategies of native and non-native outpatient and residential treatment centres across British
Columbia. Considerable difference in the value placed on spirituality is found between native and non-native
healing philosophies. Regionally distinct, syncretic healing models are utilized in Native urban and reserve
programs which combine local traditions with practices adopted from Plains peoples. These syncretic models
are creating controversy in coastal reserve communities.

Evtushenko, Melanie. (2004) "Recognizing Aboriginal voice in federal government exhibitions: A case study of
'Transitions: Contemporary Canadian Indian and Inuit Art'." M.A. Thesis, Carleton University. 107 pp.
'Transitions: Contemporary Canadian Indian and Inuit Art' is a government-organized internationally
touring exhibition, which explores new forms of aboriginal art. The innovative approaches of the curators,
the artists and the subject matter of the artworks challenge past stereotypical images of aboriginal art. This
thesis examines the increasing presence of aboriginal voice in the presentation and curatorship of
government-organized exhibitions, not only as a tool for empowering aboriginal peoples, but also as a means
of increasing cultural exchanges between different aboriginal groups. The exhibition's collaborative
approach to curatorship is one of its distinguishing features, rendering 'Transitions' a valuable contribution
to the discourse on the display and organization of aboriginal art. The study demonstrates the changing role
of the Canadian Government in the presentation of aboriginal art, as well as the effect displaying
contemporary works has on identity formation.

Faiman-Silva, Sandra L. (1984) "Choctaw at the crossroads: Native Americans and the multinationals in the
Oklahoma timber region." Ph.D. Dissertation, Boston University. 512 pp.
This thesis uses anthropological and historical methods to examine the Oklahoma Choctaw political-
economy vis-à-vis Weyerhaeuser Corporation, a multinational wood products company. Choctaw history is
documented beginning with tribal life in Mississippi, through forced removal to Indian Territory, and
eventual tribal land allotment. Loss of land resources undermined the traditional Choctaw subsistence base,
transforming the Choctaw into part-time wage labourers for the timber industry. The history of the entry of
Weyerhaeuser and its predecessor, Dierks Forests, Inc., into the Oklahoma timber region is documented.
Rural Choctaw of today are analyzed as a class of exploited labourers in a situation of satellite dependent

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development. Social and economic conditions of 50 rural timber region Choctaw households are summarized
from detailed interview data. Household budgets, land holdings, non-wage subsistence activities, residence
patterns, kinship networks, and religious and tribal affiliations are examined. The Choctaw subsistence
strategy, combining part-time wage labour supplemented by domestic subsistence activities and public
assistance, is shown to be a response to domination of the tribe's means of subsistence by whites, most
recently the multinational corporation, Weyerhaeuser. Weyerhaeuser's production strategy, nationally and
locally, is examined. Corporate practices, such as vertical and horizontal corporate integration, scientific
tree cultivation, and the use of part-time non-unionized labourers, give Weyerhaeuser access to capital
resources, land, cheap and abundant labour, and technological expertise. Welfare and taxation systems, and
Choctaw domestic subsistence activities, contribute to making Weyerhaeuser a highly profitable timber-
extraction enterprise. Similarities with other Third World instances of satellite dependent development are
noted. Proposals are offered for alternative tribal development strategies using small-scale, labour-intensive
methods and existing tribal resources, including tribal land, labour, and community-based tribal institutions,
mainly the Choctaw church communities.

Fairweather, Joan G. (1994) "Is this apartheid? Aboriginal reserves and self-government in Canada, 1960-82." M.A.
Thesis, University of Ottawa. 149 pp.
South Africa's notorious apartheid policy has become an easily identifiable analogy for countries where
indigenous populations have been dispossessed of their land and their traditional social structures destroyed.
The question 'Is this apartheid?' challenges the historical validity of parallels drawn between Canada's
native policies and apartheid.
The 'civilising' missions of European intruders on the shores of what were to become Canada and South
Africa followed distinctive paths in their relationship with indigenous populations. While slavery and wars of
conquest paved the way for racial conflict in Southern Africa, mutual cooperation epitomized aboriginal
relations in colonial Canada. While reserves in Canada were designed to prepare indigenous people for
assimilation into the dominant society, South African reserves became reservoirs of cheap African labour
under the National Party's apartheid government which came to power in 1948. The years 1960-82 marked a
critical period in the history of both Canada and South Africa. First Nations communities renewed assertions
of aboriginal land rights and self-government. Unlike native Canadians, who asserted their aboriginal and
treaty rights within the democratic and constitutional structures of Canada, African resistance repudiated the
legitimacy of the apartheid government and fought for the fundamental right of all South Africans to
democracy and for an integrated, non-racial state.
Three core characteristics of apartheid (the lack of labour rights, the lack of democratic rights and the lack
of freedom of association) provide the criteria in addressing the question 'Is this apartheid?' The conclusions
are clear: while Canada's First Nations have been seriously disadvantaged by paternalism, assimilationist
policies and injustice, they have not experienced apartheid. Government policies and aboriginal problems
are not addressed by equating Canada with apartheid South Africa. They are Canadian problems with
Canadian solutions.

Faux, Catharinah. (2001) "The 'noble savage' in western thought: Re-constituting colonial stereotypes in sentencing
aboriginal sex offenders." M.A. Thesis, Carleton University. 84 pp.
This thesis will reveal how juridical efforts to address the failure of 'conventional' sentencing dispositions to
adequately deal with sexual violence in aboriginal communities can be informed by the colonial ideological
trope of 'noble savagism.' Through an analysis of the development of the 'noble savage' stereotype and the
ideological effects of this perspective on aboriginality, this thesis will reveal how judicial attitudes as
expressed in sentencing aboriginal sex offenders show an ambivalence that can be linked to historical
understandings of aboriginality. The presence of 'noble savagism' in these juridical discourses suggests a
need for greater judicial attentiveness to the assumptions that are guiding the way they relate to the
aboriginal peoples that appear before them. By examining how the ambivalence of 'noble savagism' can be
reproduced in contemporary juridical discourses, this thesis will raise some important questions that suggest
areas for future research, exploring some issues that arise in judicial attempts to take culture into account in
the sentencing process. For while culture and the needs of aboriginal communities are being considered in
sentencing dispositions, some judges seem to be unaware of the potential dangers in failing to exercise
caution in interpreting the relevance of aboriginality to the sentencing process.

Feit, Harvey A. (1978) "Waswanipi realities and adaptations: Resource management and cognitive structure." Ph.D.
Dissertation, McGill University. 1,735 pp.

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Each of the two 'new' paradigms for ecological anthropology, ecosystems analysis and ethnoecology,
explores only one pair of phenomena relevant to cultural ecology, environment and action, and environment
and belief respectively. This study argues that ecological analysis is weakened by the exclusion of any one of
those three orders of phenomena as objects of study. A detailed analysis of cognitive and behavioural data on
the resource management of Waswanipi Cree hunters shows how religious beliefs incorporate both cultural
logics and realistic models of environmental relationships; and, how action informed by those beliefs can
effectively manage hunting, animal populations, human population distributions, and subsistence. Beliefs are
formulated as recipes that apply to diverse situations so that actions informed by these are responsive to
changing conditions. Decisions concerning alternative goals, situations and strategies are shown to be
socially located with the men who are the 'owners' of hunting territories.

Feldman, Alice E. (1998) "Othering knowledge and unknowing law: Colonialist legacies, indigenous pedagogies, and
social transformation." Ph.D. Dissertation, Arizona State University. 265 pp.
This study examined indigenous peoples' attempts to use law in a transformative fashion in three legal
contexts: (1) litigation; (2) legislative hearings; and, (3) international human rights standard-setting. It
followed the mobilization of the Apache Survival Coalition, a group of traditional San Carlos Apaches and
their advocates, to protect a sacred religious site from desecration due to the development of an international
observatory. It explored the Coalition's efforts, along with indigenous peoples across the country and around
the world, to apply, change, and create new laws to protect their traditional cultures and ensure the survival
of their peoples.
Central to the Coalition's sociolegal strategies was the use of these contexts as opportunities to educate law-
makers and government representatives about their religious beliefs in order to gain access to the decision-
making process and halt construction of the observatory. This constituted a formidable goal for indigenous
peoples because the justifications for colonialism have historically relied upon their inferiorization and
vilification to justify their conquest. The vast bodies of 'knowledge' and 'fact' produced by intellectual,
administrative, and cultural institutions which support of this premise have ingrained this colonialist
mythology within the social fabric and legal systems.
In addition to distorting and narrowing legal principles to delegitimize indigenous peoples' claims,
mainstream actors also demonstrated a profound unwillingness and, in many cases, inability to learn from
native peoples on their own terms. These reactions attested to the need to police the boundaries of knowledge
to maintain the logic and legitimacy of colonialist hegemony. Moreover, the anti-dialogic and adversarial
structures of law prevented the transcendence of this resistance to encourage relationship-building and
cooperative responses to common problems. It is argued that the incorporation of concepts of critical
pedagogy within sociolegal scholarship and practice would engender crucial opportunities for the active
engagement of the traditional beliefs and practices indigenous peoples are successfully mobilizing outside the
contexts of formal, western law.

Fenelon, James V. (1995) "Culturicide, resistance, survival: The cultural domination of Lakota Oyate." Ph.D.
Dissertation, Northwestern University. 612 pp.
The 'culturicide' thesis develops analytical frameworks for explaining cultural domination within the case
study of 'Lakota Oyate' over a 200-year period. I argue that primary modes of domination by groups of
people are through sublimation and elimination of societal integrity and cultural practices of the dominated
group. Indigenous people experienced such domination by the United States during its conquest of the central
plains Indians. I find the Culturicide process of selective extermination, inferiorization and coercive
assimilation of the Lakota, identifies three broad phases: 'conquering' modes for socio-political domination,
'profiteering' modes for socioeconomic dominance, and 'culturicidal' modes for social systemic domination
and maintenance of inequality. I review rationales for historical domination of indigenous nations in
'America', with ideological concepts of racial ethnicity as base justification for genocidal policies. Discussion
of terminology and theoretical frames of cultural domination (Smelser, 1992), precedes specification of
instruments for identifying Culturicide. Weber's (1956) domination through institutional legitimation
develops Gramsci's (1929) hegemony, placed in Toynbee's (1953) historical analytical frames. Resistance is
identified cross-culturally by Scott (1990) and Clifford (1988), politically by Deloria (1983) and Cornell
(1988), with systemic analysis by Hall (1984) and Thornton (1987). Wolfs (1982) interdisciplinary
perspectives confirm my observation of shifting dominance patterns over changing temporal and spatial
conditions, with adapted resistance and limited cultural survival (Snipp, 1989). Seven case chapters use
historical-comparative frames in four time periods: 'The Great Sioux Nation' (U.S. policy), 'The Lakota
Ghost Dance' (1890 conflict), 'Dominating the Dakota' (20th century policy), 'Spirituality and Sovereignty'

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(1993); documenting cultural survival, Lakota resistance, and indigenous 'nations' struggles. Data sources
employ historical texts, discussions, cultural representative interviews, existing archival records, oral
tradition sources, participant observation, and Native scholar accounts. My conclusions review theoretical
applications to Lakota Oyate case studies, elaborate on proven applications of Culturicide processes with
analytical frames, extending discussion of cultural domination to contemporary struggles of indigenous
'nations' in maintaining cultural survival. I develop the Ethnic Conflict Frameworks for multi-modal analysis,
finding further connections to pan-ethnicity domination over racial 'minorities' in the United States (Morris,
1992), the 'Americas' (Ortiz, 1984), and internationally.

Fereira, Darlene A. (1990) "Need not greed: The Lubicon Lake Cree Band land claim in historical perspective." M.A.
Thesis, University of Alberta. 195 pp.
The Lubicon have become a household word in Canada, particularly in Alberta. Yet, after more than 50
years of negotiations with two levels of government, the band is still without a reserve and is facing a dire
future. The historiography on land claims in Canada suggests that, with few exceptions, native peoples have
not been treated fairly in dealings with government officials. This thesis looks at this historical trend and
relates it to the Lubicon experience. It is argued that although the Lubicon have been active participants and
skilful players in the on-going struggle, their story reveals a familiar pattern in the history of native-white
relations, which can be characterized as an opposition of views and values, with those of the dominant
society usually taking precedence.

Ferguson, Lara G. (1997) "Deconstructing fetal alcohol syndrome: A critical inquiry into the discourse around alcohol,
women, ethnicity, aboriginals and disease." M.A. Thesis, Carleton University. 254 pp.
An inductive methodology, known as grounded theory, was utilized in an attempt to inform, and challenge
current theory and practice governing contemporary prevention efforts specifically targeting pregnant native
women. Various strands of the picture are filtered through a critical lens in an attempt to deconstruct the
problematization of FAS within aboriginal communities. The three primary strands identified were the
relationships of alcohol to women; alcohol to ethnicity; and alcohol to natives. The deconstruction of the
problem of FAS yields implications on two levels: (1) epistemologically, the relationships between social
control and language and discourse, and ideology, knowledge and power, are identified as being of concern,
needing to be critically challenged and reconstructed; and, (2) on an applied level, it is argued that there is a
need for a more comprehensive approach to prevention efforts, with clearly defined goals that are both
culturally relevant and adopt a more holistic approach to prevention.

Ferreira, Mariana K. L. (1996) "Sweet tears and bitter pills: The politics of health among the Yuroks of northern
California." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California, Berkeley. 284 pp.
'Sweet tears and bitter pills' is a critical project on health and healing among the Yuroks of northern
California. It considers the experiences of 16 Yurok families, traced back to the early 1800s, living in the
midst of the fur trade, the gold rush, the American invasion, the relocation and termination periods.
Oppressive life conditions have produced despair, substance abuse, delinquency and premature death. Yurok
women point to incarceration on reservations and in boarding schools and mental homes, forced labour in
fish canneries and logging camps, and to the introduction of alcohol, drugs and casinos, as spaces of the
origin and distribution of illness.
This dissertation indicates the ways in which specific health effects relate to macro-level politics and
economics. It situates 'diabetes' within a broader debate that encompasses power relations in the delivery of
health services. I argue that diabetes is a physiological response to adverse life experiences, rather than a
disease in itself.
It is now recognized that diabetes mellitus type II is prevalent in traumatized, migrating, modernizing and
socioeconomically disadvantaged populations. The latest studies inform us that Native Americans are
increasingly at risk. While current research focuses on obesity, nutrition, individual health behaviours and
genetics, social issues are confined inside a medical world of individualized treatment and community
distress is separated from the potentially disruptive political arena.
Alternatively, the operation of United Indian Health Services (UIHS) by Yuroks and other northern
California populations is a current attempt to exercise tribal sovereignty. The creation of UIHS is an instance
where solidarity among different medical systems informs a comprehensive interpretation of social well-
being.

Fisher, Andrew H. (2003) "People of the river: A history of the Columbia River Indians, 1855-1945." Ph.D.

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Dissertation, Arizona State University. 307 pp.
Due to state weakness and native determination, many American Indians along the Middle Columbia River
never moved to reservations or remained there only temporarily. This dissertation uses archival and
ethnographic evidence to explore the history of off-reservation communities in the region and describe how
their experiences shaped a distinct ethnic consciousness among so-called Columbia River Indians. Generally
defined in opposition to recognized tribal categories, this identity gradually coalesced around a shared
heritage of aboriginal connection to the river, resistance to the reservation system, adherence to cultural
traditions, and relative detachment from the institutions of federal control and tribal governance. Although
most 'River People' eventually enrolled in recognized tribes and moved to reservations, their largely untold
story highlights the persistence of native people in off-reservation settings and challenges ahistorical
concepts of tribal identity. Moreover, by focusing on interactions within and between Indian communities,
this study transcends the usual emphasis on Indian-white relations and underscores the importance of native
social networks to the construction of new ethnic categories.

Fiske, Jo-Anne. (1981) "And then we prayed again: Carrier women, colonialism and mission schools." M.A. Thesis,
University of British Columbia (The).

———. (1989) "Gender and politics in a Carrier Indian community." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of British
Columbia (The).
This thesis presents an analysis of the political processes of a Carrier Indian community in British Columbia.
Its primary goal is to account for women's central role in public decision making. It argues that women's
public presence results from three tightly interwomen factors: women's economic autonomy, the prevailing
ideology of respect for older women's knowledge and wisdom, and the socioeconomic structure, in which
public and private are essentially undifferentiated. These factors coalesce to provide economic and cultural
foundations for women's unique political strategy: the formation of voluntary associations that interact
successfully with the formal political structure to influence public decisions and to advance family and
community interests. Women's voluntary associations compete successfully with the elected council in
obtaining limited economic and political resources and provide a special forum in which women retain and
advance family honour and political fortunes. The findings support the view that in conditions of political-
economic marginality a domestic sector of production exists along side capitalist production. The domestic
sector protects and even enhances, women's personal autonomy and social influence.

Fitch, Diane C. (2002) "Analysis of common risk factors for violent behaviour in Native American adolescents
referred for residential treatment." Ed.D. Dissertation, Texas Southern University. 107 pp.
The literature does not adequately address issues of aggression and violence in Native American adolescents,
and there are no known studies of relationships of specific risk factors for violent behaviour in Native
American youth. The purpose of this study was to measure the absence or presence of three specific groups of
identified risk factors for violent adolescent behaviour (Historical, Social/Contextual, and
Individual/Clinical), derived from the existing literature, and set forth in the Structured Assessment of
Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY) (Bartel, Borum and Forth, 1999), in a group of 82 Native American
adolescents, ages 12-17, already identified with behavioural problems and referred for residential treatment,
and to analyze the relationships of these groups of risk factors to violence already committed by these youth.
Bivariate and multiple linear regression were used to analyze the relationship(s) of each of the referenced
groups of risk factors and six 'protective factors' to violence already committed by members of this group of
Native American adolescents. A significant positive linear relationship was found between total SAVRY
scores, and each of the three groups of identified risk factors for violent adolescent behaviour as set forth in
the SAVRY, and violence already committed by members of this group of Native American youth. Ancillary
findings demonstrated that the inverse relationship of protective factors to violence committed by this group
of Native American youth was stronger than any of the positive relationships of SAVRY risk factor groups (or
combinations of risk factor groups) to violence committed by members of this group of adolescents. Female
participants scored higher than their male counterparts in all of the SAVRY risk factor groups, and on total
SAVRY scores. Consequently, female SAVRY scores on the referenced risk factor groups were more highly
correlated with violence committed than were the male SAVRY scores in this sample of Native American
youth. Female participants also scored 62.5% higher in protective factors than the males, but lower in
Violence Committed. For both male and female participants, higher scores on protective factors correlated
with lower scores on Violence Committed. Recommendations for further study and implications for Native
American communities, counsellors, and agencies were discussed.

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Fitton, Lori J. (1999) "Is acculturation healthy? Biological, cultural, and environmental change among the Cofán of
Ecuador." Ph.D. Dissertation, Ohio State University (The). 223 pp.
Economic development of tropical rainforests affects the health of indigenous populations. Environmental
and cultural change can deplete natural resources, undermine traditional subsistence, increase population
densities, and disrupt social systems, thereby modifying health and disease patterns of native populations.
Although acculturation can bring increased opportunities for health education and access to western
medicines, it can cause the estrangement of indigenous groups, resulting in lifestyle deterioration and an
overall reduction in health.
This research examines cultural and biological variation among the Cofán, an indigenous Amazonian group
of northeastern Ecuador. Two closely related Cofán villages, Dureno and Zabalo, undergoing varying rates
of acculturation and environmental pressures were chosen. As a transitional population, the Cofán present
an opportunity to examine intrinsic and extrinsic factors related to acculturation. This study combines
cultural and biomedical data to examine how these domains interact and change in response to acculturation
and environmental degradation. Anthropometric measures, blood pressure, fecal samples, dental exams and
blood samples determined physiological variability. Social assessments included lifestyle, health, and
nutrition questionnaires designed to determine participation in non-Cofán lifeways, general health
knowledge and lifestyle stress, unusual health conditions, and dietary diversity.
Results show that environmental degradation and culture change in and around the village of Dureno are
contributing to a decline in health, as seen with higher parasite loads and blood pressure. Residents of
Zabalo escaped environmental degradation by moving further into the rainforest however, they too are
affected by culture change. Zabalo residents selectively incorporate elements of the dominant society into
their lifeways and supplement their indigenous lifestyle with an ecotourism business. Although not as
environmentally destructive, ecotourism may have sociocultural and health costs for this population, such as
higher levels of lifestyle stress.
These results demonstrate the complex interplay between environment, culture, and health. The extent to
which progressive acculturation will alter the health and disease status of this population, and specific
causative elements, are conjectural at this time. However, by reaffirming their cultural identity and regaining
control over their lives, the Zabalo Cofán may be reducing the psychological stress of change, thus reducing
their risks of developing chronic conditions such as hypertension.

Fitzpatrick, Darleen A. (1986) "We are Cowlitz: Traditional and emergent ethnicity." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of
Washington. 417 pp.
Cowlitz are a Coast Salish group of southwestern Washington who are defined by where they are from, their
line of descent and, at one time, their level of prestige vis-à-vis other groups along the Coast and in the
Interior. The general problem for this dissertation is to probe the interconnection between the culture of an
ethnic group and the boundaries which surround it. In other words, culture is a problematic feature of
ethnicity. I suggested Coast Salish ideology, which centres upon a class/prestige system and a code of ethics
links social structure with culture. These features initiate Cowlitz ethnic boundaries and the development of
related cultural signs which both transmit and communicate Cowlitz collective ethnic identity as well as
salience of ethnicity. Secondly, a modest semiotic analysis of culture distinguishes the cultural signs Cowlitz
express, some of which are not attached to the ideology, and help us to understand their meaning: culture is
not solely a matter of symbolic content, it isn't always systematic but it is meaningful and experiential.
Cowlitz institutionalized a gathering, the Meeting, in 1915 which occurs today on a biannual basis. At the
Meeting, held in the aboriginal area, Cowlitz principally discuss the land rights suit and distribution of the
Indian Claims Commission award, related issues, and federal acknowledgement as an American Indian tribe.
The Meeting proper is an event involving social structural and cultural content alluded to above. The class
system is operative. And, the Meeting has generated emergent Cowlitz ethnicity. However, Cowlitz ethnic
identity is forged on an anvil of their own creation with one another as against tradition.

Fixico, Donald L. (1980) "Termination and relocation: Federal Indian policy in the 1950s." Ph.D. Dissertation,
University of Oklahoma (The). 328 pp.
This study of federal Indian policy from World War II through the John F. Kennedy administration is
concerned with the serious repercussions of this critical period of federal-Indian relations. During 1945-63,
the United States Congress initiated legislative action abrogating federal recognition of Indian groups and
responsibilities to Native Americans. Concurrently Congress funded the Bureau of Indian Affairs to establish
the Relocation Program, which assisted and supervised those Indians willing to remove from rural
communities and reservations to metropolitan areas for economic development.

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The zenith of termination and relocation in federal-Indian relations occurred during the 1950s. More
specifically, between 1954 and 1960, over 61 tribes, groups, communities, rancherias and allotments were
terminated, and relocation effected one-half of the current total Indian population living in urban areas.
Certainly termination and relocation were not new concepts in federal-Indian relations, but they were
interpreted ambiguously; having positive and negative effects. Termination was emphasized more in this
study because of its greater degree of complexity and controversy.
Termination has been interpreted as being good and bad for Native Americans, but in retrospect the latter
has been identified more. This policy represented liquidation of reservations and dissolution of treaties.
Negation of Indian rights, withdrawal of federal responsibilities to the native population and reduction of the
Bureau of Indian Affairs have also been depicted as forms of termination for the purposes of mainstreaming
Indians. Finally, termination has been defined as extinction of Native American cultures as the ultimate move
towards transforming the Red Man into a white American. Critics argued that termination was Indian
genocide.
In contrast to the negative views of termination, the federal government and Anglo-American viewpoints have
suggested that the Indian way of life was no longer viable -- especially in the 20th century. Essentially
termination would liberate Native Americans from their trust status as 'second class' citizens to enjoy equal
opportunities and privileges that other Americans were guaranteed by the Constitution. In order for
Amerindians to survive in a modernized society after World War II, Indian cultural methods of livelihood had
to be altered. Emphasis on education, acculturating materialistic items of white American culture, and
competing with other Americans for jobs and positions in society were viewed as Americanization of Indians.
Unfortunately, too often literature about American Indians has been written from the non-Indian viewpoint
with disregard for the viewpoint of the people who are the subject. In studies of federal-Indian relations, the
perspective of the federal government has tended to neglect the responses and views of Native Americans. To
provide the best comprehensive study of federal-Indian relations during this critical period, the viewpoints of
the federal government, public opinion of non-Indians, and the Indian point of view were provided to yield an
overall balanced perspective. This was essential for understanding the problems of American Indians in this
recent past as they prepare for the future.

Flanagan, Tara D. (2002) "Pathways to resilience in First Nations youth from a remote community: A case for the
ameliorative effects of intelligence and social perspective coordination." M.A. Thesis, McGill University. 57
pp.
Variables that promote resilience, adaptive functioning despite adversity, were examined in 37 First Nations
adolescents from a remote region in Northern-Québec. Intelligence, and social perspective coordination, the
ability to negotiate the self's and other's points of view in social situations, were offered as moderators of the
effect of stress on competence. Competence was defined as developmentally-appropriate functioning in
academic, behavioural, and social domains, and stress was operationalized as a combination of negative life
events and demographic stressors. Better intellectual functioning and perspective coordination abilities were
commensurate with elevated levels of academic performance and positive classroom behaviours.
Additionally, intelligence served a protective function in the relationship between stress and fighting
behaviour. In the context of high stress, students with high levels of intelligence were involved in significantly
fewer physical fights than their less intelligent peers. These results highlight the potential for adaptation in
First Nations youths, and suggest a direction for future research that accentuates adaptation instead of
pathology.

Fleury, Anthony G. (1998 ) "Violence and public as antitheses: The rhetorical structure of Once were warriors." Ph.D.
Dissertation, Pennsylvania State University (The). 204 pp.
Once were warriors is a Communicado film, released in New Zealand in 1994 and internationally in 1995.
Lee Tamahori directed, and Robin Scholes produced, Riwia Brown's adaptation of Alan Duff's 1990 novel of
the same title. The rhetorical criticism of the film presented in this thesis is a close reading of the form of the
film. The meaning of the film is found in the viewer's experience of the form of the text as a whole, in the
process of apprehension of the unfolding narrative.
Viewer experience of Once were warriors is an enactment of a public sensibility -- in the course of the film
the audience comes to feel conditions of publicness. The enactment of public sensibility is evoked in a
rhetoric of narration that implicates viewers in the main character's commitments. As viewers, we feel Beth
Heke's investment in a community in her re-emergence into a traditional Mäori culture. The significance of
her commitment to that community is demonstrated in the connection of her personal past to the past of the
community, and in the contextualizing of her hopes for her family into the future of that community. The

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rhetoric of narration of Once were warriors develops audience experience of this Mäori culture as dynamic
and processual, folding past and future into the present. We feel Beth's investment in that rhetoric of
dynamism. We also experience her investment in the way Mäori culture is contrasted with the culture of
violence in which she had been living. Viewers of Once were warriors are invited to participate in Beth's (1)
emotional investments in her family; (2) recognition of her situation of domestic violence as a social
experience; and, (3) emergence from that situation through public articulation and reinvestment in a dynamic
cultural tradition. The film implicates us in the commitments of time, voice, and relationship that are
constituents of a public sensibility; as it positions us to doubt the antithetical commitments that are central to
violence. The film refashions a conventional understanding of public and private as opposites, to develop
public and violence as opposites.

Fogarty, Jane C. (1998) "Towards an Australian republic: Constitutionalising indigenous land rights." LL.M. Thesis,
University of Toronto. 156 pp.
Australia's Indigenous people have been dispossessed of their ancestral lands since colonization began in
1788. Most Australians were unprepared for the High Court's decision in the 1992 Mabo case that
established native title in Australia, despite the fact that such title had been recognized much earlier in other
common law jurisdictions. However, the more that spiritual connection to the land is asserted by Aboriginal
claimants, and requirements for the land's protection and ownership, the less the legal system will
acknowledge it, as illustrated in the ridiculing of 'secret women's business' in the Hindmarsh (Kumarangk)
Island matter.
As Australia is contemplating becoming a republic, it is timely to consider whether a new constitution would
better protect Indigenous land rights. If we consider Aboriginal rights in Canada's constitution, the
protection of individual rights in the United States constitution and developments of Indigenous peoples'
rights at the international level we may understand more clearly whether constitutional entrenchment would
be a suitable solution for Australia.

Forand, Nancy A. (2001) "Mayas in the age of apocalypse: Folk evangelicals and Catholics in Quintana Roo." Ph.D.
Dissertation, State University of New York at Albany. 459 pp.
Since the introduction of Christianity in the 16th century, rural communities in Mexico have practiced
distinctive forms of religion that have grown out of the interaction between European and indigenous belief
systems. This work is the outgrowth of a two-year comparative study of folk religions among the Yucatec
Maya of Quintana Roo, including new forms that have emerged in the wake of 20th century Protestant
evangelization.
Poor farmers in the villages of Saban and Huaymax experience modernization in terms of a degrading
ecology, land shortages, and poverty. The farm community is economically dependent on the tourist industry
in Cancun, where farmers work seasonal wage-labour jobs in the construction industry. In a general state of
economic crisis, Saban and Huaymax are also locked in a bitter struggle over political autonomy and the
control of land. Conversion to Presbyterianism and Pentecostalism has introduced additional layers of social
complexity and conflict.
This study uses a community of practice approach to explore new identities, practices, and ways of speaking.
It investigates the uneasy relations among the religious groups in terms of complex interactions between
competing ideologies that contribute to an apocalyptic worldview. Pivoting around a corpus of polyvocalic
discourses in the Yucatec Maya language (which includes prayer, testimony, song, gossip, life history, and
social commentary), the analysis pinpoints the kinds of stresses and strains that religious pluralism has
introduced.
The research reveals that two factions of Catholicism (traditionalism and the Legion of Mary) are becoming
increasingly polarized, while Presbyterianism and Pentecostalism have developed a symbiotic relationship.
On the whole, relations between Evangelicals and Catholics are tense, in part because ancestral authority
has been directly challenged by belief in the literal truth of the Bible. Evangelicals charge that traditional
practice is “idolatrous,” while traditionalists worry about breaching the divine contract of their ancestors.
Generally heightened tensions within the community, in turn, are believed to herald the prophesied global
destruction. A battleground of ideological and moral combat, the community emerges as a microcosm of a
world plagued by conflict.

Forbes-Boyte, Kari L. (1997) "Indigenous people, land and space: The effects of law on sacred places, the Bear Butte
example." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Nebraska -- Lincoln (The). 248 pp.
Conflicts over access to and utilization of Native American sacred sites is an ongoing dilemma. Although the

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American Indian Religious Freedom Act (AIRFA) was passed by the United States Congress in 1978 in
recognition of Indian rights to religious freedom, this Act has done little to actually protect sacred sites.
AIRFA can be described as a cooptation technique. Cooptation occurs in a power system when the power
holder intentionally extends some form of political participation to those considered a threat to the existing
state. But, this political participation never leads to the empowering of the people considered threatening. In
fact, Indian oppression continues today through due process and federal and state statutes.
This study addresses the 'politicized' nature of AIRFA. Bear Butte, a Lakota holy ground was chosen to
illustrate AIRFA as a cooptation tool. Bear Butte is at the forefront of contested realities of space between the
Lakota Sioux and South Dakota Game, Fish and Parks. The Lakota contend that they have legal sovereign
rights to the Butte and feel that any activity, other than religious, desecrates the site. The battle over control
of this sacred place has occurred at the judicial level, with the case Fools Crow vs. Gullett. It continues, after
Lakota lost their case, at the administrative level, with the Lakota questioning multiple-use policies that
equate tourism and the construction of a water pipeline with their religious freedom.
Through a critique of litigation and mitigation strategies surrounding Bear Butte, this study demonstrates
that society and society's laws are not consensual and justice is not always the end result. The study
concludes that without adequate Congressional, judicial, and administrative protection, Indian people will
continue to be victims of cultural genocide and remain a marginalized minority within the United States.

Ford, David A. (1996) "Sustaining colonialism: Canadian print media and the representation of the Mohawk nation."
M.A. Thesis, Carleton University. 144 pp.
This thesis explores the role of print media in helping to sustain the inequalities in cultural, economic, and
political power faced by indigenous Peoples in Canada. Using a discourse analysis, the thesis examines
coverage in Le Devoir, The Globe and Mail, The Gazette, and La Presse of the 1994 tobacco tax rollback
issue involving the Mohawk nation. The discourse analysis model facilitates a qualitative assessment of the
tone and nature of the coverage, the juxtapositions of different themes and ideas, and the contextual
embeddedness of news facts. The qualitative data suggests that all four newspapers actively participated in
the production of hegemonic discourse which placed the majority of blame for the cigarette trade on Mohawk
individuals, stigmatised the entire Mohawk Nation, and trivialised that nation's political position of
sovereignty. The manner in which these mainstream newspapers represent the Mohawk nation suggests
continued adherence to colonial ideas and assumptions about indigenous peoples.

Fortier, Yvonne T. (1999 ) "Steps to community wellness: Creating a therapeutic environment for Native American
children of alcoholics." M.A. Thesis, Prescott College. 50 pp.
Native American children of alcoholics (NACOAs) experience a number of risk factors for healthy physical
and psychological development. While Western approaches to treatment may be helpful to women and
children living in a residential setting, the complexities of problems facing contemporary Native American
cultures may benefit from the addition of traditional elements to effect a culturally relevant, therapeutic
environment. Native American children can receive a comprehensive system of care within a facility focused
on the primary treatment of the alcoholic mother. This research study emphasizes the problems and patterns
of intergenerational substance abuse and the effects on infants and children. Realistic goals for a children's
therapeutic program are drawn from needs that are identified within this population. Historical, cultural and
theoretical implications of substance abuse in Native American communities are examined in relation to the
effects on pregnant and parenting women. This study explores the adverse effects of alcoholism of a family
member on a child, and proposes a program to implement culturally appropriate services for NACOAs in a
residential treatment facility.

Fouberg, Erin K. (1997) "Tribal territory and tribal sovereignty: A study of the Cheyenne River and Lake Traverse
Indian reservations." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Nebraska -- Lincoln (The). 306 pp.
Tribes in the United States no longer hold the distinction of being sovereign states in the world system of
states. Instead, the federal government has deemed them 'domestic dependent' sovereigns. This study
questions the meaning of 'domestic dependent' sovereignty. A new conceptualization of sovereignty is offered
which helps explain the erosion of tribal sovereignty. Three types of sovereignty, territorial, membership, and
issue are distinguished. Studies of the Cheyenne River and Sisseton-Wahpeton Sioux Tribes in South Dakota,
are used to demonstrate how tribal sovereignty has eroded over time. This analysis is set in the context of
world systems theory.
The erosion of all three types of tribal sovereignty began with the erosion of tribal land bases. The
establishment of reservations, the allotment of those reservations, the opening of those reservations, and for

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the Sisseton-Wahpeton Sioux Tribe, the diminishment of their reservation directly affected tribal territorial
sovereignty. The United States Supreme Court has continually recognized tribal membership sovereignty;
however, federal law has worked to erode tribal membership sovereignty slowly. As territorial and
membership sovereignty have eroded, maintenance of tribal sovereignty over specific issues has become
more important. Several recent decisions by the United States Supreme Court have set a precedent for the
further erosion of tribal issue sovereignty.
Despite the erosion of all three types of tribal sovereignty, tribes remain sovereign entities. Tribal
governments have the authority to govern as they do because they are sovereign. Sovereignty is a legal status
that sets tribes apart from other entities, and it needs to be recognized. The Cheyenne River and Sisseton-
Wahpeton Sioux Tribes demonstrate that the ability of a tribal government to govern is not dependent upon
having complete sovereignty. Whether tribes can act upon their eroded sovereignty depends on their ability.
Future challenges to tribal territorial, membership, and issue sovereignty will stem from continued demands
on tribal lands and resources, as well as an increasing reluctance by non-Indians on reservations to live
within the jurisdiction of tribal governments. In order for the tribes to meet these challenges, it is essential
that they first regain lost tribal lands and then re-establish the Indian character of those lands to maintain
and reclaim tribal territorial, membership, and issue sovereignty.

Fox, Gretchen E. (2006) "Going back in the water: Renegotiating what it means to be a Mi'kmaq fisherman after the
Marshall Decision." M.A. Thesis, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (The). 68 pp.
After centuries of struggle with the Canadian state over access to natural resources, Mi'kmaq First Nations
recently won a significant legal victory. In a 1999 ruling, the Supreme Court of Canada upheld 18th century
treaties guaranteeing Mi'kmaq and their descendents the right to fish for profit in their traditional territories.
This landmark ruling fundamentally reconfigured the landscapes where conflicts over Native rights and
nature are waged. As a result, Mi'kmaq communities today are experiencing shifts in personal and collective
constructions of meaning, practice and identity in the context of fisheries. Some community members
advocate communally-based fisheries where profits are re-invested in the community, while others are
approaching commercial fisheries in more individualistic ways. This paper explores the local and supralocal
conditions under which Mi'kmaq people are relating to changes in the fisheries, drawing on social practice
theory to consider how fishermen's identities are being reshaped through contentious practices and meaning-
making.

Foxen, Patricia. (2002) "K'iche' Maya in a re-imagined world: Transnational perspectives on identity." Ph.D.
Dissertation, McGill University. 400 pp.
Over the past two decades, large-scale transnational migrations between Central America and the United
States have had a significant impact upon both home and host societies. In Guatemala, cross-border
movement was spawned by the brutal civil war that devastated many indigenous communities in the early
1980s. Over time, this flow resulted in the formation of complex transnational networks and identities that
span home and host locations. This thesis examines the manners in which a community of K'iche' Indians
straddled between the highlands of El Quiché, Guatemala and an industrial New England city have
responded to the deterritorialization caused by the confluence of violence and displacement. It describes, on
the one hand, the context of post-war reconstruction in El Quiché, which is shaped by a fragile institutional
peace process and an emerging ethnopolitical movement that emphasizes a pan-Maya identity. On the other
hand, it depicts an inner-city space in the US where K'iche' labour migrants lead hidden, marginal lives,
seeking to obscure any overt form of collective organization or identity. By examining the flows of people,
money, commodities and symbols between these contrasting environments, the thesis shows how K'iche's in
both communities maintain concrete and imaginary connections with each other despite the many ruptures
caused by violence and dislocation. The thesis also teases out the manners in which today's cross-border
movements, which involve ever larger distances, absences, and cash inflows, are both inscribed in, and differ
from, previous local strategies of, and discourses on, internal movement and migration within Guatemala,
which have long formed part of K'iche' culture. Specifically, it shows how K'iche's draw on their 'mobile' past
in order to maintain a sense of continuity in the present and elaborate viable identities and strategies for the
future. Overall, the thesis argues that the multiplicity of strategies and discourses developed by K'iche's to
cope with the uncertainty and liminality engendered by transnationalism is rooted in a longer history of
hybridity that has enabled communities, families and individuals to anchor their identities at home, and yet
move fluidly beyond the boundaries of community, thereby elaborating flexible identities that both
incorporate and resist outside change.

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Francisconi, Michael J. (1995) "Economic trends and everyday life on the Navajo Nation, 1868 to 1995: The history
of the informal economy of the Diné." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Oregon. 337 pp.
Since 1868 three major revolutions have integrated the Diné into the world capitalist system. First, the
establishment of military peace and the political control by the US Government allowed entry of mercantile
capital through the establishment of trading posts. Second, the stock reduction of the 1930s, which destroyed
herding as the economic foundation of Diné society, resulted in money from government assistance or wage
labour becoming central to economic life, increasing Diné dependence on the outside economy, and, third,
the importation of highly capital intensive extractive industries onto the Navajo Reservation after World War
II. A qualitative methodological approach is used utilizing oral interviews with Diné subjects between the
ages of 18 and 80 in the Tsaile-Wheatfields area of the Navajo Nation. A neo-Marxist theoretical approach is
employed, beginning with a careful rereading of the classic works of Marx, Lenin, Luxemburg and Frank.
The three revolutions have resulted in underdevelopment and high unemployment among the Diné. The Diné
have developed a multi-strategy economy in order to survive. Both the formal economy and the informal are
covered; the latter is of special importance and is a direct result of the interaction between the capitalist
system and the everyday effects of underdevelopment.
The results of this research indicate that the tension created is between the needs of the larger economy and
the survival of a people whose society and culture is continually battered by international capitalism. The
non-capitalist modes of production, i.e. kinship and informal production, are now recreated by the capitalist
system itself. The informal modes of production both strengthen capitalist penetration and offer people a
resistance to that penetration. The corresponding ideologies are both espoused by a Dine' elite who benefit
from capitalism, and the poor Diné who are victimized by capitalism. Diné ideology is a complex
contradiction, that can be and is used both for justifying the increasing capitalist penetration which benefits
Diné economic and political elites as well as the unionized labour in the extractive industries, and as a tool
of resistance for the majority of poor Diné including the petty traders.

Franco, Jere. (1990) "Patriotism on trial: Native Americans in World War II." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of
Arizona (The). 258 pp.
The Indian New Deal of the 1930s changed official policy from assimilationist attitudes to acculturation on
the reservation and an emphasis on tribal culture. John Collier's program included self-determination in
tribal matters and advancements in health, education, and the economy. Despite improvements in these
areas, many critics charged that Collier's administration increased bureaucracy and hampered Indian
attempts at decision making. The American Indian Federation, one of Collier's most relentless critics and a
group with extreme right-wing, Fascist connections, succeeded in publicizing the Indian Bureau's
deficiencies but failed to gain many followers among Indians. Native Americans appeared oblivious, puzzled,
or overtly hostile to this group which undermined its own efforts with its blatant racism, anti-Semitism, and
un-American attitudes which struck at the very heart of American Indian patriotism. This deep-seated
patriotism, manifested in World War II by a n99% registration for the draft, accompanied a resurgence of
tribal sovereignty as Indians demanded the right to refuse to enlist. Based on government violation of treaty
rights, this refusal emerged as a philosophical argument, because Native Americans enlisted in numbers
comparable to their white peers. Politicians critical of the Indian New Deal exploited the Indian war effort to
push their own agenda of reversing the Indian Reorganization Act. The enormous wartime sacrifices and
contributions offered by civilian Indians further convinced the public and politicians that Native Americans
no longer needed supervision. In postwar America Indians who had willingly given labour, resources, and
finances found that their role in America's war would be all too easily forgotten. The Indian veteran and his
civilian counterparts soon realized that their fight for freedom did not end in Europe or in the Pacific. When
they returned to their homes and encountered injustices which had always existed, Native Americans refused
to passively accept these situations. In the 1940s American Indians asserted their rights and began the fight
for equality which would continue for the next three decades.

Fraser, Sarah J. (2002) "Negotiating for the future: Joint ventures and the economic participation of First Nations in
Canada." M.D.E. Thesis, Dalhousie University. 55 pp.
Like other Aboriginal communities in Canada, the Membertou First Nation in Nova Scotia has a history of
dependence on federal transfers. To address various socio-economic ills, including very high unemployment
and a $1.4 million debt the band had accrued by 1984, the band council has begun to improve its
administration and has focused its development efforts. The Membertou Development Corporation, the
business arm of the band, was created to orchestrate and publicize the changes in the business philosophy of
the band and build relationships with private business interests. This strategy has led to recent agreements

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with Sodexho-Marriott, SNC-Lavalin, Ledgers.com and Clearwater Fine Foods (Membertou, 2001).
Membertou has chosen to include joint venture agreements in its economic development efforts. Joint
ventures are promoted as a good way to bring First Nations into the wider economy and are used by many
First Nations to foster economic growth and employment of people living on reserves. Although the
metropolis/hinterland theory predicts that closer ties to the mainstream economy will further retard the
development of a peripheral economy, under certain circumstances joint ventures may be an appropriate
mechanism for the economic development of First Nation communities. This thesis examines the potential of
joint venture agreements made by the Membertou First Nation as a development tool.

Freed, Craig D. (1997) "Increasing local control of Canadian and American native education systems: Empowerment
of an emerging generation?" Ph.D. Dissertation, Arizona State University. 178 pp.
The purpose of this study was to determine if allowing more local educational control on Native
reservations/reserves in the United States and Canada results in increasing empowerment for students. Using
four elements of an educational program design, the basis of which is found in articles by Dr. James
Cummins, the research attempted to determine their effect on academic achievement and the dropout rate.
The research also attempted to determine if these elements of empowerment are actually being practiced in
native controlled districts. These four elements are: (1) Cultural and language inclusion in the curriculum;
(2) Parent and community participation in the schools is encouraged; (3) Look for ways to improve the
school structure to be more responsive to student needs; and, (4) Teach the use of language to generate more
knowledge by students.
This research adjusted the last element to be an examination of analytical thinking skills, as they are taught
or not taught, to native students. Besides Cummins' examination of these four elements' existence within the
school organization, there was also an inquiry into dynamic societal power relationships and the affect the
changing focal point of control on native education decision makers has on the empowerment of students.
The research into these relationships was explored using multiple-case examination of school sites in Canada
and the United States by a survey instrument and by a case study done in the southwest United States. These
research methods were employed in the fall of 1996 and the spring of 1997.
Findings of the research have given no indication of an existence of a relationship between increasing local
autonomy in native schools and increased empowerment of students through the indicators of academic
achievement and changes in the dropout rate. The case study indicated that there was no consensus in the
community what the educational system needed to teach young people in the American Indian community.
This lack of consensus may have had a direct relationship on the inability of the school system to impact
student lives in a positive manner.
Recommendations for improving the performance of working toward the goal of student empowerment
include a recognition that peoples arising from a long history of subjugation are ill equipped to administer
and develop entire school systems in a very short period of time. A consensus must be developed in the
community to determine what it is that the educational system should be doing to educate young people.
There is also a critical need to encourage more innovation in teaching strategies on reservations/reserves.
Working with the community to empower young people, should be a high priority for school systems on
reservations and reserves.

Freed-Rowland, Gretchen W. M. (1993) "North American indigenous women of the First Nations: Our own voices,
our own songs, our own landscapes." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Oregon. 315 pp.
This document contains the oral narratives of six North American indigenous women who engaged in
dialogue over the major questions and challenges they faced in their daily lives as university students,
professional women, and as Native American Indian women having to transit the landscapes of two or more
cultures simultaneously. Through the use of multiple, qualitative research methodologies data were gathered
over a four-year period. Participant observation, interviews, field notes, and the collection of written
artefacts were the techniques employed.
Emerging from these narratives were 28 categories such as: personal stories, education, tribal identity,
community, parenting, family, spiritual understanding and practice, issues of power, self esteem, gender,
cross-cultural interactions, which were interpreted through the Relation Model for critical thinking. These
categories were successfully collapsed under more global categories of culture: (a) identity and self; (b)
family and extended family; (c) community/internal and external; and, (d) education/within and without.
Emerging from these narratives are themes that have long held cultures, tribal groups and families together.
Their voices speak to dynamic movement, interaction, and interdependence grounded in reciprocal
relationship. Ultimately, responsibility to oneself, ones family and one's relatives and culture are intricate

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webs of reciprocity tying together all facets of one's life. Continuity of 'the people' becomes a theme these
women self identify as of major importance. For these women curriculum and instruction, theory and praxis
are not separate from their daily lives. Instead these are experienced as a web of meanings to be interpreted,
negotiated and acted upon as a way of living. This collaborative effort presents a different model for applying
ethnographic participatory research. It offers insights into the lives of contemporary 'urban' Native American
Indian women through their eyes, their words, and their landscapes. Finally, it serves as a model for
breaking down Eurocentric-male dominated process that fails to allow for the emergence of women's voices
and women's ways of knowing and doing into the text and canon.

Freeman, Melissa L. (2006) "Urban dreaming." M.Arch. Thesis, Dalhousie University.


This thesis focuses on the architectural implications involved in blurring the boundaries which isolate centre
and margin. Within the context of the city, the social segregation of Indigenous and non-Indigenous
Australians in Sydney is seen amplified at the scale of the suburb in Redfern. By studying the disparate
existence of a residential block owned by the Aboriginal Housing Company (AHC) in relation to the
gentrifying surrounding community, the continuing Aboriginal struggle for emancipation and cultural
presence is made transparent.
The area of study included in this thesis involves in-depth research into Indigenous Australian building
traditions and a sensitivity to the Aboriginal belief in the Dreamtime. Recognising the greater dysfunction
between the Block and the surrounding suburb, the research approaches community development from a
perspective that celebrates a healthy Indigenous identity, and a sensitive transition between the physical
boundaries which segregate two cultures. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

French, Jan H. (2003) "The rewards of resistance: Legalizing identity among descendants of indios and fugitive slaves
in northeastern Brazil." Ph.D. Dissertation, Duke University. 459 pp.
This dissertation explores how law can inspire ethnic and racial identity formation and how these
transformations, in turn, can shape the meanings of the law itself. It examines the relationship between law
and identity among mixed-race rural workers engaged in land struggles made possible by new legal
provisions. The crux of these struggles has been the collaborative revision of racial and ethnic self-
identification by two neighbouring groups in the process of receiving government recognition -- one as an
indigenous tribe and the other as a community of descendants of fugitive slaves. This dissertation addresses
issues of law, racial and ethnic identity, and culture by considering the ways in which these two communities
have positioned themselves in relation to one another and to new legal categories and processes of
recognition.
This dissertation uses the methodological tools of ethnographic, historical, and legal research to examine
how laws are used by political movements to make cultural differences organizationally relevant in new
ways. The juxtaposition in space and time of these two struggles in the Brazilian context, where racial and
ethnic identity is often mutable even if sometimes expressed in essentialized terms, is ideal for thinking about
how such developments operate on the ground and in the discursive and cultural practices of the people
assuming these new identities.
This dissertation argues that through the process of legalizing identity law operates as a powerful social
force, not only by imposing categories and ordering social relations, but also through the provision of
structures for self-identification and mobilization.
By examining two local examples, as they are constituted through law, social movements, and anthropology,
this dissertation assesses the fit between the values and interests of a political regime, as concretized in a
constitution, administrative practices, and laws and policies that are enunciated through legislative
enactment. As such, it contributes to the ongoing debate about how to conceptualize the meanings of 'rights,'
'difference,' and 'multiculturalism' in a democratizing polity, and shows that rights are not just what the law
provides, but are created through the process of governmentality as well as in the process of their pursuit.

Frias, Jose. (2001) "Understanding indigenous rights (the case of indigenous peoples in Venezuela)." LL.M. Thesis,
McGill University. 106 pp.
On December 15, 1999, the people of Venezuela approved a new Constitution, which is the first Venezuelan
constitution to entrench the rights of indigenous peoples. The purpose of this thesis is to analyze the different
theoretical issues raised by the problem of rights for indigenous peoples. It is argued that indigenous rights
are collective rights based on the value of cultural membership. This implies both an investigation of the
value of cultural membership and of the criticisms that the multicultural perspective has offered against that
point of view.

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Indigenous peoples have the moral right to preserve their cultures and traditions. It is submitted that
indigenous peoples have a double moral standing to claim differential treatment based on cultural
membership, because they constitute cultural minorities and they were conquered and did not lend their free
acceptance to the new regime imposed upon them. Therefore, they constitute a national minority, with moral
standing to claim self-government and cultural rights.

Fryberg, Stephanie A. (2003) "Really? You don't look like an American Indian: Social representations and social
group identities." Ph.D. Dissertation, Stanford University. 90 pp.
Social representations provide the images and the language for answering the questions, "Who am I," "Who
are we," and "Who are they?" (Moscovici, 1988). Five studies examined the psychological costs and benefits
of social representations on minority groups, in this case American Indians, when the widely shared
representations are limited in scope. The following questions were addressed: (1) What are the currently
prevalent social representations of American Indians? (2) What are the consequences of explicitly priming
these social representations for American Indians' self-esteem, collective self-efficacy, and achievement-
related possible selves? (3) Does ethnic identification mediate this relationship? and (4) What are the
consequences of explicitly priming prevalent representations of American Indians for European Americans'
self-esteem? Study 1 content analyzed articles from major newspapers and Hollywood movies and revealed
that almost all representations of American Indians could be categorized into one of three major categories:
the romanticized Indian, the broken Indian, and the Progressive Indian. In Studies 2 and 3, American Indian
high school students were primed with a prevalent social representation of their group (i.e., Pocahontas,
Chief Wahoo, or Negative Stereotypes) and then completed state self-esteem or collective self-efficacy
measures. In both studies, American Indian students primed with social representations showed depressed
self-esteem and collective self-efficacy when compared to American Indian students in the control (no social
representation) condition. In study 4, American Indians attending a predominantly American Indian
university with an American Indian mascot were also shown a social representation of American Indians
(either Chief Wahoo, Chief Illiniwek, the Haskell Indian, or an American Indian College Fund
advertisement). Participants in the mascot conditions reported fewer achievement-related possible selves
than did American Indians in no-prime control condition or the advertisement. Finally, in Study 5, European
Americans were explicitly primed with social representations of American Indians (i.e., Pocahontas, Chief
Wahoo, or Negative Stereotypes). They reported heightened self-esteem when compared to European
Americans in the no-prime control condition. This boost in self-esteem for European Americans suggests that
the dominant social representations of minority groups have significant implications for the psychological
functioning of both minority and majority group members.

Fuchs, Denise. (2000) "Native sons of Rupert's Land 1760 to the 1860s." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Manitoba
(The). 257 pp.
In the period from 1760 to the 1860s, native sons of the fur trade of Rupert's Land were distinctly shaped by
the disparate traditions of both their European fathers and aboriginal mothers. The success of the fur trade
depended on the economic interdependence and mutual cooperation of these two sets of strangers. Their
progeny, like their fathers and mothers, aided the British-oriented companies in whose employ they served.
The examination of the attitudes which informed the manner in which native sons were depicted in the
records and their educational achievements and careers within the fur trade revealed that cultural and racial
biases affected their lives, in both subtle and direct ways. These cultural and racial biases became more
obvious from 1820 onward. Social, economic and political changes and the concomitant shifts in attitudes
toward the native sons shed light on the particular circumstances which characterized their lives.
From the 1790s onwards, native sons began to contribute their labour to the economy of the posts in
significant ways. Fathers became more cognizant of the need to prepare their sons for larger roles in the fur
trade and began acculturating them further to the European side of their heritage. A British-based education
was sought for them. Towards the end of the 18th century and in the first two decades of the 19th century,
some native sons could obtain clerkships and become managers of small posts.
The attention to race and class, heightened by the arrival of white women in the 1820s, resulted in the
imposition of social barriers dependent on rank and education that excluded some of the native sons and
their aboriginal or mixed-descent relatives from circles that had formerly included them Additionally, the
newly amalgamated company's adoption of a more rigid hierarchy and the increased emphasis on upward
mobility posed difficulties and challenges for the native sons in the three decades following the 1821 merger
of the Hudson's Bay Company and the North West Company, when limits were imposed on their movement
within the company. In the 1850s and 60s a shift in attitude occurred and restrictions began to be eased

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allowing some native sons to advance in the company.

Fujikane, Candace L. (1996) "Archipelagos of resistance: Narrating nation in Asian-American, Native Hawai'ian, and
Hawai'i's local literatures." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California, Berkeley. 252 pp.
This dissertation, 'Archipelagos of resistance: Narrating nation in Asian American, Native Hawai'ian, and
Hawai'i's local literatures,' examines the narrative structure of nationalisms. Because nationalist movements
often formulate their own 'official' narratives of national struggles along a linear, developmental emplotment
of history, I use a model of archipelagic configurations of nations to resurrect counternarratives that
articulate national struggles in different ways. I ground this theoretical model in the specificities of the crisis
occurring in Hawai'i as competing nationalisms there erupt at the borders of what can be imagined as an
'Asian Pacific American' nation. While Asian Americans increasingly use the term 'Asian Pacific American'
to broaden their bases of coalitions with peoples from the Pacific Basin, the term elides and even reinscribes
the particular colonial histories of peoples in Hawai'i. Native Hawai'ian nationalists and Hawai'i's local
cultural nationalists contest being easily named with continental American identities, even as they often find
themselves in conflict over competing claims to Hawai'i as homeland. This peculiar crisis between the native
and the local in Hawai'i affords us the opportunity to analyze the ways in which anticolonial nations
negotiate their relations with each other, extending postcolonial theories that focus solely on a binary
relationship between imperial nation and anticolonial nationalism. Since cultural nationalism and its claim
to the 'realm' of the aesthetic are rendered by nationalists asymmetrical to nationalism and its reclaiming of
an occupied homeland, Asian American and local cultural nationalists produce highly ambivalent narratives.
The instability of nationalist narratives is crucial to political movements since it prevents the homogenizing
of constituencies by mobilizing peoples around archipelagic formations of multiple loci of resistance from
which Asian American, native Hawai'ian and local writers contest American imperialism. Analyzing the
narratives of Asian American writers David Hsin-Fu Wand, Maxine Hong Kingston, Jessica Hagedorn,
Hawai'i's local writers Darrell Lum, Eric Chock, Gary Pak and Lois-Ann Yamanaka, and native Hawai'ian
writers Leialoha Apo Perkins, Haunani-Kay Trask, Mililani Trask and Charles Ka'ai'ai, the dissertation
sketches out articulations of national identity that allow for more complex anticolonial alliances against
imperial nations.

Fuller-Tarbox, Elizabeth. (2001) "A new look at Louis Riel through his visionary experiences." M.A. Thesis, Carleton
University. 110 pp.
Louis Riel is an integral part of Canada's identity and its heritage. As the leader of the Metis people, he led
two rebellions against the Canadian government over their language, religious, and land claims rights. Since
his execution for treason in 1885, Louis Riel has been given various labels ranging from traitor and madman
to a Father of Confederation and yet there is still much mystery and controversy surrounding this man. In
December of 1875, Riel claimed to have begun experiencing a series of 'visionary experiences' that he
believed were direct communications from his God. Shortly thereafter he declared himself a 'Prophet of the
New World.' These experiences became the determining factor in this man's actions for the remainder of his
life. What this thesis will explore is the possibility that components of these experiences clearly showed that
Riel was engaged in prophetic behaviour. It will also seek evidence that the same visionary experiences might
well have been park of a revitalization movement much in the same manner as Handsome Lake and the
Iroquois. The purpose is to give further insight into Louis Riel and the events surrounding his life.

Funk-Unrau, Cornelius. (2001) "If the Lubicon lose we all lose: A case study of interchurch advocacy and intervention
in an aboriginal land rights conflict." Ph.D. Dissertation, Syracuse University. 231 pp.
This dissertation is a qualitative study of an attempt to develop and maintain a particular type of aboriginal
rights advocacy relationship, namely the effort of the a regional interchurch coalition, based in Edmonton
Alberta, to develop a solidarity relationship with the Lubicon Cree of northern Alberta and to advocate for
the resolution of the Lubicon land rights struggle. Ethnographic research methods included participant-
observation of the Edmonton Interfaith Coalition on Aboriginal Rights (EICAR) from 1997 to 1999, analysis
of media and interchurch documentation on the Lubicon struggle and semi-structured interviews with 31
interviewees. After a brief history of the Lubicon conflict, the study examines the convergence of several
political discourses which provided the political space for the creation of a new advocacy network and a new
type of relationship with specific aboriginal societies such as the Lubicon. This particular solidarity
relationship conveyed a commitment to act on behalf of the Lubicon and the moral justification for doing so,
but also confronted non-aboriginal supporters with the tensions between standing with Lubicon while
simultaneously acknowledging the many factors that separated them from each other. The study analyzes two

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specific collective actions -- a blockade of Lubicon territory in 1988 and the establishment of a
nongovernmental commission of inquiry in 1992 -- as attempts to enact this solidarity relationship. The
blockade is a collective action which was developed and implemented by the Lubicon who then invited
interchurch and other supporters to stand with them in solidarity. The commission exemplifies an attempt to
set up an intermediary structure with overlapping advocacy and mediating roles. The study then examines the
impact of both actions on the power and cultural differentials separating the Lubicon from their non-
aboriginal supporters and concludes that the maintenance of a strong advocacy and solidarity relationship
requires not only the willingness to empower the Lubicon in various collective actions but also a sensitivity to
the cultural boundaries between the two parties and the willingness and opportunity to sustain ongoing
supportive relationships across cultures.

Furniss, Elizabeth M. (1997) "In the spirit of the pioneers: Historical consciousness, cultural colonialism and
Indian/white relations in rural British Columbia." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of British Columbia (The).
337 pp.
This dissertation is an ethnography of the cultural politics of Indian/white relations in a small, interior
British Columbia resource city at the height of land claims conflict and tensions. Drawing on the theoretical
approaches of Nicholas Thomas (1994) and Raymond Williams (1977, 1980), I show how the power that
reinforces the subordination of aboriginal peoples in Canada is exercised by 'ordinary' rural Euro-
Canadians whose cultural attitudes and activities are forces in an ongoing, contemporary system of colonial
domination. In approaching these issues through in-depth ethnographic research with both the native and
Euro-Canadian populations and in exploring the dynamics of cultural domination and resistance at the level
of a local, rural community, this dissertation stands as a unique contribution to the ethnographic study of
colonialism and native/non-native relations in Canada.
The dominant Euro-Canadian culture of the region is defined by a complex of understandings about history,
society and identity that is thematically integrated through the idea of the frontier. At its heart, the frontier
complex consists of an historical epistemology -- a Canadian version of the American frontier myth (Slotkin
1992) -- that celebrates the processes through which European explorers 'discovered' and 'conquered' North
America and its aboriginal inhabitants. Central to this complex is the Indian/white dichotomy, a founding
archetype in Euro-Canadians' symbolic ordering of regional social relations and in their private and public
constructions of collective identity. Also central is the Euro-Canadians' self-image of benevolent paternalism,
an identity that appears repeatedly in discourses of national history and native/non-native relations.
Facets of the frontier complex are expressed in diverse settings: casual conversations among Euro-
Canadians, popular histories, museum displays, political discourse, public debates about aboriginal land
claims, and the town's annual summer festival. In each setting, these practices contribute to the perpetuation
of relations of inequality between Euro-Canadians and area Shuswap, Tsilhqot'in and Carrier peoples, and
in each setting area natives are engaging in diverse forms of resistance. The plurality of these strategies of
resistance, rooted in different cultural identities, biographical experiences and political philosophies, reflects
the creativity in which new forms of resistance are forged and tested in public contexts of native/Euro-
Canadian interaction.

Gagne, Natacha. (2004) "Mäori identities and visions: Politics of everyday life in Auckland, New Zealand." Ph.D.
Dissertation, McGill University. 405 pp.
Indigenous peoples around the world have been involved, especially since the 1970s, in nationalist or
sovereigntist movements, as well as in struggles for decolonization, self-determination, and recognition of
their rights. Mäori of Aotearoa/New Zealand are engaged in just such processes and, particularly since the
1960s and 1970s, as part of the Mäori "cultural renaissance". Since about 70% of Mäori live in urban areas,
cities -- Auckland in particular -- have become important sites of affirmation and struggle. This study, which
falls within the field of urban anthropology, is an investigation of what being Mäori today means and how it
is experienced, in particular in the city. The sense of place of Mäori living in Auckland and the appropriation
of space in the urban context are important dimensions of this study. It explores the complexity of Mäori
relationships to the urban milieu, which is often perceived as an alien and colonized site; the ways they
create places and spaces for themselves; and the ongoing struggles to (re)affirm Mäori identities and cultural
aspects considered important elements of these identities. The focus of this research is on everyday life and
"ordinary" Mäori (in contrast to elites). It reveals the significance and importance to Mäori affirmation and
resistance of the extended family and certain types of "city houses" which are based on "traditional" marae
(Mäori traditional meeting places) principles. In contrast to many studies that have stressed the assimilation
pressures of the urban milieu and global forces on indigenous societies, this research underlines processes of

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(re)affirmation. It shows how indigenous visions, and ways of being are maintained and even strengthened
through changes and openness to the larger society. Coming to understand these processes also led to the
exploration of Mäori realms of interpretation or figured worlds, the heteroglossic and complex ways people
engage in or relate to these figured worlds, and to figured worlds of the larger society. This study is, thus, at
the very core of today's debates concerning decolonization, political autonomy for indigenous peoples, and
the study of nationalist movements or movements for self-determination.

Galindo, Marcus E. (2003 ) "The journey of education: Characteristics of Shoshone-Bannock High School and
community members on the Fort Hall Indian Reservation." Ph.D. Dissertation, Utah State University. 137 pp.
This dissertation examined personal, cultural, school, and family factors that contribute to the decision of
Native American students to remain in school until graduation or to drop out. 181 participants who had
either graduated or dropped out of school completed a 140-item questionnaire. Participants lived on the
Shoshone-Bannock Indian Reservation located at Fort Hall, Idaho. Factors examined in the survey
instrument included substance abuse by self or family members, peer pressure, trouble with the law, self-
esteem, teen pregnancy, family structure, socioeconomic status, parents education, academic achievement,
teacher attitudes and expectations, school attendance, tribal self-identity and pride, and bilingualism. This
research was based on the assumption that issues and processes in Native American education must be
addressed by Native people themselves in order for positive change to occur. In addition, the research looked
for factors that seem to keep Native Americans in school. The analysis suggested that respondents who were
at a higher risk of dropping out of school had a negative self-attitude, frequently skipped school, and had
negative attitudes about their teachers' expectations. These results differed significantly from those of Native
Americans who had positive self-attitudes, positive attitudes about their teachers' expectations, and positive
family influences. Themes of poverty, self-esteem, and teacher attitudes repeatedly surfaced. Graduates
frequently reported that positive family expectations (including teachers) kept them in school. This
dissertation provides important information for those involved in Native American education. In addition,
this dissertation brings together the views of the Native American, specifically the Shoshone-Bannock people,
in the journey of education. Together, the review of literature and data collected on the Shoshone-Bannock
Indian reservation provide a valuable resource for teachers, parents, and community members now involved,
or soon to be involved, in Native American education.

Garrity, John F. (1998) "The ethos of power: Navajo religious healing of alcohol and substance abuse." Ph.D.
Dissertation, Case Western Reserve University. 255 pp.
Three distinct religious healing traditions coexist within the contemporary Navajo health care system. This
study investigates the differential therapeutic engagement of alcohol and substance abuse within the three
religious healing traditions as to the kinds of power, social networks, and personal meaning they offer to
Navajo people who suffer. Ethnographic research indicates that, among these three, Native American Church
and Pentecostal Christian healing are more actively involved in the treatment of alcohol and substance abuse
than is traditional Navajo healing. These two more recent healing traditions are explored as a religious
response to the contemporary Navajo crisis of alcohol and substance abuse. Analysis situates them in the
context of the vast socioeconomic changes taking place in Navajo society today as it continues its transition
from pastoralism towards wage labour subsistence. These changes, together with the prevalence of alcohol
abuse itself, profoundly disrupt traditional kinship networks and diminish the opportunity for many Navajos
to participate in traditional religious life. Part of the therapeutic efficacy of Native American Church and
Christian healing lies in their synthesizing elements of traditional meaning with those of the contemporary
Navajo sociocultural milieu. The new kinds of power, social networks, and personal meaning proffered by
these traditions facilitates an ethnopsychological transformation of self, a revitalized sense of community,
and a new vision of the possibilities of the future for Navajo people who suffer. It is further demonstrated that
the dominant theoretical emphasis on harmony and beauty in anthropological research is inadequate for
understanding contemporary Navajo culture and religion. Instead, the essence of Navajo culture and healing
can be more accurately comprehended in terms of the ethos of power. This power is conceptualized and
experienced as a power of the sacred. This power is not inherently good or evil, rather, power becomes
dangerous only if it is uncontrolled. Navajo patients frequently experience distress in terms of feeling out of
control, or controlled by something, such as a spirit or alcohol. Conversely, the therapeutic efficacy of all
three religious healing traditions lies within restoring the proper control of sacred power. In this sense, it is
the ethos of power which sustains and unifies Navajo culture.

Garwood, Nicki. (1995) ""Why do you want to help me? I've never even been to your home...": A journey in cross-

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cultural social work with aboriginal people." M.S.W. Thesis, McGill University. 191 pp.
The following thesis describes the experiences of a non-native, female, social worker as a participant-
observer among First Nations people. The setting was that of an Intensive Drug and Alcohol Abuse
Prevention Program for male aboriginal ex-offenders, held over a period of four months in 1993. The
environment was a secluded camp site, situated to the northeast of Montréal. The material describes, in
narrative form, the interactions between non-native and Mohawk workers, and between non-native worker
and native clients of various cultural backgrounds. Also considered are general issues which affect First
Nations peoples, such as alcohol and drug abuse, grief and loss, sexual abuse and the resurgence of
traditional native spiritual practices. Implications of the work reflect on effective cross-cultural
communication, and the importance of facilitating appropriate healing processes for First Nations peoples.

Geddes, Russell D. (1984 ) "The pursuit of aboriginal rights: The negotiation of comprehensive claims in Canada."
M.A. Thesis, Carleton University. 149 pp.
In the past 15 years, comprehensive claims have become a highly politicized issue in the Canadian north.
This thesis examines the legal basis of comprehensive claims and the dual objectives of preservation and
integration sought by native groups through settlements of these claims. It also outlines the evolution of the
federal claims policy, beginning with a treaty-making process and culminating in a negotiation process to
resolve comprehensive claims. While Ottawa has adhered to the negotiation process, the government has
been inconsistent in settling these native claims. However, it has not been a lack of government willingness to
respond to comprehensive claims, but rather the negotiations have been tempered by the particular political
and economic climates in which each claim arises. The claims negotiation process of James Bay, the
Mackenzie Valley and the Yukon were chosen to test this hypothesis. The paper outlines the development of
each of these claims and identifies the determining factors involved in each negotiation process. In
concluding, the timing of the claims, the problem of overlapping boundaries, and the interface of territorial
claims with political development have been particularly influential in explaining the divergences in the
negotiation of comprehensive claims.

Geier, James A. (1986) "The legacy of colonialism: A comparative historical analysis of internal colonialism in the
United States and South Africa." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California, Riverside. 220 pp.
This dissertation examines the applicability of the internal colonial model, as developed by Robert Blauner
and others, to the societies of the United States and the Republic of South Africa. It utilizes an historical
comparative mode of analysis to examine the mechanisms of subordination of racial and ethnic minorities on
behalf of dominant group interests from the 17th through the 20th century. The major focus is on the racial
and class interests of dominant group members relative to land and labour issues. Formal legislation is used
as an indicator of these interests and its impact on minority group statuses and structural locations is
assessed. Land and labour are discussed in terms of their contribution to the growth of capitalism and their
use as mechanisms of social control in the two countries. The major conclusion reached is that a combination
of internal colonial and class analyses offers the most powerful explanation for the persistence of racial and
ethnic inequality in modern industrial societies. This method of assessing the independent and interactive
effects of race and class offers a severe challenge to traditional assimilationist explanations.

Genka, Yoko. (2004) "Imag(in)ing Okinawa: Representations from within and without." Ph.D. Dissertation, George
Mason University. 215 pp.
This dissertation delineates the problem of representation of an Asian island group, caught between
conceptions and preconceptions imposed from without on the one hand, and a dialectics of identity politics
from within on the other hand. Special emphasis is placed on the distortion in the representation of the
Others that results from the already established framework of representation and from the prevailing
discourse that legitimizes the framework itself. Such distortion seems to be a problem of identity for those
who are forced to play the role of Others to a Western Self, and who thus feel forced to correct such distorted
images within the prevailing discourse.
Through her own theoretical interest in representation, the author came to think of her birthplace, Okinawa,
today a Japanese prefecture in the Ryukyu archipelago, as an excellent locale for analysis. 20th century
Okinawa offered the perfect setting for examining the interplay and dynamics of representation, since both
Japan and the United States have repeatedly and insistently intervened in the representation of Okinawan
culture so as to legitimize their respective claims on the island chain. The analysis of cultural images and
representations there reveals what kinds of framework are selected for a particular discourse to prevail.
Presumably, such an analysis made by an Okinawan who also studied within the framework of a Western

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discipline might somehow shed light upon current and disturbing issues of representation, and particularly
upon the process though which the Others are necessarily caught within a specific discourse of
representation.

Ghere, David L. (1988) "Abenaki factionalism, emigration and social continuity: Indian society in northern New
England, 1725 to 1765." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Maine. 332 pp.
The Abenaki tribes experienced an important political transition during the period from 1725 to 1765. Tribal
structures, already disrupted by epidemic diseases and trade dependence, experienced escalating Anglo-
French diplomatic pressure and English settlement expansion at a time of Abenaki military weakness. While
Euroamerican actions and policies certainly shaped the Indians' diplomatic situation and influenced their
internal tribal politics, tribal leaders responded with both independence and ingenuity to control events in a
manner that they perceived to be in the best interests of their respective tribes. The relative consistency of
Abenaki spokesmen at conferences fostered the perception of the tribes as structured political units and
obscured the tremendous dissension and factionalism within each tribe. The nature of consensus politics and
the fluidity of Abenaki band membership controlled the divisive forces for a time, but eventually all of the
tribes splintered into separate political entities or gradually disintegrated into family bands, some of which
merged into other tribes. The Penobscot tribe reunited after the French and Indian War and, ultimately,
absorbed many of the remnants of the other tribes. Other Abenaki family bands and lineages continued their
separate residence in northern New England for many decades.
Abenaki factionalism resulted primarily from the internal political disputes over the most effective policy for
diplomatic relations with the English. Some Abenakis believed peaceful co-existence and increased economic
interaction were the best means of maintaining their land and lifestyle. They pursued their goal with a variety
of diplomatic tactics and adaptive strategies, always seeking neutrality during Anglo-French disputes. Other
Abenakis believed that only constant resistance to English settlements and English policies would preserve
their land and way of life. Their diplomatic tactics and adaptive strategies were designed to further these
goals and they perceived Anglo-French conflicts as opportunities to secure French assistance. Proximity to
English settlements and limited subsistence options accentuated the divisive effects of factionalism and,
within each tribe, young warriors tended to support the confrontational faction while older men were more
conciliatory.
Abenaki political dissension and tribal disintegration obscures an underlying social continuity. All Abenaki
decisions, whether they concerned subsistence, emigration, trade, treaty commitments, initiating warfare or
concluding peace, were determined at the family band or lineage level. The fluid nature of Abenaki social
organization allowed individuals and families to change political factions or even village residence without
greatly disturbing social relationships. Social continuity enabled the Abenakis to survive this period of
factionalism, migration and military defeat.

Gibson, Virginia V. (1996) "Resources, conflict, and culture: The sour gas plant dispute between Unocal Canada and
the Lubicon Cree nation." M.A. Thesis, University of Alberta. 184 pp.
A dispute between Unocal Canada, an oil and gas company, and the Lubicon Cree nation, an aboriginal
band, over a sour gas plant was adjudicated by the Energy Utilities Board (EUB) of the Province of Alberta
in 1994. Qualitative social science methods are used in this study to explore the perspectives of all parties to
this dispute. It is established that current risk communication and management strategies have not
adequately identified or resolved the issues arising from the cross-cultural differences underlying the dispute.
A case study approach is used to explore themes such as: differences between Unocal, the Lubicon and the
EUB that hinder effective cross-cultural communication, methods of designing cross-cultural communication
to accommodate these differences, the performance of EUB dispute resolution processes in cross-cultural
contexts, and the potential for other risk management and dispute resolution processes that accommodate
cultural differences. A cross-cultural model of communication and conflict resolution is used to outline the
differences between participants and the cultural contexts of the parties to the dispute. The results of this
study show that successful cross-cultural communication and conflict resolution must address and
accommodate cultural differences.

Giesler, Patric V. (1998 ) "Conceptualizing religion in highly syncretistic fields: An analog ethnography of the
Candomblés of Bahia, Brazil." Ph.D. Dissertation, Brandeis University. 1,163 pp.
One of the outstanding problems in the study of religion is its very often tremendous internal variability,
variability within what is conceived of as one, same, 'religion.' Accordingly, the question that the dissertation
addresses is how to conceptualize, study, and describe a particular religion in the context of such internal

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variation? And it responds through a comprehensive ethnography of a case exemplifying the problem, the
African-derived spirit possession religion, Candombleé, of Bahia, Brazil. Candomblé is embedded in a
context of highly syncretistic religious variability, shaped by InterAfrican, Amerindian, and Popular Catholic
influences. Typically, the problem is approached, 'digitally,' as in a 'digital ethnography,' where the religious
variability is collapsed into a discrete unit, and the 'religion' is defined by a single and presumably uniformly
shared set of beliefs, rituals, religious experiences, and social organization. But it is argued here on the basis
of extensive field research on the Candomblés (1971-74, 1976-77, 1980-81, 1990-94), entailing surveys and
comparisons of a large number of case studies of the most diverse variants, participant observation in more
than 300 rituals, and the intensive interviewing of more than 100 leaders and 100 adepts in 141 Candomblé
centres, that in the case of the Candomblé, such a 'religion' does not exist. Such a Candomblé (singular) does
not exist. What exists is a field of variants, 'Candomblés' (plural), that resemble one another to varying
degrees. They share a family resemblance in Wittgenstein's sense, not a single defining set of distinctive
features.
Thus, the solution to the problem executed here is to address religious variability directly, and conceptualize
the Candomblé religion as a field of variants, study the field's internal variability, its structure, history,
character, and dynamics, and describe it analogically, an 'analog ethnography,' through a comparison of the
beliefs, rituals, religious experiences, and social organization of its variants. The dissertation reveals, for
instance, that the field is modelled on the most conservatively African exemplars, such that the other
Candomblés vary syncretically in relation to them. The same applies to the rich transmutations of Candomblé
ethnopsychology across the field, which is a major focus of the ethnography. It is concluded that if religious
variability is not taken into account, the character of religious organization, its expression, and cultural
history, in general, will be misrepresented, and our attempts to discover associations and correlations with
other social, cultural, historical, and psychological phenomena will suggest connections when there are
none, or none when there are.

Gilats, Andrea S. (1997) "American Indian lives, lands, and cultures: The story of an intercultural educational travel
program." Ph.D. Dissertation, Union Institute (The). 174 pp.
This is a true story about the issues, challenges, problems, and processes associated with conceiving,
constructing, delivering, and sustaining an educational program of study tours in Indian America aimed at
adult lifelong learners. It is a story of engagement, collaboration, exchange, trial, error, and reflection as
told by a non-Indian educator working within a large public university. It recounts a search for approaches
and working methods in which (1) partnership and dialogue with tribal communities shape program content,
presentation, and faculty selection; (2) power and control are shared in order to preserve cultural integrity
and dismantle stereotypes both in tribal communities and the academy; (3) tribal communities and their
members take authority for deciding which aspects of their cultures are shared with outsiders and how and
where that sharing takes place; and, (4) the resulting programs further these communities' economic,
cultural, and political goals for tourism. This story is written with the intention that the research, thought,
and feeling that inform it will improve and enrich the educational program that is its subject, and that it will
be useful to tribal communities and educational institutions that wish to develop similar educational and
cultural programs. There is an artefact associated with this story. This artefact is American Indian Lives,
Lands, and Cultures (AILLC), a program of study tours "owned" and operated by the University of
Minnesota. The goal of this program is to broaden and deepen knowledge about continuity and change in
American Indian cultures by providing a variety of tourist-students access to historical Indian lands and
contemporary tribal communities, and opportunities to learn from living American Indian educators,
scholars, artists, and elders. This story is complemented, countered, and contextualized with quotations from
American Indian writers, artists, and philosophers, and with excerpts from the author's visual and written
travel journals.

Gilby, Stuart C. (1996) "Variations on a theme: Environmental racism and the adverse effects of natural racism
extraction on the aboriginal peoples of Canada." Ph.D. Dissertation, Dalhousie University.
This study examines the manner in which Canada has taken land from indigenous peoples to exploit the
country's natural resources. The process has benefited the larger, European derived society at the terrible
expense of the numerous indigenous nations of what is now Canada. The author compares this process to the
practice of environmental racism in the United States, and the intersection of issues of race and resource
allocation in the international sphere. In all three situations the rights and values of minorities are sacrificed
to increase the wealth of a larger, more powerful race or ethnic group. The history of the clash between
European and indigenous cultures in Canada is sketched. The role of government and the courts in assisting

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with the subjugation of native peoples is examined. Specific cases are discussed which clearly illustrate the
enormity of the adverse impacts of resource development visited on various First Nations. The most extensive
examination is of the difficulties faced by the Crees of James Bay in their ongoing struggle against hydro-
electric projects and forestry. Particular emphasis is placed on the words and experience of individual
natives who have suffered the direct and immediate effects of policies and practices that are rooted in racism.
The study finds some hope for change to our history of the dispossession of aboriginal peoples, the
destruction of their economies and the severe damage done to their cultural and spiritual values. The hope is
tentative, but the perseverance of natives and the change in direction taken by some governments do offer a
chance for an equitable sharing of the wealth of the land.

Gill, Nicholas J. (2000) "Outback or at home? Environment, social change and pastoralism in Central Australia."
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of New South Wales.
This thesis examines the responses of non-indigenous pastoralists in Central Australian rangelands to two
social movements that profoundly challenge their occupancy, use and management of land. Contemporary
environmentalism and Aboriginal land rights have both challenged the status of pastoralists as valued
primary producers and bearers of a worthy pioneer heritage. Instead, pastoralists have become associated
with land degradation, biodiversity loss, and Aboriginal dispossession. Such pressure has intensified in the
1990s in the wake of the Native Title debate, and various conservation campaigns in the arid and semi-arid
rangelands. The pressures on pastoralists occur in the context of wider reassessments of the social and
economic values of rangelands in which pastoralism is seen as having declined in value compared to 'post-
production' land uses. Reassessments of rangelands in turn are part of global changes in the status of rural
areas, and of the growing flexibility in the very meaning of 'rural.' Through ethnographic fieldwork among
largely non-indigenous pastoralists in Central Australia, this thesis investigates the nature and foundations
of pastoralists' responses to these changes and critiques. Through memory, history, labour and experience of
land, non-indigenous pastoralists construct a narrative of land, themselves and others in which the presence
of pastoralism in Central Australia is naturalised, and Central Australia is narrated as an inherently pastoral
landscape. Particular types of environmental knowledge and experience, based in actual environmental
events and processes form the foundation for a discourse of pastoral property rights. Pastoralists
accommodate environmental concerns, through advocating environmental stewardship. They do this in such
a way that Central Australia is maintained as a singularly pastoral landscape, and one in which a European,
or 'white', frame of reference continues to dominate. In this way the domesticated pastoral landscapes of
colonialism and nationalism are reproduced. The thesis also examines Aboriginal pastoralism as a
distinctive form of pastoralism, which fulfils distinctly Aboriginal land use and cultural aspirations, and
undermines the conventional meaning of 'pastoralism' itself. The thesis ends by suggesting that improved
dialogue over rangelands futures depends on greater understanding of the details and complexities of local
relationships between groups of people, and between people and land.

Gill, Sheila D. (1999) "Who can be a citizen? Decoding the 'law of the land' in contemporary Manitoba politics." M.A.
Thesis, University of Toronto. 177 pp.
This thesis decodes key aspects of the 'law of the land' operating in contemporary Manitoban society.
Focusing on 'white' elite political performances of the official national story, I contend that (a gendered,
classed, heterosexed) racism underwrites the shifting and disparate instances of what and who a Canadian
citizen can be, both in the letter of the law, and in the diverse lived realities of the 1990s. Combining
discourse analysis with tools of critical geography, my work speaks back to the decreed unspeakability of
racism in Manitoba's Legislature. I contend that the 1995 prohibition on the use of the word 'racist' in the
House is consistent with the amnesic context of (post)colonial Canadian society and its celebrated 'anti-
racist' nationalism. In response to the extremity of systemic violence experienced by First Nations peoples in
the Canadian past and present, my analysis gives priority to the ordering of aboriginal/non-aboriginal
relations in Manitoba.

Gillon, Kirstin E. (1997 ) "The practical utility of international law in the negotiation and implementation of
aboriginal self-government agreements." LL.M. Thesis, McGill University. 143 pp.
The aim of this thesis is to evaluate the practical utility of international norms to indigenous peoples. In
recent decades, indigenous peoples have looked increasingly to international fora to secure what they see as
their rights. It becomes important, then, to evaluate the potential utility of these efforts. Two conclusions
dominate my assessment of the role of international law. Firstly, the lack of enforceability of the norms
means that international law is unlikely to achieve change in the face of state resistance. Secondly, the

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vagueness of the norms, coupled with the complexity of self-government regimes, severely limit the principles'
ability in achieving specific change. Instead, the utility of international law is seen to lie in changing attitudes
amongst the general public and governments, by establishing common standards of treatment to which all
indigenous peoples are entitled, creating new channels of communication and broadening the context of
indigenous disputes.

Gilman, Deborah A. (1998 ) "Culturally relevant aboriginal child welfare: Principles, practice, and policy." Ph.D.
Dissertation, University of Manitoba (The). 281 pp.
Aboriginal workers appear to bring a holistic approach to their practice of child welfare. The theory of
reasoned action (Ajzen and Fishbein, 1980) predicts a relationship between individuals' characteristics such
as ethnicity and their beliefs, attitudes, behavioural intentions, and behaviours. Based on this theory, the
study compared the intended interventions of 26 aboriginal workers from aboriginal child welfare agencies
and 32 non-aboriginal workers from agencies serving rural and remote areas. Workers responded to
questionnaires consisting of rating scales and open-ended questions requiring written responses. Results
indicated that aboriginal workers rated a set of mainstream social work practice principles as less frequently
relevant to their practice. A repeated-measures multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) indicated that
aboriginal and non-aboriginal workers would respond differently to four aboriginal child welfare vignettes.
Specifically, aboriginal workers indicated that they would be more likely than non-aboriginal workers to
employ less intrusive interventions. They were also more likely to favour some short- and long-term
interventions. Workers did not differ in their intentions to employ within-family interventions. Given that non-
aboriginal workers reported completing significantly higher levels of education than aboriginal workers,
analyses of covariance were conducted with education as the covariate. For the practice principles, a
MANCOVA indicated no difference between the two groups with respect to relevance ratings. However, a
repeated-measures MANCOVA indicated that aboriginal and non-aboriginal workers still differed with
respect to their intended interventions. Also, a MANCOVA indicated that aboriginal and non-aboriginal
workers differed with respect to their intentions to intervene at varying levels of intrusiveness. Five
aboriginal workers were interviewed to provide a context for the findings. The results suggest that education
influences a worker's assessment of the relevance of practice principles. However, the application of these
principles is more complex and appears to be influenced by a worker's ethnicity. With respect to culturally
relevant aboriginal child welfare policy, recommendations were made to alter time constraints imposed on
aboriginal child welfare cases and to support interventions that aim to strengthen aboriginal families.

Giroux, Sharon S. (1997) "The experiences that contributed to the attrition decisions of Lac du Flambeau high school
students." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Minnesota. 430 pp.
Chippewa elders and tribal council members at Lac du Flambeau, Wisconsin were concerned that the
economic prosperity and future cultural longevity of their tribe could be in jeopardy as a result of the very
high attrition phenomena among their high school youth. According to Valliere (1990), the high school
attrition rate among younger members of the Lac du Flambeau Band of Lake Superior Indians varied
between 53% and 73% over the past decade.
The purpose of this study was to help others understand the lived experiences of Chippewa high school
students as they left the reservation (a majority learning environment) to attend public high school off the
reservation (a minority learning environment) and also what events transpired that contributed to their
attrition decisions.
As part of this qualitative study, interview sessions with six Chippewa youths (three males and three females
between the ages of 16 and 20) along with their parents or guardians were conducted on the Lac du
Flambeau reservation in the fall of 1993. Other secondary resources and documents were examined for
purposes of corroborating the testimonies of those individuals who had terminated their secondary
education.
In analyzing the content of the testimonies, ten primary patterns and themes emerged. These included the
effects of racism, fear, severe punishment, political and spiritual issues and peer pressure. A dichotomy
existed between lighter and darker-skinned Indians. While most Chippewa families were profoundly
committed to education, labelling, tracking, and sorting devices contributed to their sense of shame and an
erosion of their cultural identity. Domestic issues and family concerns burdened young Chippewa students.
Internal strife among members of the Chippewa community itself served to further alienate young people
from their educational or career pursuits.
Though alternative education programs on the reservation contributed significantly to the graduation
accomplishments of Chippewa youths, these were discontinued due to a lack of funding. Though many Indian

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families prefer to have their children integrate academically and socially into the predominantly all-white
high school off the reservation, others have called for the construction of an Indian high school on the
reservation.

Giuliano, Pearl E. (1995 ) "Anishnawbe women and the meaning of food: A qualitative study." M.Sc. Thesis,
University of Guelph. 155 pp.
This thesis is an investigation of the meaning of food for nine Anishnawbe women in Pic River, Ontario. The
women's experiences and perspectives are the focus in this feminist, participatory action research process.
Unstructured and semi-structured interviews, group story writing and discussions encouraged the women to
reflect on, and analyze, food and eating. Learning needs were identified and an action plan initiated. The
main findings discuss the impact of acculturation on food consumption; the high prevalence of obesity, and
the women's knowledge of food and nutrition; the high prevalence of overeating and emotional eating; the
healing and empowerment of the women; and the impact of ethnostress. Conclusions drawn include the
importance of understanding history; overeating and emotional eating are symptoms of underlying problems;
and a qualitative approach encouraged the women to voice their experiences, promoting critical thinking and
identification of learning needs. Ten implications for health care providers are also presented.

Givens, David T. (2000) "Guam: An analysis of an American colony with particular emphasis on the integration of the
pre-contact class system into the modern society." Ph.D. Dissertation, Michigan State University. 642 pp.
Guam is one of the United States' few remaining territories. While the people of Guam are Americans in
every sense of the word, Guam hosts several subcultures. The dominant one is the Chamorro-Guamanian.
Interestingly, the Chamorro-Guamanians seem to have maintained several important parts of their
prehistoric culture to this day.
This paper has, essentially, two purposes. The first is an exploration of the history of Guam from its earliest
human habitation to the present with particular emphasis on its evolution as one of the United States' few
colonies. The second is to explore the hypothesis that the prehistoric social structure of the island is still in
effect in many ways. Some aspects of it seem continuous throughout all of Guam's history but at the very least
the pre-contact social structure is a useful tool in analyzing Guam's current society.
To serve these two purposes there is a comprehensive history of Guam.
The first chapter is about the prehistoric colonization of the island by man. Human habitation of the island of
Guam may have begun as early as 6,000 years ago with the Prelatte culture. Evidence of the Latte culture
begins about 1,800 years ago. It was probably the result of forced immigration or conquest. It became a fully
developed Oceanic culture and is discussed in some detail. Particular emphasis is placed on the social
stratification of the culture and the likelihood that the lowest class of the Latte culture were the remnants of
the Prelatte.
The second, third and fourth chapters are the history of the Spanish discovery and colonization of
Micronesia. It followed the tradition of Spanish colonization but did not really become a mature Spanish
colony. It was a backwater of the empire. With minor adaptations, it maintained its pre-contact social
structure.
The fifth chapter is the story of the acquisition of the island of Guam by the United States at the end of the
Spanish American War and the first American period. Guam went through a period of Americanization
during which time the Chamorro-Guamanians became integrated into the American culture. For the most
part this was voluntary. But still, they kept much of their pre-contact social structure.
The sixth chapter is the story of Guam's conquest by Japan during World War II and the American invasion
and reconquest near the end of that war. It continues through reconstruction up to the signing of the Organic
Act of Guam in 1950. This act began Guam's development into a largely self-governing unincorporated
territory of the United States.
The seventh chapter is the history of Guam under the Organic Act. It brings the history up to the end of 1998.
'Discussion' discusses Guam's various colonial experiences and the preservation of the pre-contact system of
social stratification. It illustrates modern social stratification with the discussion of the current government
and economy. It also discusses two of Guam's thorniest problems -- land tenure and future political status in
the light of Guam's history.
'Conclusions' reviews the scope and conclusions of the work.

Glazier, Edward W. Jr. (2002) "A sociological analysis of fishing Hawai'ian-style." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of
Hawai'i. 355 pp.
Small boat fishing in Hawai'i is a macro-social phenomenon, with some 10,000 vessel captains and many

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more crew participating directly, and thousands of ohana members involved secondarily. Hundreds of
thousands of people enjoy eating the fish. This analysis examines recreational, various levels of commercial,
and subsistence-customary small boat fishing as enacted in the Islands. Native Hawai'ian and local fishing
customs, operational opportunism and fluidity, and unique marketing options underlay extensive overlap of
categories, befitting an overarching paradigm I term Hawai'ian-Style fishing. Involvement in each sub-type
incurs implications and consequences, both enabling and constraining. Recreational fishing tends to be
subjugated by avid participation in mainstream land-based work but is an important outlet for responding to
stresses of modern life, and for Native Hawai'ians a means for practicing fishing traditions. Persons engaged
in avid commercial fishing deal with difficult market conditions but persist largely for the many social and
personal benefits of self-employment on the ocean. As the oldest and most encompassing form of fishing in
Hawai'i, subsistence-customary fishing can be seen as an important and meaningful adaptive response to
post-contact social disruption and modern economic challenges, with ideological linkages to a deeper
history. Structuration theory as advanced by Willis (1977) is used to conceptually guide empirically-based
description and explanation of how and why Native Hawai'ians so avidly persist in small boat fishing,
especially subsistence-customary fishing, and why that participation must be seen as constraining in the
long-term under conditions of modern capitalist society.

Godfrey, Anthony. (1985) "Congressional-Indian politics: Senate survey of conditions among the Indians of the
United States." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Utah (The). 451 pp.
Historians of federal Indian policy have maintained that the sources of federal authority over American
Indians rest in the Constitutional provisions which vest Congress with 'plenary' power over all Indian tribes,
their governments, their members, and their property. Yet, historians have ignored congressional-Indian
relations in their writings. To redress this problem, a study which analyzes congressional-Indian politics to
determine how Congress uses its plenary power over America's native peoples is warranted. Whether
Congress acts in behalf of political interest, special interest, regional interest, national interest, or in the
interest of Indians is a consideration of equal importance. This study, then, focuses on the history of an
important Senate investigation into Indian conditions known as the Senate Survey of Conditions Among the
Indians of the United States. During its life span from 1928 to 1945, the Senate Survey investigation was
chaired by three senators: Lynn J. Frazier (R-North Dakota), Burton K. Wheeler (D-Montana), and Elmer
Thomas (D-Oklahoma). They visited Indian reservations in 23 states and the territory of Alaska, amassing
23,000 pages of testimony, probing various elements of Indian policy. They actively participated in the
decision process, ultimately influencing the decisions behind the three major shifts in Indian policy in the
20th century, namely, the demise of allotment policy instituted by the Dawes Severalty Act of 1887, the rise
and fall of the concept of cultural pluralism embodied in the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934, and finally
the emergence of termination policy with the waning of the Indian New Deal. In addition, the Senate Survey
inquiry explored other such substantive national policy problems as health and education needs on
reservations, reimbursable debts, reservation resource development, devastating Depression conditions,
tribal land claims against the federal government, and other critical policy issues. Finally, a study of the
Senate Survey illuminates the interplay and tension between Congressional committees and other policy-
makers, such as the Indian Bureau, Indian tribes, and private advocates for Indians. Indeed, this study
demonstrates that in the Age of Roosevelt congressional-Indian policy involved a complex interplay of
ideology, personality, bureaucracy, and politics.

Godfrey, Kathleen. (1998 ) "Visions and re/visions of the Native American." Ph.D. Dissertation, Arizona State
University. 192 pp.
The 1800s saw the burgeoning of women authors in the United States, many of whom wrote within the genre
of the sentimental novel. Recent theorists Jane Tompkins and Cathy Davidson have argued that sentimental
novels, rather than reinforcing the status quo, re/vision in radical and revolutionary ways contemporary US
culture. Although critiques of US culture were varied, one area of women's criticism is the focus of this study,
the question of Native Americans' status and treatment by the federal government and by US Anglo-American
culture in general. While 'feminine' qualities like nurturance allowed women to sympathize with and defend
the ethnic Other, women were not innocent in the rhetoric and practices of domination and colonization.
Women's use of sentimental novels and gender inscriptions did not escape inflicting the domination which
many of these women deplored in Anglo society. This study traces the interplay of the sentimental novel and
social reform in three novelists: Helen Hunt Jackson in Ramona, Willa Cather in The song of the lark and
Death comes for the Archbishop, and Barbara Kingsolver in Pigs in heaven. The purpose of this study is to
explore the variety of authorial positions in white women's portrayals of Native Americans and the range of

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female complicity in the perpetuation of the dominant culture's racist perspectives. Through the critical lens
of postcolonial theorists Edward Said and David Spurr, the inherent instability and tension between social
reform and inherited constructs of race that undercut the sentimental novel's reformist project emerge.

Gold, Mitzi. (1995) "Selected risk factors associated with suicidality among adolescents in Hawai'i." Ph.D.
Dissertation, Saybrook Institute. 203 pp.
This study identified select psychological and behavioural factors that significantly contribute to suicidality
of public high school students on Oahu in Hawai'i. The data of this study were collected by the Hawai'i State
Department of Health in 1990 using the computerized Teen Health Advisor (THA) survey. The THA survey
was completed by 1,335 male and female 10th grade students. A secondary data analysis compared 870
students of four major ethnic groups: part-Hawai'ian, Filipino, Japanese, and Caucasian.
The risk factors considered were gender, ethnicity, consumption of alcohol, depression, and the experience of
sexual abuse. The criteria variables were suicide attempt and the recency as well as frequency of suicidal
thought.
Chi-Square analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis were used to ascertain the extent to which the
risk factors are associated with and predict suicidality.
In general, the findings indicated that gender, ethnicity (for all four ethnic groups), depression, use of
alcohol, and experience of sexual abuse were all significantly associated with suicidality. Logistic regression
analysis showed that three of the five predictor variables, namely alcohol use, depression, and sexual abuse
can predict suicidality among part-Hawai'ian and Caucasian female respondents. In contrast, there is
statistical evidence to support a significant association between depression and suicide attempt among males,
specifically part-Hawai'ian males. Therefore, there is a stronger foundation of results for part-Hawai'ian and
Caucasian respondents compared to Japanese and Filipino respondents. Hence, other risk factors are
involved in suicide attempts for these two ethnic groups.
In sum, the study suggests that professionals and programs dealing with adolescents should more carefully
consider suicide risks associated with not only gender but also ethnic group affiliation, depression, alcohol
use, and the possible experience of sexual abuse of the adolescent.

Gomme, Graham E. (1990) "Interest group/government intermediation in the Yukon Indian Land Claim." M.A.
Thesis, University of Victoria. 173 pp.
This study gives some insight into political development in the Yukon by analyzing how four interest groups
relate or associate with the various parties negotiating the Land Claim Settlement. The interest groups of
choice are the Yukon Outfitters Association, and Association of Yukon Communities, the Yukon Fish and
Game Association and the Yukon Chamber of Mines. The governing parties involved in territory-wide
negotiations are the Council for Yukon Indians, the Yukon Territorial Government and the Federal
Government. This study utilizes four models of interest group intermediation to assess what type of
relationship each group maintains with the various governing bodies. Societal corporatism seems to be the
model that best describes each of the four relationships and the land claim process in general. Unlike
pluralism and consociationalism, societal corporatism displays more pro-active government involvement
with interest groups. As well, this type of interaction promotes formal institutions and agreements which
bring government and interest groups together.

Gone, Joseph P. (2001) "Affect and its disorders in a Northern Plains Indian community: Issues in cross-cultural
discourse and diagnosis." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. 171 pp.
Situated within an NIMH-sponsored study of psychiatric epidemiology in an American Indian community on
the Northern Plains, this study examined the cultural patterning of reported experience in the context of
standardized diagnostic interviewing. More specifically, analytic attention to the discursive construction of
self among Indian respondents promised insight into the unusually low rates of statistical concordance
between diagnoses obtained by community members employing the Composite International Diagnostic
Interview (CIDI) and a non-resident clinician employing the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM
(SCID). Interviews with 75 tribal members from a single reservation revealed that respondents diagnosed
with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) when interviewed by a community member using the CIDI were
much more likely to be diagnosed instead with a depressive disorder when interviewed by an outside
clinician using the SCID. It is argued here that the 'lay' interviewers found higher rates of PTSD and lower
rates of depressive disorder because they invoked (and could not circumvent) the local cultural discourse
linking trauma and fortitude. As a result, CIDI responses were channelled into culturally appropriate self-
representations that primarily associated personal distress in terms of the traumatic social disruptions that

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respondents had experienced as opposed to the more direct acknowledgment of relatively decontextualized
and internalised mood states that the community emphasis upon fortitude precludes in such discursive
encounters. In contrast, as a non-tribal interviewer and a trained clinician, I disrupted this local cultural
discourse by actively contesting and reorganizing the respondents' own constructions of their distress into
established psychiatric categories, thereby facilitating a displacement of CIDI PTSD diagnoses among this
sample by the substantial increase in SCID depression diagnoses. Insofar as sustained attention to the
sociolinguistic practices of a cultural community may illuminate perplexing epidemiological findings,
including the difficult challenges posed by incommensurate ontologies of distress, the implications of this
kind of analysis for cross-cultural psychiatric epidemiology are discussed.

Gonzales, Loretta L. (2002) "Suicide factors among ethnic minority youth." M.S.W. Thesis, California State
University, Long Beach. 119 pp.
This thesis explores the literature on normal and abnormal youth development. It further explores the
behaviour of youth in crisis, specifically suicide. The special circumstances and stressors of ethnic minority
youth are particularly examined through the extant literature. Implications of research and social work
practice are discussed. The literature indicated that Native Americans/American Indian/Alaskan Native youth
have the highest rate of youth suicide, among the ethnic groups researched. Chicano/Latino/Hispanic youth
were the next highest group, followed by Asians. African American youth had the lowest rate of youth suicide.

Good, Catharine L. (1993 ) "Work and exchange in Nahuatl society: Local values and the dynamics of an indigenous
economy." Ph.D. Dissertation, Johns Hopkins University (The). 538 pp.
This dissertation analyzes the successful development of Indian-controlled commerce in crafts for tourists.
Nahuatl-speaking villagers from the Balsas River Valley (Guerrero State, Mexico) have long been merchants.
Since the early 1960s they began making bark cloth paintings (amate) and selling them as itinerant vendors.
They have become successful entrepreneurs, operating in diverse markets throughout Mexico and handling
substantial cash income. This study focuses on the social organization of their commerce and the cultural
assumptions underlying how the merchants reinvest their wealth. Contrary to much of the ethnographic
literature on peasants, modernization, ethnicity and nationalism in Latin America, it argues that Nahuas have
not assimilated into Mexico's post-Revolutionary national culture. The merchants have invested some of their
wealth in housing, livestock, farmland and commerce to secure their economic base. They invest major
portions of it in exchange relations which strengthen social relationships and reciprocity networks
throughout the region. This has enabled them to maintain and reproduce their collective identity as a Nahuatl
people. The analysis traces how Nahua theories of work, exchange and history enable them to interact with
tourists in urban areas while reformulating their own cultural identity. The dissertation explores the
following aspects of life in this Nahuatl region: domestic organization, milpa agriculture, artistic production,
commercial strategies, community government, house construction and mortuary practices. It documents how
money obtained through trade with international tourism stimulates expanding local-level gift exchange in
the Balsas River Valley. The dissertation includes a critique of the conceptual stereotypes about Indians
prevalent in much of the scholarship in Mesoamerica. It draws on comparative ethnography from Melanesia
and the Andean region and argues for reformulating the theoretical approaches used in Mesoamerica to
study economy, culture, and processes of culture change. The data presented will be useful for comparative
research on indigenous peoples, informal sector activities, micro-enterprises, arts and crafts production,
tourism, the social organization of work, the effects of money and commodities on native economies, and gift
exchange systems.

Goodluck, Charlotte T. (1998) "Understanding Navajo ethnic identity: Weaving the meaning through the voices of
young girls." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Denver. 288 pp.
The purpose of this dissertation is to explore the meaning of ethnic identity of Navajo girls from a qualitative
phenomenological approach. The sample consisted of 20 Navajo girls, between the ages of 9 and 15 years
old. The average age of the girls was 13. 16 lived in Flagstaff, Arizona, and four resided on the Navajo
Nation. The method of data collection included in-depth interviewing, participant observation, and prolonged
engagement. A demographic and grand tour questionnaire were completed. The data was analyzed using
NUDIST, a qualitative computer software package. The method of analyze consisted of categorizing the raw
data into codes, categories, sub-categories, and themes then clustered them into common textural
descriptions of the meaning of ethnic identity into higher levels of abstraction capturing the essence of the
phenomenon. Implications for social work theory indicate that the Orthogonal Cultural Identification Theory
matches some of the experiences. Stage theory is not a good match, as it is linear in format. Implications for

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social work practice, assessment, intervention, and education are discussed. 'Four Worlds of the Navajo
Female Ethnic Identity' included: (a) personal identity (appearance, growing up in many worlds, living with
differences, feeling unique, and name calling); (b) ethnic identity (ethnic ambiguity, stereotypes, racist
experiences, confusion, and duality); (c) tribal identity (family, language, and religion); and, (d) moving
between worlds (geographic relocation, changing girl, and visits to grandmother). Metaphors included
weaving (integration), pottery (development), dance (collective identity), and corn pollen journey (tribal and
spiritual) to express their feelings about the meaning of culture and ethnicity. Beauty, humour, balance, and
being human are key elements of their stories. The 'Hozho System for Navajo Girls' Ethnic Identity Model'
was generated from the data and is discussed as a new theory for Navajo female identity. This model is based
on a circle organizational structure reflecting the values and beliefs of Native American culture. The
meaning of ethnic identity is multidimensional and is considered a dynamic and on-going process.

Goodman, Gail D. (2003) "Elements of culture pertaining to schooling in the O'odham-Piipaash Indian community."
Ed.D. Dissertation, Arizona State University. 534 pp.
This ethnographic study involving fifteen members of the O'odham-Piipaash Tribe living in the Salt River
Pima-Maricopa Indian Community of Scottsdale, Arizona, investigated the research question: What do
community members mean when they say we want our culture in our schools. The study found that there was
consensus that the language and history of the Tribe should be taught in all community schools, but that
school was seen predominantly as a place where students learn skills that they will need in the job market
and not a place where students learn to be Indian. There was also consensus that older students be given the
option to choose whether or not to study Native American subject matter.
Major portions of the transcribed interviews conducted in this study are contained in Appendix C. The study
findings are organized around the major headings of: Culture with a capital C; History; Community; and
Schools. Some topics discussed include the concept of land as sacred space, culture as a system, culture
change and the impact of capitalist modernity, personal choice and respect as aspects of traditional culture,
traditional versus modern identity construction, and the idea of Tribe versus the idea of pan-Indianism, and
suggests that some of the findings of past research on Indian societies be re-examined. Several language-
issues are examined including the notion of language as a cultural repository rather than a communication
system. The necessity for well prepared language teachers is also discussed.
Coping with a history of genocide using the models of post-traumatic stress disorder and learned
helplessness, the lingering effects of colonization, psychologically and legally; issues of sovereignty in the
courts; stratified social systems and caste-like minority status and how these impact school performance are
all explored.
The concept that Native Americans are visual learners/thinkers is unpacked separating out the components.
Piagetian concrete operational thinking is distinguished from visual-global/holistic, visual-metophorical, and
visual-spiritual learning and thinking. It is critical for educators to understand the multidimensional nature
of traditional Native American learning environments, which this study discusses in depth.

Goodtrack, Terry L. (1997) "Accountability of First Nation governments' 'four dimensions'." M.A. Thesis, Carleton
University. 212 pp.
The research question examined was: 'What are the influencing factors which could assist a First Nation to
put an adequate accountability framework in place?' A model was developed which included four dimensions
to accountability: public service; fiscal; performance and professional. Four First Nation Governments
considered to be accountable were selected and assessed against this model. Each First Nation had a strong
accountability framework despite their geographic location and population size.
It was found that First Nation Governments can establish an adequate system of accountability without
mirroring each other. Secondly, a number of factors are important to put an effective accountability system in
place: political will; training and experience of individuals in key positions; stability in key government
positions; codification of laws and regulations and the education level of community members. Thirdly, there
are factors worthy of further examination; culture as it relates to government elections and institutions; the
existence of government businesses; and the community's belief that it is self-governing.

Gordon, Colin L. (2003) "Portrait of a Native American charter school." Ed.D. Dissertation, Brigham Young
University. 213 pp.
After many of years participating in an educational system designed and supervised by the dominant white
majority, Native Americans in many states have the opportunity to design and direct their own schools, as a
result of charter school legislation. Charter schools are public schools that are designed to meet a specific

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need and, in the case of Native American charter schools, the goal is not only to educate students to succeed
in American society, but also to help them understand their Native American heritage and culture. A Native
American charter school is thought by some to be a better educational entity than the traditional public
school.
This research examines one Native American charter school located on the Salt River Reservation adjacent
to Scottsdale, Arizona. This study identified 15 needs of the students attending the charter school. These
needs were further divided into three categories: academic improvement, social skills development, and
coping with and overcoming serious social problems. The study further identified what the school was doing
to meet those needs and the level of success the school was achieving.
This study found that students at the school are beginning to improve academically, although progress is
slow. The study also found that these students are more likely to develop social skills at this school because it
provides an atmosphere where they feel more comfortable and accepted. The potential for social skills
development is further increased by the opportunities Native American students have to participate in a wide
range of school activities, some of which relate to the students unique culture and some that are enjoyed by
many students in traditional public schools.
Lastly, this study found that school and tribal leaders are trying to address the serious social problems that
have become part of reservation life. These include alcohol and drug abuse, teenage pregnancies, gang and
gang related violence, suicide, and health problems. However, the study could not determine if these
programs were successful. A study of much longer duration would be required to determine if the school was
successful in helping the students overcome these problems.

Gordon, Gary L. (1996) "A qualitative study of the meaning of work and workplace experiences among Native
Americans in upstate New York." Ph.D. Dissertation, Syracuse University. 224 pp.
Despite the generally poor economic conditions they experience, little research has attempted to examine
Native Americans in the workplace. Native Americans in the northeastern United States have been
particularly ignored. This study attempts to rectify these deficiencies. In-depth interviews were conducted
with ten Native Americans in upstate New York in an effort to more fully understand the meanings they attach
to work and to workplace experiences.
A qualitative research approach was used. The primary theoretical orientation of the study is symbolic
interaction: the participants interpret their experiences on the basis of their interactions with others and act
on those interpretations. Understanding what those interpretations are and how they are developed is
important to this study. Data analysis followed a grounded theory approach.
Four important findings emerge within this study. The first of these findings is the identification of a work
ethic that is based upon a sense of personal ethics. The participants possess a strong work ethic in which
work effort reflects a perceived responsibility to the employer. The second finding emphasizes the importance
of money to the participants and the multiple roles money plays. The third finding focuses on the factors
which influence the perceptions of co-workers and superiors (owners/managers) in the workplace. The last
finding identifies a generalized lack of perceived discrimination in the workplace. Those participants who
perceive discrimination become more sensitive to its cues.
The most important variables influencing the meanings assigned by the participants are first, a set of values
that are considered common among Native Americans and, second, the participants' early experiences with
economic deprivation.

Gosek, Gwendolyn M. (2002) "Towards an understanding of suicide among aboriginal people." M.S.W. Thesis,
University of Manitoba (The). 235 pp.
Suicide rates among the aboriginal people of North America have increased at an alarming rate over the past
three decades. While not all aboriginal communities reflect the increasing rates, the overall increase,
especially among the 15-24 year-old group, is a grave concern at the societal, community, family and
individual levels.
While the concerns related to suicide in aboriginal communities are documented in the literature, the
information is generally researched and presented from a mainstream perspective or approach. The
objectives of this study were to develop an overview of suicide in aboriginal communities from an aboriginal
perspective and to explore the use of the Medicine Wheel as a culturally appropriate approach to
understanding and working with suicide with aboriginal people. The process included a literature review of
Durkheim's theory on suicide. The literature review also includes an overview of aboriginal and mainstream
society's world views, an overview of the occurrence of suicide in the aboriginal communities and of the
Medicine Wheel concept. The purposes of the literature review were: (1) to provide a basis for determining

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the incidence and factors associated with aboriginal suicide; (2) to compare the world views of mainstream
society and aboriginal people; (3) to develop an understanding of Durkheim's theory as it is applied to
aboriginal suicide; and, (4) begin to conceptualize the Medicine Wheel in relation to an aboriginal world
view. An important aspect of this study included interviews with traditional elders and aboriginal community
leaders in order to develop a deeper understanding of the aboriginal view of suicide in the community and of
the Medicine Wheel concept.
Although the interview responses were supportive of the literature review of suicide among aboriginal people
in many respects, there were differences in the emphasis placed on contributing factors. The research
available on aboriginal world view indicates a contrast between the world views of mainstream society and
aboriginal people. These differences in world views present a challenge to applying a Durkheimian approach
to suicide in the aboriginal context. The challenges of applying Durkheim's concept of anomie and the
possibility of incorporating the Medicine Wheel concept are discussed in terms of implications in the field of
social work.

Gould, Roxanne J. (2004) "Creating an indigenous educational movement: Listening to the voices of Mäori leaders."
Ed.D. Dissertation, University of Minnesota. 218 pp.
This qualitative case study examines Indigenous education that has been successful in reversing the negative
effects of colonization. The Mâori educational movement in New Zealand is viewed as the movement to
emulate by Indigenous communities throughout the world. This study will explore how this movement was
created, how it has been sustained, and the cross-cultural implications for Indigenous education in the
United States. A chronology will be provided to outline the history of Mâori education, from the creation of
the first Mâori mission school in 1816 to the present. Policies of assimilation, biculturalism, and
multiculturalism, and the impact of Mâori education will also be discussed. Questions answered in this study
are: (1) What is the history of the Mâori educational movement? (2) What was the impact of the Mâori
educational movement? (3) What strategies did the Mâori educational leaders use to create change? (4)
What can Indigenous nations within the United States learn from the Mâori educational movement? The
assumptions are that differences exist in the colonizing process and governments of New Zealand and the
United States, but the negative effects of early education on the Indigenous populations of both countries are
similar. Therefore, transferability from the Indigenous educational movement in New Zealand to Indigenous
communities in the United States has possibilities.

Gourneau, Jessica L. (2002) "Development of the American Indian Biculturalism Inventory -- Northern Plains." Ph.D.
Dissertation, University of North Dakota (The). 104 pp.
American Indians' 'place' in the context of the Majority Culture has never been clear to either them or their
non-Indian counterparts. Many authors of cross-cultural literature suggest the experience of 'living with one
foot in two canoes' is stressful, confusing, and can even lead to reduced life success and increased
psychopathology. This study attempted to develop a factor-analytically devised inventory intended to aid in
identification of bicultural identification in hopes it may contribute to greater understanding between cultural
orientation and healthy or maladaptive American Indians' functioning.
198 American Indian and Caucasian students and community members from four year, non-tribal institutions
of higher learning and tribal colleges in North and South Dakota provided data for the refining of the
American Indian Biculturalism Inventory-Northern Plains (AIBI-NP). The AIBI-NP was designed to measure
participants perceived level of cultural identification within both American Indian and Majority Culture
perspectives.
Results of Factor and Item Analyses produced a 25-item scale that suggested a two-factor solution. The
nature of these factors were interpreted to represent an American Indian Cultural Identification Factor or
subscale 1, and an European American Cultural Identification Factor or subscale 2. Suggestions for
interpretation of subscale scores, study limitations, future research directions, as well as the potential
applicability for scales such as the AIBI-NP are discussed within.

Gouveia, Grace M. (1994) ""Uncle Sam's priceless daughters": American Indian women during the great depression,
World War Two, and the post-war era." Ph.D. Dissertation, Purdue University. 231 pp.
This project traces Indian women's roles in reservation and off-reservation communities from 1930-1960.
The topics include: women's entrance into the reservation's wage economy and tribal politics; their service in
the armed forces and war-related employment during World War II; increased participation in tribal politics
as district representatives and tribal chairwomen in the 1940s and 1950s; and their movement to urban areas
and subsequent involvement in establishing Indian organizations and community centres. The project fills a

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gap in the literature on both American women's and American Indian history, not only by analyzing women's
changing roles within their traditional environment but by comparing Indian women's experiences with those
of other minority and white women during the same three decades.

Graben, Sari M. (2004) "The Nisga'a Final Agreement: Legitimizing the state's authority to govern the Nisga'a
Nation." L.L.M. Thesis, Queen's University at Kingston. 162 pp.
By virtue of their status as distinct nations, aboriginal peoples should have been recognized as constituent
parties to constitution building in Canada. Nevertheless, First Nations did not participate in negotiations to
join Canada or the adoption of the terms of the Constitution Act, 1867, the legal event in which the state
codified its jurisdiction to govern aboriginal peoples. Consequently, the enforcement of this jurisdiction on
aboriginal peoples such as the Nisga'a Nation, which had and continues to assert the right to self-
government, brings into question the moral legitimacy of the state's legal authority. This thesis proposes that
state illegitimacy is rectified by consensually incorporating First Nations as constituent entities into a legal
relationship with the state through a process of constitution building by treaty. It examines the Nisga'a Final
Agreement and argues that it creates legitimacy for state governance by linking the status of the Nisga'a as a
nation with the political authority necessary for the Nisga'a to consent to the application of state governance.
Through an analysis of the treaty's terms and the relationship it creates between the parties, we see how the
authority of the state to govern the Nisga'a Nation is legitimated through treaty-making. By recognizing
Nisga'a political authority and rejecting its past relationship with the state, the treaty subverts the traditional
colonial authority used to effect state governance. Moreover, by imposing a new political relationship
founded on the institutions and principles of federalism, the treaty creates the central document for Nisga'a
consent. The effect of the new relationship is to require a new reading of s. 35(1) of the Constitution Act,
1982 and s. 91(24) of the Constitution Act, 1867 in a manner which permits modern treaties to be
incorporated into the Canadian constitutional canon and in a manner which limits the scope of the state's
authority in accordance with the agreed terms of the Nisga'a Final Agreement.

Graham, Barbara L. (2001 ) "Resilience among American Indian youth: First Nations' youth resilience study." Ph.D.
Dissertation, University of Minnesota. 68 pp.
The current work begins the empirical study of spirituality as a protective process that promotes resilience
among American Indian youth, especially under adverse life conditions. The role of spirituality was
investigated in a school sample of 54 high-risk American Indian adolescents and focused on school-based
competence. Relationships between spirituality, enculturation, well-being and adversity were also examined.
Results indicated that spirituality reported by adolescent students was related to competence in the school
context as reported by teachers and peer social competence as reported by the students. Spirituality was
strongly related to enculturation, consistent with the widely held theoretical assertion that spiritual beliefs
are an integral part of American Indian culture. Gender differences indicated that girls had higher academic
competence than boys and also higher enculturation scores. Enculturation differences for gender suggest that
embracing traditional values and beliefs may be easier for girls than boys in this sample. The rate of
negative, independent life events experienced by students and/or their families within the past year was high
for all participants and competence did not vary substantially by recent life events. Students identified by the
principal as 'resilient' were more competent at school according to teachers. This study was limited by the
small sample size, though there was a high participation rate. Results were encouraging in indicating that
most of the measures had good psychometric properties within this high-risk sample of Indian youth, and that
spirituality was associated with competence and enculturation. Larger studies of adolescents followed over
time are needed to further examine the possible role of culturally-related spirituality in the academic success
of American Indian students. Such students often have high risk for academic failure and school drop-out.
Further study of culturally-grounded protective factors may provide new ideas for culturally sensitive and
specific intervention strategies to promote academic success and positive connections to schools that could
reduce drop-out.

Gralewicz, Renee M. (1997) "Federal policies and their effects on Indian health: A southern Alberta plains case
study." Ph.D. Dissertation, Washington State University. 2003 pp.
This dissertation uses critical medical anthropology to assess the impact of the nation state on American
Indian health in both Canada and the United States, using the Tsuu T'ina as a case study. The Tsuu T'ina
Nation of southern Alberta, Canada lived among the Blackfoot Confederacy for hundreds of years. These
people, the Beaver People, currently own and occupy lands near Calgary and are one of five tribes who
signed Treaty 7 in 1877.

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Like other Treaty 7 tribes, the Tsuu T'ina have one health clinic, unimproved roads, and mass
communication. Unlike other tribes, they have close proximity to a major city which offers mass transit and
numerous health care facilities. Notwithstanding, the Tsuu T'ina have an infant mortality rate of 24.7, which
is higher than all the other tribes and four times greater than the All Albertans' rate of 6.4 infant deaths per
1000 live births. Causes for high infant mortality rates are many and usually linked to socioeconomic status
which itself is linked to oppression and discrimination. These linkages stem from the historical and
contemporary relationship between the Tsuu T'ina Nation and the Dominion. Differing world views and
differing interpretations of treaties characterize the Aboriginal-Dominion and Native American-US
relationships.
This dissertation assesses the historical relationship and its contemporary influences on Tsuu T'ina Nation
health. By focusing on the Tsuu T'ina, I add to the limited literature of this nation. Their relationship with
their neighbours, the Blackfoot Confederacy and the Nakoda (Stoney), directly influenced their reserve
location and continues to affect their political lives within the region.

Grandin, Greg J. (1999) "The blood of Guatemala: The making of race and nation, 1750-1954." Ph.D. Dissertation,
Yale University. 491 pp.
This dissertation traces the cultural, political, and economic formation of the K'iche'-Maya population of the
highland city of Quetzaltenango from 1750 to 1954. It examines how Maya elites contributed to the formation
of the liberal state through their development of an alternative indigenous nationalism that linked the
'progress of the nation' to the 'regeneration of the race.' Unlike non-indigenous political elites, who viewed
national and Indian identity as mutually exclusive -- with the progress of the nation depending on the
suppression of the Indian -- Maya elites viewed these identities as mutually dependent; one could not go
forward without the other. The final chapter treats Guatemala's celebrated 1952 agrarian reform and
describes how the alternative nationalism of the K'iche's collapsed under the weight of dependent capitalism
and class struggle, which divided the K'iche' community along economic lines.
The dissertation's title has a double meaning. It first refers to the contestation which took place throughout
Guatemala as to what constituted national identity. Paradoxically in the late 19th century, as latinos
increasingly stressed the cultural content of race, urban hispanicized Quetzalteco K'iche' artisans and
merchants insisted on defining race by blood. But this contestation over national identity failed to be resolved
in a country rent by class and cultural divisions, and herein ties the title's second meaning. In 1954, the most
serious effort by latinos to create an integrated nation collapsed under the combined weight of political
division, class struggle, and foreign intervention. For the next four decades Guatemalan blood flowed as the
most repressive state in the hemisphere slaughtered over 100,000 of its citizens.
Rather than viewing modern pan-Maya movement as an entirely new occurrence emerging from the ruins of
a failed national project, my research places the movement's origins and development within the social
processes of 19th century state formation -- the very processes that spawned the project that the movement
now seeks to displace.

Graves, William H. (1982 ) "The evolution of American Indian policy: From colonial times to the Florida Treaty
(1989)." Ph.D. Dissertation, Florida State University (The). 253 pp.
The study analyzes the evolution of American Indian policy. It surveys the European background then focuses
on North America, examining the colonial Indian policies of Spain, England, France, Holland, Sweden, and
Russia, which set the stage for American policy. In a series of wars to control eastern North America,
England triumphed. British Imperial Indian policy became the basis for American policy. During the
Revolution most Indians supported England, thwarting American desires to use or neutralize them. After the
war America considered the Indians defeated powers, dictating terms to them. This proved unfeasible and the
United States adopted the pre-revolutionary British policy. In the 1790s, problems developed including state
resistance to federal authority in Indian affairs, Indian refusal to be slowly dispossessed, British intrigues in
the Northwest, Spanish machinations in the Southwest, and in establishing means to regulate Indian affairs.
Acts were passed to provide regulation. The factory system was created and trade and intercourse acts were
adopted to regulate Indian affairs. Early expeditions to defeat the Indians were unsuccessful. State versus
federal problems remained unsolved as did English and Spanish concerns. The turning point was the War of
1812. England was defeated. The Indians east of the Mississippi River were militarily broken. Between 1810-
13 America seized Spanish West Florida neutralizing that area. Two problems remained: the jurisdictional
question and Spanish-Black-Indian troubles in East Florida. America purchased East Florida from Spain in
1819 ending colonial concerns there. The jurisdictional problem would only be solved by dispossessing the
Indians in the troublesome states. By the 1820s, American Indian policy had entered a new phase. All

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colonial concerns were ended and America was free for the first time to adopt its own Indian policy.

Graybill, Andrew R. (2003) "Instruments of incorporation: Rangers, Mounties, and the North American frontier,
1875-1910." Ph.D. Dissertation, Princeton University. 302 pp.
During the last third of the 19th century, Texas and western Canada experienced parallel social and
economic transformations, characterized by the massive expansion of railroads and the rapid increase of
white settlements. To smooth the advent of industrial modernization in these resource-rich hinterlands and to
pull the regions more tightly into the political orbits of Austin and Ottawa, officials in each capital turned to
rural police for assistance, at virtually the same moment in the early 1870s. This dissertation uses these
famed constabularies -- the Texas Rangers and the North-West Mounted Police -- as a frame through which
the consider the complex process of incorporating North American frontiers and its consequences for rural
people.
The Mounties and the Rangers performed four central duties in establishing state sovereignty and promoting
economic development at the edges of the Great Plains. First, the police subjugated indigenous groups by
denying Indian access to the bison and forcing natives to accept confinement on reservations. The
constabularies then facilitated the commodification of frontier resources by breaking the hold of Mexicans
and Métis on natural assets such as land, cattle, and minerals, in the process creating a mixed-blood
proletariat. In the 1880s the two forces sped the rise of bonanza ranching by defeating the challenge of
homesteaders to range lands coveted by cattlemen and ranching syndicates. Finally, the police broke turn-of-
the century strikes at the largest coal mines in Texas and Alberta, ensuring a steady supply of fuel for
smelters and locomotives.
In shifting the focus of incorporation from the core to the periphery, this dissertation casts new light on the
process of frontier absorption and its implications for people living on the margins. However, in situating the
insurgencies of such groups in historical context this thesis resists the temptation to romanticize them as
noble victims trapped in a losing struggle against the expansion of capital. Moreover, the comparative
perspective allows for the telling of a more common North American history while serving also to challenge
the narratives of historical exceptionalism that characterize the scholarship on Texas, the Canadian prairies,
and the West in general.

Green, Adam J. (1999) "Humanitarian, MD: Dr. Peter H. Bryce's contributions to Canadian federal native and
immigration policy, 1904-21." M.A. Thesis, Queen's University at Kingston. 129 pp.
The purpose of this thesis is to examine the prominent role Dr. Peter H. Bryce, who served as the Chief
Medical Officer for the Federal Departments of Native Affairs and Immigration from 1904 to 192 1, played
in two specific areas during his 17-year federal career. While holding this position, Dr. Bryce amassed large
quantities of statistical data concerning the health and welfare of both Canada's natives and Canada's
incoming immigrants. These findings led him to publish a number of both governmental and private reports
which outlined detailed and progressive programs for change to Canada's health system. Peter Bryce, who
had begun his career after having been raised in a good home which stressed education, and had received
medical training in Paris, ended it having secured many rights for the Canadian health officer. By the early
twenties, Bryce had placed federal health standards on a road which improved the life of new immigrants,
decreased incidences of communicable disease, and which would ultimately recognize the medical needs of
Canadian natives.

Green, Joyce A. (1997) "Exploring identity and citizenship: Aboriginal women, Bill C-31 and the Sawridge case."
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Alberta. 270 pp.
This dissertation examines the problem of contemporary citizenship as the way in which people understand
themselves to be citizens, not simply as autonomous rights-bearing individuals in relation to the modern state
but also, and perhaps especially, as members of communities, of societies. I begin by locating aboriginal
nations in the colonial state and investigating the assumptions that are encoded in law, politics and culture.
Next, I review the development of the Indian Acts and especially their impact on women. I turn to the
particular arguments about the constitutionality of the Indian Act advanced in the Sawridge case. Then, I
review the liberal democratic picture of universal citizenship and examine how citizenship is differentially
constructed and experienced. I consider the claims of indigenous nations to control citizenship in a context of
decolonization, while continuing to endure the superordinate structure of the state. I interrogate questions of
racism and sexism on the part of both colonial and aboriginal governments, and consider the legitimacy of
rights discourse and its applicability across cultures and in opposition to traditions. Finally I examine in
detail the problems facing a segment of the Canadian population whose citizenship has been constrained;

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Indian women who have, by colonial history, colonial legislation, and by both colonial and indigenous
patriarchy, been involuntarily exited from their communities of origin, and how this reality and their
resistance to it raises questions about what citizenship is relative to Indian government in Canada, and
relative to indigenous people as Canadians.

Gregg, David W. (2000) "Technology, culture change, and the introduction of firearms to northwest Alaska, 1791-
1930." Ph.D. Dissertation, Brown University. 245 pp.
To better understand the interrelations between technological and cultural change, this research asks why,
after a thousand years of successful adaptation in their Arctic environment did the Iñupiaq people of
Northwest Alaska in less than a century discard effective, aboriginal weapons -- spear and lance, harpoon,
bow and arrow -- in favour of what were at first unreliable, inaccurate, and expensive firearms? Drawing
upon all available data -- archaeological, historical, and ethnographic -- this empirical study examines the
material, social, and symbolic associations of firearms at 12 specific places and times in the Iñupiaq cultural
area. Based on the data, the adoption of firearms is described as having taken place in three, roughly
chronological phases -- the First Gun, Accommodation, and Traditional Phases. In the first phase, the initial
acceptance of firearms by the Iñupiat was predicated on local social and symbolic meanings and
circumstances of contact. In the second phase, a period of experimentation followed the initial exposure,
through which the Iñupiat arrived at new uses, meanings, and associations for firearms. Eventually,
improved firearms technology and changing local economic, social, and environmental circumstances made
firearms-use for subsistence easier and more reliable, and firearms became ubiquitous subsistence tools. In
the study area today, firearms-use and skill is valued as a traditional part of Iñupiaq culture. This study
demonstrates that even wide-spread technological change take place at the level of individual decision-
makers. As the experience and perceptions of individuals change, their motives and the meanings of new
technology can change as well, even over a relatively short time frame. The origins of Iñupiaq firearms-use
in the mid 19th century lie in local Iñupiaq culture and the details of contact, not in western understandings
of functionality based on comparison to aboriginal tools, or on the close, present-day association of firearms
with 'traditional' Iñupiaq hunting.

Grenier, Guylaine. (2001 ) "Le droit des peuples autochtones à l'autonomie gouvernementale dans le contexte de
l'accession du Québec à la souveraineté." LL.M. Thesis, McGill University. 125 pp.
['The rights of aboriginal peoples to governmental autonomy within the context of Québec's accession to
sovereignty']
To date, the debate concerning the aboriginal and treaty rights of the aboriginal peoples of Québec has
focused primarily on the assertion of the territorial integrity of Québec on the one hand, and the assertion
that those rights can prevent secession or force partition, on the other. Understanding the historical and
contemporary relationship between aboriginal peoples and the governments of Canada and Québec is
necessary if a rapprochement between these adversarial positions is to be achieved. This paper explores the
legal and historical basis of aboriginal rights, focussing on self-government and the fiduciary relationship
between aboriginal peoples and the Crown. It discusses international law principles under which Québec will
seek recognition as an independent state and the relevance of aboriginal rights to that recognition. Finally, it
urges that the current debate provides an opportunity to establish a new partnership between Québec and
aboriginal peoples, to their mutual benefit.

Greymorning, Stephen. (1992) "Indigenous North Americans and the ethnocentrism of the courts: A cross analysis of
American culture and law with Canadian culture and law." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Oklahoma (The).
229 pp.
Historically, the exercise of Anglo-European dominion in North America has been rooted upon cultural
supremacy, and ideology which has shaped law and politics regarding indigenous peoples in North America
for more than two centuries. The purpose of this study was to compare the decisions of the United States
Supreme Court, from the Cherokee cases of 1823 and the 1830s, with the decisions of the Canadian Supreme
Court from the Calder and Paulette cases during the 1970s. These decisions have represented strong
statements on federal policy regarding the rights of aboriginal peoples, and in both countries these
statements have been coloured by the values of Anglo-European culture to the point of showing little to no
sensitivity for the culture and values of indigenous peoples.
While aboriginal rights was recognized within American politics and law more than 150 years ago, the
existence of aboriginal rights within Canadian law was not established until the 1970s. Rather than interpret
Canada's tardiness as a hindrance, it was hypothesized that this could ultimately be beneficial for indigenous

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Canadians in ways not realized by indigenous Americans. One way this is being demonstrated is the impact
that Indigenous people are having in Canada's constitutional efforts. That notwithstanding, if any political
gains realized by indigenous North Americans are to have lasting significance, then North America's political
leadership must do more than just acknowledge the long history of ethnocentrism that has dominated courts
and governments and controlled the affairs of indigenous North Americans; they must also work to effect
lasting change. To this end the present study hopes to contribute to an understanding of the role that
ethnocentrism has played in maintaining a colonial control over North America's indigenous peoples.

Grobe, Patricia. (2001) "Attachment and delinquency among First Nations adolescents from a remote geographic
location." M.A. Thesis, McGill University. 36 pp.
Attachment theories emphasize the importance of a secure attachment at all stages in life. In secure
attachment relationships, individuals are confident that during times of real or perceived distress they can
rely on the attachment figure to provide desired security. Conversely, individuals with insecure attachments
feel they cannot rely on their attachment figures and thus will not be comforted in times of need. Lack of
secure attachments can lead to psychological and behavioural difficulties. In the present study, maternal and
peer attachments were investigated and related to levels of self-reported delinquency among 84 First Nations
adolescent students, ages 11 to 17 from a reserve in a remote geographic location. The results from the
present study appear to be congruent with the literature which reports that insecure attachments in youths
lead to higher rates of delinquent behaviours. High levels of secure attachments in the participants resulted
in low levels of reported delinquency, however the relationship between attachment and delinquency in
adolescent participants was found to be dependent on the grade in school and gender interaction.

Groom-Hall, Mary. (2003) "Indigenous language revitalization in Montana: Perspectives from four nations." Ed.D.
Dissertation, University of Montana. 194 pp.
This qualitative case study examines the experiences of 19 Native American people who are involved with
indigenous language revitalization in the state of Montana. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with
both teachers of the languages and professionals who were responsible for initiating and directing language
preservation programs. Data was collected from one-on-one interviews, from participant-observation at
various cultural sites, and from conversations held with community members adjacent to study sites. Four of
Montana's six reservations were visited; teachers and professionals from six language groups participated in
the study. Questions focused on individual stories and the meanings inherent in the language. Participants
discussed the ways in which cultural and moral teachings were imparted to them as children through their
Native languages; some later language learners spoke of regaining their identities as American Indian
people through adult acquisition of their languages. The significance of their involvement with language
revitalization through teaching, program development, or both, was expressed by many participants. The
importance of language was found to permeate all aspects of personal, spiritual, community, and cultural life
for the participants. Data revealed three emergent categories of language and its meaning to the
participants: language and (a) its meaning to the self; (b) its meaning to the culture and community; and, (c)
its specific meanings among teachers and language preservationists. These three themes emerged from first,
participants' responses about their own language-learning experiences and how language had affected their
personal identities. Second, the role of language that participants observed or hoped for in their communities
amplified the culture and community aspects of the data, and finally, since most participants interviewed
were involved in the language education process in some way, specific concerns of educators emerged as the
third important theme. Given the need for public education to respond more fully to laws requiring
integration of Native American curriculum into the education system, sensitivity to and support for
indigenous language teaching is an implication of the study. Recommendations for further study include the
role of indigenous languages in empowerment and resilience, gendered communication and generational
differences, and indigenous rhetorical structure.

Gulig, Anthony G. (1997) "In whose interest? Government-Indian relations in northern Saskatchewan and Wisconsin,
1900-40." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Saskatchewan (The). 298 pp.
American and Canadian Indian policy in the late 19th and early 20th centuries generally focused on
'civilizing' Indian peoples. In other words, the government wanted a more sedentary, less dispersed Indian
population who would likewise require less land for traditional hunting and gathering activities and might be
more easily assimilated when time and circumstance required. Such policy, however, was best suited to
agricultural regions. In forested regions or other areas which were not suitable for commercial cultivation,
conflict arose as aboriginal groups tried to maintain their traditional practices while other interest groups

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sought to access the same resources. Increasing use of these non-agricultural areas by sport hunters,
commercial fishing industries, logging enterprises, tourists, and in some cases prospectors and land
speculators, grew in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. These interests not only competed for the same
resources from which the Indian population secured its subsistence, but they also influenced the governments
of the United States, Canada, Wisconsin, and Saskatchewan to regulate traditional Indian hunting and
gathering activity.
Conservation commissions in both the United States and Canada went about the business of re-shaping the
public perception of the acceptable use of fish and game. Traditional subsistence activity had little, if any
place in these new fish and game management strategies. This was the case even though Indians in both
northern Saskatchewan and Wisconsin negotiated treaties which they believed upheld their access to vital
resources. The conflict over resources became acute in the early 20th century when governments in both
places actively interfered with traditional activities. Such interference had the most dire consequences for the
Indian people in both areas.
The case studies presented here illustrate the historical antecedents of conflicts which still exist today. The
Indian concern for continued access to natural resources has rarely been heard in its historical context. This
study places the historic confrontation between Indian subsistence resource users and government resource-
managing agencies in the context of the early 20th century conservation movement. The two areas studied
here have striking similarities. The governments refused to uphold treaty promises and rarely listened to the
Indians' demands for continued access to natural resources. This study explains how governments managed
resources in their own interest and relates not only the struggle for access to resources, but also how Indians
responded to government interference in their way of life. It is important to move beyond a comparative
analysis of two similar tribal populations in a cross-border analysis. By examining two disparate tribal
groups who negotiated similar treaties in two different eras but in distant geographic locations, a better
understanding of governmental conservation motives and actions, as well as the impact of such governmental
activity on Indian people, may be achieved. This study is a unique look at the impact of the early conservation
movement on the subsistence needs of Indian peoples in North American non-agricultural regions.

Gullickson, David P. M. (1990) "Uranium mining, the state, and public policy in Saskatchewan, 1971-1982: The
limits of the social democratic imagination." M.A. Thesis, University of Regina (The). 219 pp.
The purpose of this thesis is two-fold: first, to document and analyze the rationale for, and elements of, this
uranium development strategy; and second, to examine the social composition of the supporters and
opponents, beneficiaries and casualties, of this social democratic province-building initiative. This thesis
adopts a post-Marxist approach to the study of the liberal democratic state in a dominion capitalist society
such as Canada.
The province's strategy was comprised of five elements: the pursuit of nuclear capital to locate uranium-
related processing facilities in the province; the erection of a profit-sensitive uranium royalty structure; the
creation of a provincially-owned uranium exploration and mining corporation; the appointment of two quasi-
judicial boards of inquiry; and the implementation of comprehensive surface lease agreements with mine
developers. Furthermore, the thesis advances the view that this strategy was implemented in pursuit of 3
overarching objectives: to strengthen the provincial government's capacity to plan, pace, participate in and
benefit from the uranium industry's expansion; to maximize the investment and employment opportunities
available to Saskatchewan businesses and workers as a consequence of this process; and, from within a
narrow "environmental management perspective," to ensure that this expansion proceeded without undue
harm to worker health and safety or the environment.

Gunther, Vanessa A. (2001) "Ambiguous justice: Native Americans and the legal system in southern California, 1848-
90." Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Riverside. 208 pp.
Since the inception of the United States, law has been a pervasive force in the development of the nation.
However, while law helped to shape American culture, it was also used to attempt to destroy the cultures of
native peoples. In southern California this destruction was acute because of the close proximity between
native people and the whites that invaded their lands. Prior to the American annexation of the state in 1848,
California had already established a pattern of disenfranchisement and dispossession. The mission fathers
exploited the labour of the Indians, and in return had stolen native lands for their own use, all under the
guise of Spanish law. The first California legislature continued this pattern of abuse with the passage of laws
in the 1850s that compelled Native Americans to provide labour and access to their resources, while denying
Indians any standing within the government of the new state. The result was the creation of a sub-class of
people living within the state. The debased position of Indians within the new society was exacerbated by the

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prejudices of the white men who sat on the bench of the local and state courts. In many instances these
individuals used the law to harass Indians within their jurisdictions, compel native people to labour for the
communities the justices served, or forced them to leave their traditional homes. This upset traditional
subsistence patterns of survival and prevented native people from being able to survive within their own
lands. In addition to being attacked in the courts, Native Americans fell victim to European diseases and
developed addiction to alcohol provided by whites. Combined, these factors tore at the fabric of traditional
native life and upset the balance that had existed between men and women. The number of crimes in which
native women suffered at the hands of their brethren increased over time. Despite the supposition that native
people had no understanding of the white courts and were unable to comprehend the nuances of the white
legal system, as the century progressed, many Indians used white courts to assert their rights.

Gurr, Barbara A. (2004) "Win oye ya: An examination of American Indian women's responses of resistance to
colonization." M.A. Thesis, Southern Connecticut State University. 111 pp.
Despite the concerted and deliberate efforts of the United States government and culture, American Indian
nations survive today as distinct cultures. In many ways, and on many fronts, American Indian women are
responsible for this continued survival and burgeoning renaissance. Women such as Anna Mae Aquash,
Janet McCloud, Winona LaDuke and organizations such as Women of All Red Nations (WARN) and the
Indigenous Women's Network act as both the agents of change and the keepers of tradition in Indian Country
as they resist the continuing colonization of their peoples. Quite often American Indian women's activism
comes from a motherist stance similar to that described by Patricia Hill Collins as "motherwork" and
stemming in part from the historical denial of their motherhood opportunities and responsibilities through
boarding schools, coerced sterilization, and continuing removal of children from their natal families. Relying
on traditional understandings of women's power and influence among their people, American Indian women's
resistance to genocide and ethnocide can be found in art, music, and political and community activism from
Pine Ridge Reservation to the 1995 United Nations Conference for Women.

Gutiérrez, Gabriel. (1997) "Bell towers, crucifixes, and cańones violentos: State and identity formation in pre-
industrial Alta California." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California, Santa Barbara. 470 pp.
This dissertation examines ethnic identity formation and state development in Alta California during the late
Spanish colonial and early Mexican national periods. The extant historiographies of California Indians,
Chicano/a ethnic identity formation, and Spanish Mexican nation building have produced conventional
notions of Indian population decimation upon European contact, the rise of a Chicano/a population in the
post Euro-American conquest era through downward social mobility (proletarianization and barrioization),
and a presumed failure of Spanish Mexican frontera institutions. This study builds on recent studies and
poses new questions regarding Alta California Indian population decline, the origins of Chicano/a identity
formation, and the roles of Spanish Mexican institutions and elites in preindustrial Alta California.
By utilizing court documents, government papers, personal letters, diaries, and other archival documents in
the Santa Barbara Mission Archives Library, Santa Barbara, California and The Huntington Library, San
Marino, California, this study concludes that Census records and other documents used to record ethnic and
racial identity formation and transformation in Mexican and preindustrial California must be complemented
with archival documents that demonstrate Indian Mexican human agency. In short, archival documents and
secondary sources need to be re-examined and critically assessed.
Finally, Alta California Indians Mexicanized themselves by responding to Spanish Mexican pressure to
acculturate or assimilate into mainstream society. Spanish Mexican attempts to construct social, political,
and ideological parameters and to convert Indians were tied to an attempt to reconstruct an Indian world
view, make republicans of them, establish a working consumer class and establish social order through
ideological conversion. An examination of Indian Mexican involvement and contributions to the military, as
workers, and as consumers contributes to our understanding of the origins of Chicano/a history and identity
in the present day American Southwest.

Gutwein, Geraldine M. (2003) "Native American women and literacy: Looking through and beyond a thematic view
of the landscape of literacy in six Lakota women's lives." Ph.D. Dissertation, Indiana University of
Pennsylvania. 207 pp.
This qualitative study explores literacy narratives of six Lakota women of the Cheyenne River Sioux
Reservation in South Dakota. The four research questions focus on the emergent themes, the value of literacy,
the role of literacy and the political and cultural implications of literacy in their lives. The themes of family
and familial support, communication, and internalised oppression are dominant themes that reveal the

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complex issue of literacy in six Lakota women's lives. The value they place on literacy and the role it has in
their everyday lives expands on the political and cultural implications of literacy.
The close analysis of the audio-taped interviews reveals several things about the women's literacy
development. First, the women attribute much of their literacy development and success in school to family
and family support. Second, the women's concerns about written communication in the workplace are closely
connected to a fear of being misunderstood, or creating responses that negatively affect the recipient of the
transaction. Third, the consequences of internalised oppression create negative feelings; however, these
negative feelings have not hindered them from achieving their goals in literacy and education.
The women place an important value on literacy for themselves and their children and grandchildren. The
value they place on literacy has much to do with their sense of self-worth and their ability to achieve
academically in environments that did not always honour their cultural background. Becoming educated
women is a political act; it is an act they believe works to breakdown negative stereotypes and preconceived
notions of Native Americans. While each woman's story is different, the women who participated in this study
are very much aware of the struggles people from underrepresented groups encounter when they are further
marginalized through an inability to function in a society that values written literacy.

Haig-Brown, Celia. (1991 ) "Taking control: Power and contradiction in First Nations adult education." Ph.D.
Dissertation, University of British Columbia (The). 379 pp.
This dissertation is an ethnography. It explores the ways that people within a First Nations adult education
centre make sense of taking control of education. Michel Foucault's open-textured analysis of power frames
the research. He argues power not only represses but also "forms knowledge and produces discourse."
Control and power as used by the "new" sociologists of education, and the National Indian Brotherhood in
its policy statement Indian Control of Indian Education further locate the study.
Extensive use of the participants' words allows a consideration of meanings inscribed in discourse. The study
is based on a year of fieldwork including interviews, observations and the researcher's direct participation as
a teacher in the centre. It places expressions of people's understandings of control within a series of
contextualizations. The centre exists in contemporary Canadian society. Documentary evidence of British
Columbia's First Nations efforts to control formal education and re-presentation of the centre's twenty years
of growth and development illuminate an historical context. The study examines the current significance of
the building where students find "a safe place to learn." Biographies, furnishing additional context for
people's words, situate the study in relation to life history. Their engagement in a variety of the centre's
programs provides the immediate context. Students and teachers explore what it is to be First Nations people
seeking knowledge which will enable them to make choices about employment and education in First Nations
or mainstream locations.
References to the document Indian Control of Indian Education reveal its continuing significance for those
people who are taking control. Study participants identify as crucial many of the issues raised within the
document such as Native values, curriculum, First Nations and non-Native teachers, jurisdiction and
facilities. At the same time, their discourse reveals the complex process of refining the original statements as
policy translates to practice and people ponder the implications. A final chapter, something of an epilogue,
argues that the dialectical contradiction is a useful analytical tool for examining the dissonances which arise
in attempts to meet First Nations needs and desires within a predominantly non-Native society.

Hales, Brent D. (2000) "Looking across the generations: An intergenerational examination of problem behaviours
among American Indian adolescents." Ph.D. Dissertation, Iowa State University. 117 pp.
The purpose of this study is to examine the intergenerational transmission of problem behaviour among
American Indian youth in a family context. The models used in the study replicate in part, intergenerational
models of Caspi and Elder (1988), Elder, Caspi, and Downey (1986) and Whitbeck et al. (1992b). The effects
of intergenerational parenting, parental antisocial behaviour, the presence of a male paternal figure, both
mother's and target's age, and target's gender on the target's problem behaviour are examined. Support is
observed for the intergenerational transmission of parenting practices and problem behaviours. Having and
male paternal figure present in the household, mother's age, and target's age are also found to impact the
target's problem behaviours.

Halkow, Yvonne L. (1996) "Personal impact of residential school experiences on First Nations people." M.Sc. Thesis,
University of Alberta. 212 pp.
This is a qualitative, interpretive study that explored the memories of residential school experiences provided
by 11 First Nations participants. Personal interviews were conducted, transcribed and analyzed for common

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themes. Narratives were written from each participant's interview transcript and related stories about
residential school experiences using their own words for the most part. Discussion of the findings was
organized around the interpretive framework of the symbolic interactionist perspective. Three common
themes emerged: (a) having no choice: exemplified by participants reports about the institutional nature of
residential schools and the maltreatment participants experienced; (b) emotional pain: expressed by
participants related to their experiences; and, (c) survival skills: employed by participants to deal with
residential school life. Incongruencies inherent in the differences between First Nations culture and Euro-
Canadian culture appear to have resulted in the formation of incoherent, confused self-definitions by First
Nations people who attended residential schools. Quotations from participant narratives highlighted these
themes. Participants' memories of their residential school experiences were found to be similar to other
accounts of residential school experiences related by First Nations people, providing validation to the
findings of this study.

Hall, Anthony J. Tony. (1984) "The Red Man's burden: Land, law, and the Lord in the Indian Affairs of Upper
Canada, 1791-1858." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Toronto.
This work relates the history of Indian affairs in the Upper Canada area between 1791 and 1858. These
years, which began with the creation of Upper Canada as a distinct jurisdiction within the British empire and
ended with the passing of legislation designed to remove from some native people legal recognition of their
aboriginal status, saw the emergence of an Indian 'civilizing' policy. Civil and ecclesiastical authorities
sought to settle native people on reserves where they would be instructed in farming and Christianity. It is the
analysis of efforts both to articulate and to implement this course that constitutes the major subject of the
thesis. Such a study is fruitful in several respects. It illuminates the origins of an Indian policy that was later
to be extended throughout the dominion of Canada and applied for more than a century. Furthermore, the
record of the formulation of this approach to Indian affairs describes models that some of the province's most
ambitious social architects were attempting to impose not only on native people, but on the colonial
population as well. Finally, the energies directed at transforming the lives of native people were often
extended into other spheres of activity in the colony. This process is particularly apparent among the
Methodists, whose involvement with aboriginal people became significant in their advancement of more
general educational policies and their promotion of the goal of Canadian expansionism. A chapter is devoted
specifically to native people. Attention is focused on the ethnic diversity of aboriginal groups in the province,
the frequency of their many moves throughout the Upper Canadian vicinity, and their reaction to all the
'civilizing' endeavours directed at them. Another subject developed throughout the work is the inter-
relationship of Indian affairs in Upper Canada with developments elsewhere in North America and in
Britain. It is argued that important roots of Upper Canadian Indian policy lay in Britain's earlier colonial
experience in the Thirteen Colonies. And in the first half of the 19th century the trans-Atlantic world of
evangelical Protestantism provided the larger theatre in which missionary enterprise among the Indians of
Upper Canada found much applause and support. Indian affairs touched the life of Upper Canadian colonial
society and its relationship with the outside world at a number of vital points.

Hall, Robert A. (1987) "The relationship between Aborigines, islanders and the armed forces in the Second World
War." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of New South Wales.
During the Second World War, the Services faced a dilemma concerning the enlistment of Aborigines and
Torres Strait Islanders: would they conform to the Commonwealth government's assimilationist policy and
permit the enlistment of Aborigines who met enlistment criteria, or would they maintain their conservative
ethos, arguing that Aborigines should not be admitted to military service? Aborigines and Islanders had
much to gain from admission. Military service offered employment, overseas travel, trade training and other
benefits. But most importantly, it offered a persuasive argument for the extension to Aborigines of 'citizens'
rights'. While Aborigines and Islanders sought enlistment, the Services struggled with their dilemma. The
absence of an Aboriginal representation within the digger myth suggests that Aborigines were generally
unsuccessful in making a contribution to the war effort and that the Services resolved their dilemma by
excluding Aborigines from service.
To investigate this issue, the development of Service policies in regard to the enlistment of non-Europeans
was examined and the extent of Aboriginal and Islander enlistment was assessed. The formation of other
relationships between the Services and Aborigines was also examined.
Aborigines and Islanders made a significant contribution to the war effort, but the moral value of this
contribution as a means of securing improvements in conditions for Aborigines was not able to be translated
into political pressure because of lack of publicity given to the Aboriginal contribution. Throughout the war,

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the Services remained undecided about the question of the admission of Aborigines. They resolved their
dilemma by maintaining the fiction of opposition to Aboriginal enlistment in their official policies while at the
same time enlisting Aborigines, forming segregated Islander units, employing Aborigines in de facto military
roles and employing Aborigines as civilian labourers.
Although formal Service policies denied Aborigines the right to enlist, many did so. Once enlisted, relations
between black and white servicemen were marked by an egalitarianism seldom seen in pre-war race
relations. Throughout the war, Service policy makers in senior Headquarters saw Aborigines as generally
unsuitable for enlistment on the grounds that white Australians would not tolerate service with them.

———. (1987) "The relationship between Aborigines, islanders and the armed forces in World War II." Ph.D.
Dissertation, University of New South Wales.
During World War II, the Services faced a dilemma concerning the enlistment of Aborigines and Torres
Strait Islanders: would they conform to the Commonwealth government's assimilationist policy and permit
the enlistment of Aborigines who met enlistment criteria, or would they maintain their conservative ethos,
arguing that Aborigines should not be admitted to military service? Aborigines and Islanders had much to
gain from admission. Military service offered employment, overseas travel, trade training and other benefits.
But most importantly, it offered a persuasive argument for the extension to Aborigines of 'citizens' rights.'
While Aborigines and Islanders sought enlistment, the Services struggled with their dilemma. The absence of
an Aboriginal representation within the digger myth suggests that Aborigines were generally unsuccessful in
making a contribution to the war effort and that the Services resolved their dilemma by excluding Aborigines
from service. To investigate this issue, the development of Service policies in regard to the enlistment of non-
Europeans was examined and the extent of Aboriginal and Islander enlistment was assessed. The formation
of other relationships between the Services and Aborigines was also examined. Aborigines and Islanders
made a significant contribution to the war effort, but the moral value of this contribution as a means of
securing improvements in conditions for Aborigines was not able to be translated into political pressure
because of lack of publicity given to the Aboriginal contribution. Throughout the war, the Services remained
undecided about the question of the admission of Aborigines. They resolved their dilemma by maintaining the
fiction of opposition to Aboriginal enlistment in their official policies while at the same time enlisting
Aborigines, forming segregated Islander units, employing Aborigines in de facto military roles and
employing Aborigines as civilian labourers. Although formal Service policies denied Aborigines the right to
enlist, many did so. Once enlisted, relations between black and white servicemen were marked by an
egalitarianism seldom seen in pre-war race relations. Throughout the war, Service policy makers in senior
Headquarters saw Aborigines as generally unsuitable for enlistment on the grounds that white Australians
would not tolerate service with them.

Hamilton, Jennifer A. (2004) "Indigeneity in the courtroom: Law, culture, and the production of difference in North
American courts." Ph.D. Dissertation, Rice University. 205 pp.
This dissertation considers how culturalist arguments are being deployed and interpreted in legal cases
involving indigenous peoples in both Canada and the United States. Focusing specifically on three court
cases, it asks how a certain kind of difference, indigeneity, is produced in both legal and extra-legal spheres.
Rather than having a specific referent that is indigenous cultural practice and epistemology, indigeneity
references the idea that indigenous difference is produced in particular contexts, in response to a variety of
sociopolitical forces.
The dissertation closely examines these three recent cases involving indigenous peoples, one from the U.S.
and two from Canada. In each of these cases, the courts deploy the idiom of indigenous difference,
indigeneity, in purportedly novel and unexpected ways. The dissertation argues that despite their superficial
novelty, these cases are not especially anomalous; they are, in fact, part of continuing processes which rely
on reductive multiculturalist discourses of indigeneity to continue to manage and even deny the existence of a
colonial past and a postcolonial present.

Hammond, Wayne A. (2000) "Canadian native adolescent solvent abuse and attachment theory." Ph.D. Dissertation,
University of Calgary. 245 pp.
The purpose of the present study was to examine the perceived patterns of attachment of three naturally
occurring groups of Native adolescents -- 56 solvent users, 80 poly-substance users, and 88 non-substance
users -- and their attachment relationships to their parents and peers as well as to explore their perception of
well-being and social adaptation based on early experiences with attachment figures. Attachment
characteristics were assessed using the Adolescent Attachment Questionnaire (AAQ) and the Inventory of

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Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA). Perception of well-being and social adaptation characteristics were
assessed using an ad hoc Solvent Abuse/Attachment Questionnaire, the Family Environment Scale (FES), the
Culture-Free Self-Esteem Inventory (CFSEI-2), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II), the Beck
Hopelessness Scale (BHS), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory -- Form Y (STAI), and the Personality Inventory
for Youth (PIY).
The results of the study supported the hypotheses that Native adolescents who abuse solvents would
demonstrate the greatest degree of an insecure attachment pattern, show an insecure attachment towards
both parents and peers, and exhibit greater degrees of maladaptive cognitive and affective difficulties,
deficits in interpersonal and social skills, and higher levels of dysfunctional family characteristics and
antisocial behaviour. Native adolescents who started to abuse solvents before age six were at the greatest
risk of severe solvent use in their teenage years and reflecting a disorganized attachment pattern. However,
as the age of onset for solvent use increased, the solvent users presented with a similar type of insecure
attachment (preoccupied as opposed to disorganized) reported by the poly-substance users and lower levels
of negative perceptions of well-being and social adaptation than those who started before age six.
Results are discussed in relation to previous studies of attachment and developmental processes thought to
characterize high-risk adolescents and theoretical explanations are offered for the differences in the degree
and type of insecure attachment patterns and perception of well-being and adaptation in the three groups.
Finally, the implications for practice, theory, and future research are outlined.

Hannibal-Paci, Christopher J. (2000) ""His knowledge and my knowledge": Cree and Ojibwe traditional
environmental knowledge and sturgeon co-management in Manitoba." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of
Manitoba (The). 364 pp.
'Cree and Ojibwe traditional environmental knowledge and sturgeon co-management in Manitoba' takes an
interdisciplinary approach to synthesis of Indigenous sturgeon knowledge, history, and social and scientific
knowledge. To some degree this research has been driven by information needs for a specific purpose: the
viability of sturgeon is threatened, domestic harvest information is lacking, and the knowledge of the
sturgeon and Aboriginal relationships is incomplete. The methodology bridging these gaps generates new
knowledge for sturgeon conservation efforts, a significant contribution; however, the object of the thesis was
more concerned with creating a space from which to consider Indigenous knowledge in sturgeon research.
The thesis concludes that to better manage the fishery now and in the future requires a greater appreciation
of the marginalized knowledge of fishers and an appreciation for the environmental history of the sturgeon
problem. What distinguishes this approach from others is a concern for solving a natural resource problem
by including history and culture into what has mostly been a scientific discussion. While integrating TEK into
co-management may resolve the sturgeon problem in Manitoba, in practice such integration and its outcome
remain tentative. Successful sturgeon co-management has yet to be undertaken. There is a struggle over
management options for remnant sturgeon populations in Manitoba. Sturgeon populations are so severely
impacted they require interim special protection. Meanwhile, federal and provincial governments are
recognizing the inherent rights of First Nations to natural resources. Governments are obliged to manage
fisheries with First Nations' interests in mind. The argument is made in the thesis for the necessity of sturgeon
co-management both as a means of overcoming previous failures and as a way to decolonize the fisheries.
The theory and methodologies used in the thesis are applicable to other environmental studies.

Hanson, Randel D. (1998) "From environmental bads to economic goods: Marketing nuclear waste to American
Indians." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Minnesota. 270 pp.
Advancing scholarship on the Cold War's environmental and social legacy and Indian-White relations in the
late 20th century, this dissertation argues that we are entering a new phase in Indian-White relations. New
approaches to nuclear waste storage in our broader post-liberal governmental context include marketing
them to Indian peoples as a means of economic development due to the unique legal status of reservations as
sovereign nations. Whereas the colonizing, primarily agricultural period was based on an expanding
dispossession of Native lands, industrialization witnessed a concerted re-focusing of attention on Native
lands for the extraction of natural resources. In our present post-industrial era, neither land nor resources as
such are being sought (although aspects of both continue); rather, it is the 'permission' to store nuclear and
toxic wastes on Native lands.
Chapter One explores how nuclear materials are usefully conceived as possessing a social life (social
biography). The marketing of nuclear waste to American Indians is framed as one instance in the broader
social life of nuclear materials.
Chapters Two and Three establish the historical context for US-Indian relations. Chapter Two explores the

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period of initial contact by Europeans with American Indians in North America through World War II,
tracing changes from how Indian nations were treated as political sovereigns by various European nations to
the gradual nationalization of American Indian lands and American Indians by the US. Chapter Three
explores expanded American Indian sovereignty in the wake of World War II in relation to
internationalization processes, decolonization, and civil rights movements.
Chapter Four investigates Reagan's 'New Federalism' and the privatization of federal governmental
responsibilities surrounding nuclear waste, proceeding to show how this policy shift translated into
marketing it to American Indians.
Chapter Five explores the history of US-Indian relations in relation to nuclear technologies, tracks the
changing nature of the US environmental movement, and examines these changes in Indian Country.
Chapter Six examines the cultural and political conflicts surrounding the consideration of the storage of
nuclear waste on the Mescalero Apache Reservation.

Hapke, Holly M. (1996) "Fish mongers, markets, and mechanization: Gender and the economic transformation of an
Indian fishery." Ph.D. Dissertation, Syracuse University. 232 pp.
This dissertation examines the impact of global economic processes such as the emergence of an export
economy and industrialization of production, on local fishing communities in Kerala, India. The approach I
have taken has been to analyze the marketing and distribution of fish locally in Kerala and to assess the
impact of mechanization-driven development on small-scale traders. Following Barbara Harriss, Clifford
Geertz, and Florence Babb, I argue that an analysis of marketing processes is central to an understanding of
development and economic transition and that State policies for fisheries development in this region have
been inadequate, in part due to their failure to envision production and distribution as a single process and
in their utter neglect of women's roles in the fish economy. My analysis of market processes in Kerala draws
on work in both economic anthropology and economic geography and combines analysis of spatial factors
such as location, structure and periodicity with sociological inquiry through the conceptual framework of
'place.' To this end, analysis of factors such as gender, caste-religion, and native place has been crucial to
understanding the social relationships that constitute marketplace transactions in this region and the central
role they play in mediating economic change and its the impact on particular groups of fish traders. The
framework I construct for analyzing the impact of economic transition on small-scale traders is further
grounded in an analysis of the household as the primary unit for production and provision of subsistence
needs and, as such, as an important institution through which individuals are linked to the larger economy.
An examination of gender and the manner in which it shapes how petty trading households are linked to
market networks figures prominently in this research. My principal conclusion is that mechanization has
changed the geography of fish production in Kerala toward greater centralization of landings in particular
places. This, combined with an ecological crisis associated with overfishing, has transformed distribution
systems in such a way that women fish traders' relationship to the market has undergone a qualitative change
from household-based production and distribution to commercialized exchange. This change, I argue, has
worked to marginalize women within distribution at the same time their labour in this activity has become
increasingly important for household survival. This experience of women fish traders, in turn, requires a
rethinking of development initiatives such that the needs of the household are privileged over the so-called
needs of the state.

Hare, Jan. (2001) "Aboriginal literacy: Making meaning across three generations in an Anishinaabe community."
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of British Columbia (The). 157 pp.
The changing functions, uses, and value of literacy in the lives of three successive biological generations of
Anishinaabe residing in the same community form the basis of this study. Aboriginal people need and value
western notions of literacy for participation in mainstream society. They are, at the same time, aware that
western literacy has been imposed upon them, damaging their own forms of literacy which are closely rooted
in their cultural traditions. The study describes three prevailing ideas about literacy among these seven sets
of Anishinaabe families. The cultural traditions rooted in their relationships with land and family represent
the understandings of aboriginal literacy for the first generation of Anishinaabe, the oldest of this study.
These aboriginal women and men have constructed broader meanings for literacy that include print
traditions and dominant languages, but also respect aboriginal ways of knowing and incorporate cultural
practices that give meaning to how people live and make sense of their world. A shift in cultural traditions
and language is apparent as members of the second generation discuss their understandings of literacy
within the contexts of family, school, and society. Formal schooling attempted to supplant aboriginal literacy
with the traditions of print in official languages that characterize western literacy. Western literacy becomes

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the means by which members of the second generation have re-asserted their rights to self-determination.
The third generation, the youngest of this study, experience a greater orientation towards western literacy.
The features that distinguish aboriginal literacy are in decline. At the same time, their hold on western
literacy allows them to assert their identities and prepare for a future beyond their community. The thesis is
intended to challenge western notions of literacy, which privilege the written word and English/French
languages, arguing for broader conceptions of literacy which include languages, narrative traditions, and
rich symbolic and meaning-making systems of aboriginal culture.

Harris, Heather A. (2003 ) "Remembering 12,000 years of history: Oral history, indigenous knowledge and ways of
knowing in north-western North America." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Alberta. 446 pp.
Western academia has a long history of ignoring or denying indigenous methods of creating knowledge.
Anthropology, in particular, has claimed the authority to represent indigenous people and their knowledge
implying the invalidity of indigenous exegesis. In this thesis I attempt to reassert an indigenous voice by
challenging western epistemological traditions which often deny the systems of theory employed in
indigenous ways of creating knowledge. I utilize late Pleistocene-early Holocene oral histories of the Gitxsan
and related peoples to illustrate my contentions. Many western scholars have presented these narratives as
'myths.' I contest that representation, contending that the Gitxsan and related peoples have their own
methods for validating oral histories. I also present corroborating western archaeological and
paleoenvironmental evidence which reinforces my contentions. I conclude that the Gitxsan and related
peoples have been able to maintain an oral historical record that reaches back through 12,000 years.
In this dissertation I argue that the position of the indigenous scholar within the western academy is
paradoxical. Working within divergent western and indigenous worldviews, and the theories, methods and
ethics which derive therefrom, makes the position of the indigenous scholar problematic. I present the idea
that, within the range of indigenous and western worldviews, each has general principles which can be
contrasted. Indigenous perspectives and approaches to knowledge creation are generally holistic, subjective
and experiential while western ones include the principles of reductionism, objectivism and positivism with
associated dualistic and evolutionary concepts. These principles have contributed to a situation in which the
West has come to dominate much of the indigenous world politically and ideologically. In recent years,
indigenous scholars have contested the representation of indigenous people and their knowledge by western
scholars and have embarked upon a process of decolonization. That decolonization process has resulted in
the development of indigenous scholarship based upon indigenous research agendas. Such research agendas
call for new approaches to ethics, theory and method and new relationships with non-indigenous scholars
studying indigenous topics.
This dissertation concludes with discussions of: the possibility of establishing the study of culture from an
indigenous perspective; advancement of indigenous theory and method; the development of new approaches
to the ethics of research in indigenous communities by both indigenous and non-indigenous scholars; and
how indigenous scholars must negotiate a space in the western academy and the indigenous community.

Harrop, Alan R. (2000) "Native Indian Status as a risk factor for injury-related mortality in Alberta children." M.Sc.
Thesis, University of Calgary. 109 pp.
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine Indian status as a risk factor for mortality from
injury among Alberta children, aged 0-19 years.
STUDY DESIGN: This was an observational population-based epidemiologic study of injury mortality in
Alberta children over a 10-year period from 1985-94. Mortality data obtained from Alberta. Vital statistics
(pertaining to all Alberta children) were linked to Alberta First Nations Mortality Database data (pertaining
to Indian children) to create Indian and non-Indian comparison groups. Mortality rates and relative risks
were calculated for all injuries combined as well as for various subtypes (by intent and mechanism of injury).
Patterns over time were also examined.
RESULTS: After stratifying for age and gender, the relative risk for injury mortality for Indian versus non-
Indian children was found to be 4.6 (95% CI: 4.1-5.2). Indian children were also found to be at increased for
death from all intent of injury subtypes: unintentional (RR: 4.0, 95% CI: 3.5-4.6), suicide (RR: 6.6, 95% CI:
5.2-8.5), homicide (RR: 5.1, 95% CI: 3.0-8.5) and intent unknown (RR: 8.3, 95% CI: 4.9-14.0). Injury
mortality rates appeared to decrease over the study period in both Indians and non-Indians.
CONCLUSION: While death from injury is in decline among Alberta children, Indian children are at
significantly increased risk for death from unintentional and intentional injury.

Hart-Wasekeesikaw, Fjola. (1996) "First Nations peoples and experiences with cancer." M.N. Thesis, University of

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Manitoba (The). 317 pp.
The purpose of this descriptive, ethnographic study was to explore the experiences of First Nations people
diagnosed with cancer and elders' perceptions of cancer. The medicine wheel was the conceptual guide for
this study. 46 informants living in four Anishinaabe communities were interviewed using semi-structured
interview schedules. Content analysis of First Nations experiences with cancer occurred at various levels
using three data sets: the individual with cancer, her/his family and community. The cancer experience was
metaphorically characterized by 'the stranger.' Some examples of the themes are presented. In 'The presence
of a stranger: The elders speak', the elders provided a historical perspective of the development and
prevention of cancer in First Nations communities. 'Becoming aware: The stranger in the body' describes the
informants' experiences when they sensed they had cancer. In the theme 'Making the stranger known: The
healing journey', the informants identified traditional Indian medicine as one way to manage cancer in their
communities. Some of the findings revealed that cancer is thought to be a new disease affecting Anishinaabe.
Food is considered to be the primary cause of cancer and the loss of traditional values is at the core of
cancer in First Nations communities. A range of metaphors reflected First Nations peoples' understanding
about cancer. The most common metaphor used by the Anishinaabe in this study was 'manitoch' which, in the
Ojibwa language, Saulteaux, means cancer-as-worm. Informants suggested that Western medicine is limited
in its ability to cure cancer. First Nations people with cancer consulted one or more Indian medicine healers
before, during, or after obtaining medical cancer treatment. Spiritual visions and dreams were important to
First Nations people.

Hattori, Anne P. (1999) "Colonial dis-ease: United States Navy health policies and the Chamorros of Guam, 1898-
1941." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Hawai'i. 376 pp.
Studies of early 20th century Guam history frequently hail the introduction of western health projects as a
prominent example of the blessings of U.S. naval colonialism on the island. This colonialist interpretation
has privileged stories of native disease, tropical health hazards, colonial benevolence, and military medical
heroics. This research project re-examines the histories of medicine and health care experienced by both
Chamorros and Americans on Guam in the context of colonialism. In an analysis of cases involving leprosy,
midwifery, hospitals, and hookworm treatment programs, this study illustrates that the navy's introduction of
western medicine and scientific technologies concomitantly influenced Chamorro cultural values, gender
relationships, class delineations, political struggles, and economic expectations. Episodes marked by tension,
uncertainty, conflict, and dissension, as well as displays of indigenous acceptance, rejection, appropriation,
syncretism, and ambivalence should inform our understanding of the spectrum of naval health policies on
Guam. Colonial dis-ease informed the relationships between Chamorros and Americans, as well as between
navy officers and enlisted men, American men and Chamorro women, elite and non-elite Chamorro people,
children and adults, and other cross-sections of society on Guam.

Haughney, Diane. (2001) "Neoliberal restructuring, democratic transition, and indigenous peoples in Chile: The
Mapuche movement in the 1990s." Ph.D. Dissertation, City University of New York. 462 pp.
Sustained economic growth and a decade of stable, elected government make Chile a frequently cited
example of effective neoliberal reform and successful transition from authoritarian rule. This dissertation
analyzes the political consequences of neoliberal economic restructuring for processes of democratization by
focusing on the conflict between Mapuche organizations and the Concertación government, which has
supported industrial and infrastructure projects on indigenous lands.
The military dictatorship (1973-90) carried out a profound structural transformation of economy and state,
sharply reducing the state's entrepreneurial, redistributive, and regulatory functions and enlarging the role
of the market in the provision of social services and the distribution of goods. This neoliberal restructuring
broke with a 40 year pattern of import substitution industrialization and a strong welfare state. In the name
of free market principles and national security, the military regime also imposed individual private property
on indigenous communities and denied the existence of indigenous peoples in Chile. In the early 1980s, key
opposition figures had criticized the social and economic consequences of neoliberal restructuring. By 1990,
when the Concertación, the centre-Left party coalition that included many of those very critics, became the
first democratically elected government in 17 years, party leaders chose to keep the main principles and
policies of the neoliberal economic model, accepting it as the only viable path to development and
modernization.
The new democratic government pledged to reform indigenous policy by making a clear break with the
military dictatorship's denial of ethnic diversity and its effort to open indigenous lands to non-indigenous
owners. The 1993 indigenous law recognized indigenous cultures, established the protection of indigenous

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lands, and created a state agency for indigenous development. The law did not, however, provide for a
comprehensive restitution of lands usurped from indigenous communities, nor did the Chilean Congress pass
a constitutional amendment that would have granted official recognition to indigenous peoples. This
dissertation's detailed case studies of the controversies involving the Biobio River hydroelectric projects and
logging companies show that the Concertación government supported national and transnational
corporations rather than upholding the 1993 law's protection of indigenous lands and cultures. The
Concertación government tried to channel indigenous demands into economic and social assistance
programs, while remaining closed to demands for collective rights that conflicted with the interests of large
corporate capital and notions of national security based upon national homogeneity.
This dissertation shows how, in response, sectors of the Mapuche movement have raised demands, not only
for the recognition and protection of their lands, but also for collective rights as indigenous peoples,
challenging the liberal conception of participation, representation, and equality as political rights exercised
by atomized individual citizens. These sectors assert that the collective rights of indigenous peoples should be
part of the conception of a democratic society, and that democratic society should allow diverse approaches
to development.

Hauswald, Lizabeth G. (1984) "The Navajo way: Continuity and discontinuity in contemporary society." Ph.D.
Dissertation, University of California, Berkeley. 373 pp.
This dissertation is a study of social change on the Navajo Reservation. Open-ended interviews on
childrearing, personal network, marital relationships, and the impact of separation and divorce on families
were conducted with 92 adult informants, including 85 women and 7 men. A structured questionnaire was
administered to 282 adolescents enrolled in the Window Rock, Arizona public schools. Information on urban
and rural household and residence patterns, cultural knowledge, and religious participation was used to
analyze the impact of change on Navajo families.
Navajo informants' perceptions of separation and divorce, family violence, and generational
misunderstandings reflect anxiety about cultural discontinuity and change in contemporary society. I analyze
from a psychocultural perspective how individuals negotiate the stress and choices available on the Navajo
Reservation today. Epidemiological evidence of maladjustment appears in statistics on morbidity and
mortality, alcohol abuse, and homicide and suicide. Historical change in subsistence, residence, education,
and religion has led to variation in the organization of Navajo domestic groups. In some instances, this
change has resulted in a break in affiliation and interaction between family members and kinsmen. In
problem families, subsequent impacts on childrearing and socialization lead to generational conflicts and
irresolution in both adults and children as to appropriate roles and behaviours.
Families that have successfully adapted to social and cultural change may exhibit either traditional or
modern attitudes, or may integrate them in a bicultural orientation. Data on kinship, marriage and
childrearing help determine which factors lead to successful adaptation in contemporary society. Continuity
in kinship affiliation and religious participation are of particular importance in providing a stable
childbearing environment. Parental confidence in childrearing and the teaching of clear values and goals
provides children with the ability to flexibly adapt to a variety of social environments.

Hawker, Ronald W. (1998) "Accumulated labours: First Nations art in British Columbia, 1922-61." Ph.D.
Dissertation, University of British Columbia (The). 425 pp.
In this dissertation I chart the conflicting and shifting assertions of meaning for Northwest Coast objects in
Canada through a series of representational projects implemented between 1922 and 1961, beginning in
January 1922, with the prosecution by the Department of Indian Affairs of participants in the Cranmer
potlatch. The intersection between the concept of the 'fatal impact' or death of First Nations societies under
European modernization, federal assimilationist policies, the government's exercise of disciplinary control,
and the expansion of public museum collections was explicitly illustrated when the Lekwiltok, Mamalillikulla,
and the Nimpkish peoples surrendered over 17 cases of ceremonial objects in exchange for suspended
sentences for violating the potlatch ban.
The dissertation concludes by examining the Gitanyow agreement, engineered between 1958 and 1961, in
which Gitanyow laws, histories and territories would be published by the government of British Columbia in
exchange for the removal and replication of four crest poles. The raising of the poles' replicas in 1961
coincided with Canadian parliament's approval of the enfranchisement of First Nations people, the
theoretical end to the era of assimilation in Canada.
These events bookend a period in which representation continued to be entwined with political and social
conditions created by the Indian Act that depended on promulgating views that First Nations lifeways were

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vanishing. However, production of Northwest Coast objects retained significance throughout this period,
such objects playing complex and multifaceted roles. Because of the symbolic and financial value many Euro-
Canadians attached to First Nations objects, 'art' proved an avenue for communicating First Nations-related
social, political and economic issues.
The objects produced or displayed between 1922 and 1961 operated through the projects I describe in the
intertwined transformative processes of identity construction and boundary marking among individual First
Nations groups and within Canadian national identity. Through these projects, important steps were taken in
formulating two major characteristics of the post-1960 period: (1) a burgeoning market in Northwest Coast
objects constructed as 'traditional'; and, (2) First Nations activism for land claims and self-determination
using 'tradition' and 'art' as a platform in activism for land claims and self-determination.

Hawkes, Susan L. E. (1995) "Co-management and protected areas in Canada: The case of Gwaii Haanas." M.R.M.
Thesis, Simon Fraser University. 136 pp.
The notion of co-management springs from recent critiques of conventional approaches to common property
resource management. These state-level approaches have long been aimed at avoiding the 'Tragedy of the
Commons.' However, a growing number of critics are questioning both their effectiveness and the
fundamental assumptions on which they are based. At the same time, traditional, community based
approaches to the management of common property resources are being 'rediscovered.' Over the past two
decades, several co-management agreements have been negotiated with First Nations for fish and wildlife,
particularly in the North. More recently, four such agreement have been negotiated for protected areas. One
of these is the 1993 Canada-Haida (Gwaii Haanas) Agreement, reached between the Government of Canada
and the Council of the Haida Nation after six years of complex negotiations. In terms of shared decision-
making power, it is the most far-reaching co-management in Canada to date. Evaluative criteria against
which to measure the Canada-Haida Agreement were developed from a literature review on common
property resource management. A case study approach is used to describe the Agreement in its political,
cultural and biophysical context. This case study is based on a series of multiple, semi-structured interviews,
augmented with literature when necessary. Based on ten criteria, or principles of success, it is determined
that the Agreement is likely to be successful (to achieve its goals) in the long term. However, the criteria
concerning the Agreement's enforcement and decision-making provisions and the representation of third
parties, are not clearly met.

Hawkins, Carol A. (1997) "Urban circle training centre: An English language program." M.Ed. Thesis, University of
Manitoba (The). 67 pp.
This practicum experience is a study of an English language program developed at Urban Circle Training
Centre, a program designed to employ Aboriginal women in banking, business and retail sectors. A problem
arose when the materials to teach a 12 week English language program to this group of women was
inappropriate and ineffective. The 14 women studied between the ages of 18-55 years were all on social
assistance living in Winnipeg. The students were attending Urban Circle Training Centre to improve their
skills and find employment.
The major objective of the English language program was to develop both written and oral language skills in
a program which integrated Aboriginal perspectives so that the students were better prepared for
employment in the retail, business, and banking sectors of our community. Needs assessment questionnaires,
evaluations and a review of literature were the primary sources of data collection.
The results indicated (a) the topics were relevant; (b) Students oral and written communication skills
improved; (c) Workplace employers found the students were prepared to meet the demands of the workplace;
and, (d) Students found the format was interesting.
From this practicum, I learned (a) the importance of relevancy in program planning; (b) the importance of
critical reflection in learning; (c) the need for effective oral and written communication skills in the
workplace; (d) that a meaningful experience can be created by developing an interesting program; (e)
students move towards a greater degree of self direction in learning; (f) the artistry of education; (g) how to
design, implement, and evaluate an English language program; (h) more about Aboriginal culture; and, (i) to
be prepared to change the direction of the course to meet the changing needs of the learners.

Hayes, Howard J. (1997) "Indian women, domesticity, and liberal state formation: The gendered dimension of Indian
policy reform during the assimilation and allotment eras." M.A. Thesis, University of Arizona (The). 89 pp.
The question this thesis asks is: How have non-Indian conceptions of masculinity and femininity shaped
federal Indian policy during the late 19th century? The answer to this question lies, I will argue, in the

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process of liberal state formation itself; a process which necessarily involves the continued reproduction of
gender hierarchies and systems of male power that privilege men and masculinity over women and
femininity. This public/private dichotomy, and the system of gender relations it supports, restricts women's
social role to within a highly circumscribed private sphere separate and distinct from the public sphere of
economy and state occupied by men. Therefore, as a reflection of the overall process of liberal state
formation, the process of incorporating Indian peoples into the American social, economic, and political
mainstream undertaken during the assimilation and allotment eras, necessarily entailed the reproduction of
Euro-American gender hierarchies within Indian societies.

Haynal, Patrick M. (1994 ) "From termination through restoration and beyond: Modern Klamath cultural identity."
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Oregon. 426 pp.
The Klamath Tribes of Oregon were terminated from federal status in August of 1961. Earlier work
documented the adverse social, economic, and cultural affects termination produced. This dissertation seeks
to document what strategies the Klamath employed to achieve the reaffirmation of their subsistence treaty-
rights and the restoration of their federal status and if these two political victories have improved tribal
social conditions and stimulated a cultural revival. The data used to answer the research questions posed
were gathered by using the historical and participant-observer methods and by conducting interviews with
tribal members. In order to employ the historical method, pertinent published and unpublished documents
from tribal and other sources were examined. The participant-observer method involved the researcher's
attendance at various tribal government meetings, General Council sessions, and cultural events. The
collected data were then interpreted within the framework of a model labelled as reformative adaptation.
This model makes use of the acculturation and cultural renascence processes in a way which demonstrates
that both processes are simultaneously shaping modern Klamath culture change. The data collected reveal
that the Klamath used political activism, a primary component of the cultural renascence process, to secure
the reaffirmation of treaty-rights in federal court and the restoration of their federal status by an act of
Congress. Specifically, the Klamath used transcultural techniques which involve acculturating to the
dominant society's political system and using strategies whose origins lay within the dominant society -- such
as lobbying local, state, and federal politicians, bringing suit in federal court, letter writing campaigns, and
the use of the mass media -- in order to obtain their political victories. Further analysis of the data
demonstrates that the Klamath have been able to use the federal funds and programs, which restoration
provides access to, to begin improving tribal social conditions. Finally, the data reflect that the Klamath
political victories have strengthened Klamath cultural identity, which in turn has stimulated the emergence of
a 'neotraditional culture.' A neotraditional culture being a mosaic of indigenous, pan-Indian, and western
cultural patterns along with contemporary innovations.

Haynes, Jeanette. (1997) "An oral history of the social construction of Cherokee identity." Ph.D. Dissertation,
University of New Mexico (The). 283 pp.
Ethnic identity issues were investigated within a small community of mixed-blood Cherokee in northeastern
Oklahoma utilizing the qualitative method of oral history interviewing. The study was conducted to
investigate how individuals make meaning of their identity and what influenced their ethnic identity
formation. The 17 participants were between the ages of 58 and 83; eight women and nine men. They were
selected on the basis of having attended school in the community and having Cherokee (blood) ancestry.
Blood quantum ranged from 7/8ths to one 64th Cherokee: two participants were not enrolled with the
Cherokee Nation. Two interviews were conducted with each participant and a third interview was conducted
with eight.
To conduct a holistic study, the environment or external factors that influenced the individual were
investigated as well as the elements of time and history. Four areas were studied: national attitudes and
policies toward Native Americans, socialization and attitudes in the home, cultural issues in the school, and
attitudes toward Native Americans in the community.
Analysis was done by employing the constant comparative method from Glaser and Strauss (1967). Using a
theoretical framework of Identity Politics and Spring's (1996) theory of Ideological Management, the data
revealed that the participants' present identities were affected by historical issues and constructs of
assimilation, low native population, patriarchy, loss of the Cherokee language, Christianity, silencing, shame
and pride, social acceptance, social class and social status, information, curriculum, and media images,
physical appearance and stereotypes, and identity and definitions.

Hazlehurst, Kayleen M. (1990) "Political expression and ethnicity: The state of the art in the Mäori world." Ph.D.

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Dissertation, University of Toronto. 535 pp.
This thesis explores ethno-politics and the indigenous experience in contemporary New Zealand, against a
background of tradition Mäori social organization and the history of Mäori and Pakeha (Euro-New Zealand)
relations from the mid 19th century until the early 1980s.
Rapid population growth and urbanization of the Mäori created new contexts for inter-tribal leadership and
new domains of activity in the national political arena. Radical demands were articulated and sustained
through the 1970s for a more equitable share of power and resources.
Involvement of the Mäori in the country's parliamentary and party political system provided the training
ground and spring board for modern Mäori politicians. Mäori MPs moved easily in the two worlds of Mäori
and Pakeha politics, and several styles of Mäori political leadership may be discerned in the complex of
political structures and networks.
In 1980 a long serving MP, Matiu Rata, broke with the Labour Party to form the first Mäori political party,
Mana Motuhake. The thesis examines the formation of this party, its first by-election campaign and a
subsequent quest for parliamentary seats in the 1981 general election. Mana Motuhake's political strategies,
goals, rhetoric, operational modes, and structures are analysed, with particular emphasis on the nature and
limits of its appeal to the Mäori electorate.
The reaction of the other parties to the formation of Mana Motuhake, and the perceived meaning of these
developments for future power sharing between Mäori and Pakeha are documented. The emergence of Mana
Motuhake is presented as a case study in political ethnicity. It is also viewed comparatively as a fledgling
party attempting to redefine political agendas and generate new allegiances within a stable democratic
system.

Heaman, Maureen I. (2001 ) "Risk factors for spontaneous preterm birth among aboriginal and non-aboriginal women
in Manitoba." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Manitoba (The). 284 pp.
In the province of Manitoba, the incidence of preterm birth (PTB) has been increasing and is about 17%
higher among aboriginal than non-aboriginal women. The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors
for spontaneous PTB in Manitoba women, and to compare risk factors among aboriginal and non-aboriginal
women. A case-control study was conducted at two tertiary care hospitals in Winnipeg, Manitoba. Cases
were women who delivered a live singleton infant at less than 37 weeks gestation following spontaneous
labour, while controls delivered between 37 and 42 weeks gestation. A ratio of two controls per every case
was used, and stratified sampling by race was employed. An interview was conducted with each subject on
the postpartum unit and information was collected from the health record. Data were analyzed using SPSS
and SAS. There were 226 cases (36% aboriginal) and 458 controls (38% aboriginal). Using stratified
analyses, adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Significant risk factors
for PTB across both strata, after controlling for race, included: previous PTB, two or more previous
spontaneous abortions, hospitalization during pregnancy, gestational hypertension, vaginal bleeding after 12
weeks gestation, smoking in the month prior to pregnancy, short stature, low total weight gain during
pregnancy (less than 20 pounds), and inadequate prenatal care. Risk factors for non-aboriginal women
included abuse during pregnancy, low support from others, low self-esteem, rupture of membranes (ROM)
before labour, and moving two or more times in the last year. Risk factors for aboriginal women included
ROM before labour, high perceived stress, and anemia, while age less than 19 years and single marital status
were protective factors. After adjusting for other factors in a multiple logistic regression model, significant
modifiable risk factors included smoking prior to pregnancy (AOR 1.69), low weight gain (AOR 3.41), and
inadequate prenatal care (AOR 3.36). The population attributable risk was 24.5% for smoking prior to
pregnancy, 22.3% for low weight gain, and 15.9% for inadequate prenatal care. This study identified some
modifiable risk factors for PTB which can be targeted for public health interventions, and contributed to our
understanding of differences in risk factors among aboriginal and non-aboriginal women.

Heber, Robert W. (1989) "Chipewyan ethno-adaptations: Identity expression for Chipewyan Indians of northern
Saskatchewan." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Manitoba (The).
Chipewyan Indians of northern Saskatchewan, Canada are experiencing rapid social and cultural change.
One area of change is in social identity expression as ethnicity. This study makes use of an ethnohistorical
approach to trace continuities and change in expressions of ethnicity for Chipewyan Indians from prehistoric
to contemporary times. Comparisons are made in ethnohistorical processes and ethno-ecological adaptations
between sub-populations of Chipewyan to determine similarities and differences in ethno-adaptation by
regional groups within the Chipewyan collective. Research was carried out for this study using historical
information supported by ethnographic observations of two regional Chipewyan populations, the Buffalo

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River people of the Upper Churchill River and Caribou-Eater Chipewyan of the Athabasca Basin. The
research demonstrates that while Chipewyan Indians share common features of ethnicity, sub-populations
express distinct identity features that can be traced to different adaptive processes over space and time.

Heckler, Serena L. (2001 ) "The ethnobotany of the Piaroa: Analysis of an Amazonian people in transition." Ph.D.
Dissertation, Cornell University. 356 pp.
This work is a comparative study of the ethnobotany of three Piaroa communities situated in the Manapiare
Valley region of Estado Amazonas, Venezuela. In order to navigate a successful transition from a subsistence
economy to one based upon cash, indigenous Amazonians must adjust their social workings in many
profound ways. This work examines Piaroa use of botanical resources as a measure of such intense social
adjustments. The three communities are compared with respect to how several aspects of acculturation,
including sedentarization, involvement in a market economy and women's roles affect Piaroa Traditional
Ethnobotanical Knowledge (TEK). The study found that TEK and use of wild plant resources is decreasing
dramatically in response to social changes. Agriculture, however, is increasing in importance due to a focus
on cash agriculture as a means of entering the market economy. Despite increased importance, the plant
diversity of the average garden decreases in cash gardens, subsistence gardens and home gardens. This is
partly due to labour constraints on the part of men, who focus their attention on market agriculture and
manual labour. It is also due to women's tendency to no longer view the garden as their main creative act
and the means by which their success as women is measured. The prominence of home gardens as loci of
innovation greatly increases. Even though the overall emphasis on agriculture decreasing in diversity certain
women remain 'hobbyists' and maintain complex and diverse agricultural systems. This practice was more
common before intensive contact with Venezuelan national culture. Contrary to conventional wisdom, the
traditional swidden/fallow agriculture is more than a subsistence system limited by ecological constraints.
Traditional agriculture is far more elaborate than necessary for basic subsistence, providing additional
benefits such as aesthetics, status and personal pleasure to the Piaroa. Throughout the course of the work, it
is questioned whether or not TEK is of significant value in helping the Piaroa enter the market economy.
Rather it is suggested that TEK is a fundamental part of Piaroa culture and that to separate it from the
cultural framework is to deprive it of meaning.

Herman, A. Douglas K. (1995) "Kalai'aina: Carving the land: Geography, desire and possession in the Hawai'ian
islands." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Hawai'i. 587 pp.
Kalai'aina (lit. 'carving the land'), the Hawai'ian word for 'politics,' reflects the pre-western tradition of
dividing the control of land in the Islands. This linguistic link between land and power is extended to include
geographic representation, the discursive 'carving the land.' Reflecting these three readings of 'kalai'aina,'
the colonization of the Islands is then analysed in terms of the land in ways that enable the dispossession of
the Hawai'ian people. Colonialism is considered as the re-constitution of society and space as found in
language, religion, scientific epistemologies, geographic thought, sacred spaces and symbolic landscapes.
The discussion is framed within a consideration of geography the discipline and geography the practice, seen
as re-writing the earth into a hegemonic and culturally specific world view. The first part then looks at the
encompassing of the islands into western geographic discourse and texts, resulting in desire for the
'underutilized' land and the 'strategic' location. The feminising aspect of this desire is strongly evoked. The
second part then approaches the representations of bodies -- of native Hawai'ians, and later of imported
labourers. The interplay of geography with racial science, the depopulation of the indigenous people from
introduced diseases, and the emergence of a socio-ethnic hierarchy with a white elite are elucidated. The
interplay between science, religion, and geography, and the way these three are intertwined results in the
Western definition of 'knowledge' and the constitution of the world. Indigenous knowledge is cast as
superstition and ignorance. Hawai'ian language itself is re-formed to fit western needs. A study of Hawai'ian
place names continues on this theme, looking more closely at language and land. Finally, colonization is
read in terms of a change in the 'law,' from the kapu system of old to the government of the United States.
Language, history, and landscape are re-read to show that, despite two centuries of discourse to the
contrary, the management of power, of control of land, and of sacred space has not substantially changed in
structure, despite the shift in sovereignity.

Hermes, Suzanne S. (2001 ) "A cosmological and psychological portrayal: An integration of psyche, culture, and
creativity." Ph.D. Dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute. 280 pp.
Carl Jung was one of the first therapists to propose that the symbolism produced by his patients and
symbolism found in varying world cosmologies had commonalties. These universal symbolic elements have

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been shown to correspond to the cosmic archetypes found throughout worldwide cultures and are often
demonstrated through ritual, imagery, and the creative arts.
This dissertation is a phenomenologically based discourse using a hermeneutic method to explore the
impressions of the culturally relevant creative arts with Native American Indians who demonstrate significant
at-risk behaviour. Past programs that focused on pathology and symptomatology have not been effective in
ameliorating the tragic legacy of the American Indian. Despite what appears to be much investment of
money, time, personnel, and programs, Native American Indians still suffer from some of the highest rates of
at-risk behaviour, to include suicide, domestic violence, accidents, ill-health, and poverty in our country. The
focus has for too long not served the needs or worldviews of Native Americans.
This author believes that risky behaviour, which has been part of the Native legacy, is a mask that has been
used in attempt to cover and at times to soothe the incredible soul wound that has been oozing for
generations. The medicine for such a wound has been sought through the ways of Western medicine. This,
however, is not the only source of healing. There is within the ancient psyche of Native America an extremely
strong cultural heritage. By integrating this heritage within an application of the analytical psychology of
Carl Jung, a powerful collaboration can transpire.
A culturally relevant creative arts program is one means to illustrate the symbolism, imagery, cosmology,
poetry, art, and music of a civilization that has thrived on the symbolic languages of the soul. Tribes have
within their own structures a wealth of resources that need only to be revived in order for their power to be
realized. Besides culturally relevant arts, sweat lodges and talking circles were also implemented, as a means
of accessing the wounded psyche and empowering those at risk through culturally relevant experiences.
Utilizing a hermeneutic methodology that cultivates a cross-fertilization of cross-cultural ideologies,
authentic visions based on the strengths and not the pathologies of American Indians were established.
Culturally specific integration of cross-cultural relationships allowed for empowerment of individual and
community resources.
The analytical psychology of Carl Jung opened wide the doors of inquiry, as each culture draws on the
symbolic life of their own roots. To Walk In Beauty for the contemporary Native American is to be able to
walk not only in two worlds, but also in the all inclusive millennium moccasins. This study has given us a
base to work with Native Americans, as well as other cultures that are experiencing transformation, in order
to resonate with their more authentic self.

Hertzler, Douglas C. (2002) "Agrarian cultures of solidarity: Campesino unions and the struggle for land and
community development in Santa Cruz, Bolivia." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Iowa (The). 444 pp.
Recent social movements theory has led researchers away from an emphasis on class as the basis for
understanding of collective actors and brought into focus the far greater diversity of social categories around
which people mobilize in order to reach group goals and shape social change. Some theorists, however, have
moved beyond the critique of class reductionism to assert that conceptualizations to contemporary social
movements and their participants.
The main finding of this dissertation is that class solidarity remains relevant to rural social movements in
Bolivia, even during a period of growing consciousness of the history of colonialism, racism, and their
collective experience as dominated aboriginal cultures. This dissertation analyzes the efforts of Andean and
native lowland peasant settlers, who speak primarily Quechua and Spanish, to build and maintain
organizations that democratize their own communities while challenging a profoundly unjust distribution of
power, land, and other resources. It presents evidence that rural people are readily able to organize
themselves across divisions of ethnicity/race/culture, on the basis of perceived similar material position in a
system of inequality. It also examines how contemporary concepts of class, ethnicity, 'race,' and nation have
been shaped through their shifting use in the course of Bolivia history, and how these social categories
constructed by elites are sometimes contested or transformed in the discourse of non-elite actors in the local
context. Dominant constructions of gender limit women's political participation, but these gender
constructions are contested as women form their own organizations and struggle for a greater role within the
settlers' unions.
Through an approach centred on local and regional history of movement organization, this dissertation aims
to provide a basis for understanding the large-scale rural protests that have occurred in Bolivia in recent
years. In keeping with anthropological approaches to political economy, it contextualizes social relations in
the tropical lowland region by tracing concrete international economic and political linkages and
demonstrating their embeddedness in historical struggles for land and power from the colonial era to the
present.

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Hess, Elizabeth A. (1985 ) "Native employment in northern Canadian resource towns: The case of the Naskapi in
Schefferville." M.A. Thesis, McGill University.
This thesis examines the employment experience of the Naskapi Indians in the 25 years following their
relocation to Schefferville, Québec, in 1956.
To examine the underlying causes of the concentration of unemployment and underemployment among the
native segment of the labour force, the thesis develops a 'conjunctural approach' which views the employment
situation of the Naskapis as a historical and geographical conjuncture of two dynamics: multinational
resource capital and the native subsistence ecology, which interact at the point of the labour process.
Within this context, the thesis focuses on two principal factors in the Naskapi's marginal participation in
wage labour. The first is the conditions of profitability which necessitate capitalobility and the consequent
instability of employment in northern resource industries. The second is the hierarchical and segmented
nature of the labour process, which shaped the marginal position of the Naskapi within the labour force.

Hess, Franke S. (1990) "Explaining international movements: A study of global activism among the world's
indigenous peoples." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Maryland College Park. 456 pp.
The estimated 300 million indigenous people of the world are, according to indigenous representatives to a
1974 world conference, distinct ethno-cultural groups descended from aboriginal, pre-colonial inhabitants of
an area who do not now control their own political destiny. The movement to internationalize concern for
their survival draws attention to a broader pattern of dominance by western political and economic
institutional actors and the marginalization of non-western peoples and cultures. As 'conquered' peoples,
indigenous groups are among the most vulnerable. This pattern of dominance is not only physically
destructive, but also frustrates basic human needs for recognition, positive group identity, and self-esteem,
leading to profound social-psychological alienation and a host of attendant social problems. The questions
raised by these developments centre fundamentally on the relationship between subjugated peoples and the
state on a global scale. Part of the problem, I conclude, is that the boundaries of ethnic identity have served
to define a core moral community, which, when channelled into state-building activity, produces
institutionalized patterns of dominance and subjection parallel to the boundaries of ethnic identity. Dominant
ethnic groups will regard members of their own group with moral preference, leaving non-dominant groups
vulnerable to the destructive force of moral exclusion at worst, and second-class political and economic
status at best. In order to rectify this situation, the state, and the community of states must redefine the basis
of moral community by expanding its boundaries through the promotion of legal protections, including
cultural, social, economic and political rights given the force of national and international legal recognition.
Through a series of international conferences, and by appealing directly to international institutions,
indigenous activists are cultivating increasing support for such a program of legal protection. I analyze these
developments from the perspective of an international movement directed toward the normative basis of an
international political community. To account for normative global movements, which might also include the
anti-slavery activism of the 19th century, or recent efforts by environmental and peace groups, I develop a
'world society' model of international politics.

Hicks, Bentley G. (1995) "Interests and the public interest in law and public policy: A case study in aboriginal policy
in Canada." M.A. Thesis, Carleton University. 178 pp.
This thesis is an examination of the current state of federal aboriginal policy within Canada. It assesses the
degree to which current aboriginal policy initiatives take cognizance of broader non-aboriginal concerns,
and the extent to which these concerns might be considered expressions of a 'public interest.' The thesis
analyzes aboriginal self-government and comprehensive land claims policy in order to determine where and
to what extent they make provision for the consideration of other interests that might bear on the
implementation and application of these policies at the broader social level.
The thesis considers the crisis of legitimacy that is affecting all aboriginal policy initiatives that relate to self-
determination. Recent attempts by the federal government to reconcile underlying aboriginal sentiments for
self-determination with non-aboriginal concerns regarding the political integrity of the established Canadian
order have had, at best, modest success. New methods both of identifying and reconciling aboriginal and
non-aboriginal interests must be found, if future aboriginal policies are to ward off increased social and
cultural isolation.

Hildebrand, Denise. (2003) "Staff perspectives of the Aboriginal residential school experience: A study of four
Presbyterian schools, 1888-1923 ." M.A. Thesis, University of Manitoba (The). 353 pp.
Despite the growing body of literature regarding residential schools, few studies have focused on the men

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and women who staffed the schools. This study is a detailed examination of the staff members of four
Presbyterian-run boarding schools and their experiences from 1888 to the early 1920s. By using
Presbyterian Church and Department of Indian Affairs documents, this study has reconstructed the staff
perspective of the early decades of residential schooling. The findings reveal that residential school
employment, regardless of position, was very stressful. All positions, and particularly that of the principal,
entailed a diversity of duties and responsibilities. Too often staff members were unprepared for at least some
of the tasks expected of them. The findings also reveal the inhospitable working conditions that existed, which
were due largely to the lack of financial support. In some cases, parental opposition contributed to the
pressure, as did strained staff relations. Not surprisingly, the majority cited illness as the reason for
resigning. It is suggested that more congenial working conditions would have resulted in better management
and possibly, less physical abuse of students. It is also argued that staff experiences varied greatly depending
on the school at which one was employed.

Hill, Dawn J. (1995) "Lubicon Lake nation: Spirit of resistance." Ph.D. Dissertation, McMaster University. 209 pp.
There are four objectives of this dissertation. The first is addressing the native perspective and how that
influences both the methodology and theoretical context. The second is developing a context that is both
relevant to the Lubicon and myself, as well as the social sciences. The third is describing the field research in
Little Buffalo, Alberta over a five-year period, and how spirituality and culture shapes not only perceptions
but human behaviour which is identified as resistance to dominant ideology and oppression. The fourth is
providing the Lubicon Cree men and women with an opportunity to tell their story from their own voice. The
conclusion brings together the spiritual-theoretical collective voice to address issues of representation and
more importantly the very real experience of 'genocide.'

Hills, Amber L. (2003) "Assessment, treatment, and recidivism of aboriginal and non-aboriginal offenders: A
comparison of intra-familial and extra-familial male sexual offenders in Saskatchewan." M.A. Thesis,
University of Regina (The). 144 pp.
The sexual abuse of children is a serious social concern. It is commonly reported that one in four women and
one in seven men are sexually molested before the age of 18. Men who have sexually offended against
children outside of their families (extra-familial sexual offenders) are believed to be more likely to re-offend
than are those who have offended against children within their families (intra-familial sexual offenders). If
recidivism rates are indeed higher for extra-familial offenders it follows that the assessment and treatment
protocols should be reflective of such. In the current study, 46 intra-familial offenders were compared to 52
extra-familial offenders with respect to three specific domains: recidivism rate and type information; the
assessment procedures utilized by Saskatchewan correctional staff, and the treatment that offenders received.
The noted comparisons were completed on a total sample of 98 male, intra-familial and extra-familial sexual
offenders to determine whether or not there were differences between these two groups in the noted areas.
Further, these comparisons were made between the non-aboriginal (n = 47) and aboriginal (n = 46) intra-
familial and extra-familial sexual offenders in response to the need for information about aboriginal sexual
offenders. Overall, intra- and extra-familial offenders presented similarly in terms of their demographics;
however, aboriginal and non-aboriginal offenders differed on several demographic variables. There were no
associations between the groups and their rates or types of recidivism. There also were no significant
associations between the assessment and treatment received, and the intra-familial and extra-familial
aboriginal and non-aboriginal offender groups.

Hindery, Derrick L. (2003) "Multinational oil corporations in a neoliberal era: Enron, Shell, and the political ecology
of conflict over the Cuiabá pipeline in Bolivia's Chiquitanía." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California,
Los Angeles. 388 pp.
With the spectacular financial collapse of Enron in 2001, Enron and Shell's Cuiabá gas pipeline gained
international notoriety for degrading the last, most intact, dry tropical forest in the world, the Chiquitano
Forest. This dissertation identifies and analyzes those specific actions undertaken by various stakeholders
that were effective in preventing or mitigating negative social and environmental impacts of the pipeline. It
uses this case, among others, to explore how Bolivia's neoliberal economic 'reforms' affected indigenous and
environmental groups' efforts to mobilize against hydrocarbons projects brought by such policies. The
dissertation concludes that these policies, which resulted in partial privatization of the state oil company, and
expanded control over natural resources by multinational corporations, were responsible for a series of
negative social and environmental impacts in the country. The analysis is based on an action-oriented
political ecology approach, which examines the interaction between political interests, social institutions,

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and human-environment relations, with the aim of actively aiding vulnerable populations under study,
namely the Chiquitano and Ayoreo indigenous communities affected by the Cuiabá pipeline. The dissertation
begins with a historical geography of the region known as the Chiquitanía, highlighting struggles between
indigenous peoples and external actors over natural resources, livelihood, and identity.

Hindley, Jane. (1997) "Indigenous mobilization, political reform and development in Mexico: The struggle of the
Nahua people of the Upper Balsas, Guerrero." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Essex.
The last 25 years have witnessed the emergence of a global movement of indigenous peoples linking a
multiplicity of organizations on common grounds of struggle against discrimination, ethnocide and
dispossession and for general recognition of their specific economic, political and sociocultural rights. This
reassertion of indigenous identities confounds predictions that 'modernization' and 'development' would
reduce sociocultural difference and indigenous peoples would disappear, which guided the assimilationist
indigenist policies prevailing during the post-war period in Latin America. Recent indigenous mobilizations
together with political reforms conferring indigenous rights are leading to a reconfiguration of relations
between governments and indigenous peoples across Latin America. This thesis addresses how shifts in the
relations between government and indigenous peoples in Mexico, together with changes in the national
political environment have created opportunities for indigenous mobilization at the micro-political level. In
turn, grassroots action transforms ethnic political consciousness and establishes new forms of representation
and mediation with respect to government. Such mobilizations alter the exercise of power in the countryside
and open up possibilities for transforming local government. I explore these processes analyzing the
successful resistance of the Nahua People of the Upper Balsas, Guerrero, to a federal development project --
the Tetelcingo dam. In this mobilization, the newly-established legitimacy of indigenous interests, identities
and representation provided strategic grounds for constructing a collective regional interest and identity;
forging horizontal political alliances; and challenging the prerogatives of municipal, state and federal
government.

Hipwell, William T. L. (1997) ""They've got no stake in where they're at": Radical ecology, the fourth world and local
identity in the Bella Coola region." M.A. Thesis, Carleton University. 251 pp.
The Forest Action Network, a radical environmental group, began in 1995 a co-operative relationship with
'the House of Smayusta', a faction of the Nuxalk First Nation, geared toward ending industrial forestry on the
Northwest Coast of Turtle Island (North America). The region has been exploited by trans-state (trans-
national) corporations for several decades, resulting in a badly degraded environment and a weakened local
economy. The relationship between these groups resulted in logging road blockades and other actions
involving civil disobedience. Discourses invoked by the environmentalists had the effect of silencing large
portions of the local population, and involved problematic representations of the Nuxalk Nation. This thesis
evaluates the relationship between the Forest Action Network and the Nuxalk in context of other co-operative
efforts between indigenous peoples and non-Native environmentalists, and in light of ideas underlying Fourth
World and radical ecology theory, and discussions of community identity.

Hoang, Quyen. (2003) "First Nations people mining the museum: A case study of change at the Glenbow Museum."
M.A. Thesis, Concordia University. 115 pp.
This thesis is an examination of the representation of First Nations cultures at the Glenbow Museum in
Calgary, Canada. Focusing on public display, I look at four in-house exhibitions that illustrate some of the
decolonizing strategies Glenbow has employed following the controversial exhibition in 1988, The spirit
sings: Artistic traditions of Canada's First Peoples and the subsequent Task Force Report, Turning the page:
Forging new partnerships between museums and First Peoples, released in 1992. I engage the concept of
museumism as a strategy used in all four exhibitions, an approach that uses the museum as a format to
reclaim and revise history and shifts museological practices that once negated Aboriginal knowledge and
protocol. Aboriginal participation in exhibition development has reclassified the museum from interpreter
and preserver to facilitator and collaborator. The Museum is transformed into a space for dialogue where
issues of representation, consultation, access and self-determination can be played out and anticipates a
future of mutual goals and shared histories.

Hochtritt, James G. Jr. (2001) "Rural Cherokees, Chickasaws, Choctaws, Creeks, and Seminoles in Oklahoma during
the Great Depression." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Oklahoma (The). 439 pp.
This dissertation analyzes rural Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and Seminole communities in
Oklahoma during the Great Depression. It examines the impact of Indian New Deal policies in the areas of

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economic, education, health, and political reform. Moreover, it refutes the commonly held belief that the
rural Indians of the Five Civilized Tribes were a largely landless people, starving and spiritually bankrupt by
the 1930s. In fact, this study argues that those Indians who continued to live in the small, rural communities
of the Five Civilized Tribes region relied upon time proven kin and clan networks to maintain their social and
cultural traditions. This better enabled them to endure the economic hardships caused by the Great
Depression. The devotion they showed to their communities and traditions also allowed them to assimilate or
resist assimilation on their own terms as opposed to the terms set down by whites, more assimilated tribal
members, or the federal government. In that sense, it is, more than anything else, very much a study of Indian
cultural and social perseverance.

Hogeveen, Bryan R. (1998 ) "An intrusive and corrective government: Political rationalities and the governance of the
plains aboriginals, 1870-90." M.A. Thesis, University of Manitoba (The). 188 pp.
In this work I have applied post-colonial theory and Foucault's ideas on government to analyze colonial
governmentality and its impact on the aboriginals of the Canadian prairies. Most often, historians who have
undertaken work in the field of aboriginal/government relations have attempted to unravel the ideological
representations which constructed the aboriginals as other, along with highlighting how state policy
marginalized Canada's indigenous people. My research has endeavoured to move the analysis of aboriginal
governance beyond ideology and centralized state power by considering how the indigenous peoples were
defined, divided out, and excluded from Euro-Canadian society. More specifically, I have tried to reveal how
the traditional modes of aboriginal life were structured in diverse ways by both the political rationality of the
Hudson's Bay Company and the 19th century Canadian liberal rationality of government. In so doing, I
endeavoured to discern how law and practices of government, such as, techniques to govern consumption
and agricultural programmes, intruded into the lives of the aboriginal peoples. By interrogating the practices
and programmes by which the rationality of 19th century liberal government structured the modes of plains
aboriginals life I have attempted to come to a unique understanding of aboriginal/government relations.

Holden, Annette M. (1994 ) "Fourth world economic development: The establishment of capitalism in three
Aboriginal communities in Cape York Peninsula, Queensland." Ph.D. Dissertation, Griffith University. 331
pp.
Aboriginal economic development in Australia is examined through case studies of three communities in
Cape York Peninsula in Queensland. For the purpose of analysis, Cape York is treated as an Aboriginal
domain and the communities are treated as individual colonies. The central question of the thesis is "Is
capitalism being established as the dominant mode of production?" It is not presumed that capitalism is or
will be established in the Aboriginal colonies and so the ways in which the capitalist and Aboriginal modes of
production frustrate, reinforce and transform one another in the process of articulation are examined. Thus
the following questions are asked: (1) How exactly is the dominance of capitalism being established?; (2)
What footholds for this dominance are to be found in the old relations of production?; and, (3) In what sense
did the latter become transformed so as to fit in with the specific requirements of capitalist interests? And
their reverse: (4) In what ways, if at all, is the Aboriginal mode of production remaining as the dominant
mode?; (5) In what ways, if at all, does capitalism lend itself to the maintenance of the dominance of the
Aboriginal mode of production?; and, (6) How is the capitalist mode of production itself modified as a result
of colonialism?
The state plays a key role in Aboriginal economic development. Government economic development policies
are explained in the broader context of the role of the state in the colonisation process, which itself must be
understood with attention to the structure of government. Aboriginal policies and also the policy-making
process in Aboriginal affairs is examined and it is argued that there is conflict between the federal and
Queensland governments. This is because the federal government has entered the era of post-colonial
rationalisation while the Queensland government is still pursuing ongoing colonisation. The thesis
demonstrates that Aboriginal policies are determined most importantly by the level of development of the
forces of production under the jurisdiction of the respective federal and state governments and secondarily by
the exigencies of their respective legitimation and fiscal responsibilities. Party politics is almost irrelevant in
determining policy.
The history of the colonisation process of Cape York is examined and found to conform to the first two stages
of Petras' three-stage model of colonisation, borrowed from Third World economic development theory.
Fourth World colonisation begins in the same way as Third World does but then Fourth World economic
development takes its own direction. It does this because the articulation process, while initially determined
by the logic of the capitalist mode of production, is increasingly consistent with the logic of a contemporary

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Aboriginal mode of production, which is defined and described in the thesis. Ongoing access to the
traditional means of production, the small scale of the Aboriginal colonies, Aborigine's status as citizens
within the nation of their colonisers, and the maintenance of traditional Aboriginal values, attitudes and
beliefs are amongst the key reasons for why the directions of Third and Fourth World economic development
finally diverge. This has implications for the relevance of Marxist theory to Fourth World economic
development theory.
In addition to assessing class formation in the Aboriginal colonies, state formation is also considered. Again
it is not presumed that the state inevitably will support the formation of capitalist relations of production. The
performance of the endogenous state as a bulwark to capitalism and its possible role in fostering alternative
forms of Aboriginal economic development are examined.

Holkup, Patricia A. (2003) "Native American elder mistreatment: A community concern." Ph.D. Dissertation,
University of Iowa (The). 279 pp.
Using traditional ethnographic methods for data collection and analysis, this dissertation addressed two
specific aims. The first was related to the issue of elder mistreatment among Native American people living
on a reservation in Montana. Data from a community-based participatory pilot research project were
analyzed to explore how elder mistreatment is perceived on the reservation, its contributing factors and
ramifications, the current means of addressing elder mistreatment, and whether a proposed family
conference intervention aimed at preventing and/or mitigating elder mistreatment would be acceptable to the
people living on the reservation. The second aim was related to the research methodology. Data generated
during the conduction of business for the cross-cultural research team that implemented the research project
were analyzed to explore relevant scientific, ethical, and interpersonal team dynamics.
Results related to the first aim indicated that elder mistreatment does exist on the reservation in the forms of
exploitation, neglect, social service neglect, and emotional abuse. Contributing factors include historic
trauma, depressed socioeconomic conditions, the impact of social change on traditional values, and the
influence of family values held by elders. Punitive means of managing elder mistreatment fragmented families
causing family discord. Prevention was seen as a desirable way to address elder mistreatment with positive
support indicated for the family conference intervention. Community strengths that could contribute to the
success of the family conference intervention were identified.
Results related to the methodology aim indicated that the research team experienced four developmental
stages during its work on the project: team formation, team expansion, team crisis, and team consolidation.
Depending on the developmental stage, salient issues included experiencing distrust and trust, addressing
bureaucratic barriers, coping with credibility stress, remaining flexible, learning culturally grounded means
of intercultural communication, protecting the data, guarding against cultural misinterpretation of the data,
managing multiple roles, maintaining a consensus model for making decisions, and nurturing team
cohesiveness.

Holland, Alison L. (1999 ) "'Saving the Aborigines': The white woman's crusade. A study of gender, race and the
Australian frontier, 1920s-1960s." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of New South Wales.
From the late 1920s until the 1960s a generation of white women reformers joined a campaign to 'save the
Aborigines.' They were concerned to 'rescue' them from extinction, a fate which had previously been
considered inevitable, and improve their condition and status within the nation. In this way, they were hoping
to solve what was widely coined the 'Aboriginal Problem.' This 40 year campaign was part of a broader
humanitarian, feminist and imperial reform agenda which, under the influence of new international ethics on
the 'race question', sought the reform of Aboriginal policy in Australia. Influential to the white woman's
response was the work of Aboriginal rights crusader, Mary Bennett, who waged a battle against the direction
of Aboriginal policy in Australia in these years. Her critique was linked to a British anti-slavery crusade
which had identified the frontiers of settlement