Bibliography of Theses and Dissertations on Indigenous Peoples – 2007 Jan.

This bibliography contains items not included in my ‘Bibliography of ‘Arctic Social Sciences’ Theses and Dissertations.’ This is very much a work in progress, and despite the fact that it contains 963 entries this bibliography is undoubtedly missing a great many theses and dissertations – especially those written in languages other than English. Notification of omissions (and of typos and other errors) would be oh-so-greatly appreciated! The abstracts are those prepared by the authors of the theses and dissertations. The spellings of some words have been standardized to facilitate searching by keyword.

Abadian, Sousan. (1999) "From wasteland to homeland: Trauma and the renewal of indigenous peoples and their communities." Ph.D. Dissertation, Harvard University. 524 pp. Why is it that the descendants of the original peoples of North America living today on reserves and reservations continue to suffer disproportionately from poverty, poor health, violence, alcohol and substance abuse? What are effective means of bettering substandard conditions? This study suggests that unresolved or poorly resolved individual and collective trauma is an often overlooked, key causal variable which helps explain present-day conditions in many indigenous communities. Parts I and II explore the 'trauma thesis' and suggest that the experience of trauma may profoundly distort individual perceptual filters, values, and behaviour, with damaging social ramifications. Prolonged and extensive trauma can distort institutions and destroy productive social capital, fostering the antithesis of a 'civic culture' -- a 'subculture of trauma' -- with dire implications for economic and political life. Multiple generations of native peoples have experienced individual-level trauma in the context of massive collective traumatization. This coupling of individual and collective trauma is particularly deadly because, among other things, it cripples the capacity of individuals to heal. Under these circumstances, trauma is likely to be replicated through time and space, and manifest in substandard conditions. In addition to exploring root causes, this study has aimed to provide some insight into possible means of reversing substandard conditions and enhancing well-being. To this end, Part III utilizes psychological theory on the processes of healing from trauma as well as field cases from North American native communities. Part III suggests that a set of interventions employed by increasing numbers of aboriginal communities in various guises, described as 'culture as treatment,' are effective means of countering traumatically-induced social pathologies on reserves and reservations today (the 'culture as treatment thesis'). I conclude with an accounting of what culture as treatment might ideally entail: psychological, cultural and spiritual renewal. Renewal does not mean mere restoration of what was lost, even if that were possible, but may require a degree of adaptation to the changed realities of present-day circumstances. Moreover, I suggest that cultural renewal/psychological healing and economic development are not necessarily at odds with one another. The economic and sociocultural imperatives can go hand-in-hand: they are compatible and indeed may support one another. Abbott, Kathryn A. (1996 ) "A history of alcohol as symbol and substance in Anishinabe culture, 1765-1920." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Massachusetts Amherst. 241 pp. This dissertation examines the history of alcohol among the Anishinaabe (also known as the Ojibway or Chippewa) people from the middle of the 18th century until the enactment of National Prohibition in 1920. As early as the 18th century, alcohol was an integral part of the gift-giving which preceded negotiations for the French -- and later British and American -- fur trade. Some Anishinaabe people incorporated alcohol into funerals, and there is also evidence that the Anishinaabeg had reasonable social controls around drinking into the 20th century. Alcohol was also pivotal in shaping non-Indian stereotypes of Indian people. In the 19th century, the drinking habits of the Anishinaabeg were seen first as a sign of cultural weakness. The rhetoric of American missionaries emphasized that once the Anishinaabeg had accepted Christianity, they would choose to give up alcohol. However, these same missionaries also argued that in order to become Christian, the Anishinaabeg first would have to reject liquor. By the early 20th century, the stereotype of the culturally inferior Indian combined with scientific racism to create the image of racially inferior Indians. These images served as the justification for Anishinaabeg

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dispossession in the early years of the 20th century. Further, as Prohibition agitation increased in the early 20th century, non-Indians used the Anishinaabeg in Minnesota to wage an ideological war not only about alcohol in white society but also about the extent of federal power in enforcing treaty provisions on non-Indians lands. Hence, the Anishinaabeg became the rhetorical vehicle for a complex debate which at times only marginally included them. By focusing on one Indian group at a particular point in time, this dissertation seeks to historicize one Indian group's experience with alcohol and to move away from generalizations about 'Indians' and drinking. By presenting as full a picture as possible of the diversity of the Anishinaabe experience with alcohol, this dissertation hopes to emphasize both their humanity and their history. Abigosis, Betty J. (2003 ) "Seeking a double understanding: Constituting local First Nations governance." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Saskatchewan (The). 345 pp. As we turn the corner into the new millennium we see the indigenous peoples of Canada move toward reclaiming their inherent rights. Having advanced their political status within the governing elites of the colonial governments, First Nations are striving to become self-determining. The research study that was conducted falls in line with the movements of the indigenous peoples. In an attempt to achieve a 'double understanding,' this study engaged in a research process that aimed to learn the traditional philosophies of one First Nation and build these understandings within a contemporary form of local governance. To achieve this purpose, the study sought the knowledge of those who are closest to the past, the elders and those who were leading the First Nation at the time of the study. From the philosophical findings that resulted from their participation, and through a collaborative process with members of the First Nation, a local level constitution was developed specifically for their First Nation. To provide a background on the concepts associated with indigenous philosophy a literature review was conducted. Through the review, the study provided insight on the traditional philosophies of indigenous peoples, and the values they share in common. More specific to the Anishinabe people, the study provided insight on the philosophies that guided their way of life in traditional times. The literature review also provided explanation of research approaches that aboriginal people consider legitimate. From this stance, discussion on the concept of 'knowledge-keeper' was offered. The study also reviewed the historical events that have lead the movement of First Nations governance in Canada. Describing the events that unfolded in the evolution of First Nations governance, the study provided an overview of the historical relationship shared between the indigenous peoples and the colonial governments. As well, the study examined the contemporary options for First Nations self-government in Canada, from the comprehensive perspective to the narrowed view of local governance. The role of leaders in the development of local governance was also discussed. The research process that was conducted in this study evolved through a staged process. The staged process provided description of the study's evolution and provided explanation of the role of participants. Incorporating a collaborative course of action throughout its design, the study enabled members of the First Nation to become directly involved in the research process. By conducting the research from this stance, participants of the study acted not only to protect the integrity of their community, but more significantly, to corroborate the trustworthiness of the research. As a result of the study's findings, a modern-day governance mechanism that the First Nation could utilize was developed. Designed specifically for the First Nation a community-based constitution that illustrated their external political position and provided internal principles for governance at the local level evolved. Therefore, the overall results of the study not only benefited the advancement of academic knowledge but also provided the First Nation with a tangible result that could ultimately advance their struggle for selfdetermination further. Recommendations for further development with the community itself were offered. As well, considerations on how to improve the research practice were cited. In addition, recommendations for further academic research were put forward. Ackley, Kristina L. (2005) ""We are Oneida yet": Discourse in the Oneida land claim." Ph.D. Dissertation, State University of New York at Buffalo. 290 pp. Land claim movements make an important contribution to how Oneidas construct their identities. The idea of an Oneida community is defined and imagined in multiple ways -- as physical, political, social, cultural, and spiritual spaces. Paradoxically, for the Oneida the idea of community has been concurrently based on mobility as well as on a steadfast belief in an aboriginal fixed place. The collective history of activism that is based on securing Oneida title to the aboriginal territory is based on family forces as well as a nascent

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Oneida nationalism. There is a belief in the coherence and possibility of relationships between the three Oneida communities existing as one nation. While it is important not to romanticize this and thereby envision that the Oneida are culturally, spiritually, and politically united, one should not completely discount the centrality of the idea of a unified Oneida Nation. On a basic level, there does exist a sense of nationhood among the communities, a sense of connection and kinship between Oneidas when they meet individually, even if it is sometimes absent in public discourse or if official relations between the communities are adversarial. A number of core principles that shape the framework in which the Oneida land rights have been argued. Consistently, the goal of a reconstituted unified Oneida Nation in the homelands is advocated. The act of defining oneself in terms of a land base that many Oneidas no longer have access to is a complex process in which geography plays a central role. Location also affects the ways the Oneida situate themselves when they argue for the return of land. A sense of traditionalism also frames the debate. Throughout the process, the land claim is placed within a unique sense of the past that is informed by the reality of the present. Thus the land claim exists not only as a focal point of conflict, but also as a nexus of hope -- with dreams of unity and the strengthening of the sovereignty envisioned. The land claim is a way to remain "Oneida yet." Adelson, Naomi. (1992) ""Being alive well": Indigenous belief as opposition among the Whapmagoostui Cree." Ph.D. Dissertation, McGill University. 284 pp. Through an analysis of Cree concepts of well-being, I challenge conventional social scientific definitions of health. In this dissertation I argue that there exists a fundamental biomedical dualism in health studies and, using cross-cultural examples, explore an expanded notion of 'health.' I then introduce the Cree concept of miyupimaatisiiu ('being alive well') and explain that for the Whapmagoostui Cree there is no term that translates back into English as health. I present the core symbols of 'being alive well' and in their analysis find a persistence of traditional meanings. For the Cree 'being alive well' is consonant with 'being Cree', simultaneously transcending the individual and reflecting current political realities. Miyupimaatisiiu for the adult Cree of Whapmagoostui is a strategy of cultural assertion and resistance and hence situated within the realm of political discourses. Agoes, Irid F. (1999) "Indigenous Jakartans and globalization." Ph.D. Dissertation, State University of New York at Buffalo. 186 pp. This thesis examines the impact of economic globalization on Indonesians. To understand the thesis, it is important to know the background of the study. Initially, the study was to interview Indonesian former student activists who fought for the future of Indonesia in 1960s and who have become leaders in the government and business. What was their dream for Indonesia back then and how did they think of the economic globalization now? But I found that they did not think about the impact of economic globalization, except that it had made them rich. The study changed, the objective remained: What is the impact of economic globalization? The new focus was on Orang Betawi, indigenous Jakartans. As I started writing the thesis, economic globalization had a direct impact on me. Without warning and without being actively involved in the global economy, many 'innocent' Asians went bankrupt, because of the 'Asian economic collapse.' The story of the indigenous Jakartans and the story of my life blended. Self-portrayal became part of my ethnography not only because of the self-understanding that came from sharing the experience of Orang Betawi, but also from suffering the same dispossession and impoverishment as they did. The first chapter, The Day Heaven Fell, describes feelings of the writer and of the families who lost their land. The second, Jakarta Catching Up with the World, describes Jakarta's effort to become one of the world's metropolitan metropolises. The third chapter, Jakarta in the Global Outreach, is about Indonesia's infatuation with globalizing values. Chapter four, The Values Within, explores Betawi values. The fifth chapter, When Dreams Become Nightmares describes the disruption results from the economic collapse, the beginning of deeper problems that continue to convulse Jakarta and Indonesia as a whole. This chapter ends with a section called Electronic News, a mosaic of relevant news from the Internet, a collage created through an instrument of globalization and representing the effects of the globalization. The final chapter of this thesis is (In)conclusion, reiterating the problems wrought by globalization as it continues to exist unless we question its existence. Ahokas, Marianne M. (1992) ""As distinct as nature has formed them": Race, class, and nation in the early Republic." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Minnesota. 152 pp. "No nation imagines itself coterminous with mankind," Benedict Anderson has declared. But that was the idealistic implication of the natural rights rhetoric that justified the founding of the United States, the first

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state to consciously authorize its own existence on the basis of universal human nature and human rights. One of the paradoxes of the early national period is the apparent contradiction between that universalist humanist rhetoric and the material facts of life for those who were systematically denied the rights that were being defined as the most basic of human entitlements. How was the exclusion of particular humans from the national project made possible? In this dissertation, I consider how new essentialized identities were being constructed in the last quarter of the 18th century, and the extent to which those identities were made possible by the same discourses that authorized American independence: the political philosophies of natural rights and civic humanism. The public persona that was invented for Phillis Wheatley in the 1770s illuminates how earlier, premodern identities based on innate social rank lingered into the early modern period, but were themselves on the brink of transformation in the late 18th century by the new rhetoric of liberalism -- a transformation that paved the way for the biologized racial identities of the 19th century. In Notes on the State of Virginia, Jefferson rewrites America's aboriginal inhabitants as avatars of democracy, and the New World as the home of man in the state of nature, to respond to, and ultimately discredit, Buffonian environmentalism. In so doing, Jefferson defines the parameters of membership in the American polity, based on a naturalized 'political ethnicity.' In Royal Tyler's 1797 novel The Algerine captive the factionalism of the '90s exposes the vaunted 'human nature' of liberalism and republicanism as shallow, selfinterested, and gullible. So chaotic is the stateside scene that the republican national character can only be rehabilitated and reconstructed overseas, in an Orientalist fantasy-cum-captivity narrative that permits the protagonist to reinvent both himself and his nation, and at the same time to erase slavery as a feature of the republican landscape. Akers, Donna L. (1997) "Living in the land of death: The Choctaw people, 1830-60." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California, Riverside. 317 pp. The history of the Choctaw people in Indian Territory began with their dispossession and exile from the Southeast. In the 1830s, they arrived in their new lands in the future state of Oklahoma. The culture and identity of Choctaw people was intimately connected with the geography of the Mississippi homelands. Deprived of this foundation, Choctaws devised new cultural institutions and relationships to replace those that did not survive. From 1830 to 1860, Choctaws redefined their society and kinship structure to fit the exigencies of their exile. They adapted some institutions and ideals from white society. However, the history of the Choctaw people in these years is not one of progressive assimilation. Choctaws retained many traditional beliefs, institutions, and relationships, demonstrating the persistence of a unique Choctaw culture. Gender roles remained much the same in the new land. Men and women continued to conduct their lives along traditional lines, emphasizing a strong matrilineal heritage. Women retained many traditional legal and political rights unknown to white women of the day. In addition to refuting the assimilation paradigm, this study examines racial and ethnic group relations which helped mold society and political responses and actions between native groups and between Choctaws and whites. Unlike the Euro-American society that surrounded them, Choctaws built a society in which native people were pre-eminent. Choctaws consciously guarded against the encroachment of white society and its institutions and selected a path of isolation from the intrusion of the world market system. They rejected Euro-American political, social, and economic ideals that might weaken Choctaw hegemony. Instead, the Choctaw people tried to insulate themselves from attempts by whites to repeat the dispossession of the 1830s. This study demonstrates that Choctaw recovered from the tumult of the 1820s and 30s, although they paid a huge price in human lives and anguish. They succeeded in forming a new Choctaw identity, society, and economy, that lasted until the United States government abrogated its treaty obligations at the turn of the century. Aks, Judith H. (2000) "Re-evaluating rights at the intersections of power: Indigenous women's legal mobilization in the United States and Canada." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Washington. 241 pp. Indigenous women have great difficulty making political and legal claims. Often the strategies that are available speak only to their indigenous identity or their gender, but not to both simultaneously. This sets up a kind of double bind, when remedies for domination based upon one aspect of one's identity actually entrenches domination based upon another identity facet. This is a study of power, law, and identity, which assumes that legal norms have multiple interpretations, hierarchies are deeply entrenched yet also change over time, and domination and resistance happen simultaneously. Given these theoretical underpinnings, how can indigenous women mobilize the law? This study urges legal scholars to interrogate the problematic of intersectional power, such as the combined effects of race and gender domination. An in-depth comparative analysis of 'marrying out' cases in the US and Canada helps elucidate how

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indigenous women might mobilize the law. These are cases where indigenous women marry men who are not members of their tribe or band. By marrying out of their tribes/bands, these women either lose their 'Indian' status, or are unable to pass such status on to their children. In examining these cases, conflicting legal strategies become apparent, showing that indigenous women have few legal tools that allow them to articulate their unique identities. The analysis of these cases focuses on discourse and considers legal arguments within six discursive frames: (1) individual civil rights; (2) sovereignty rights; (3) membership standards; (4) tradition; (5) jurisdiction; and, (6) economic and material forces. These frames show the plurality of legal tools which serve to further domination over indigenous women, and provide seeds for their future resistance. The study concludes that the impact of indigenous women's legal mobilization should be assessed in terms of the potential for future democratic participation, or new opportunities re-evaluate the meaning of rights. The democratic value of rights discourses lies in the possibility for ascribing new meanings to them. While such ongoing political participation opens up new opportunities for resistance, it is important to note that such opportunities can also work to re-inscribe domination. Therefore, through the lens of intersectional power, legal mobilization becomes an act of simultaneous domination and resistance. al-Khaldi, Mubarak R. (1998) "Other narratives: Representations of history in four postcolonial Native American novels." Ph.D. Dissertation, Ohio State University (The). 204 pp. Ever since its emergence as a mode of critical and cultural analysis, postcolonial theory has been generally marked, as many have indicated, by its avoidance of American culture. This avoidance has been justified by reference to the United States's early independence from England compared with other British colonies, or to its development into an imperialist power, or both. This line of reasoning, however, ignores the fact that the founding of the United States has been made possible through the subjugation and dispossession of the original inhabitants of North America. Given Native Americans' condition of internal colonization in the United States, Native American novels, as a major tributary to Native American literature, are worthy of consideration in postcolonial culture studies. This study proposes to demonstrate the postcolonialism of the Native American novel by analyzing representations of history in four novels: Denton R. Bedford's Tsali (1972), James Welch's Fools crow (1986), Louise Erdrich's Tracks (1988), and Linda Hogan's Mean spirit (1990). Chapter One reviews the definitions of postcolonialism formulated by some of the prominent postcolonial theorists and critics. It synthesizes a working definition for the purpose of this study, and explains the analytic approach adopted in this study. Chapter Two analyzes Bedford's writing of the story of the Cherokee hero, Tsali. Chapter Three deals with the historical and cultural recovery in Welch's Fools crow. Chapter Four analyzes the depiction of the collapse of the Chippewa society in Erdrich's Tracks. Chapter Five examines the portrayal of the effects of the US policy on the Osages in Hogan's Mean spirit. Chapter 6 sums up the points raised in each of the four novels, and concludes that Native American literature must not be overlooked in postcolonial studies. Alderete, Ethel. (1996) "Western development and the health of indigenous peoples. behavioural aspects of cultural change and cultural persistence in the Andes." Dr. P.H. Dissertation, University of California, Berkeley. 290 pp. A case study was conducted in the province of Jujuy, Argentina, to asses the impact that changes in the native belief system and behaviours, fostered by Western models of social and economic development, have on the health and well being of Indigenous Peoples. Indigenous Peoples of the Kolla nation constitute the majority of the population in this province. The research approach integrated ethnographic and statistical methods. The rural and urban ecosystems were constructed as typologies representing the Andean-traditional and Western-modern ways of life respectively. The theoretical model was derived from multidimensional models of disease causation. Culture and acculturation were the dimensions of main interest. Theoretical perspectives from sociopsychological and anthropological disciplines were integrated, as well as contributions from South and North American scholars. Statistical data was indicative of the failure of urban environments to provide healthier living conditions for populations of low SES, compared to the also economically depressed rural settings. Infant mortality, housing sanitation, and health care indicator variables derived from the provincial Primary Health Care Program database, showed that the capital city and its suburban areas have not attained significant improvements, compared to some less urbanized and more rural and traditional areas. Despite scarcity of economic resources and a continuous drainage of human resources, the traditional Andean way of life in the mountainous rural communities of Quebrada and Puna seems to provide a supportive, stable, and cohesive psychosocial environment. Elements consistent with the traditional ways of life, that enhance the ability for achieving improvements in health and well being in

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this area were: traditional social networks, supportive family environments, non conflictive cultural identification and self esteem, and a cohesive integration of individuals to their social and cultural world. On the other hand, conditions of social disintegration and anomie prevail among poor urban neighbourhoods in the capital city of the province of Jujuy. Problem drinking, interpersonal and family violence, lack of motivation and fatalistic attitude were widespread conditions among males. Although a rare finding, problem drinking was encountered among poor urban women. Problem drinking and lack of motivation were common among poor urban adolescents. Although an incipient phenomena, drug use, violence and gang activity are on the rise among urban young boys and girls. Strain factors related to cultural change, identified among the urban poor were: perceived racism and discrimination; acculturative stress induced by racism, by the education system, and by the media; perceived economic inequalities; and the disarticulation of networks of social support. Differential impact was found across gender and age. It is apparent that men are more prone than women to lose motivation, to assume a fatalistic attitude, and to readily engage ill problem behaviours. Both male and female, children and adolescents, suffer compounded effects of acculturation stress. Findings may be indicative that in time, and across generations, women's resiliency well be debilitated as well. Problems related to family and community disintegration such as violence, alcohol abuse, and consumption of drugs, have been shown to be related to health indicators such as infant mortality and birth weight. Therefore, further deterioration of the health status of the urban poor in Jujuy may be expected. Alfred-Smith, Andrea H. (2002) "Reviving Kwak'wala language." M.A. Thesis, Royal Roads University. 112 pp. Alfred, Taiaiake. (1994) "Heeding the voices of our ancestors: Kahnawake Mohawk politics and the rise of native nationalism in Canada." Ph.D. Dissertation, Cornell University. 452 pp. The purpose of this dissertation was to examine the formation of political goals and strategies in North American Indian communities. The particular focus of the research was the resurgence of a set of goals and strategies oriented toward the achievement of a form of Native sovereignty, as opposed to a further integration with Canada or the United States. The Mohawks of Kahnawake were selected as a case study because of their prominence in the assertion of what has been termed Native sovereignty. Initial probes led to the adoption of a theoretical framework based upon theories of nationalism. Inadequate formulations were rejected in favour of a re-conceptualized notion of nationalism appropriate to the Mohawk experience. The data used were collected historical documents and surveys of Mohawk history, previously uncollected government documents, key informant interviews, two small-n sample surveys, and extensive structured observations. A theoretical model for understanding contemporary Native nationalism was put forward. It stated that a Native community's political goals and strategies in the aggregate constitute a form of nationalism characterized by a specific content and intensity which may be gauged along a spectrum ranging from localized to state-power assertions. The model was supported by data from the Kahnawake case. The community's autonomous goals were linked to the Mohawks' alternate set of cultural symbols which have been used to preserve a distinct identity, a traditional political culture leading to the creation of alternate institutions, and interactions with the state which have resulted in the near complete rejection of integrative goals. Ali, Saleem H. (2001) "Environmental resistance and aboriginal development: A comparative study of mining ventures in the United States and Canada." Ph.D. Dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. This dissertation asks the question: why do indigenous communities support environmental causes in certain cases of mining development and not in others, when technical indicators of environmental impact may in fact be comparable? The empirical research question I am trying to address is: When does environmental resistance arise in native communities in the United States and Canada that are faced with the prospect of mining development? Native people in the United States and Canada have endured widespread environmental harm at the behest of mining ventures. During the past two decades, the enactment of environmental laws and the recognition of treaty violations by settler governments have collectively led to a politics of retribution in both countries. However, conflicts surrounding mining development and indigenous people continue to challenge policy-makers on both sides of the border. I use qualitative social science research techniques such as deviant case analysis, process tracing, congruence procedures and counterfactual analysis to study four instances of mining development (cases involving both the prevalence and non-prevalence of environmental resistance in each of the two countries). After using a process of elimination procedure in my initial scoping analysis for the case studies, I test process-oriented hypotheses anchored in theories of negotiation involving social movements and linkage politics. My study reveals that contrary to common belief, neither scientific studies (technical impact) and economic considerations nor

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external influence of civic society adequately explain the emergence or prevalence of resistance. Instead the negotiation process, particularly the way in which issues are linked, strategic alliance formation and the articulation of sovereignty are the key determinants of environmental resistance in aboriginal communities. I conclude with some lessons for both the US and Canada in terms of public policy and negotiation processes that can be most conducive to environmentally responsible and effective planning of mining ventures on or near aboriginal land. Allen, Chadwick. (1997) "Blood as a narrative/Narrative as blood: Constructing indigenous identity in contemporary American Indian and Mäori literatures and politics." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Arizona (The). 457 pp. Following the end of World War II and the formation of the United Nations organization, indigenous minorities who had fought on behalf of First World nations -- including record numbers of New Zealand Mäori and American Indians -- pursued their longstanding efforts to assert cultural and political distinctiveness from dominant settler populations with renewed vigour. In the first decades after the War, New Zealand Mäori and American Indians worked largely within dominant discourses in their efforts to define viable contemporary indigenous identities. But by the late 1960s and early 1970s, both New Zealand and the United States felt the effects of an emerging indigenous 'renaissance', marked by dramatic events of political and cultural activism and by unprecedented literary production. By the mid-1970s, New Zealand Mäori and American Indians were part of an emerging international indigenous rights movement, signalled by the formation and first general assembly of the World Council of Indigenous Peoples (WCIP). In 'Blood as narrative/Narrative as blood' I chronicle these periods of indigenous minority activism and writing and investigate the wide range of tactics developed for asserting indigenous difference in literary and political activist texts produced by the WCIP, New Zealand Mäori, and American Indians. Indigenous minority or 'Fourth World' writers and activists have mobilized and revalued both indigenous and dominant discourses, including the pictographic discourse of plains Indian 'winter counts' in the United States and the ritual discourse of the Mäori marae in New Zealand, as well as the discourse of treaties in both. These writers and activists have also created powerful tropes and emblematic figures for contemporary indigenous identity, including 'blood memory', the ancient child, and the rebuilding of the ancestral house (whare tipuna). My readings of a wide range of poems, short stories, novels, essays, non-fiction works, representations of cultural and political activism, and works of literary, art history, political science, and cultural criticism lead to the development of critical approaches for reading indigenous minority literary and political activist texts that take into account the complex historical and cultural contexts of their production - local, national and, increasingly, global. Allen, Wayne E. (1998) "Sustainable resource economies versus extractive surplus economies in the Canadian SubArctic: A reassessment of Hardin's 'tragedy of the commons'." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California, Santa Barbara. 291 pp. Advances in evolutionary biology have revealed that acts of altruism in most species are in fact genetically selfish. Where it appears an individual is sacrificing itself on behalf of others it is in fact doing so to assist its close genetic kin. These phenomena come under the dual headings of 'inclusive fitness' and 'kin selection.' The 'tragedy of the commons', as formulated by Garrett Hardin, does not take into account the fact that for 99.9% of human evolution the actors utilizing common-property resources were close kin. Extant huntergatherers and our nearest primate relatives, whose systems of social organization are kin based, represent the best scenarios we have for studying territorial and exchange behaviours analogous to those of our hunter-gatherer forebears. In such contexts one might find a solution to the dilemma posed by the tragedy of the commons. Nepotism and kin-directed altruism in the form of resource pooling and sharing, along with concomitant territorial behaviours, evolved through natural selection for the purpose of promoting the inclusive fitness interests of social cohorts who share high coefficients of relatedness. In this way evolution by natural selection created evolutionarily stable systems whereby close kin defend a territory containing common-property resources that they conserve, share and pool. Such a system is broken down when population increases to the point that kinship mechanisms can no longer mediate cooperative exchanges. It is population pressure and increasing exchanges between strangers that create the competitive conditions necessary for Hardin's tragedy of the commons to occur. Data were collected over a 15 month period among Dene Athabascans in the Canadian SubArctic for the purpose of analyzing land tenure, social organization, settlement patterns, subsistence practices, and exchange networks. Data collection methods included participant observation, formal and informal interviews, questionnaires, and surveys. The results revealed that there is indeed a kinship bias in traditional Dene land-use patterns and resource-sharing networks that should be characterized as a risk-minimizing strategy among cooperating kin. These findings bring into

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question many of the rate-maximizing assumptions about human economic behaviour that characterize formal microeconomic theory, as well as Hardin's formulation of the tragedy of the commons. Almaguer, Tomás. (1979) "Class, race, and capitalist development: The social transformation of a southern California county, 1848-1903." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California, Berkeley. 375 pp. This study analyzes Anglo-Mexican relations in California during the last half of the 19th century. This was a period in which California was transformed from a semi-feudal Mexican society to an Anglo-dominated capitalist society. The social transformation that occurred at this time proves the critical context for examining the changing nature of class and race relations established between Anglo Americans and Mexicans. Unlike other studies of Mexicans during this period, this dissertation employs a comparative framework. Anglo-Mexicans relations are examined in light of the experiences of Anglo Americans with other racial minorities. This comparative approach is utilized in both sections of this dissertation. The first section, Chapters One and Two, outline a broad overview of the historical experiences of the Mexican, Native American, Black, Chinese, and Japanese populations in the state from 1848 to 1900. This section argues that important differences existed in the social, political, and economic relations established between these minority groups and Anglo Americans in the state. One overriding feature of the Black, Chinese, and Japanese experiences was the existence of widespread conflict between them and the Anglo-American working class and petit bourgeoisie. Anglo relations with Native Americans during this period is characterized by opposition to the Indian population by the entire Anglo population. Unlike that of other racial minorities, the principal conflict that existed among Mexicans and Anglo Americans was between the dominant classes within each population. The struggle between the Mexican ranchero class and Anglo capitalists for control of land in the state overshadowed the conflict that existed between the Anglo and Mexican working class and petit bourgeoisie. A number of social, political, and economic factors contributed to this unique feature of the Mexican experience in the state. It was only after the turn of the century that white working-class antagonism toward Mexicans reached the same intensity as it had with the Asian populations in the 19th century. The second part of this dissertation, which is the major focus, applies this framework to a case study of the southern California county of Ventura. Anglo-Mexican relations in Ventura County are examined during the period from 1848 to 1900. The case study begins with an analysis of the 'decline' of the Mexican ranchero class in the county. It examines the various legal and extra-legal methods utilized by Anglo-American speculators and developers to gain control of the major ranchos in the area. Attention is given to the way in which Anglo control of local politics facilitated the capitalist transformation of the political economy of Ventura County. The Ventura County case study also details the emergence of capitalist agriculture from 1870 to 1900. This includes a discussion of the subdivision of former rancho estates by new Anglo owners, the transitional development of a small farmer stratum, the shift from extensive to intensive agricultural production, and the expansion of the capitalist labour market during the closing decades of the 19th century. Another key feature of this case study is an examination of the impact that capitalist agricultural production had on the minority population in the country. This study examines the overall pattern of white/non-white placement in the county occupational structure from 1860 to 1900. Special use is made of the federal manuscript census to quantitatively analyze the divergent class positions of the Mexican, Native American, Chinese, Japanese, and Anglo-American populations in the county. Variations in Anglo attitudes toward the employment of the minority population in various sectors of the local economy are also discussed. The case study contains an analysis of the Oxnard Sugar Beet Workers' Strike of 1903. This chapter uses the issues and events surrounding this strike as a vehicle for understanding the nature of class and race relations operant at this time in the county. The Oxnard strike is also used as a basis for comparatively assessing the divergent attitudes of white labour toward Mexicans and other non-white minority groups. The final chapter outlines the salient features of Anglo-Mexican relations discussed in both the overview in part one and the case study that comprises part two. Altman, Heidi M. (2002) "Cherokee fishing: Ethnohistorical, ethnoecological, and ethnographic perspectives." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California, Davis. 202 pp. As a discrete, undocumented semantic domain, Eastern Cherokee language about fishing affords a dynamic context in which to examine (1) the relationships between language, environment and culture; (2) the maintenance and adaptation of traditional ecological knowledge to dramatic local changes; (3) dialectal and idiosyncratic variations of Cherokee language fish names; (4) changes in subsistence practices over time; (5) the parallels and divergences between Cherokee language and English vernacular language about fish; and, (6) discourse about fishing that reveals attitudes about location, tourism and the construction of contemporary Cherokee identity. These aspects of Cherokee language and culture also provide avenues

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through which to document the semantic domain of fishing. In its totality this research provides both documentation -- of names, practices, and native scientific knowledge -- and new perspectives on the processes of language and cultural change. Altman, Jon C. (1982) "Hunter-gatherers and the state: The economic anthropology of the Gunwinggu of north Australia." Ph.D. Dissertation, Australian National University. Alvarez Litben, Silvia G. (1995) "Inter-ethnic relations in the coast of Ecuador: The indigenous condition as a basis for a project of autonomy." Ph.D. Dissertation, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona. 710 pp. The main themes in this dissertation are the inter-ethnic relations that have taken place, since the colonial period until today, in the Santa Elena Peninsula (Ecuador). The analysis takes as a starting point the existing archaeological information on the Manteno-Huancavilca society, which is characterized as a highly complex sociopolitical organization, that occupied a large part of the coastal space, and which extended its longdistance exchange relations as far as Mesoamerica and the Central Andes. Considering the Huancavilcas, as trade intermediaries and indispensable purveyors of goods, especially of Spondylus (Mullu), and information to the Incas, helps to better understand their integration and differentiated social reproduction within the newly established capitalist commercial relations imposed by the colonial system. These ethnic groups, which survived demographic collapse, quickly managed newly introduced concepts: as exchange value, trading, and the accumulation of gain, taking advantage of the opportunities offered by a transient market that communicated and supplied the colonial settlements controlled from distant Lima. Parceled out in Encomiendas, and later concentrated into Reducciones, then into Parcialidades, these indigenous groups began to reconstruct their social organization, and their ethnicity, in a continuous process of ethnogenesis that resisted and opposed the dominant colonial society. During the first 200 years of colonization the 'Goancavilcas' selectively adopted, to their benefit, those cultural components of Spanish society that best served their needs for social reproduction and survival (language, dress, currency, cattle, and legal practice). This 'acculturation' did not result in a loss of their native condition, of their 'authenticity', nor constitute an assimilation into the hegemonic culture, it meant that new resources were appropriated and used, giving them a new meaning that was used in their confrontation with the colonial society. The strategies followed throughout historical time oscillated between collaboration and confrontation, integration and differentiation, adaptation and resistance. Within the Reducciones the indigenous productive system demonstrated being capable of generating commercial excedents that allowed them to pay tribute, and to obtain a high level of liquidity that was invested in the acquisition of new land holdings. From the 18th to the 19th century, in the Sant Elena Peninsula area large tracts of land were bought and registered in favour of the 'Comun de Indios' until they conformed 'large indigenous communities' that were maintained until the 'Ley de Organizacion y Regimen de Comunas' was expedited by the Ecuadorian government in 1937. This new 'comunidad', distinct from the original, found its strength in the occupation of a common space, differentiated from the Spanish colonial space. Ethnic space became the pivot around which ethnic identity was constantly rebuilt. Since 1937, the large territories were broken up into 62 communes that manage the 5,000 sq. km. of collective property. Alwyn, Eleanor. (2004) "Traditions in a colonized world: Two realities of a First Nation." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Toronto. 268 pp. Set on the rugged south shore of the Island of Newfoundland against a backdrop of ongoing colonial oppression by church and state and despite all odds, Miawpukek First Nation at Conne River, NF, is the only Mi'kmaq Band in the province to achieve federal Status. In less than 20 years, the Chief and Band Council have taken community life from subsistence level to a place where every member is engaged in work and living conditions that are typically mainstream Canadian. This critical ethnography traces their Mi'kmaq historical roots in New Brunswick and Nova Scotia and provides a history of more than a century of life from the perspectives of the People. This researcher spent more than a year living in the community and participating in ongoing daily activities, special celebrations and sacred ceremonies. It became profoundly evident that Miawpukek First Nation is, as are most First Nations peoples, caught between two worlds: the Eurocentric world of surviving in the 21st century and their traditional culture which is based on a spiritual relationship with the land. The question is posited about whether Canada's religious freedoms are being denied as aboriginal peoples' lands are systematically usurped. Although the nature of housing, education and livelihood has changed for Miawpukek First Nation, there is a spiritual crisis -- as evidenced by ongoing alcoholism, abuse, and suicide. Most have lost a traditional understanding of how their universe works and their place in it. However, there

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is increasing interest among some community members to regain traditional knowledge, language and practices in order to encourage sacred values. To further this endeavour this dissertation includes a brief outline of some traditional philosophy and practices and a listing of plant and animal medicines. A discussion of healing, religion, and traditional understandings which are based on principles of balance and relationships rather than universal laws has important implications for virtually all First Nations peoples. Efforts to achieve healthy individuals in healthy communities can incorporate, but must go beyond, the 1986 Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion which does not consider the unique cosmology and needs of Canada's aboriginal peoples. Anders, Gary C. (1978) "Dependence and underdevelopment: The political economy of Cherokee Native Americans." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Notre Dame. 209 pp. Andersen, Christian. (2005) "Courting colonialism? The juridical construction and political aftermath of Metis rights in R. v. Powley." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Alberta. 351 pp. This dissertation is the culmination two goals. The primary goal centred on an investigation of juridical constructions of Métis Aboriginality through an examination of the court files of a recently decided Aboriginal rights case, R. v. Powley. Analyzing factums, expert reports, testimony and the court decisions at both the Court of Appeal for Ontario and the Supreme Court of Canada, I investigated how legal actors positioned Métis Aboriginality in light of their (apparent) 'mixed bloodedness'. Using insights harnessed from various bodies of critical legal theory and Pierre Bourdieu's concept of social fields, I analyzed the various discursive constructions of Métis Aboriginality with respect to the purpose, meaning, proper chronology and role of 'blood quantum' in its inclusion in section 35 of the Constitution Act, 1982. In doing so, the dissertation demonstrates the persistence in contemporary Canadian jurisprudence of racist discourses of racial and cultural purity which originally anchored nineteenth century Canadian constructions of Aboriginality. Although Métis were finally ordained as 'fully Aboriginal' at the Supreme Court of Canada, Aboriginality was itself still positioned as a historical, pre-colonial phenomenon. This is discouraging for Native communities formed after (and in reaction to) the colonizing projects of the Canadian state, since they fall outside the protective ambit of section 35 Aboriginal rights. The secondary goal, pursued more briefly, consists of positioning 'Law' as an antagonistic and fissured set of social fields to demonstrate the shortcomings of attempts to understand 'Law' as constitutive. That is to say, this research demonstrates how different fields of 'Law' compete with each other in a hierarchical playing field such that court victories can be used by Métis political organizations at the expense of other areas of 'Law'. This fracturing necessitates an analytical movement away from understanding 'Law' as a single entity to an analytical lens which attempts to understand the tensions and antagonisms involved in the reproduction of 'Law'. Although the smoke has yet to sufficiently clear from the Powley decision, the fact that at present we fail to hold a clear understanding of the court case's effects should give pause to theorists who seek to imbue 'Law' with a constitutive power it neither possesses nor deserves. Anderson, Carolyn R. (1997) "Dakota identity in Minnesota, 1820-1995." Ph.D. Dissertation, Indiana University. 557 pp. This ethnohistorical and ethnographic study of Dakota identity in Minnesota examines the dialectical relationship between Euro-American cultural constructions of the Indian and Dakota conceptions of themselves as a people. This study eschews ethnicity models, employing Foucault's 'knowledge/power' and Bourdieu's 'symbolic domination' approaches. From 1820 to 1851 the Dakota lost their status as producers in the fur trade and negotiated a series of treaties with the United States. Placed on a reservation, the Dakota rebelled in 1862, and were subsequently removed from Minnesota. Ultimately resettled at Santee, Nebraska, individual Dakotas left there and returned to Minnesota, a group of them rebuilding a community at Prairie Island. Their efforts to establish a land base, make a living, maintain independence, practice Dakota values, and express identity are explored. Late 20th century issues include casino gaming, entitlement and enrolment, factionalism, and opposition to nuclear waste storage near the community. Dakota identity changed from a kinship network of individuals for whom 'being Dakota' meant enacting Dakota values in individual practice to a multi-layered, situational system of identity that is primarily ideational. Resistance to the dominant society evolved into an ideology of opposition based on supratribal consciousness, while the political and economic functions of the tribe took precedence over a practice of peoplehood. Anderson, Jon C. (1984) "The political and economic basis of Kuku-Yalanji social history ." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Queensland.

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Anderson, Karen L. (1982 ) "Huron women and Huron men: The effects of demography, kinship and the social division of labour." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Toronto. Many contemporary theorists concerned with the nature of male/female relations in non-capitalist societies continue to ask the same questions Engels raised a century ago in Origins of the family, private property and the state (1884). Is an egalitarian status possible for women? On what basis can we explain the relative statuses of men and women? What brings about a decline in women's status relative to that of men? But if there is accord over the questions to be asked, there is discord over the answers given. Nowhere is the disagreement more evident than over whether women's status is best explained in terms of their roles as producers or as reproducers. This thesis addresses that debate through an examination of the 17th century Huron. The Huron are a particularly good case to which we can address questions concerning male/female relations in non-capitalist societies. Huron women occupied an extraordinarily undominated position relative to that of men. More importantly, that status did not decline after the introduction of the fur trade. This thesis proposes that the key to understanding male/female relations among the Huron lies in tracing out the connections between demography, the social division of labour, and kinship as social relations of production. By contrast, explanations that concentrate solely on women's role as producers or as reproducers are unsatisfactory. What is called for instead is an examination of the social division of labour as the basis on which society is partitioned into the categories male and female and an examination of kin relations as social relations of production which function to combine men and women into viable units of production, consumption and reproduction. Finally, the question 'under what conditions does the status of women decline relative to that of men?' is asked. This thesis argues that the link between the social division of labour and kinship as social relations of production must be destroyed. Women are open to domination by men when they no longer have direct access to the means of production or the product of social labour in their own right but gain that access only through a relation to some property holder (often their husbands or fathers). Anderson, Robert B. (1997) "Economic development among First Nations: A contingency perspective." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Saskatchewan (The). 299 pp. This dissertation explores the economic development objectives, strategies, and activities of the First Nations in Canada with three objectives: (i) to identify the approach to development among First Nations; (ii) to develop a theoretical perspective capable of providing insight into this approach; and, (iii) to investigate the activities of the First Nations in Saskatchewan to determine if they are consistent with the expected characteristics of the First Nations' approach to development and the proposed theoretical perspective. To address the first objective, a wide range of sources are reviewed to determine First Nations development objectives and strategies. Based on this review, the First Nations' development approach emphasizes the creation of profitable businesses competing in the global economy. These businesses are usually collectively owned and often involve partnerships with non-First Nation corporations. A review of development theory follows to accomplish the second objective. Both the orthodox and radical perspectives are rejected. Instead, a 'contingency perspective' based on regulation theory, the postimperial perspective and alternative/indigenous development approaches, is developed. To address the third objective, research was conducted in three parts: (i) an investigation of the economic development activities of the 70 Saskatchewan First Nations; (ii) a study of the approach of non-First Nations companies to business alliances with First Nations; and, (iii) a case study of the development activities of the Meadow Lake Tribal Council. Based on the first and third parts of this research, 69% of First Nations businesses are owned by First Nations alone or First Nations in joint venture with non-First Nations businesses. These businesses account for 89% of the total estimated annual revenue of all First Nation businesses. Only 24% of First Nations businesses target the local market, the rest compete in broader regional, national and international markets. Part two of the research shows that a growing number of non-First Nations corporations are adopting a strategy of business alliances with aboriginal people. Five factors motivate this corporate behaviour: (i) a shift in the global competitive environment from a Fordist to a flexible regime of accumulation; (ii) society's changing expectations about what constitutes socially responsible corporate behaviour; (iii) legal and regulatory requirements and restrictions; (iv) the growing aboriginal population, and its increasing affluence and level of education; and, (v) the rapidly growing pool of natural and financial resources under the control of aboriginal people. These results confirm the eight characteristics of the First Nations' approach to economic development and are consistent with the proposed contingency perspective. Andolina, Robert J. (1999) "Colonial legacies and plurinational imaginaries: Indigenous movement politics in Ecuador and Bolivia." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Minnesota. 385 pp.

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This dissertation asserts that ideology is a key element for understanding both the action and impact of social movements. It examines the formation, behaviour, and consequences of contemporary national indigenous peoples' movements in Ecuador and Bolivia. Most treatments of social movements see ideology as a glue and mobilizing force behind social movements. This dissertation goes further in arguing that ideology is constitutive of the movement itself and consists of both strategies and identities, in turn shaping movement emergence and evolution. While most theories and concepts of social movements are grounded in first world contexts or derived from theories grounded in those contexts, this thesis calls for analytically situating 'third world' indigenous movements and social movements within colonial and global relations of power as well as national political contexts. As I demonstrate in this thesis, contemporary Andean indigenous movement ideology is founded on contesting (neo)colonial political practices and ideologies. On the basis of this ideology, indigenous movements communicatively engage other political actors, such as labour unions, nongovernmental organizations, political parties, or the state. Moving away from the traditional focus on protests, lobbying, boycotts, and armed struggle as the most important social movement tactics, I find that indigenous movements use these 'traditional tactics' to carry out what I call an 'authorization politics' that challenges the legitimacy of the political regime, redefines the bases of its political alliances, and convenes a broad audience around indigenous peoples' demands and political platforms, packaged as the construction of a 'plurinational state.' In doing so, indigenous movements in contemporary Ecuador and Bolivia have moved indigenous peoples from being a completely marginalized sector to one whose members, such as Victor Hugo Cardenas and Nina Pacari, are being elected to the highest political offices of each country. Substantively, indigenous movements have reshaped political agendas, reconstituted social identities, and redefined the principles on which legitimate state rule is based in Ecuador and Bolivia. Andrade, Carlos L. (2001 ) "Ha'ena, ahupua'a: Towards a Hawai'ian geography." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Hawai'i. 322 pp. This dissertation is a journey of exploration. It is an exploration that will attempt to accomplish three objectives. The overarching objective is to contribute to the construction of a Hawai'ian geography (as opposed to a geography of Hawai'i). The purpose of the exploration is to search for elements and ways of thinking that might be useful in understanding the foundation upon which the aboriginal people of Hawai'i constructed the relationships that they had with the world in which they lived. The second objective concerns the concept of ahupua'a developed by the aboriginal people in the process of dealing with the practical issues of survival that confront all people who inhabit different portions of the earth. The issues of who gets what, when, where, and how. The concept of ahupua'a will be used in order to better focus our exploration towards a Hawai'ian geography. The exploration will be done as much as possible through the eyes and life experiences of the aboriginal people as it is expressed in the place names, oral history, language, and everyday practices that have been and still continue to be attached to the land. In grounding this exploration in the real world, a single ahupua'a will be the selected. Examples of aboriginal experiences as they transpired in Ha'ena, an ahupua'a located in the north-western portion of Kaua'i Island, will be the examples used to illustrate the points being made in the discussion. This dissertation is an exploration. It is not presented as a definitive study or a treatise on an all encompassing Hawai'ian geography. Rather, it is a voyage, perhaps in the style of the early navigators and wayfinders, and certainly in the genre of many Hawai'ian mele. It is an excursion to visit an ancient place, to see it through older eyes, and a different language. A journey to a place where people are connected by genealogy, spirituality, identity, and aloha 'aina to the world in which they live. Andres, Brian S. (2002) "A qualitative phenomenological analysis of the critical incidents in the Native Hawai'ian peacemaking process of "ho'oponopono"." Psy.D. Dissertation, Wright Institute (The). 122 pp. "To set right" and "conflict resolution" are the most widely used and accepted general meanings attributed to the indigenous Native Hawai'ian process called "Ho’oponopono". Ho’oponopono has been used to restore interpersonal relationships in Hawai'i for several centuries. Ho’oponopono is often noted as an intervention to regain the homeostatic balance in families, groups, communities as well as the individual. The psychological phenomenological methodology approach was used to analyze the subject haku (Ho’oponopono facilitators/leaders) participants perspectives of their world and ho’oponopono process. The study attempts to investigate the content and structure of the participants' consciousness, diversity of life experiences, and to further analyze their essential meanings. Participants in the study have gone through the ho’oponopono process in the study. The critical incidents of the hakus are analyzed in the following categories: family mediation, forgiveness and reconciliation. Past research on ho’oponopono note the importance of the haku 's mental, emotional, and spiritual preparation

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and appropriateness are important aspects of the process. Also Native Hawai'ian spiritual and cultural values most often noted are pono (balance), ohana (family), and lokahi (unity) from this study and past research in this area. The investigator found the common theme of harmonious balance in the individual, family, and community was often emphasized by all haku . The implications for use of ho’oponopono as a family and/or group intervention with people of Hawai'ian as well as other cultural groups is discussed. Angom, Georgia E. (1998) "Diversity in the Canadian public sector: Understanding the factors that inhibit inclusion." M.P.A. Thesis, University of Manitoba (The). 147 pp. In recent years, Canada has experienced more demographic changes than ever before. This is due to the influx of people from diverse origins. This demographic mix means that the provision of services should be such that it meets the needs of a diverse population. In addition, the huge influx of women into the workforce raises their expectations about their participation in the labour force. Disabled persons are becoming more visible in the larger society as well as in the labour force. Aboriginal peoples are demanding for their rights, and for recognitions. The public service, as the main provider of essential services to Canadians, is faced with the task of providing these services to citizens and involving citizens in the provisions of services. One of the concerns in Canadian society is that the public service workforce does not reflect the make up of society. This, in turn suggests that diverse needs might not be given appropriate consideration, in policy and administrative terms. A guiding theme that runs through the paper is the need to strengthen and sharpen the legal and political commitment to the pursuit of greater equality of opportunity for employment in the public service for all Canadians regardless of origin or physical abilities. There is need to link policy to transformation in political attitudes and action. Arato-Bollivar, Juliette. (2004) "In their own words. Exploring survival factors in suicidal Aboriginal youth: A critical incident study." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of British Columbia (The). 116 pp. This study explores the survival factors that suicidal Aboriginal Youth used to keep themselves alive. The purpose of this study was to develop categories that would identify themes in the events reported by Aboriginal individuals, by exploring the research question: "What are the critical incidents contributing to survival in suicidal aboriginal youth?" The research method involved interviews with 20 adult (18 and over) Aboriginal volunteers (all residents of British Columbia) who possessed the ability to articulate, identify and discuss their stories of survival. The Critical Incident Technique (Flanagan, 1954) was utilized to elicit 254 incidents from 20 participants. 14 categories were created from the analysis of all events reported. Thorough validation techniques were applied in order to test the soundness and comprehensiveness of the categories. In addition, efforts were made to examine fit with the literature of the categories and expert commentary concerning the results was provided. The categories reflected that survival factors included: Responsibility to Others, Connection to/Love of Family, Professional Support, Support of Non family/Non Professional Individuals, Cognitive Shift/Change in Thinking, Avoiding a Negative Environment, Formal Education, Connection to Cultural Heritage, Getting Sober, Normalizing One's Difficult Experiences/Learning You Are Not Alone, Spirituality, Connection to Nature, Self Acceptance/Love/Care, and Sense of Purpose/Making a Difference. In addition, gender differences were examined and, through incidental commentary of the participants, factors hindering survival were identified. The findings of this study contribute to the field of counselling psychology by providing a scheme of categories that attempt to describe, from the perspective of Aboriginal people, what has aided them in surviving suicidal thoughts, actions and behaviours, in their youth. This research suggests promising developments in Aboriginal survival and contains implications for practice and research. Archibald, Samantha L. (1996) "Contested heritage: An analysis of the discourse on The Spirit Sings." M.A. Thesis, University of Lethbridge. 348 pp. This thesis contributes to the knowledge of museology, anthropology and Native American studies. It is an analysis of the discourse that surrounded The Spirit Sings: Artistic Traditions of Canada's First Peoples, an exhibition prepared by the Glenbow in Calgary as the 'flagship' of the Olympic Arts Festival in 1988. After the Lubicon Indians of northern Alberta called for a boycott of The Spirit Sings, in attempt to draw critical attention to their long outstanding lands claim, a large and heated debate ensued involving several disciplines, particularly anthropology and museology. Much of this debate took place in the print media, therefore a large body of material remains to be reviewed and studied. The intent of this thesis is to illustrate that the issue of museological representation of First Nations was one of the most central themes discussed in the discourse, but to argue that the major players dealt with this issue on only the most concrete level and

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therefore largely neglected to recognize that the issue of First Nation's representation was not just a concern over museum interpretation but more importantly an issue of the contested authenticity of national and cultural claims. Armstrong, Janet M. (2001) "A political economy of native marginalization: A study of the appropriation of aboriginal water rights. The case of the Mishkeegogamang First Nation." Ph.D. Dissertation, Queen's University at Kingston. 277 pp. This study is a historical political economy of native marginalization. The analysis focuses upon aboriginal water rights in the case of the Mishkeegogamang First Nation. The appropriation of water rights has played a major factor in the marginalization of this community. Traditionally, the debate about native marginalization has been dominated by legal and administrative approaches. This study moves beyond these approaches by looking at issues of class formation, primary accumulation, and the role of the state and the law. In one instance this is a case study about water rights. However, it is hoped that this case study will also add insights to the broader theoretical debate on native marginalization. The Mishkeegogamang live at Osnaburgh, in north-western Ontario. Their reserve, known as I.R. 63A and I.R. 63 B is located at the headwaters of the Albany River on Lake St. Joseph. The Mishkeegogamang, in times past, fished from the waters of Lake St. Joseph, the Albany River, and the surrounding lakes for subsistence and trade. In 1905, the Mislikeegogamang became signatories to Treaty No. 9, known as the James Bay Treaty. The Treaty Commissioners assured the community that they would be able to continue to hunt, trap and fish as their ancestors had done. However, just 30 years later, Ontario Hydro constructed a dam at Osnaburgh that caused serious flooding. The flooding damaged the fishery and altered the shoreline of the reserve. In the 1950s, when the generating station was no longer required, Ontario Hydro diverted the waters of Lake St. Joseph into Lac Seul causing fluctuating water levels. It is argued that the Treaty, and subsequent acts of expropriation can best be understood as examples of primary accumulation. It is also demonstrated that the law was simply ignored by the state for the sake of expediency. Crown appropriation of the aboriginal fishery also contributed to the marginalization of the Mishkeegogamang. Beginning in the 1930s, non-aboriginal people began to obtain commercial licenses for Lake St. Joseph. The fishers of Mishkeegogamang became primary producers for local fish dealers who profited from the resource. It is demonstrated that the appropriation of the fishery is also an instance of primary accumulation. The liberal ideology of equality in the marketplace was used to justify this appropriation. Because this study attempts to move beyond existing legal and administrative approaches to native marginalization, non-governmental sources are used wherever possible. The most important of these sources is the oral history gathered during visits to the community in 1996 and 1998. Arndt, Leah M. R. (2004) "Soul wound, warrior spirit: Exploring the vocational choice of American Indian law enforcement officers working for non-tribal agencies." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Wisconsin -Madison (The). 120 pp. This study explored the role and function of vocational choice for American Indian (AI) law enforcement officers. Extended Case Method (Burawoy, 1991) was used to examine complex patterns of coping, over time, with intergenerational and historical trauma, or soul wound (Duran, 1990; Duran and Duran, 1995; Duran et al., 1998). Specifically, the study sought to identify how vocation might serve to either facilitate or hinder healing of soul wound, and how this choice may be reflective of traditional warrior traditions, and thus a culturally congruent vehicle of healing available to AIs in largely non-AI settings. Results indicated that participants saw their law enforcement roles as congruent with traditional warrior roles, particularly the roles of minister and mentor to the people, and that this worldview held spiritual meaning. Proximity of large scale, intergenerational soul wound events affecting AI cultural transmission was associated with being more likely to identify with the traditional warrior roles of protector (soldier), punisher, and dispenser of justice, and a lower value being placed on spirituality in relationship to vocation. The present study has implications for expanding vocational and ethno-cultural theories in the field of psychology, and for reworking theoretical and methodological traditions for research on AIs, traumatized populations, culture/ethnicity, and vocational choice. Limits and implications are presented in the discussion section. Arnold, Brent J. (1999) "Principled compromise or compromised principles? Aboriginal land claims and the problem of liberal property." M.A. Thesis, Queen's University at Kingston. 104 pp. This thesis examines the nature of Canadian aboriginal conceptions of property as they have been articulated in the period which began with the federal government's infamous White Paper of 1969 and continues to the present day. It is argued that there is a common and identifiable pan-aboriginal notion of property in the

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writings by and about aboriginals of this period which is fundamentally incompatible with western liberal notions of property. The improbability that such a commonality should exist, and the issues which spring from the fact that it does, are also discussed. Despite this incompatibility, both conceptions are currently being combined within the same institutions as the relationship of aboriginals to the Canadian state is renegotiated. How such a seemingly impossible combination has become acceptable to those involved is the primary focus of this thesis. The characteristics of aboriginal and western property are delineated and contrasted. Each is then placed in the context of the general worldview from which it arises, demonstrating that competing notions of property are part of whole systems of belief and understanding which, if taken as seriously as they are offered in the texts which explain them, must be seen as irreconcilable. This irreconcilability is further illustrated through a critique of pluralist models of political organization from the standpoint that such models can succeed only by understating the essential difference between aboriginal and non-aboriginal understandings. The fact that apparently irreconcilable notions are being combined in new institutional arrangements is explained by examining the context of the combination. The power relations which determine the nature of the struggle for aboriginal empowerment, which is to say, the gross power imbalances between aboriginal peoples and the various branches of the non-aboriginal Canadian state are shown to necessitate, shape, and circumscribe the discourse of aboriginal property. The result is a discourse which appears intractable in theory and unrealizable in practice. The result is a discourse which appears intractable in theory and unrealizable in practice. The study concludes with comments on the current struggle, and about the nature of discourse in general. Atkinson, Judy. (2000) "Lifting the blankets: The transgenerational effects of trauma in indigenous Australia." Ph.D. Dissertation, Queensland University of Technology. The two specific aims of the fieldwork were to understand: (a) the phenomena of violence in the lives of a group of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people (the later by invitation of the Aboriginal people), living within a central coastal region of Queensland; and, (b) cultural and individual processes of recovery or healing from violence related trauma. More specifically the questions that guided the field studies were: -- What is the experience of violence? -- How do experiences of violence contribute to experiences/behaviours that influence situations of inter-and transgenerational trauma? -- What assists change or healing in such behaviours? -- What is healing and how do people heal? -- What cultural tools promote change or healing, and how can these be supported to promote individual, family and community well-being? Through the literature review the thesis considers cultural processes Aboriginal peoples previously used to deal with the trauma of natural disaster or man induced conflict. The literature review is then used to consider the impacts of trauma on the lives of people generally. Finally the literature make links to locate the violence of contemporary Aboriginal communal environment to levels of trauma transmitted across generations from colonising processes. The thesis is based on evolving Indigenous research methodological approaches, as it uses an Aboriginal listening/learning process called dadirri which is described as a cyclic process of listening and observing, reflecting and learning, acting and evaluating, re-listening and re-learning, and acting with insight and responsibility both in the field and with integrity and fidelity within the dissertation. The thesis demonstrates dadirri in Chapter Four as it allows the voices of six participants to tell their stories of trauma and of healing in meaningful painful conversation with each other. These six participants represent some of the six hundred people who participated in the fieldwork over the years of the study. It is from this conversation that the data for the explication of the trauma experience and the healing processes has been drawn. Chapter Five of the thesis is the explication of the trauma experience. In this chapter links are made between the violence experience, thoughts and feelings and resulting behaviour; feelings of inadequacy as a result of childhood experiences; victim perpetrator survivor roles in family and community violence; the relationships between alcohol and drugs to trauma; suicidal behaviours as a result of trauma; the fractured self, and finally the transgenerational effects of trauma. Chapter Six is the explication of the healing processes as they were narrated by the participants. Healing was defined by participants as educating them selves about who they are. The themes on healing that emerged in chapter Four are: healing as an awakening to inner (unmet) needs; healing as an experience of safety;

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healing as community support; rebuilding a sense of family and community in healing; healing as an everdeepening self-knowledge; the use of ceremony in healing; strengthening cultural and spiritual identity in healing; healing as transformation, and transcendence and integration in healing. Chapter Seven presents a synthesis and integration of the material and a model proposed for understanding trauma and healing from an Aboriginal perspective. The thesis is an exploratory study. The findings and conclusions will be of use in the development and delivery of programs for community action in primary prevention and critical intervention in family violence, alcohol and drug programs, social and emotional well-being programs and crime prevention strategies. The thesis could be used as a foundation for future studies into violence and into healing within Aboriginal situations within Australia. Auger, Josephine C. (1999) "Walking through fire and surviving: Resiliency among aboriginal peoples with diabetes." M.Sc. Thesis, University of Alberta. 105 pp. The purpose of the evaluation of the Aboriginal Diabetes Wellness Program (ADWP) in Edmonton is to determine whether or not individuals attending the ADWP are healthier as a result of the services that the program provides. The research is quantitative based. A limitation of the study is that it does not include qualitative data to assess what causes some people to improve their health and others not. This thesis utilized explanatory models as a guide to interview a total of 12 aboriginal peoples with diabetes, their family members, and a health care professional from the ADWP to understand the lived experience of Aboriginal peoples with diabetes. The aboriginal peoples were of Cree, Ojibway, and Métis heritage. In addition to the 12 explanatory models, a focus group with staff members and two semi-structured interviews with an elder and cultural helper were obtained. There was a broad range of explanatory models due to the age, gender, and geographic location of the people interviewed. 12 themes were extrapolated, including causes of type 2 diabetes, impact of prior knowledge about diabetes, levels of exercise, the consumption of fatty foods, support systems, care-giving, native spirituality, humour, residential school experience, alcohol consumption, socioeconomic status, grieving and fears related to complications. These results reflect the experience of resiliency among aboriginal peoples living with diabetes. This research complements an evaluation of the Aboriginal Diabetes Wellness Program that was outcome based. Augsburger, Deborah. (2004) "Language socialization and shift in an Isthmus Zapotec community of Mexico." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania. 361 pp. The history of indigenous languages in Mexico has been one largely of gradual displacement by Spanish; nevertheless many communities persist in using their ancestral languages despite widespread ideological forces favoring the national language, Spanish. Increasingly, this resistance is supported in some communities by countervailing ideologies linked with cultural revitalization efforts. The present research explores such a case among the Isthmus Zapotec of Oaxaca. The study has two broad theoretical aims. First, it examines the roots and development of the ideological forces in favour of indigenous languages. Why have these countervailing forces arisen in this community, how are they sustained and developed? Here the focus is on the extraordinary long-term culture-historical persistence of pro-Zapotec attitudes among the local population and the rise in the twentieth century of several intellectual and political movements supporting the maintenance of Zapotec. Second, the study explores the interplay of competing practices and ideologies in order to identify the crucial dynamics affecting long-term language maintenance in such a case. Here the research emphasizes the key role played by the intergenerational socialization context. On first glance, in the Isthmus Zapotec case there seem to be important contradictions between the expressed ideological support for Zapotec and everyday practices that support language shift. The apparent contradiction stems from the way the various practical and ideological pressures come together in the socialization context. On the one hand, parents attempt to reconcile the competing ideological pressures by sequencing the acquisition of the two languages so as to produce eventual bilingualism; on the other hand, the practical realities of the family and the community keep this strategy from producing the expected results and in present form ultimately cannot deflect the steady pressure towards Spanish. As a result, parental strategies designed to promote bilingualism are contributing to the unintended consequence of language shift. Efforts to promote the longterm maintenance of Zapotec and other similarly situated indigenous languages will have to attend to this language socialization dynamic. Augustine, Stephen J. (1999) "A culturally relevant education for aboriginal youth: Is there room for a middle ground, accommodating traditional knowledge and mainstream education?" M.A. Thesis, Carleton University. 106 pp.

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This thesis aims to show how a culturally relevant education can play a significant role in making learning interesting and meaningful, and therefore be a key factor in having more aboriginal students stay in school. The goal is to propose a new approach to education that would combine traditional knowledge, values and ways of learning with academic curricula in the modern context. The middle ground approach proposed here searches for a learning environment that would combine mainstream educational subjects with traditional knowledge components and would also accommodate teaching and learning styles that would stimulate young students' abilities and creativity. These teaching methods would have a more holistic approach to learning, community circles, encompass family involvement, and artistic means of expression. This thesis explores the reasons and the roots of the extremely high incidence of drop-out rates among aboriginal students in North America, with a particular focus on the Mi'kmaq experience. In the Mi'kmaq Creation Story, there exists a foundation of knowledge based on the holistic nature of relationships which are expressed more especially between the people, the land and their environment. The thesis includes an historical analysis; a comparison between the aboriginal traditional concepts of education and the European assimilative approach; a review of contemporary policies for education of aboriginal peoples; a presentation of Traditional Aboriginal Knowledge with a focus on Mi'kmaq knowledge; a case study of the Big Cove First Nation; and finally a literature review on major aboriginal educational theorists and thinkers whose works will help support the conclusions of this research. Austin, A. Aukahi. (2004 ) "Native Hawai'ian risky behaviour: The role of individual, social, and cultural factors in predicting substance use and violence." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Hawai'i. 169 pp. This study examined alcohol use, drug use, and violence experience among Native Hawai'ians living in four communities using both qualitative and quantitative methods to understand the factors that predict these behaviours. The methods employed were designed to be culturally appropriate to the communities being surveyed in terms of the recruitment and engagement strategies employed, an equal representation of both problem behaviours and well being in the instruments that were used, and the use of Hawai'ian thought in interpreting results. Qualitative data derived from focus group sessions in each community centred around themes such as community-specific strengths and weaknesses, typical substance use and violence patterns, and the role of Hawai'ian identity and culture in definitions of health. Quantitative data on demographic characteristics, alcohol and substance use practices, and violence were collected from 405 Native Hawai'ians living in four geographically and economically diverse communities including Hilo, Hawai'i, Papakölea, O'ahu, Waimänalo, O'ahu, and Phoenix, Arizona. The representativeness of the survey sample was examined using Census 2000 data for each of the areas sampled. In addition, a smaller subset of the sample participated in test-retest reliability and cross-informant reliability analyses. The instrument was found to be reliable across time and reporters. By community analyses suggested that the groups were overall more similar than different in their substance use and experience with violence. Hierarchical regression analyses using gender, religious practice, network density of use, age at first use, reasons for use, and negative thoughts about use predicted 19.5% of the variance in 30-day alcohol use and 25.2% of the variance in 30-day binge drinking. 17% of the variance in 30-day marijuana use was explained by age, income, network density of use, age at first use, and negative thoughts about use. Network density witnessing, perpetrating, and being a victim of violence explained between 15.8 and 57.8% of the variance in 30-day experience of these same behaviours. Although depression, hopelessness, and own-group ethnic identity were tested, they were not significant predictors of substance use or violence experience in this study. Avery, Quinn. (1997) "Student absenteeism: An American Indian/Native American community perspective." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Arizona (The). 145 pp. Boloz and Lincoln (1983) conducted an intervention study concerning Native American student absences in the public schools in a rural setting. There is little known about Native American student absences in the public school in metropolitan areas. To address this issue, a qualitative study was conducted with the community members from an American Indian community in a metropolitan area. This community was chosen as a result of a pilot study that indicated there may be reasons for student absences not previously identified. The present research (a) documented the parents' and community members' understanding of student absenteeism in an American Indian community; (b) explored parents' and community members' values regarding school attendance in light of the values in the American Indian community; (c) examined the local district policy regarding absenteeism; (d) explored the congruence/incongruence of the local

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district policy with the family values in the American Indian community; and, (e) explored collaborative problem solving directions the school district and community could consider. 19 people were interviewed. All had different positions within the community, including tribal administration, school personnel, parents and relatives of school children. Many interviewees functioned in more than one capacity such as tribal administrator and parent. Individual interviews and focus group sessions were analyzed using themes and categorical analysis to discern the community attitudes toward student absenteeism in the public schools. The study revealed that community members all valued education and school attendance. There were differences among people regarding their understanding of excused or unexcused absences. Parents and community members defined what they felt were responsibilities for themselves, school personnel, and tribal administration. School district policy defined student absences by using a coding system, yet parents and community members defined student absences in terms of family needs not district policy (e.g., there were many interpretations of what constituted illness). Parents and community members preferred to deal with school personnel on an individual basis although they expressed discomfort entering the schools. Several recommendations were made, based on parent and community member comments, for further dialogue among the parents, tribal administration, community members, school personnel, and district administration. Neither the American Indian community nor the school district were identified in this study to maintain anonymity for the American Indian people involved. Avison, Shannon M. (1996 ) "Aboriginal newspapers: Their contribution to the emergence of an alternative public sphere in Canada." M.A. Thesis, Concordia University. 225 pp. This thesis explores the contribution of the regional Indian, Métis and Inuit newspapers to the development of an alternative political public sphere for aboriginal peoples in Canada. It argues that although the development of the newspapers was an important aspect of the political and cultural development, these newspapers were, to use Habermas' terminology, 'feudalized' by the political organizations that created them, the Canadian state that funded them and the marketplace that determines their fate today. Using Jurgen Habermas' concept of the public sphere, this thesis considers the contribution that these publications made to the process of public opinion at the regional and national levels in Canada. It concludes that the regional newspapers did contribute to the national aboriginal public sphere, but that state policies and financial exigencies limited their contribution and prevented them from realizing their full potential in the lives of aboriginal Canadians. Awakuni-Swetland, Mark J. (2003) "Umonhon ithae the, umonhon bthi n; I speak Omaha, I am Omaha. Omaha language choice, 1971-2001." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Oklahoma (The). 225 pp. The creation of an indigenous language program at the University of Nebraska is the impetus for this study. It is informed by the local and national movement in native language revival and maintenance. This study examines the efforts of, and difficulties in, the reversal of language shift by the Omaha Tribe of Nebraska. The transmission of cultural knowledge/language is negatively impacted by social, political, economic, and colonial pressures on the family and community. The family is cited as the preferred site of language and culture learning. Individuals generally shift responsibility for the revival and/or maintenance of the Omaha language away from themselves and onto the public school and tribal government. There is an absence of consensus within the Omaha community. A grounded theory approach is used to maximize the local perspective in the data, drawn from qualitative interviews with ten community leaders. Respondents describe their language ideology, and what they are doing to act upon those attitudes. A first person participant observation account of native language use and change spans the years from 1971 through 2001. Topics include the development of the 1977 Omaha dictionary; vignettes of native language performance, emergence of the language programs at Omaha Nation Public School and the University of Nebraska, recent research narratives, orthographic debates, and language assessment reports. The problem in reversing language shift resides in the nature and goals of the imposed western-model government and social structure. They do not encourage consensus decision-making. This study suggests a shift to programming and institutions that maximize pre-reservation ideals of community-wide fusion, interdependence, and action in the face of divergent ideologies. The principles and approaches of the successful Punana Leo preschool immersion and Kula Kaiapuni Hawai'ian immersion schools are offered to the Omaha community. The next step in this study is to develop questions to elicit ideas about ways to motivate the English-only Omaha parents into a groundswell of action. The hesitant speakers must be encouraged to risk the embarrassment of mispronunciation and become active models of the language. The practice of critical ridicule without proper modeling must change. The fundamental key to this, or any action, requires the complete commitment of the

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parents. Bachman-Prehn, Ronet D. (1989) "American Indian homicide: A multimethod, multilevel analysis." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of New Hampshire. 205 pp. This study investigates the aetiology of American Indian homicide. Its triangulated methodology combined both the quantitative multivariate analyses with in-depth interview data from American Indian male homicide offenders. At the national level, a descriptive analysis was performed that compared American Indian, black, and white disaggregated homicide rates. Although black homicide rates are far greater than either American Indian or white rates, American Indian rates are more than double that of the white population. American Indian homicide is more likely to involve knives while both black and white homicide is more likely to involve handguns. However, when handgun and other gun categories are added together, they account for over 40% of all homicides regardless of race/ethnicity. Homicide victims are more likely to be acquaintances involved in conflict situations with the offender in all racial/ethnic groups. And although homicide is a predominantly male phenomenon for all groups, both black and American Indian populations have a significantly higher percentage of female perpetrated homicides than the white population. Multiple regression models estimated American Indian homicide at both the state and SMSA levels. Economic deprivation theory was supported at the reservation state level while a subculture of violence theory was supported at the SMSA level. The qualitative analysis of interview data not only supported the same causal forces of economic deprivation and a subculture of violence, but also illuminated other contributing factors as well. Sources of social disorganization culture conflict and alcohol/drug use were also found to play an important role in these offender's lives. This data provided tremendous insight into the nature and extent of the psychological pain that manifests as a result of these structural and cultural conditions. A theoretical model of American Indian Homicide was formulated from the results of both quantitative and qualitative analyses. It includes elements of economic deprivation, a subculture of violence, social disorganization, and culture conflict and perceived powerlessness, with alcohol/drug abuse placed in the model as an intervening variable. Badine, Terry D. (2003) "First Nations women clients: Experiences in dual relationships." M.S.W. Thesis, University of Northern British Columbia. 110 pp. Dual relationships are of concern to professional therapists. All professional regulatory bodies caution their members to avoid dual relationships with their clients: it is a matter of ethical boundaries. However, it is now also acknowledged that in small and rural communities dual or overlapping relationships with clients are unavoidable. The concept of dual or overlapping relationships is also of concern to professionals who work in First Nations communities. Nevertheless, like in other small or rural communities, where the counsellors live and are in constant interaction with the clients, dual relationships in First Nations communities do occur. Using a phenomenological approach, this study explores First Nations women clients' experiences of dual relationships with alcohol and drug abuse counsellors indigenous to the clients' communities. The goal of this study was to provide a description of the nature of this experience from First Nations women clients' perspectives. Descriptive data for the study was gathered through conversations with three Firsts Nations women who live in rural communities in British Columbia and Alberta. Baer-Opazo, Margaret. (1991) "Imag(in)ing Indians: Representations of native people in Rudy Wiebe and W.P. Kinsella." M.A. Thesis, University of Waterloo. 132 pp. The representation of native people in Canadian literature written by whites has generally reflected the marginalization of native people in Canadian society. However, writer have begun to shift attention towards Canada's aboriginal legacy, both past and present, and among contemporary authors, Rudy Wiebe and W.P. Kinsella stand out for their unusual placing of natives at the centre of their stories, and for subverting conventional racist images. Although vastly different from each other, Wiebe and Kinsella create native characters who are neither symbols of evil nor of nobility, they are instead rich in human complexity. The thesis begins by introducing these two authors, and briefly surveying the historical and critical context of the native in Canadian literature. Chapters Two and Three examine Wiebe's works that deal with native experience, focusing on his 1973 novel, The temptations of Big Bear, which reconstructs the demise of the Plains Cree way of life in the late 1800s. Chapter Four turns to Kinsella's six collections of short stories (1977-89), set on the Hobbema Cree reserve in Alberta, in which he traces the legacy of the treaties and reserve system a hundred years after Big Bear's time, and the lives of contemporary native people in the midst of the dominant white Canadian society. The study of these two authors highlights many complex and sensitive issues, including the relation between history, facts, authenticity, and myth, fiction, imagination; the criteria for distinguishing between racist symbols and realist portraits; the authority of artists to imagine,

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and their responsibility to historically oppressed minorities; the appropriation of voice, and the power of story and language to heal and bridge cultural misunderstanding. Baker, Brian A. (1996) "A nation in two states: The Annishnabeg in the United States and Canada, 1837-1991." Ph.D. Dissertation, Stanford University. 235 pp. The Chippewa and Ojibway bands of the Lake Superior region of the United States and Canada share the same historical and cultural nexus (best characterized as Annishnabeg). Although the Annishnabeg share a distinct ethnic identity that stretches across the Canada/US border, they have existed under the influence of two dissimilar institutional regimes. When the US and Canada expanded in the Lake Superior region in the 19th century, treaties served as the vehicle by which the Annishnabeg were politically incorporated by each country. Because the Annishnabeg bands on both sides of the border maintained hunting and fishing rights to the treaty regions that were created, their ethnic identity was entrenched in the institutional regime of each country. However, the specific manner in which the Annishnabeg have enacted those claims in both the historical and contemporary periods has been different in each county. I argue that the dissimilarities in the reorganization of Annishnabeg ethnic identity are rooted in the differences in the institutional regimes between these two countries. The study utilizes qualitative evidence to explain the national differences in the reorganization of Annishnabeg ethnic identity. The research is grounded in theories of the nation-state, internal colonialism and ethnic mobilization. For the historical period (1837-1916), I establish differences in the structure of internal colonialism at the national and sub-national levels in each country with respect to Annishnabeg hunting and fishing rights. For the contemporary period (1972-91), I focus on the different strategies of mobilization employed by the Annishnabeg to reclaim those rights in both countries, which were shaped by differences in the institutionalized political regimes. While the Annishnabeg pursued a strategy of negotiation in Canada, the Annishnabeg in the US pursued a strategy of litigation. While the Annishnabeg in Ontario were unable to produce a shift in the institutional regime, the Annishnabeg in Wisconsin were successful. Comparatively, this difference is explained by the fact that the Annishnabeg have a sovereign status as Indian nations in the United States where treaties are the supreme law of the land. Baker, Howard R. (1996) "Law transplanted, justice invented: Sources of law for the Hudson's Bay Company in Rupert's Land, 1670-1870." M.A., University of Manitoba (The). 166 pp. Upon its creation on 2nd May 1670, the Hudson's Bay Company received territorial rights to a vast land that would become the Canadian North West. These were chartered rights that carried with them the obligations of providing good governance of the territories and maintaining order throughout "Rupert's Land", the name given the territory by the Company's charter. The Hudson's Bay Company remained the overlord of these territories -- both de jure and de facto -- for nearly two hundred years. The Company, while it never transplanted the formal English common law all at once, brought bits and pieces of law to Rupert's Land. Some came in the baggage of the Company's servants, such as the common law of master and servant that governed the lawful employment relationships in the Company's factories and forts during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. The Company exercised its legislative power to create rules and regulations for the governance of Rupert's Land. Throughout the eighteenth century, however, this aggregation of laws that governed Company servants, both written and unwritten, touched only Company servants. Trading practices and marriage alliances adhered to Aboriginal customs, and the Company did not transplant criminal and civil law to Rupert's Land. The judicature established m the colony at Red River, therefore, had no Company model to follow. Sir George Simpson, governor of Rupert's Land in 1835, established in that year the first regularly convening court of law. Rather than relying on Adam Thom (the first recorder of Rupert's Land) or his expositions on English law, the men who staffed the courts largely invented justice as they went along. Baker, Matthew J. (2000) "Essays in the economics of hunter-gatherer and indigenous peoples." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Connecticut (The). 131 pp. I apply economic theory in the analysis of some of the enduring institutions of hunter-gatherer, peasant, and tribal societies. In Chapter One I synopsize the development of economic anthropology as a field and the study of traditional societies in economics. In Chapter Two I study the interrelationship between two common hunter-gatherer institutions: shared access to resources and shared output. I study production incentives created by output sharing rules. Sharing introduces interdependency among resource users; agents care about the effects production decisions have on others. The shared access/shared output system does not require that the actions of individuals be

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observed or monitored. Sharing rules can both solve the commons problem and also result in an equal distribution of output. I discuss sharing and resource access among Kalahari Desert hunting-foraging peoples. In Chapter Three I study the ecological conditions behind the emergence of land ownership. I apply tools from the economics of conflict and analysis of spatial oligopoly. The result is a theoretically sound exposition of economic defensibility models common in anthropology. Different ownership regimes can emerge, depending on the relative scarcity of resources, the variability of resources, and the technology that groups use to defend land. I discuss indigenous land ownership among Kalahari Desert peoples. In Chapter Four (written with Thomas Miceli), we study land inheritance. We explain the economic forces underlying different inheritance rules. In our model, potential heirs make land-specific human capital investments prior to the date of inheritance. The testator then decides how to allocate his land in the best interests of his family. Allowing the testator discretion over land distribution leads to wasteful competition between heirs. A fixed rule eliminates competition, but disallows beneficial reallocation of land if the prespecified heir turns out to be a less able producer than another potential heir. Land markets render the rule irrelevant; if heirs can buy (sell) land, they buy (sell) land until they have acquired the efficient amount. Knowing this beforehand, heirs invest efficiently. We study inheritance rules using a cross-cultural data set comprised of approximately 400 world cultures. Ball, Thomas J. (1998) "Prevalence rates of full and partial PTSD and lifetime trauma in a sample of adult members of an American Indian tribe." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Oregon. 172 pp. A research study was designed to assess the prevalence rates of lifetime trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in an adult sample of an American Indian tribe, and assess the impact of the 1950s era federal policy of termination within adult members of this tribe. The research incorporated an historical perspective which included the use of a post-colonial stress disorder (PCSD) diagnosis resulting from 500 years of oppressive colonial policies directed toward the indigenous people of the North American continent. This historical perspective provides a conceptual basis for understanding the broad range of negative social statistics associated with American Indian people. The research instrument utilized to assess PTSD was the Modified Posttraumatic Symptom Scale (MPSS). The MPSS was further modified to assess termination trauma and resulting PCSD symptoms. Subjects were randomly selected from the tribal enrolment list. Data were collected by American Indian research staff specially trained to conduct culturally sensitive interviews. The results validated the theory that the prevalence rates of lifetime trauma and PTSD were higher in the adult population of American Indians studied, as compared to a previously published community sample of adult non-Indian subjects. In addition, the concept of post-colonial stress disorder (PCSD) was supported. Results from the research suggests that trauma from colonial and federal policy may be a contributor to the negative social outcomes found in some American Indian people. Understanding the concept of Post Colonial Stress Disorder will provide means for both policy initiatives and treatment interventions. Band, Ian H. (1993) "Race relations: Native peoples and the Royal Canadian Mounted Police: Canada's challenge." M.A. Thesis, University of Manitoba (The). 169 pp. This thesis is an examination of the relationship between Canada's aboriginal peoples and the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and how over time, this relationship has evolved. More and more, native peoples are calling for increased control over their own affairs, including native-controlled policing programs. Thus, in order to respond to these pressures there is a need for alternative approaches to the issue of federal, provincial, and local responsibilities for the delivery for policing services to native communities and reserves. Further, the recent political developments in relations between aboriginal peoples and government have enhanced the position of native peoples in society by emphasizing their unique rights, aspirations and cultural identities as individuals and communities. As the consolidation of special status becomes more firmly rooted in various services and programs, government has been, and will continue to be under pressure to deal with the policing needs of native peoples in more direct terms. These developments are premised on the simple notions that aboriginal communities are entitled to effective and culturally sensitive law enforcement services just as is any other community within Canada. Bannerman, Brenda B. (2001) ""A search for healing": A phenomenological study." M.S.W. Thesis, University of Northern British Columbia. 107 pp. In the social work and related literature the issue of alcohol addiction and treatment has been examined from a white, male perspective. Theories in relation to alcohol abuse and treatment modalities have also been

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developed from this perspective and do not speak to the unique experience or needs of aboriginal women. Although little research exists in relation to non-aboriginal women overall, research that examines the issue of aboriginal women and recovery from an alcohol addiction is basically non-existent. This descriptive phenomenological study applies a feminist perspective to explore the lived experience of four aboriginal women who had attended an aboriginal residential treatment program at least two years ago and have been clean and sober since that time. The goal of this study is to listen to the voices and stories of these women and to gain an understanding of the essential lived experience of attaining and maintaining sobriety and/or healing. What do the women themselves consider to be helpful and healing in relation to the journey through treatment and beyond? What or whom do the women consider as having facilitated their healing journey and why? From the analysis of interview data a core theme of a search for healing was identified, along with seven interconnected themes as follows: acceptance and belonging, reclaiming the link to ancestors, reclaiming cultural esteem and identity, reclaiming cultural expression, group process, mentors and role models and community supports. These categories are thematically woven together to become a symbolic research/healing basket that will contain an essence of a lived experience. Bansal, Anita. (2001) "Childhood sexual abuse in Native American women: Its effects on later sexual risk-taking." Ph.D. Dissertation, Kent State University. 79 pp. Decreasing of risky sexual behaviour has long been targeted in HIV prevention interventions. Investigation of precursors to engaging in sexual risk taking, such as childhood sexual abuse, has received increasing research attention. This relationship, in addition to the relationship between other forms of childhood victimization, was investigated in the current study. In addition, because childhood abuse has not consistently been linked to later risk taking, it is hypothesized that certain protective factors may attenuate this relationship. For the current study, the resources of social support, self mastery, and communal mastery were considered as moderating variables between early abuse and later behaviour. These relationships were investigated in a sample of 160 young, unmarried, Native American women living in Montana, who have been found to have high rates of HIV infection. Utilization of a Native American population also allowed for the investigation of these relationships within a communal culture. A series of hierarchical linear and logistic regressions were conducted to investigate the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and sexual risk taking in adulthood, as well as the moderating effects of social support, self mastery, and communal mastery. Results indicated that childhood victimization was associated with increased risk behaviours in adulthood. There was a moderate relationship between childhood sexual abuse and sexual risk taking. There was also a significant relationship between physical abuse and later risk taking, indicating that both physical and sexual abuse are important precursors to sexual risk taking. There was limited support for the hypothesis that personal resources moderate the relationship between childhood abuse and later behaviour in this population. Future research should focus on exploring cultural-specific resources that may benefit Native American populations. Barajas, Manuel. (2002) "An extended case study of the Xaripu community across borders: Interactive colonization in the 21st century." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California, Riverside. 427 pp. Mexican transnational migrants are among the poorest and most socially marginalized people in the 21st century, and this extended case study on the Xaripu community examines how a history of social inequalities extends into the present and impacts the nature of their political-economic and social integration in the United States. Among the main objectives of this study were to develop a critical theoretical framework -Interactive Colonization -- that advances the understanding of racism, patriarchy, and economic oppression in a global context of national inequalities, and to examine how these inequities impact labour-migration, community, and family. The subjects of analysis are Xaripu-origin persons from Michoacán, Mexico (n = 25) and California, United States (n = 31). Oral histories, in-depth interviews, participant observation, letters, newspapers, and other sources were used to gain a qualitative understanding about their labour, migration, community, and family experiences. Among the questions examined were the following: What has shaped Xaripus migration experiences? How have they been economically incorporated into the United States? How have labourmigration experiences impacted their communities on both sides of the border? How have migration and employment experiences affected the family? How have these experiences influenced gender relationships within the family on both sides of the border? The Interactive Colonization model -- emphasizing colonialism, dialectics, and interactionism -- examines Xaripus' experiences in relationship to the hegemonic group/nation and to intra-community stratifications. The applied aspects of this study are broad, but will primarily serve to inform more humane immigration and

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labour policies, and will advance the understanding of the processes of community/family production and reproduction within a global context of political and economic inequalities. Barker, Joanne M. (2000) "'Indian-made': Sovereignty and the work of identification." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California, Santa Cruz. 343 pp. This dissertation addresses the relationship between indigenous sovereignty and identification as represented by three 'case studies.' While scholarship to date has treated these cases as if they were discrete, this study shows that they are in fact related. Canada's Bill C-31 of 1985 partially reversed the patrilineal requirements for Indian status under the Indian Act of 1876. The focus of my study is on the emergence of First Nation women's movements during Canada's patriation from England and the impact of those movements on debates about the definition of First Nation government in Canada's Constitution Act of 1982. The US Indian Arts and Crafts Act of 1990 provided that only enrolled members of recognized tribes can sell or display their work as “Indian-made.” My study examines the commodification of American Indian identity within racialized discourses of authenticity as registered by the “Indian-made” art market. The Human Genome Diversity Project proposes to map out the history of human origins and migrations by populations. I analyze the impact of the criticisms of this project by indigenous nations, organizations, and advocacy/rights groups, focusing on the incommensuratability of populations with indigenous self-definitions as nations. The dissertation argues that nation-state policies and cultural practices defining who counts as indigenous and, especially, who does not, mediate the terms and conditions of ongoing sovereignty struggles. Towards those ends, the study draws from inter-disciplinary methodological perspectives on policy, law, science, and globalization from the fields of Indigenous, American, and Women's Studies. Barnes, Virginia T. (2000) "Thirsty hearts: Drinking, domestic violence and evangelical conversion in a Oaxacan village." Ph.D. Dissertation, Arizona State University. 227 pp. The recent growth of evangelical Christianity in southern Mexico, especially among indigenous people, has produced a new religious orientation that focuses on self-transformation by denying the 'vices' of drinking, violence, and other activities 'of the street' in favour of promoting abstinence, peacefulness and domestic harmony. This transformative experience is presented through the testimonies, or life stories of religious conversion, as experienced by 12 Chatino Indians from a small village in Oaxaca, Mexico. These stories trace the hardships centering around poverty, illness and especially drunkenness that led these individuals to accept the alien religion of evangelical Protestantism. Since 1980 approximately one third of the village of Santa Maria Magdalena Tiltepec has converted into Protestantism in an attempt to find a more satisfying life experience in the face of growing personal and socioeconomic pressures. As Tiltepec and other areas in the Sierra Madre del Sur converted land from subsistence farming to coffee production, indigenous peasants found themselves less able to maintain traditional religious rituals associated with the cargo system and compadrazgo. Although alcohol had long been important in social and religious activities, the cash newly earned from peon labour led to increased consumption. The travelling evangelists who first brought Protestantism to Oaxaca preached a gospel of sobriety and abstinence that offered an escape from addictive and self-destructive behaviours that had become intolerable to some of the villagers. Although most recent research on the growth of evangelism in Latin America has focused on the economic incentives that encourage conversion, individual testimonies reveal the subjective and very personal ways in which both men's and women's lives have been reshaped and reinterpreted by their changed beliefs and practices. The evangelical Protestants try to maintain lives of sobriety and family unity and harmony. For men, valorization is found as heads of families and as religious leaders rather than as participants in the sexsegregated life 'in the street.' Although village evangelists are not more prosperous or more modern than their non-evangelical neighbours, they have internalized a new sense of self-worth and purpose that helps to alleviate the hardship of their lives. Barnett, Rachael A. (2001) "The representation of internal colonialism in contemporary American ethnic fiction." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Washington. The representation of internal colonialism in contemporary American ethnic fiction argues that contemporary literature by American Indians, African Americans, and Mexican Americans challenges traditional histories of dominance by recognizing the colonial history of the United States and by identifying the ongoing practice of colonialism in the 20th century. Works by Linda Hogan, Leslie Marmon Silko, Ralph Ellison, Paule Marshall, Américo Paredes, and Ana Castillo illustrate the individual or familial struggle with

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identity and agency in the face of the effects of internal colonialism. Among the critics used to examine these works are Robert Blauner, Frantz Fanon, Paulo Freire, Ronald Takaki, George Frederickson, Toni Morrison, Elizabeth Cook-Lynn, and Satya Mohanty. In rendering the lives of individuals, families, and communities, these novels themselves resist and suggest avenues of resistance against internal colonialism. Barrera, Laura C. (1992) "The Canadian Métis and the Mexican Mayas: A cross cultural study of native land struggles." M.A. Thesis, University of Calgary. 213 pp. This research focuses on the development of two native social movements during the 19th century; the Maya Caste War of Yucatan (1847-1901), in Mexico and the Western Canadian Métis movements known as Riel Rebellions (1869-85). The analysis concentrates upon the internal elements that created the development of both movements, in order to demonstrate that these movements were not only reactions against dispossession. Central in this study is the idea that before the second half of the 19th century these groups were in control of their social organization, and thus were autonomous communities. The movements are shown as struggles to maintain the autonomy and social organization of the Maya and Métis groups. The analysis is based on a combination of primary and secondary sources, taken from Mexican and Canadian archives and libraries. Bartlett, Ben. (1998) "Origins of persisting poor Aboriginal health: An historical exploration of poor Aboriginal health and the continuities of the colonial relationship as an explanation of the persistence of poor Aboriginal health." M.Ph. Thesis, University of Sydney. 378 pp. The thesis examines the history of Central Australia and specifically development of health services in the Northern Territory. The continuing colonial relationships between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australia are explored as a reason for the persistence of poor Aboriginal health status, including the cycle of selfdestructive behaviours. It provides an explanation of the importance of community agency to address community problems, and the potential of community-controlled Aboriginal health services as vehicles for such community action. Basham, Jennifer J. L. (2002) "He puke mele lahui: Na mele Kupa'a, na mele ku'e a me na mele aloha o na kanaka maoli." M.A. Thesis, University of Hawai'i. 184 pp. Following the overthrow of the Hawai'ian Kingdom in 1893, Kanaka Maoli composed numerous mele lahui in commemoration of the events. These mele were published in Hawai'ian language newspapers, the place where Kanaka Maoli reported the events of their time as well as their opinion about those events. Through the mele lahui which they composed and published, the Kanaka Maoli reported the historical details of the overthrow and the period following. In the mele are recorded the people's loyalty to their nation, along with their resistance and protest to the abuse of their rights to independence. The composers use language of insult and disparagement in their portrayals and descriptions of those who played vital roles in the overthrow. There are also many mele which are prayers and request the assistance and the blessings of Hawai'ians Gods as well as the Christian God. In addition, there are even more mele whose main purpose and theme are expressions of aloha for the Hawai'ian Kingdom, the native people, and their Queen. From that time until today, Kanaka Maoli have continued to compose mele as expressions of our lives and our history, as protest against the continued dominance and subjugation of our people, and as admiration for the loyal and steadfast support of the rights of our land and our people. Bastido Munoz, Crescencio. (1997) "Five hundred years of resistance: Self-determination and political strategies for rejuvenation among indigenous peoples of Mexico." M.A. Thesis, Carleton University. 176 pp. This thesis analyzes the struggle for self-determination by Indian peoples of Mexico, emphasizing on the last decade. Indian peoples have been purposefully denied their rights by the Mexican state throughout history, resulting in their impoverishment and ongoing armed rebellions, culminating in the current economic and social crisis in the country. Indians have used political strategies through political organizations (armed and peaceful). A theory of symbolic politics is used to analyze the process by which Indians of Mexico have: reclaimed their cultural identities; developed political ideologies of opposition against those of the dominant society reflected through Indianismo versus indigenismo, and attempted to negotiate the terms of a new political relationship by means of constitutional amendments which would recognize a fourth level of government by/for Indian peoples. It is concluded that the most effective resolution for Indian peoples' demand for self-determination may be to implement a fourth level of government.

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Bauermeister, Maxine L. (1998) "The children of the mist: Enculturation in a New Zealand kohanga reo." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Nebraska -- Lincoln (The). 223 pp. The purpose of this study was to discover and interpret how a group of Mäori children in New Zealand experience enculturation in a kohanga reo early childhood program. A qualitative ethnographic approach was used to guide the research project. To gain the depth of understanding that comes from personal experience, fieldwork was conducted with a sub tribe of Mäori people in New Zealand for six months. A rural kohanga reo was purposefully selected as the research site. Young children, from infant to age 5, teachers, and families at the kohanga reo were the primary participants. Additional participants included the members of two Mäori families with whom I lived, and the participants in Mäori village life at the marae. Supporting data were generated from Mäori community life and a second kohanga reo. The results of this study indicate that children enrolled at kohanga reo are meeting the two primary goals set by Te Kohanga Reo National Trust. Children are learning the Mäori language and their Mäori culture as they experience enculturation. Data analysis revealed three themes in response to the research questions: (1) The children are learning cultural characteristics which include behaviour patterns related to the following categories: (a) communicating the native language; (b) expressing feelings; (c) viewing and participating in art; (d) respecting nature; (e) practicing spiritual concepts; (f) developing a sense of family. (2) The children are learning about their culture through mechanisms of enculturation. This includes interaction with the curriculum which is embedded within the physical, social, and temporal environments of the kohanga reo. Two key elements that facilitate enculturation are active participation and educational leadership. (3) The children are learning to reconcile the contrasts among the Western culture, their contemporary Mäori culture, and their traditional Mäori culture. They are able to participate effectively in both grouporiented and individual activities. They are able to understand and meet different behaviour expectations in different situations. The implications and limitations of the study are discussed and recommendations for future research are presented. Baumgartner Di Giusto, Carla J. (2001) "Combating racial discrimination: Aboriginal peoples' access to the legal profession." M.A. Thesis, Carleton University. 137 pp. In the years 1999 and 2000, three reports, 'Addressing discriminatory barriers facing aboriginal law students' and 'Lawyers. The challenge of racial equality: Putting principles into practice,' and 'Virtual justice: Systemic racism and the Canadian legal profession' were created for legal associations in order to address the barriers Aboriginal peoples face in the legal profession and make recommendations for overcoming the barriers. This thesis explores the issues and recommendations made within the reports, and evaluates their potential effectiveness in addressing racial discrimination. In conducting my analysis of the reports, two conceptual frameworks, critical race theory and aboriginal perspectives, were used; in most ways the two conceptual approaches support the reports. While the reports are supported by the approaches (and therefore have the potential for having a positive impact in addressing racism), I argue that the reports are only one step and not a final solution for addressing the barriers aboriginal peoples face in the legal profession. Racial discrimination in the profession has existed for many decades and will continue for years to come. Therefore, in continuing to address and fight racial discrimination, the profession must continue to develop effective measures to fight this discrimination. Beal, Carl. (1995) "Money, markets and economic development in Saskatchewan Indian reserve communities, 18701930s." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Manitoba (The). 473 pp. It is widely-held that Indian reserves were peripheral to Canada's economy from the time of their establishment, and that reserve economic conditions in Saskatchewan from the 1870s to the 1930s remained unchanged or worsened over the entire period. However, statistical, archival and other sources, showed that Indians were pivotal to the development of markets and the monetization of Saskatchewan's economy. The first two decades of the 20th century saw reserve economic growth and growing participation in the money economy, followed by a decade of stability. Indian reserves achieved modest economic successes in spite of government policies. Barriers to production for and participation in markets were circumvented. Population, income and property data by agency revealed regional variations in the size, composition and temporal pattern of earnings. These arose from the differing resource bases, production orientations and market conditions. Greater economic success was associated with better access to markets: economic conditions worsened when the links between reserves and markets were broken. During the depression decade, the reserve economy was virtually dismantled; the link between reserve economic activity and the money

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economy was broken. Beard-Moose, Christina T. (2004) "Public Indians, private Cherokees: Indigenous identity at the intersection of tourism, acculturation, and cultural continuity." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Iowa (The). 339 pp. This dissertation argues that tourism is the most prevalent acculturative agent at work on indigenous populations in the United States at the present time. To discuss this, I present a case study examining the situation of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians in western North Carolina. This work is concerned with the ways in which tourist venues exist within the physical space that is also simultaneously autonomous, specific Eastern Cherokee physical space. As such, mass tourism represents one current of a ‘mainstream American' lifeway that runs continuously through Cherokee land and lifeways. Cherokee-Americans currently face many of the same problems with the federal government that their ancestors have faced for centuries. Among these are the struggle for land; the struggle for language retention; the struggle for autonomy, and the struggle with dependency on a Euro-American culture. These issues were and are especially salient in a gendered context. For women, roles in society have depended on the continuity of Cherokee lifeways and identities. For men, roles in society have been disrupted over and over again by lingering post-colonial presence that has led to male anomie. Within the frame of mass tourism as the acculturative agent, I examine the relationship between the generalized ‘Indian' identity created specifically to promote the tourist industry, and the continuous, individuated Cherokee identity that is maintained and negotiated as an integral part of the Cherokee worldview. I focus on how Cherokee identity is affected in some knowable way by the tourist industry. As mass tourism and the ‘Disneyfication' process continue their prodigious worldwide growth, cultural change is occurring at an ever-increasing rate for indigenous populations. ‘Traditional' meanings, languages, and practices for indigenous populations are rapidly being lost within nation-states, where forced change to a globalized economy is the norm. However, if Eastern Cherokee perceptions are indicators of the results of long-term indigenous contact with mass tourism, there remains a distinctly private space to retain and live an indigenous identity. Beatty, Bonita. (1996) "The transformation of Indian political culture in northern Saskatchewan." M.A. Thesis, University of Regina (The). 152 pp. This thesis examines how northern Indians transformed their traditional group systems to adapt to the values of a greater Anglo-world over which they had limited power and control. Although they lost much of their former dependence upon subsistence foods, the social patterns of reciprocal exchange between family groups are still protected by the persistence of the mixed economy in the north which still depends upon families to work together in their hunting and trapping pursuits on their furblocks. These group organization systems form the basis for Indian political culture. Changes to these political cultures have usually been precipitated by major external events that caused internal conflicts between old and new values. While the process of conflict resolution is sometimes long, it eventually subsides to create a new value system or adaptation. In short, a new political culture. While there are many factors involved in any transformation of a society, this thesis will only focus upon the major external influences to northern Indian societies and their concurrent adaptive strategies. Becker, Marc. (1997) "Class and ethnicity in the Canton of Cayambe: The roots of Ecuador's modern Indian movement." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Kansas. 355 pp. My research examines changes in ideologies of class and ethnicity within rural movements for social change in Ecuador during the 20th century. It explores how popular organizations engaged class analyses and ethnic identities in order to influence strategies of political mobilization among indigenous and peasant peoples. Although recently ethnicity has come to dominate indigenous political discourse, I have discovered that historically the rural masses defended their class interests, especially those related to material concerns such as land, wages, and work, even while embracing an ideology of ethnicity. Through the study of land tenure and political mobilization issues, this project examines the roles of leadership, institutions, economics, and class relations in order to understand the formation of class ideologies and ethnic politics in Ecuador. Although various indigenous revolts occurred during the colonial period, these were localized and lacked a global vision for social change. In contrast, beginning in the 1920s Indian organizations emerged which understood that immediate and local solutions would nor improve their situation, but rather that there must be fundamental structural changes in society. Moving from narrow, local revolts to broad organizational efforts for structural change represented a profound ideological shift which marks the birth of Ecuador's modern Indian movement. An examination of how these early organizations and movements developed and operated elucidates the

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emergence of subsequent indigenous organizations. This study utilizes a sequence of organizing efforts in the Canton of Cayambe in the northern Ecuadorian highlands from the formation of the first indigenous sindicatos (peasant unions) in the 1920s to the promulgation of agrarian reform legislation in 1964 as a case study. This story reveals the demands of indigenous movements, the organizational strategies which they implemented to achieve those demands, and the influence which this history had on the formation of Ecuador's modern Indian movement. It is the thesis of this study that Ecuador's indigenous movement has its roots in leftist organizational efforts, and that its character must be understood as an integral part of that history. In fact, it is the nature and content of that relationship with the left which has led to Ecuador witnessing perhaps the strongest indigenous movement in Latin America in the 1990s. Beckett, Cynthia D. (2002) "Navajo children and families living with fetal alcohol syndrome/fetal alcohol effects." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Arizona (The). 289 pp. The aim of the study was to develop a culturally sensitive Grounded Theory of Navajo parenting for families who are living with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)/Fetal Alcohol Effects (FAE). The research question was: What are the social and cultural factors and processes that Navajo families use to mange care for a child with FAS/FAE? The philosophical perspectives that guided the study were: the Navajo philosophy, or view of life; resilience (middle range theory); the Family Stress Theory; and the Resiliency Mode of Family Stress, Adjustment, and Adaptation. Resilience was used as the over arching conceptual perspective for the study. A Grounded Theory of Navajo Parenting emerged from the data. Key categories to support the emerging theory were identified. The core category was Versatility through Transcendence. The supporting categories were: Strategies for Managing Challenges; Transcendence in Parenting; Intergenerational Alcohol Abuse, Violence and Suffering; and Knowledge/Acquisition of Needs. The families described their stories of transcendence through substance abuse, suffering, and violence to be able to parent their children who were living with the primary and secondary challenges of prenatal alcohol exposures. Further research is needed to test and expand this emerging theory of Navajo parenting of children with FAS/FAE. The challenges that were related to FAS/FAE were more easily managed with patterns of resilience within the families. Factors that influenced family's abilities to parent will be disseminated to assist other families who are managing the problems associated with FAS/FAE. Bell, David W. (1999) "Ambivalence and response polarization toward native people: A motivational perspective." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Western Ontario (The). 126 pp. The current research investigated a motivational explanation for ambivalence-induced response polarization in the intergroup context. Ambivalent attitudes toward a group are based on conflicting evaluations of the group, containing both positive and negative dimensions (Katz and Hass, 1988; Olson and Zanna, 1993). This ambivalence may lead to response polarization, which occurs when the responses of individuals toward a group vary between positive and negative situations (e.g., positive information about the group leads to a more positive attitude toward the group, whereas negative information about the group leads to a more negative attitude toward the group). Individuals who hold ambivalent attitudes may display response polarization because they are motivated to attempt to avoid the negative feelings arising from ambivalence (see Hass, Katz, Rizzo, Bailey, and Moore, 1992; Monteith, 1996). The first study provided a demonstration of response polarization in a new context, whereas the second study provided support for the motivational explanation of response polarization. In Study One, 119 participants completed open-ended measures of stereotypes, symbolic beliefs, and emotions to determine their ambivalence toward Native people. They then read a positive or negative essay on Native land claims. It was expected that only participants who were ambivalent toward Native people would display response polarization. Results supported predictions; ambivalent participants displayed a significant difference between the positive and negative message conditions in their attitudes toward Native people. In contrast, nonambivalent participants did not differ between message conditions in their attitudes toward Native people. In Study Two, 253 participants completed the same measures as in Study One, and received a motive manipulation as well. The negative motive manipulation consisted of an essay which emphasized the disadvantages of seeing both the good and the bad in another person or situation (i.e., ambivalence was negative), whereas the positive motive manipulation consisted of an essay which emphasized the advantages (i.e., ambivalence was positive). It was expected that ambivalent participants who received the negative motive manipulation would display response polarization, whereas ambivalent participants who received the positive motive manipulation would not display response polarization. Results supported the predictions, providing evidence for the motivational explanation of response polarization.

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Ben, Leon W. (1991) "Wellness circles: The Alkali Lake model in community recovery processes." Ed.D. Dissertation, Northern Arizona University. 113 pp. Native American communities throughout the Americas have had devastating experiences with alcohol and drug abuse. There is not a Native American tribal group that has come forward to claim they are not adversely affected by alcohol and drug abuse. This study was undertaken to gain insights on how the Shuswop Indian Band of Alkali Lake, British Columbia, was able to attain a recovery rate of 95% in their 15year battle with alcohol and substance abuse. This study took place between 1970 and 1985. The single-site in depth qualitative study was done with the use of an embedded interview instrument. The data were collected through a focused one on one interview with the citizens in Alkali Lake, British Columbia, in May 1989. Some of the key healing activities identified in the study included the various community support circles, use of the Alcoholics Anonymous concepts, primary residential treatment, New Directions training, and cultural/spiritual rebirth. Based on the results of this study, the methodology for recovery, as used by the Alkali Lake community, was a successful way to treat a community that was totally dysfunctional due to misuse of alcohol and drugs. The Alkali Lake model has been presented to other Native American communities since the discovery of their 95% sobriety following their international gathering in 1985. Benavides, Carlos M. (2002) "Class mobility and equality of opportunities in the context of erratic modernization: The Peruvian case." Ph.D. Dissertation, Pennsylvania State University (The). 188 pp. This thesis use new data on intergenerational mobility for analyzing class mobility and equalities of opportunities in the context of the 'erratic' modernization of Peruvian society. The thesis begins by proposing and validating a distinctive class schema for Peru, arguing that the main differences with processes of class formation in mature industrial countries are related to the institutionalization of the informal relationships in Peruvian labour market. The Peruvian case will be discussed as one where huge disparities between upper and lower classes still exist in the social structure, at the same time that important equalization of opportunities occurs at the intermediate and lower levels. This leads to a radical transformation of the Peruvian class structure by generating regions of communication between classes but without improving significantly equality of opportunities for classes that are socially distant. I argue that the Peruvian social mobility pattern corresponds to the pattern of societies where linguistic/ethnic barriers have played an important role in shaping the social structure, such as Hong Kong. In this sense, I consider this pattern to be different from those experienced by the western European countries and also by other societies such as Israel and Poland. The impact of the race/ethnic dimension in social mobility is minor in comparison with the class aspect. It is more centred on the effect that the race/ethnic dimension has on the class position for the previous generations than for the more contemporary ones. However, differences in equality of opportunities between indigenous and whites are still present. The access to educational resources in a country such as Peru is still unequal across different social classes. Nevertheless for those who have access to higher levels, education seems to have been doing a good job in improving equality of opportunities by reducing the association between class of origin and destination. In other words, at higher levels of education, the problem of equality of opportunities is more related to the access to education than to the returns to it. Beneria-Surkin, Jordi. (2003) "Power, conservation, and indigenous livelihood: Guarani strategies for conquering political space in decentralization in Izozog, Bolivia." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles. 370 pp. In 1995, the Capitania del Alto y Bajo Izozog (CABI), an Izoceño-Guarani Indian organization, became comanager of the Gran Chaco Kaa Iya National Park (GCNP), one of the largest protected areas in the world. During the mid-1990s, CABI also became involved in numerous facets of decentralized governance and development. Many in academic and policy circles have embraced such processes of decentralization as an alternative, better form of governance. Yet, there is insufficient analysis of the contexts in which it is possible and its results. I examine these pressing questions through a case study of CABI's unprecedented achievements, which, to date, in addition to co-management of the GCNP have included: (1) co-management of the USAID funded Kaa-Iya Project; (2) creation, along with multinational gas companies, of the Indigenous People's Development Project; and, (3) participation in local governance. I argue that CABI's successful ability to become a significant actor in these multiple decentralised settings was the result of two factors: (a) a positive policy context resulting from the recasting of Bolivia's sociopolitical universe through decentralization and a series of land and social policy reforms; and' (b)

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CABI's hybrid organizational structure, a combination of Guarani tradition and modern institutional forms of management which is the result of historical interaction with other socio-cultural, spatial, and economic milieu. I argue that local livelihood strategies in Izozog are heterogeneous and highly linked to seasonal migrant wage labour. In the region, there are also important levels of social, ethnic and religious differentiation. In this context, decentralization has produced greater biodiversity conservation, land tenure security, and improvements in social conditions. By contextualizing this example of decentralization, I demonstrate how structural and discursive conditions limited CABI's access to power and its ability to transform greater local autonomy into alternative, more equitable development rooted in local socioculturally based livelihoods and capacities. This research was conducted at various sites in Bolivia including Izozog, Santa Cruz and La Paz. Data was collected through participant observation, household surveys, structured and open-ended interviews, and archival research. Bennett, Marlyn L. (2003 ) "Perspectives on engaging the participation of First Nations peoples in the development of child welfare under self-government." M.A. Thesis, University of Manitoba (The). 198 pp. This focuses on some of the experiences and challenges on how First Nations citizens have been engaged in public discussions that will inform the development of contemporary First Nations governing institutions. This research combines an overview of the literature focusing specifically on self-government in relation to child welfare and First Nations people. The literature review also looks at the role First Nations peoples have played in community consultations concentrating specifically on the ways First Nations peoples and communities have been engaged to participate in other consultation initiatives carried out by Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal governments and/or non-government organizations. The review of the literature is supplemented by an examination of two very specific child welfare initiatives currently underway in the Province of Manitoba, with more attention paid primarily to the Manitoba Framework Agreement Initiative. The examination of these two initiatives is then followed by an in-depth data analysis of interviews carried out with a select group of child welfare professionals from within and outside Manitoba who shared their perspectives on aspects of engaging First Nations people's participation in shaping the future of child welfare under self-government. This research will be of particular importance to First Nations communities, governments and child welfare authorities who are interested in engaging and empowering First Nations peoples' to participate in public discussions on the decision making process that might be instrumental for informing the vision, philosophy, structure and the consultation aspects of self-determining efforts of First Nations peoples. Benyshek, Daniel C. (2001) "The political ecology of diabetes among the Havasupai Indians of northern Arizona." Ph.D. Dissertation, Arizona State University. 182 pp. The village of Supai, centred in a tributary canyon of the Grand Canyon in northern Arizona, is home to some 450 full-time residents of the Havasupai Indian Tribe. Like many reservation communities in North America and other indigenous, minority, and migrant populations world-wide, the Havasupai are faced with a disease of epidemic proportions -- type 2 diabetes (formerly known as non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus [NIDDM]). The overwhelming majority of physicians, biomedical researchers and medical ecologists today explain the astoundingly high prevalence rates of type 2 diabetes among the Havasupai and other high prevalence populations in terms of a yet-to-be-identified genetic predisposition. Recent experimental and epidemiological research, however, has identified an etiologic alternative to the genetic-predisposition model. This body of research suggests that type 2 diabetes may result initially from prenatal malnutrition followed by calorically adequate diets in adulthood, and propagated in subsequent generations via hyperglycemic intrauterine environments. Populations at greatest risk for type 2 diabetes today are the ones most likely to have endured political and economic oppression in their recent histories, conditions which are the most conducive to the diabetic developmental sequence outlined above. Ethnographic data for the present study were gathered during the course of fieldwork on the Havasupai reservation, and provides the basis for a biocultural examination of the etiologic bases of diabetes outlined above, and the implications of this model for intervention programs. Specifically, the study focuses on the economic and nutritional history of the tribe over the last century along with Havasupai perceptions, attitudes and beliefs about the nature, causes, course and treatment of diabetes. The present study offers supportive evidence for the proposition that the aetiology of type 2 diabetes among the Havasupai (and other high prevalence Native American populations) has as much to due with phenotypic

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adaptations to extended periods of nutritional stress than a racially determined genetic predisposition. Important applied implications derived from this research are discussed, including the promise of future community-based diabetes intervention strategies that focus on prenatal nutrition to significantly reduce the incidence of diabetes in high prevalence communities, and why such programs are likely to enjoy improved community support and participation. Berardy, Sandra. (1991) "Secondary post-traumatic stress disorder in Native Americans." M.S.N. Thesis, Southern Connecticut State University. 89 pp. Many Native Americans exhibit a variety of behaviours that are signs of family dysfunction. This study examined and described dysfunctional behaviours and their relationship to secondary post-traumatic stress disorder in an urban Native American community in northeast USA. A minimum of 30 participants have been interviewed by the researcher with a questionnaire designed in accordance with Roy's nursing model of adaptation. The findings indicated that some dysfunctional behaviours such as depression, suicide, child abuse, and separation had a positive correlation with secondary post-traumatic stress disorder. This study indicates that future research on a larger scale is warranted. Berg, Lawrence D. (1990) "Aboriginal people, aboriginal rights, and protected areas: An investigation of the relationship between the Nuu-chah-nulth people and Pacific Rim National Park Reserve." M.A. Thesis, University of Victoria. 219 pp. This thesis examines the relationship between seven different Indian bands and Pacific Rim National Park Reserve. The West Coast Trail unit of the Park Reserve traverses reserve lands of the Nuu-chah-nulth Indians. In total, there are 28 Indian reserves belonging to seven different Indian bands, either adjacent to the park or enclosed within its boundaries. The park is part of a larger area traditionally used by the Nuuchah-nulth people, and it is fully encompassed by their comprehensive land claim. Because there are so many different bands with lands in the park, it is difficult to characterize relations between the Nuu-chah-nulth and Pacific Rim National Park Reserve. It is best described as falling on a spectrum of views, ranging from 'good relations' to 'poor relations.' There are a number of issues which can be addressed by park managers and Nuu-chah-nulth people to improve relations. A cooperative management regime, such as that planned for South Moresby National Park Reserve is posited as an appropriate means to improve relations. Bergland, Renée L. (1997) "Possession and dispossession: Native American ghosts and the haunted national imagination." Ph.D. Dissertation, Columbia University. 207 pp. American literature is haunted by the ghosts of departed Native Americans. In the first years of nationhood, Philip Freneau and Sarah Wentworth Morton peopled their works with Indian phantoms. At the start of the 19th century, Charles Brockden Brown, Washington Irving and Samuel Woodworth centred their nationalist fictions on ghostly Indians. In the 1820s and 1830s, at the height of Indian Removal, Washington Irving, Lydia Maria Child, James Fenimore Cooper, William Apess, Nathaniel Hawthorne and many others represented Indians as ghosts who haunted the national imagination. During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Native American ghosts figured prominently in speeches attributed to Chief Seattle, and also to Black Elk and Kicking Bear, two of the best-known voices of the Ghost Dance religion. Today, Stephen King and Leslie Marmon Silko plot best-selling novels around ghostly Indians and haunted Indian burial grounds. Yet although spectral Indians appear with startling frequency in the literary works of the United States, the implications of describing Native Americans as ghosts have never been thoroughly investigated. The dissertation entertains a number of theoretical perspectives, relying primarily on Sigmund Freud's essay, 'The uncanny', Terry Castle's work on phantasmagorical spectacles in The female thermometer, and Priscilla Wald's work on the uncanny aspects of United States citizenship in Constituting Americans. It argues that the representation of Indians as ghosts works to establish American nationhood. The discourse of Indian spectralization removes Indians from American territory by internalizing them as ghostly figures within the white imagination. When white Americans conceive of themselves as haunted by Native Americans, they construct themselves as sharers in a national imagination. However, the horrors of Indian spectralization are clear, and so the discourse questions the very nationalism it constructs. Indians who are transformed into ghosts cannot be buried or evaded, and the spectre of their forced disappearance haunts the American nation and the American imagination. Indian ghosts signify national guilt and horror, but they are also figures of national pride and pleasure. Possession and dispossession tells the story of a terrifying and triumphant American aesthetic that repeatedly transforms horror into glory, national dishonour into national pride. Berry, David S. (1993) "Aboriginal self-determination under international law: Reconciling distinct historical rights

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with existing international law models." LL.M. Thesis, Queen's University at Kingston. 271 pp. All self-determination claims can be analyzed in terms of a 'sliding scale' which encompasses potential forms for application of the right. Possible modalities for aboriginal self-determination include: (1) control over specific institutions or programs; (2) municipal/provincial levels of self-government; (3) federal models; (4) international integration with other states/territories; (5) secession and formation of independent states; and, (6) free association at international levels. Existing examples of aboriginal self-determination are discussed for each of these modalities, as well as suggestions for future developments. Two case studies are examined: the Six Nations Confederacy, and the James Bay Cree Nation. The former seeks some form of greater autonomy, potentially sovereignty and independent statehood. The latter presents a claim in the context of a future secession by Québec from Canada, and appears to seek exercise of self-determination rights through international integration or greater recognition of sovereignty and autonomy. Both of these claims show entitlements to a right of self-determination under international law. But at what level, or which modality of exercise, these rights can be utilized will to a large extent be dependent upon the cooperation of the international community and surrounding states. Nonetheless, rights of self-determination for aboriginal peoples exist under international law, and states and the international community are obligated to respect and implement them. Biever, Nicole L. (2005) "Wild cat dreaming: The dreaming experience as a means of constructing the individual in Mudrooroo Nyoongah/Colin Johnson's novels." M.A. Thesis, South Dakota State University. 99 pp. This thesis explores Mudrooroo Nyoongah/Colin Johnson's employment of the form of the novel as a means of negotiating identity. Mudrooroo uses the novel as his primary genre, even though this western genre seems to contradict his emphasis on his Aboriginal heritage, and his claim of identity as an Aborigine is further challenged by evidence that he may have no Aboriginal heritage at all. An examination of several accounts of Mudrooroo's biography demonstrates a cultural and personal struggle to determine the writer's identity. This study argues that Mudrooroo is able to successfully negotiate he interpretations of identity imposed by other voices and construct his individuality by employing the novel form. Mudrooroo's employment of the Aboriginal concept of the dreaming in his novels -- including Wild cat falling (1965), Doctor Wooreddy's prescription for enduring the ending of the world (1983), Master of the ghost dreaming (1991), and Wildcat screaming (1992) -- allows him to reconcile those conflicting interpretations of his identity and construct himself as an individual. Through the Aboriginal experience of the dreaming, both the writer and his characters construct their individualities by resolving internal and external interpretations of identity. Biglow, Brad M. (2001) "Ethno-nationalist politics and cultural preservation: Education and bordered identities among the Wixaritari (Huichol) of Tateikita, Jalisco, Mexico." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Florida. 315 pp. This dissertation examines the relationship between “indigenously controlled” education and cultural preservation among the Wixaritari, or Huichol, of the Sierra Madre Mountains of Jalisco, Mexico. Studies of indigenous identity and schooling are still lacking in anthropological fieldwork. While such studies have, in the past, focused on native education in the United States, there has been little research done on the impacts of indigenous-controlled education on the enculturation process of Indian youth, particularly in Latin America, and whether such educational environments really serve to fortify indigenous identity, and if so, how it is done. Recently, there has been resurgence in ethno-nationalism or self-determination among the indigenous peoples of Mexico and Latin America. This study examines the role of so-called indigenouscontrolled community schooling in fight of these larger pan-Indian movement goals, showing that indigenous people are themselves divided over the process of cultural preservation due to their own changing sense of ethnic identity. Conflict results, creating a reliance on notions of an “imagined community” to unify social actors in a drama of power-knowledge relationships in which intellectuals, not traditionalists, control the educational process, channelling knowledge to meet the goals of the “imagined community” which may or may not be shared by all social actors. Biolsi, Thomas. (1987) "Organizing the Lakota: The implementation of the Indian Reorganization Act on Rosebud and Pine Ridge reservations." Ph.D. Dissertation, Columbia University. 304 pp. The Indian Reorganization Act (IRA) was a reform measure in the administration of Indian affairs in the United States which altered the relationship between reservation Indians and the Office of Indian Affairs (OIA) in major ways. Among these, the IRA provided for Indian self-government in the form of tribal councils based on constitutions drafted by the non-Indian reformers. The dissertation analyzes the politics of the implementation of the self-government provisions of the IRA by focussing on the several intentions of the

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federal officials who carried out the provisions and on the various Indian responses to the bill. Three branches of the federal government were involved: (1) the Interior Department solicitor's office which drafted the tribal constitutions and formally supervised tribal council actions; (2) the Washington office of the OIA which directed the organizing of tribes under the IRA and protected the bill from hostile attack in Congress; and, (3) the local OIA superintendents who administered the reservations and did most of the actual work of organizing the tribal councils. Each branch had its own interests and agendas regarding the IRA and the Lakota tribal councils. Because the IRA altered the relations between the Lakota and the OIA, there was a range of Lakota responses. Some Lakota zealously embraced the idea of Indian self-government and sought tribal council and personal power in ways unintended by the OIA. Other Lakota rejected the IRA tribal councils as culturally-alien institutions foisted on them; they organized a formidable resistance movement. The OIA used its power to attempt to prevent wide deviations in Indian behaviour from its model of Indian self-government. Conclusions are drawn from the analysis regarding the conceptualization of culture change on North American Indian reservations. While it is necessary to move beyond traditional acculturation studies in order to understand the role of power in acculturation, it is argued that global perspectives such as the underdevelopment model also miss the politics of Indian policy. An appreciation for the strategic actions of individuals competing for power in social fields not limited to micro- or macro-levels is found useful. Bisson, Antonio F. (1972 ) "A demographic study of the Fort Resolution native population, Northwest Territories." M.A. Thesis, University of Manitoba (The). Blackburn, Carole R. (2003) "Negotiating rights, reconciling history: The Nisga'a treaty and the terms of inclusion in the Canadian state." Ph.D. Dissertation, Stanford University. 206 pp. In 1998 the Canadian government concluded a historic land claims and self-government agreement with the Nisga'a people of north-western British Columbia. Based on a multi-sited ethnographic field study and archival research conducted in Canada during 1999 and 2000, this dissertation argues that the public debate over the Nisga'a treaty involved a series of questions about modernity, history, progress, and the production and protection of national identities and state sovereignty. These questions were shaped by a set of local, national and transnational factors, including (1) the increased recognition of aboriginal rights by Canadian courts and the Canadian constitution; (2) the fact that aboriginal land claims create uncertainty over property, which was believed to drive away international investment in regional resource development; and, (3) the growing salience of human rights discourses internationally, matched with an international political trend toward addressing past human rights violations through reconciliation and apology. These factors were crucial in shaping both how the rights of the Nisga'a were negotiated and the terms of the treaty itself. More specifically, this dissertation shows that in the process of discussing and defining Nisga'a peoples' rights, particular legal and political discourses emerged in the areas of citizenship, property, reconciliation, and economic certainty. Each of these discourses attempted to mediate between, respectively, the prenational rights of aboriginal people and the more recent temporal origins of the Canadian state, between aboriginal title and western property law, between historical injustice and future reconciliation, and between aboriginal claims to land and the state's need to secure certainty of property rights in order to attract increasingly mobile transnational capital. In and through each of these emergent discourses, the conceptual categories and power of western law emerged as the means to both recognize aboriginal rights and title and, by capturing them in a treaty, protect Canadian sovereignty and create national and regional landscapes suitable for economic investment. Broadly, this dissertation is a study of nation-making that occurs over the grounds of an aboriginal rights issue, through the law, to meet the economic conditions of late 20th century capital. Blair, Hilary K. (1999) "Settling Seabird Island: Land, resources, and ownership on a British Columbia Indian Reserve." M.A. Thesis, Simon Fraser University. 134 pp. After Reserve Commissioner Gilbert M. Sproat provisionally designated Seabird Island, near Agassiz, BC, as a reserve in common for seven Indian bands in 1879, a long struggle ensued over the island and its resources. This thesis examines the processes whereby the Seabird Island band came into being, and how the land, despite great opposition, was retained for the aboriginal residents. It argues that the complex history reveals an inconsistent administration by the Department of Indian Affairs, characterized by policy reversals, and that the department sometimes acted in contravention of its own mandate. This intensified the inter-band dispute which had been set in motion by pressure from non-aboriginal neighbours who wished to settle on the island. It is a story of complex interactions not only between, but also within, diverse groups of people.

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Aboriginals and Euro-Canadians were both highly differentiated groups, and neither had a single vision for the island. The diversity of opinion among native peoples may represent the continuity of pre-existing tribal affiliations. Divisions within and between governments hindered efficient Indian administration. The study, therefore, deepens our understanding about the complicated nature of inter-governmental, native-white, and intra-native relations, further informing us about the processes of colonization and federal Indian administration in British Columbia. Blythe, Martin J. (1988) "From Mäoriland to Aotearoa: Images of the Mäori in New Zealand film and television." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles. 486 pp. The people of New Zealand consist of approximately 85% from British or European descent (the Pakeha) and approximately 12% from indigenous descent (the Mäori). This dissertation is an analytical narrative of how Pakeha New Zealanders have represented the Mäori in film and television images and thus their own image in the reflection this provided. The dissertation begins with an introduction to the ethical dilemmas -- the 'double binds' -- generated in/by cross-cultural studies of this kind. It then analyses over 50 films and television programs produced since 1900 as if they were allegories of national and cultural myth-making: the myths of authenticity, the Fall, the Noble Savage, spiritual and cultural essence, national identity, and so on. The films are grouped in genres. Structurally the dissertation divides chronologically into three parts: Mäoriland (1900-1930), New Zealand (1930-1960), and Aotearoa (1960-1990), reflecting the transitions from the imperial era through the national era to the present era and contemporary debates about nationalism and postmodern internationalism, biculturalism and multiculturalism, the rise of Mäori nationalism, and so on. ' Mäoriland' highlights two key genres: the timeless and the historical romance. The former removes the Mäori from imperial time and into another space; the latter annexes the Mäori into the national identity. Other contemporary genres -- the ethnographic and tourism romances -- are hybrids of these. 'New Zealand' discusses the evolution of the newsreel from the war years into the social problem documentary (the Mäori-as-social-problem) and ultimately the pilgrimage documentary (the Mäori-assource-of-authenticity). This was the era when the Integration Math and a national identity were at their most persuasive. 'Aotearoa' discusses four recent filmic responses to the Mäori renaissance and the current double bind: the politics of silence; the politics of self-blame (the guilt of colonization); the politics of repression (of the Mäori); and the politics of irony (as cross-cultural discourse becomes increasingly ambiguous). The conclusion discusses the first self-consciously Mäori film-making in the 1980s and attempts to resolve or evade the double bind. Bobb, Bonnie E. (1999) "Cohort differences in the acculturation of a Native American Indian population: Individualism/collectivism, locus of control, attributional style, epistemological assumptions, and spirituality." Ph.D. Dissertation, Pennsylvania State University (The). 143 pp. The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the applicability of theoretical models of acculturation to a sample of Native American Indian people, the Western Shoshone or Newe. The goals of this investigation were (1) to make a contribution toward differentiating some of the psychological components that contribute to the concept of culture; (2) to study the effects of acculturation and resistance to acculturation in a group of indigenous people within the United States; and, (3) to examine whether current psychological theories need modification when applied to certain non-Western populations. Specifically, the research investigated possible changes in traditional self-referential thinking styles among the Newe, due to their exposure to the dominant Euro-American culture. First, three theoretical models of acculturation were introduced: a single continuum model, a two-culture matrix model, and a multidimensional model. Then, a brief history and ethnography of the Western Shoshone nation was presented. Participants were Newe living in one of three residential settings: trust lands, colonies (similar to trust lands, but located near to or within towns), or urban areas, and stratified into three age groups: 18-25, 26-45, and 45+. Inventories measuring collectivism-reference, individualism of self-reference, cultural identification, locus of control, depression, attributional style, and epistemelogical style were administered to each participant. In addition, a Western Shoshone Cultural Interview with a Spirituality sub-scale, devised by the author, was included. Data were analyzed using MANOVA and ANOVA. No differences were found between residential groups on the any of the hypotheses at the p < .05 level of significance. However, because of the exploratory nature of the study, borderline significant effects and trends are reported for future analysis with larger sample sizes. The findings support a multidimensional model of acculturation with traits acculturating independently. In most cases, the three residential groups appear to be more alike than different. However, the three groups

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appear to be very different from the dominant Euro-American culture. Evidence for a collective orientation and a hunter-gatherer heritage are discussed. Appropriateness of some of the inventories with this sample is questioned. Findings are related to the three original goals of the study. Bohn, Diane K. (1993) "The health effects of domestic violence before and during pregnancy among urban American Indian women in Minnesota: An exploratory study." D.N.Sc. Dissertation, Rush University, College of Nursing. 260 pp. The purpose of this study is to examine rates of domestic abuse, abuse during pregnancy and the health effects of abuse among Native American women. This study is a combined retrospective-prospective exploratory study that examines individual and cumulative physical, sexual and emotional abuses experienced during childhood and adulthood. 30 pregnant Native American women from one urban clinic participated in the study. Data collection included prenatal and postpartum chart reviews as well as personal interviews. The majority of study participants (90%) reported having experienced some type of abuse, including childhood abuse (physical: 27%; sexual: 40%; either: 47%), sexual abuse as adults (40%; 17% current partner), abuse by an intimate partner (87%; 70% current partner), battering during pregnancy (57%; 33% current pregnancy). 70% of participants had experienced multiple abuses. An Abuse Events variable was created to examine the effects of cumulative abuses. Significant relationships were found between increased abuse events and chemical dependency, depression, increased preterm birth/low birth weight (PTB/LBW) risk scores and child abuse. Significant relationships were found between current abuse and decreased birth weight and inadequate prenatal care; between childhood abuse and chemical dependency; and between battering during pregnancy and increased Index of Spouse Abuse scores. Perceived cultural acceptance of violence against women was significantly related to current abuse, battering during pregnancy and increased abuse events. Other relationships of clinical, but not statistical significance were found between various types of abuse and inadequate weight gain, sexually transmitted diseases and substance use during pregnancy, suicide attempts, depression, PTB/LBW and miscarriage. The results of this study indicate that Native American women may be a population at great risk of abuse and health problems including substance abuse, suicide and pregnancy complications. Overall rates of abuse and health problems and risks are interpreted using a model of abuse and dysfunction that includes an historical analysis of native cultures and the intergenerational post-traumatic stress disorder caused by historical and current abuses of Native American peoples. Culturally specific nursing interventions are discussed. Further research to examine culturally specific forms of abuse and to expand the current study are recommended. Bomberry, Victoria J. (2001) "Indigenous memory and imagination: Thinking beyond the nation." Ph.D. Dissertation, Stanford University. 210 pp. This dissertation is a study of the ways in which cultural productions of indigenous women affect local, national and international discourses and is furthering an emergent hemispheric consciousness on the part of native people. The dissertation focuses on the novels of Leslie Marmon Silko, N. Scott Momaday, and a protest march and a video initiated by the cocaleras, the women coca growers, of Bolivia. The first chapter explores the question of an indigenous women's epistemology and deals with the issues of: (1) A comparison of the tribal social movements of the late 18th and early 19th century that unified the eastern part of what is now the United States against increasing cultural and physical encroachment by the United States; (2) The imaginary topography of the United States that has been coded as the “space of death” because of the genocide that was perpetrated on indigenous people; and, (3) Analysis of two novels by N. Scott Momaday that played an influential role in shaping the identity politics of the 60s and 70s and contributed to the process of the masculinization of indigenous knowledges. The second chapter, “Indigenous Hemispheric Consciousness” deals with two of the novels written by Leslie Marmon Silko Ceremony and Almanac of the dead which examine the concept of what I call an emergent “hemispheric consciousness.” This concept reinserts native women as active producers of knowledge and refeminizes the imaginary. Silko uses prophecy that allows access to a past that is like yesterday and a future that is known and spoken in the present moment. For Silko there is no single prophet, but ways of reading, deciphering, repairing and adding to the ancient texts of the Americas. The third chapter, “Postmodern Dystopias: The War on Drugs and Indians at the end of the Millennium”, stretches Silko's map south into Bolivia. It describes the situation in Bolivia during the 90s and its effects on indigenous people.

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The fourth chapter, “The War on Drugs is a War on Women,” records and analyzes a 31 day march planned and executed by the cocaleras in the Chapare region of Bolivia. By 1995 the militarization of the war on drugs had become unbearable because of the day by day disruption and violation of women's lives. The march marked a turning point for the ways in which indigenous women assert their citizenship. Bonnell, Jennifer L. (1999) "Mapping songs, mapping histories: The negotiation of cultural perspectives on Gitxsan territory." M.A. Thesis, University of Victoria. 93 pp. Behind political and legal conflicts over aboriginal land and resource rights in British Columbia lies a more fundamental impasse in cultural perspectives. For aboriginal people, a dilemma emerges between the compulsion to communicate their principles and values in terms that non-aboriginal people can understand (at the risk of sacrificing important context), and the compulsion to preserve 'absolute meanings' at the risk of sacrificing communication. This thesis explores theoretical approaches to translation as a way of moving beyond this impasses in Crown-aboriginal relations. It follows the efforts of the Gitxsan First Nation -- both in the courts and in practice initiatives -- to translate aspects of an aboriginal perspective as evidence of their claim to the land. This thesis examines three examples of impasse in cultural perspectives, and the Gitxsan's response to that impasse. The first occurs in historic disputes over trapline registration in the 1930s, when different cultural conceptions of 'trapline' led to conflict and, in isolated circumstances, to negotiation. The second occurs in the trial of Delgamuukw v. The Queen (1991), where differences over the nature of aboriginal title and the presentation of aboriginal evidence led to an impasse in communication in the trial, and to a negotiation of meanings in subsequent appeals. In the third example, the Gitxsan explore ways of facilitating cross-cultural communication through the translation of aboriginal evidence into graphic maps. The maps demonstrate a Gitxsan understanding of territory in which cultural rights are inextricably connected to the ecosystems on which they are based. In each case, differences between western and aboriginal concepts remain constant; the potential for conflict or, alternatively, for negotiation builds in correlation with developmental pressures. Taken together, the examples show how the Gitxsan have adapted their claim of ownership and jurisdiction of the territories to different political environments, using different technologies. By presenting evidence from an aboriginal perspective, the Gitxsan encourage the Crown to begin its own process of translation: to make room for aboriginal concepts of title, and aboriginal methods of presenting evidence, in order to reach equitable agreements. The Gitxsan's approach has implications not only for their own development plans, but also for those of other First Nations. Bopp, Michael. (1985) "Education for development." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Alberta. Borrows, Jennifer A. (2000) "The Chippewa experience with the therapy process: Stepping stones to healing." Ph.D. Dissertation, Kansas State University. 246 pp. The treatment of the Canadian Anishinabe people, commonly referred to as Chippewa, presents unique challenges to mental health services providers and researchers. There has been a need to understand the First Nations peoples' perception of therapies and the healing process to ensure that service providers will help, not harm, this population. This study employed a hybrid of ethnographical and phenomenological methods to collect experiences of therapy/healing from ten Chippewa participants from a band in southern Ontario. Information was collected by interviews and field observations. Many Chippewa people sought services as a result of oppression and both present and historical trauma. Common healing experiences, which were identified, included requiring the service provider to heal him or herself, be trustworthy, be non-judgmental, know the band's historical trauma, use silence, and listen. Many left or returned to the reservation to begin the healing process. They attended traditional ceremonies with the goal of being in harmony with nature. Follow-up services were important. A wide variety of mental health services and providers were accessed. Both mainstream methods and Chippewa 'traditional' means had been utilized by all of these participants. Different modes of services had specific functions at different stages in their healing journeys. Healing integrated holistic (i.e. spiritual) elements. Substance abuse had been used to deal with grief. The reasons for attending therapy/healing were to connect with self, connect with the band/community and to connect to the Chippewa culture. Participants felt the duty to assist others in the healing process, as they started to heal themselves. Participants, who had used family therapy services, were more likely to access them during times of crisis and did not expect to attend more than four sessions. Implications included marriage and family therapists' networking with multiple services providers, evaluating the trajectory of

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healing frequently, and being available for follow-up services. Implications and ideas for future research were outlined. Bose, Pablo S. (2000) "Damning development: The rise of the 'new grassroots' in the Clayoquot Sound and the Narmada Valley." M.A. Thesis, Simon Fraser University. 145 pp. Over the course of the past century, environmentalism has emerged as an important social and political movement. The birth of this movement has been necessitated by a wealth of factors, particularly the dominance of the western industrial development paradigm. Yet while it can be argued that there now exists a broad ecological awareness throughout the world, it is equally true that the environmental movement is composed of many disparate elements. This thesis focuses on one of these elements, on what are known as the 'new grassroots' movements. These groups are a recent evolution within environmentalism, organizations dedicated to the cause of social and ecological justice in many parts of the world. The rise of these 'new grassroots' movements has been attributed by many critics to the failures and problems with other traditional and mainstream forms of environmentalism. This thesis, therefore, undertakes a closer examination of the established environmental traditions in order to better understand their perceived flaws. For the same purpose, this thesis also explores the historical and theoretical basis for many of our modern conceptions of the relationship between humankind and nature. Having identified the background from which the 'new grassroots' emerge, this study goes on to examine in greater detail two particular 'new grassroots' movements -- one in India and one in Canada. The purpose is to understand the context out of which such groups arise and document the methods they utilize to effect social and ecological change. The overall goal of this thesis is to learn practicable and applicable lessons as a result of these various inquiries. By examining the shortcomings of mainstream environmentalism we can identify problematic strategies and tactics that ecologically-motivated groups would be wise to avoid. By learning from the victories and defeats of the two subjects of study, we can provide broad recommendations for ways in which to achieve effective environmental advocacy. Only be having such a thorough and selfreflexive vision of environmentalism can we embark on finding just and equitable solutions to the modern ecological crisis. Boswell, Marion J. (1978 ) "Civilizing the Indian: Government administration of Indians, 1876-96." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Ottawa. Boughter, Judith A. (1995) "Betraying their trust: The dispossession of the Omaha nation, 1790-1916." M.A. Thesis, University of Nebraska -- Omaha (The). 341 pp. In 1854, the government forced the once-powerful Omaha Indian tribe onto a small reservation in northeastern Nebraska. Resenting the Omahas' ownership of this fertile farmland, settlers and land syndicates campaigned relentlessly to alienate the Indians from their property. Due to the words and actions of only a few tribal 'progressives,' the Omahas became the prototype for several disastrous government programs during the assimilationist era. Omaha allotment preceded the 1887 Dawes Act by five years; whites leased Omaha lands long before leasing became an official government policy; and the Omahas were the first tribe to begin losing their lands as the result of competency commissions. All of these 'firsts' had disastrous effects on the Omaha people, and by 1916, many Omahas were landless and facing uncertain futures. But reformers and government officials learned little from the Omaha tragedy, and expanded these programs to include Indian tribes throughout the United States. Boulanger, Lori A. (1999 ) ""Resisting coercive assimilation": Identity, empowerment and activism in the native Hawai'ian movement on Hawai'i Island." Ph.D. Dissertation, State University of New York at Albany. 378 pp. Hawai'ians are engaged in an oppositional critique of the social and political structure which dominates island life. No longer content to be coercively assimilated by Western culture and colonialism, they have, since the 1970s, been organizing themselves at the grassroots level. Sovereignty, self-determination, cultural identity, and land issues form the basis for activism on every island whom grassroots organizations have emerged as part of the Hawai'ian Movement. This dissertation is a study of Native Hawai'ians on Hawai'i Island who are engaged in this Movement, and in particular of three organizations: The Pele Defence Fund, Ka 'Ohana, O KaLae, and Free Association. The original intent of this research centred around three questions which focused on the construction of cultural identity in the Movement, the way in which the past is used and represented, and the relationship between activists and anthropologists.

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While activism and cultural identity have been the dominant themes throughout this research, the issue of identity as a construction has been overshadowed by a concern with how Hawai'ians in this Movement experience their activism in the daily struggle for survival. What became most apparent is that Hawai'ian activists are occupying contested lands both for political reasons, and in an effort to create places of refuge from the dominant society. By appropriating lands, building Hawai'ian cultural villages, and protecting natural and historic sites, Hawai'ian are clearly defining who they are while demarcating the boundaries between Hawai'ian and non-Hawai'ian cultural spaces. This dissertation explores the inner workings and variations within the Hawai'ian Movement among the organizations studied, as well as within the greater Movement. These variations were found to include gender and class distinctions which were tied into degrees of assimilation into American society. I show that rather than ignoring the forms of asymmetry and inequality present in this Movement, their investigation provides a way to better understand the internal politics of the Movement and how these interact with the external forces of domination that are present. Such an understanding can strengthen a position of solidarity, as it helps to clarify the complex relations between dominant and dominated, as well as within oppressed groups. Bourgeault, Ron G. (1986 ) "Class, race and gender: Political economy and the Canadian fur trade, 1670s to 1820s." M.A. Thesis, University of Regina (The). 223 pp. This study investigates the relationship established between the Indian and the European in the fur trade. Based on the thesis of unequal development, the study discusses the class relations established between Canadian Indians, in the production of fur, and the British bourgeoisie, engaged in the accumulation of capital. This study also examines the structural relationship established between Rupert's Land as a periphery and Britain as a centre area in the accumulation of capital. The methods employed in the investigation of this relationship are those of historical materialism. Specifically, two structural relationships are investigated. First, class is examined from the point of view of the integration of the Indian into the international division of labour and capitalism as a world-system. A division of labour was created between the Indian and the European which became the basis of a racial division of labour. Indian women are examined in the context of the integration of the communal sexual division of labour into the international division of labour. Class and race divisions were created and imposed on Indian women, Indian women in turn were exploited in a manner unlike that of Indian men. The result was the special subjugation of Indian women. At the basis of the division of the labour in Canada between Indian and European was the different value accorded labour power dictated by the need to accumulate capital in Europe. Second, the fur trade is examined in the context of British dominance over Rupert's Land. A structural relationship was created, based on class formations and unequal exchange, which resulted in the underdevelopment of Rupert's Land and contributed to the development of the capitalist mode of production in Britain. The productive forces in Rupert's Land were increased for the purpose of fur production, but thereafter there was little change. Capital accumulation internally in Rupert's Land during the first century and a half was non-existent. Capitalist relations of production were imposed in the early 19th century which allowed for the internal accumulation of capital, but in an extremely regulated fashion. The result was the unequal development of capitalism between Rupert's Land (periphery) and Britain (centre). Bowman, Barbara J. (1994 ) "Differences in the development and expression of a sense of coherence between EuroAmericans and Native Americans." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of North Dakota (The). 170 pp. This study addressed the development and expression of Antonovsky's (1987) Sense of Coherence (SOC) in individual lives in a cross-cultural context. Two groups of subjects were examined using a survey format. One group was from the Northern Cheyenne Reservation in Montana and the other from UND. The psychological and physical health of these subjects, their family interaction patterns, and the coping strategies they use were examined to assist in increasing our understanding about how people from different cultures manage stress and stay healthy. Both groups appear equally healthy, both mentally and physically, and scored equally well on measures of SOC. Negative correlations between SOC and measures of depression, anxiety and physical symptoms were found for both groups. Despite these similarities, the pathways by which the two groups achieved SOC appeared to differ. T-tests indicated that UND students were from smaller families of higher economic status who were more likely to stress independence, achievement, and active recreation than the Dull Knife Memorial College students. DKMC students were more likely from larger families of lower economic status who were more likely to stress moral and religious values and to use cognitive restructuring as a coping strategy than the UND students. Discriminant analyses suggested that membership in each of the two groups could be predicted by: (a) socioeconomic status; (b) cohesiveness of the family unit; (c) the use of cognitive restructuring as a coping strategy; and, (d) anger of

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the subject. Multiple regressions suggested that a strong SOC could be predicted in the DKMC sample by frequency of childhood prayer and emotional expressiveness. A strong SOC could be predicted in the UND sample by active recreation, cognitive restructuring, family organization and, interestingly, the number of people in the present family suffering from addiction. Boxberger, Daniel L. (1986) "Resource allocation and control on the Lummi Indian reservation: A century of conflict and change in the salmon fishery." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of British Columbia (The). This study focuses on the Lummi Indian fishers of northwest Washington State, and the manner in which they have been included in and excluded from the commercial fishing industry over the past 100 years. The approach to be taken in this situation of internal dependency is to examine access to resources. The control of productive resources -- land, water, timber, minerals, and fish -- that Indians own or have access to, presents an ideal starting point for understanding Indian underdevelopment. Prior to and immediately after the time the Lummi were confined to a reservation, they were engaged in a traditional fishery that met their needs for subsistence and had the potential to develop into a viable commercial endeavour. The penetration of capital into the commercial salmon fishery of North Puget Sound initially utilized Lummi labour, but the development of new extractive technologies and an increase in the availability of labour of other ethnicities rapidly circumvented the need for Indian labour. Concomitantly, throughout the early 1900s, efforts by the State of Washington to curtail Indian fishing resulted in the Lummi being confined to a small reservation fishery of insignificant commercial potential. In the 1940s, when Lummi exclusion from the fishery was almost total, the need for fishers suddenly became acute, and the Lummi were once again incorporated into the commercial salmon fishery. Nevertheless, the post-war era again saw new developments in the salmon industry, and, no longer needed by the processors, the Lummi were once again squeezed out of the industry. Sympathetic court cases in the late 1960s and early 1970s guaranteed commercially significant fishing opportunity for the Lummi. Nevertheless, the present Lummi salmon fishery is not going to provide the Lummi with a viable economic base. The manner in which the fishery has developed is causing the majority of the economic yield of the fishery to be siphoned off to non-Lummi interests. Utilizing ethnohistorical and ethnographic data, this study examines a dependency approach to understanding Lummi underdevelopment. By focusing primarily on economic and political dependency on the United States Federal Government, this study shows how the Lummi community was incorporated into the dominant society and became a dependent community suffering from chronic underdevelopment, despite access to and utilization of a valuable natural resource. Braatz, Timothy. (1997) "The Yavapais: A history of Indians in north-central Arizona to 1910." Ph.D. Dissertation, Arizona State University. 543 pp. The Yavapai Indians once occupied a large territory in what is now north-central Arizona. Yavapai families lived in small, independent, and highly-mobile camps and maintained a hunting and gathering economy, in places supplemented with small-scale agriculture. Relations with neighbouring Indian groups along the Colorado and Gila rivers included military alliances and rivalries, trade, and resource sharing. Very few non-Indians entered Yavapai territory before 1860, but most Yavapai camps felt their influence as the arrival of European livestock, crops, technology, beliefs, and disease transformed the North American southwest. In the 1860s, large numbers of whites invaded Yavapai country in search of gold and farmland. Yavapai camps responded in different ways; some tried to accommodate white demands while others turned to military resistance. The growing presence of whites disrupted the Yavapai economy and United States military power forced Yavapai families to move onto reservations. In 1873, most surviving Yavapais were concentrated at the Rio Verde reservation in the heart of Yavapai lands. At Rio Verde, they generally cooperated with US demands and began adjusting to a sedentary, agricultural lifestyle. But in 1875, US officials forced them to relocate to the San Carlos Reservation in western Apache territory. Yavapai families spent the next 25 years in exile. They adopted non-Yavapai traditions of livestock-raising, large-scale agriculture, and wage labour, and around 1900, with permission from reservation officials, gradually wandered back to their homelands. Through political lobbying and persistent occupation, the Yavapais acquired new reservation lands in the early 20th century, thus restoring to them a small part of their original territory. This study draws on ethnographic materials and numerous US Indian Office and Army documents to analyze how Yavapais reacted to the influx of non-Indians into their territory. Other studies of Arizona history have reduced Yavapai responses to the knee-jerk violence of 'savages.' However, an examination of early Yavapai life and relations with other Indians and with Spanish explorers reveals a variety of practices, motivations, and strategies which informed the way Yavapais dealt with whites in the 19th century. Yavapais struggled

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constantly to survive in their harsh desert environment, and thus their efforts to maintain economic and territorial integrity in the face of disruption and dislocation are the central theme of this account. Bracken, Christopher J. (1994) "White gift: The potlatch and the rhetoric of Canadian colonialism, 1868-1936." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of British Columbia (The). 320 pp. This dissertation examines the irony of Canada's discourse on 'Indian affairs' by reinterpreting the postal literature generated around the banning of the potlatch in British Columbia from 1868 to 1936. To explain the logic behind the antipotlatch law, the first section, 'Folding,' examines a set of texts which draw an absolute limit between Europe and the coastal First Nations. The gift is the privileged sign of this limit: it divides the societies which potlatch from a Euro-Canadian society which claims to be a system of exchange. Ironically, the moment such a limit is put into writing, it folds together everything it sets apart. The second section, 'Giving,' situates the antipotlatch literature within the context of this ironic fold. By banning the potlatch, Canada aimed to Europeanize the coastal First Nations: to collapse them into the white collectivity even though the collectivity defined itself by excluding them from its borders. To kill the potlatch was to erase the gift, the mark distinguishing Canada from the cultures it wished to absorb. Yet the potlatch which Canada banned did not correspond with the potlatches which the First Nations performed. The legal text gave its own potlatch to the world. The dissertation is, above all, an attempt to explain the mechanics of this textual gift. The antipotlatch law also banned something it called the 'Tamanawas' dance, which was alleged to be a form of ritual cannibalism. Section three, 'Eating,' argues that the effort to kill the potlatch was an act of cannibalistic white nationalism. The two authors of the only serious attempt to enforce the law -- William Halliday and Duncan Campbell Scott -- interpreted Canada's relation to the First Nations as a relation of incorporation. Their texts think whiteness as an act of mourning, where to be white is to belong to a nation that recalls itself to itself by interiorizing the memory of an aboriginal other who has died. Yet the other refuses to die. The thought of whiteness finds itself tied to, and opposed by, the memory of a death which is projected onto the horizon of an endlessly deferred future. Brade, Cassandra R. (2002) "The relationship between participation in aboriginal cultural activities/languages and educational achievement for native Canadians: An analysis of the 1991 Aboriginal Peoples Survey." M.Sc. Thesis, University of Manitoba (The). 131 pp. This research examined the associations between cultural retention, various aspects of identity formation, and mobility on levels of academic achievement of Canadian aboriginal people. A secondary analysis of a sample of 636 respondents to the 1991 Aboriginal Peoples Survey was conducted. The variables examined included: participation in cultural activities and native language(s), perception of parental and family support, having aboriginal teachers, aboriginal language(s) being used in the classroom, aboriginal language facility, liking what was taught in school about native people and history, and number of schools attended. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses indicated significant relationships between educational attainment and aboriginal language facility, liking what was taught about aboriginal people in elementary school, and number of high schools attended. Recommendations for future research include the use of more precise data on the variables of interest in order to confidently predict the factors which affect educational achievement among Canada's aboriginal people. Brady, Patrick. (1991) "An analysis of program delivery services in First Nations, federal and provincial schools in Northwestern Ontario." M.Ed. Thesis, Lakehead University. 174 pp. This study compares federal, provincial and First Nations schools' delivery of specific educational services to Native students in Northwestern Ontario. Areas of comparison include those which the Indian Education Paper Phase One (INAC, 1982) regarded as "determinants of program quality" (p. 20): (a) curriculum and standards; (b) staffing; (c) staff support and supervision; and, (d) student support services. The results of the study indicate that all three educational systems have programs in place to provide the above educational services to the Native students enrolled in their schools. There are, however, significant differences among the systems in the manner in which these services are implemented. Differences were found in the provision of a Native cultural component in the curriculum, the professional qualifications required of teaching staff, the employment benefit packages provided to educational employees, the nature of supervisory relations, and the provision of student support services. (Abstract shortened by UMI.) Brealey, Kenneth G. (2002) "First (national) space: (Ab)original (re)mappings of British Columbia." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of British Columbia (The). 689 pp. Before contact First Nations in what is now British Columbia were not mapmakers. Territory was

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demarcated experientially, by genealogy, oral narrative, ceremony, and the social arts. Since contact, however, and especially since the beginning of the comprehensive claims process in the early 1970s, First Nations have become mapmakers -- not because they especially wanted to but because they had to. They have recognized that cartography -- whether in court, at the treaty table, or for pedagogical purposes -- is a way of validating aboriginal title and rights. They have also recognized, however, that committing their geographies to maps is a risky endeavour. Much of what distinguishes First Nations' geographical space does not translate well in a cartographic register and Euro-Canadians generally lack the cultural equipment to interpret and evaluate what does. This dissertation tries to open a space where translation can occur. Drawing on both native and ethnographic sources and guided by my experience and some of the postcolonial literature, I show that First Nations' maps are both a record of an encounter that has always turned on the ability of one side to dominate the representational terrain of the other and a window on a world that most non-natives have hitherto apprehended only in the faintest outline. The questions raised by this dissertation, then, are of a theoretical sort, but the answers are matters of fact and future practice. Land claims, if they are about anything at all, are about the struggle over geography -- both the terrestrial object, and the perspective through which that object is territorialized -- for aboriginal title and rights, if recognized by law, mean nothing without the territories to which they refer. At issue is not whether the 'map of First Nations' is more true than the 'map of British Columbia' -- though I will defend such a claim -- but whether or not, in mirroring one against the other, a space of mutual understanding can be reached. ———. (1995) "Mapping them 'out': Euro-Canadian cartography and the appropriation of First Nations' territories in British Columbia, 1793-1916." M.A. Thesis, Simon Fraser University. 296 pp. In this thesis I use a 'materialist hermeneutic' to interpret and understand the way in which maps made by European discoverers, explorers, and colonizers during the imperial and (post)colonial periods helped actualize the territorial dispossession of the (ab)original inhabitants of what is now British Columbia. Beginning with the charts of George Vancouver and Alexander Mackenzie, and finishing with the reserve plans of the 1916 Royal Commission, I illustrate this thesis by tracing the cartographic encirclement of the First Nations of the northwest coast between 1793 and 1916. There are three essential themes: (a) the 'positioning' of the map artefact in an ideological power network; (b) the subjective emplacement of the objective 'other' in the geographical perspective authorized by the network; and, (c) the representational discourses on the 'surface' of the map that comprise the rules under which that emplacement is achieved and maintained. Our entry (and exit) point is the 1991 BC Supreme Court case Delgamuukw vs. A.G., in which maps were used as evidence by both the Gitksan and Wet'suwet'en nations (the plaintiffs) and the Crown (the defence). Given the manner in which the Court interpreted this evidence, the thesis has implications not only for our understanding the social function of maps in historical or contemporary land claims, but also for the way in which we establish, sustain, and defend our own territorial legitimacy at the expense of another. Bredin, Marian. (1995) "Aboriginal media in Canada: Cultural politics and communication practices." Ph.D. Dissertation, McGill University. 518 pp. This dissertation considers the relation between culture and communication with respect to the development of aboriginal media in Canada. It introduces and elaborates a concept of cultural politics with which to interpret the history of contact between aboriginal and non-aboriginal people. This concept is further applied to an analysis of Canadian cultural and communications policy and the intervention of native broadcasters in policy procedures and discourses. The dissertation undertakes a critical review of existing research on aboriginal media. It assesses the usefulness of interpretive tools drawn from poststructuralist philosophy, ethnography and postcolonial theory in understanding the relation between cultural politics and communication practices. These tools are then implemented in the presentation of a case study of Wawatay Native Communications Society, a regional native broadcasting organization based in north-western Ontario. Brelsford, Taylor. (1983 ) "Hunters and workers among the Namaska Cree: The role of ideology in a dependent mode of production." M.A. Thesis, McGill University. This thesis extends the analysis of persistence in James Bay Cree economy and society by examining the role of ideology in the stability of a dependent mode of production. Using Althusser's notion that ideology interpellates individuals, this study asks about the reproduction of collective and individual commitments to the subsistence sector as a livelihood. The findings identify a number of challenges to the traditional sector, but suggest that a substantial proportion of the population, still the majority, continues to be drawn to a primary commitment to the hunting and trapping livelihood. Neither schooling or consumerism is seen to

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have substantially eroded this commitment to date. More broadly, the role of ideology in this articulation is seen to be subordinate to the political practices which, in policy initiatives from the 1930s until the James Bay Agreement, have done much to reinforce the material conditions of subsistence production. Brenneman, Dale S. (2004 ) "Climate of rebellion: The relationship between climate variability and indigenous uprisings in mid-18th century Sonora." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Arizona (The). 359 pp. A series of indigenous rebellions took place in mid-18th century Sonora that caused Spain to alter its colonial policies, depending less on the Jesuit mission system and more on a professional military force for pacifying and controlling the region. The rebellions coincided with a shift toward a drought-dominant climate pattern that began in the late 1720s. This study explores the relationship between that climatic shift and the rebellions by narrowing the focus to several disturbances and insurrections among the Seris, Pimas Bajos, and Yaquis during the period of 1725-42. Research centres on climate variability, the relationship between climate patterns and indigenous subsistence practices, and whether Spanish colonial policies and institutions rendered these practices more or less vulnerable to environmental perturbations. Because the same environmental factors shaping indigenous subsistence strategies also affected Spanish decision-making, the development of Spanish colonization in Sonora is reviewed within an ecological framework as well, recognizing the interaction among the environment and political, economic, and demographic factors. This study adopts a multidisciplinary approach integrating paleoclimatic, ethnohistorical, ethnographic, and archaeological sources of data to establish patterns of precipitation and reconstruct indigenous subsistence systems within their local environments, both before and after Spanish colonial rule. The research presents evaluations and English translations of numerous Spanish texts that include description of local environments; indigenous land use, reliance on crops versus wild resources, scheduling, harvest, and/or storage; significant climatic events such as droughts or floods; and the events of specific insurrections. The research also considers Spanish policies and institutions as they developed in Sonora, and changes they engendered in indigenous subsistence organization and the environment. This study assesses the effectiveness of those changes in the face of climate fluctuations, and scrutinizes Seri, Pima Bajo, and Yaqui disturbances and insurrections as responses to Spanish-induced subsistence changes under escalating colonial pressures and climate-related environmental stresses. On a broader level, this research demonstrates the potential of the documentary record, when combined with advances in climate research, for increasing our understanding of human vulnerability to climate change, human responses and coping strategies, and the impacts of human behaviour on climate. Briggs, Peter D. (1999) "Community development with indigenous communities: Facilitating the creation of appropriate environments." M.L.A. Thesis, University of Guelph. 108 pp. This thesis proposes an integrated framework for organizing information and subsequently acting as a diagnostic and predictive tool for those working in the area of community development with indigenous peoples, but with potential universal scope. Discussion within the thesis utilizes examples and information from work with indigenous peoples in Australia, Canada and New Zealand. The framework is composed of a hierarchy of community development (derived from Maslow's hierarchy of human needs) integrated within a value system, and a hierarchy of cultural influence. Discussion of the framework is divided into three areas: (1) essential needs and the ethics of crisis-control; (2) community function and planning paradigms; and, (3) community actualization and how design theory applies to developing meaning in the landscape. Theoretical and practical support are given for this framework, and operationalization of the framework is offered within a paradigm of community development through participatory self-determination. Bright, Marilyn A. (1999 ) "Teaching and learning experiences of Dogrib teachers in the Canadian Northwest Territories." M.Ed. Thesis, University of Alberta. 156 pp. The study is a narrative inquiry which records the learning and teaching experiences of eight Dogrib aboriginal teachers in the Canadian Northwest Territories, in the midst of the rapid changes occurring within their communities. The Dogrib people belong to the Canadian Athapaskan or Dene group of First Nations people. Within their life span, the way of life in their communities has changed from a predominantly hunting and gathering lifestyle to a wage-based, global technological lifestyle. The study describes the results of such rapid change on the cultural traditions and the social environment of the people in the communities and the impacts of the change on the public education system. It articulates the cultural differences between the Dogrib culture and the mainstream Euro-Canadian culture which have implications for the educational system in the Dogrib school division. It explores the needs, as expressed by the Dogrib teachers who were interviewed, for continuing in-service support and professional development in their roles as teachers.

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Briones, Claudia N. (1999) "Weaving "the Mapuche people": The cultural politics of organizations with indigenous philosophy and leadership." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Texas at Austin (The). 495 pp. Since the late 1980s, there has been a global transformation of native peoples into subjects of international law. Within this context, amendments to the constitutions of several Latin American countries include for the first time the collective rights of indigenous groups. Specific trajectories of state- and nation-building have affected both the form that the politics of recognition of indigenous rights has adopted and the content of the indigenous groups' demands. This dissertation analyzes the cultural politics of organizations with Mapuche philosophy and leadership and traces the direction that their struggle for recognition has taken in a country like Argentina, where the emergence of organized indigenous activism is a new phenomenon. This study focuses on the rise and the demise of Taiñ KiñeGetuam (or “to be one again”), a coalition of several indigenous organizations that since 1992 has claimed to represent politically “the Mapuche People” and has undertaken many different protests and actions to challenge hegemonic constructions of aboriginality and to unite the indigenous constituency. An ethnographic account of indigenous cultural productions, rallies, and communiquès serves as the analytical foundation to explore the politicization of culture and the culturization of politics which characterize Mapuche activism. The former process involves deploying “culture” as a political resource to promote Mapuche communalization and to demonstrate distinctiveness vis-à-vis non-indigenes. The latter consists of monitoring the political moves of “allies” or “antagonists” to develop indigenous tactical courses of action, that are interpreted as an exclusively aboriginal way of “doing politics”, radically opposed to Wigka or non-indigenous politics. Through ethnographic analyses of the indigenous politics of representation, the dissertation examines the relevance of concepts such as “strategic essentialism”, “induced agency” or “self-orientalization”, that have been used to explain contemporary indigenous activism in Latin America. It also contextualizes the most apparent -- and, for many people, annoying -- contradiction in the agenda of Mapuche activism: their a constant demand for non-interference by the state and relentless critique of non-indigenous democratic principles go hand in hand with their equally consistent request for state assistance, and respect for democratic guarantees. Brock, Kathy L. (1989) "The theory and practice of aboriginal self-government: Canada in a comparative context." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Toronto. 503 pp. This thesis addresses three questions. How has aboriginal self-government developed in Canada? How is the development of this issue in Canada different from its development in the United States and Australia? Have features of the Canadian political system, which are responsible for differentiating the Canadian experience with aboriginal self-government from the American and Australian experiences, complicated the development in a peculiarly Canadian manner? The thesis concludes that the Canadian experience with aboriginal self-government has been paradoxical and distinctive: the Canadian political system has offered both incentives and impediments to the development of the issue not found in the American and Australian cases. Compelling features of the Canadian political system, namely executive dominance and intergovernmental tensions, caused the issue to unfold in a way which frustrated demands for constitutional entrenchment of the right to self-government. However, the constitutional talks stimulated the development of aboriginal self-government on a community basis through land claims, legislation, negotiations and agreements, division of the Northwest Territories, and administrative changes. The evolving Canadian conception of pluralism and the traditional practices of reconciling individual and collective rights and minority and majority interests, provide the framework for the acceptance of aboriginal self-government at the community level. Brown, Elaine C. (1991) "Tribal peoples and land settlement: The effects of Philippine capitalist development on the Palawan." Ph.D. Dissertation, State University of New York at Binghampton. 396 pp. This dissertation explores the processes and effects of land settlement and capitalist development in the homeland of an indigenous people. The case of the Palawan of southern Palawan island, Philippines provides insights into socioeconomic, political and environmental transformations that have undermined their ability to engage in sustainable land use and maintain their lifeways. Research was carried out in a multiethnic village of 400 households and the area's administrative centre. A census was taken of village households. Informal interviews were used to learn about local history, social relations and economic and environmental issues. Structured interviews provided information on the first wave (1910-30) of Christian Filipino settlers and the registration of land claims. Questionnaires generated data on cropping patterns in three ecozones for 107 ricefields and 80 second season fields, and on the livelihoods of a stratified sample of

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100 households. A survey of 67 fields provided insights into the privatization of the state-owned uplands. Early settlers established administrative structures, privatized land, started export agriculture and linked southern Palawan to the national economy. After the Pacific War, other settlers filled the frontier and reorganized villages. Settlers took Palawan lands on the coastal plain, and so Palawan moved to the uplands. Displacement of Palawan has been peaceful and piecemeal, which has hindered Palawan identification of enemies and resistance. Palawan remain the majority (63% of village households), and yet they are less powerful and visible than non-Palawan. Palawan still intercrop rice varieties and other cultivars, but they cultivate fields more intensively than when land was abundant. Rice yields have declined. To buy rice, households produce for the market. They have less access to land, credit, and technological information than non-Palawan, and thus they are less productive. Palawan households cannot meet their requirements by farming and foraging. To overcome food shortages, every household must work off-farm. Palawan value their heritage, but deculturation and acculturation are eroding their lifeways. Discrimination by non-Palawan creates barriers that prevent Palawan from being fully incorporated into the socioeconomic system. The contemporary distinctiveness of Palawan is the result of Palawan resistance to domination and non-Palawan discrimination. Brown, Jennifer A. (1999 ) "'Our native peoples': The illegitimacy of Canadian citizenship and the Canadian federation for the aboriginal peoples." M.A. Thesis, Carleton University. 158 pp. It is often assumed that because aboriginal peoples reside within the boundaries of Canada they are 'Canada's aboriginal people.' It is because of this assumption that the aboriginal peoples face difficulties achieving the recognition of their inherent right to self-determination. This thesis presents an examination of how aboriginal peoples became Canadian citizens. It is argued that this inception into the Canadian definition of citizenship was done without their consent. The result is that Canadian citizenship is illegitimate for the aboriginal peoples. It is further argued that because Canadian citizenship is illegitimate so to is the framework on which our definition of citizenship is based. The goal is to develop a model of association which will remain consistent with Canadian values which federalism espouses, as well as ensuring the legitimacy of association for the aboriginal nations. The framework achieved combines elements of treaty and Althusian federalism with aspects of non-territoriality and multiple citizenship status. The result is a celebration of Canada as a multi-nation state. This model was tested for its validity and flexibility among three groups of aboriginal nations as well as with the federal government. The model demonstrated congruency with the aspirations of the aboriginal nations examined. However, it is not clear that the federal government is willing to accept the notion of Canada as a multi-nation state as proposed by the framework. The framework remains a goal to strive for to achieve a legitimate Canadian federation. Brown, Jennifer S. H. (1976) "Company men and native families: Fur trade social and domestic relations in Canada's old northwest." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Chicago (The). Brown, Kimberly L. (2005 ) ""To fish for themselves": A study of accommodation and resistance in the Stó:lo Fishery." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of British Columbia (The). 243 pp. Fisheries regulations, implemented in the 1880s, banned the sale of Indian 'food fish' and resulted in the creation of the categories of "food fishing" and "commercial fishing." While simultaneously accepting and rejecting that place in the margins of this fractured fishery, Stó:lo people have consistently maintained that their aboriginal right to fish cannot be cast in these false categories that separate the economic and social components of their way of life. Stó:lo fishers have been fighting for their Aboriginal right to fish since the their first encounters with the Xwelitem. This thesis addresses that struggle within a context of accommodation and resistance. In this historically situated ethnography, I offer an examination of a problem, not a people. By selecting three distinct responses to fisheries regulation on the part of peoples identifying themselves as Stó:lo I reveal a link between the histories of the individual Stó:lo communities and their specific responses to regulation, demonstrating that connected to those histories are as many different Stó:lo fisheries as there are species of salmon. The responses examined in this thesis are, in the words of the Stó:lo themselves, rooted in tradition; tradition having become the short answer to questions regarding the Stó:lo and their aboriginal right to fish. As a part of my examination, I seek to uncover the long answer; more specifically how tradition has come to support these separate and distinct responses to over a century of interference into their way of life.

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Brown, Leslie A. (1997) "Administrative work in aboriginal governments." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Victoria. 283 pp. Aboriginal governments are organizations like any other, but they have some important differences that stem from the cultures of aboriginal peoples and the history and construction of aboriginal governments in Canada. Colonization brought particular conceptions of work and administration that are not always compatible with aboriginal cultures. Aboriginal governments are grounded in their respective communities and cultures and at the same time exist within a Canadian political system that reflects the values of a western, non-aboriginal society. The practice of administrative work in aboriginal governments is therefore complex and internally conflictual for the organization as well as for administrators. The institutional and financial arrangements of aboriginal governments in Canada only further complicate the work. Understanding the distinctiveness of administrative work in aboriginal governments is important for both aboriginal and non-aboriginal governments and administrators as a new relationship between Canadian and aboriginal governments is forged. This study explores the work of aboriginal administrators working in aboriginal governments. It considers the administrative environment of aboriginal government, particularly the complexities of accountability and the interrelatedness of culture, politics and administration. It suggests that aboriginal governments are expressions of the cultures, politics, spirituality, economics, values and emotions of aboriginal peoples. These governments are social movements as well as ruling bureaucracies. Government in this context is a complex and holistic notion as it does not necessarily separate church from state, politics from bureaucracy, or the personal from the professional. Within this context, the study examines the actual work of particular administrators and thereby develops a distinct picture of administration as it is practiced in aboriginal governments. While such administrative practice is found to be more holistic in this context, the study further suggests that the construction of the actual work is influenced by key factors of accountability demands, cultural relevance and integrity, and the need for education of all people engaged with issues of governance. Given the dilemmas found in each of these factors, aboriginal administrators face the unique challenge of integrating the discordant demands of their communities, organizations and professions. Brown, Malcolm B. (1996) ""Is it not our land?": An ethnohistory of the Susquehanna-Ohio Indian alliance, 1701-54." Ph.D. Dissertation, Oklahoma State University. 368 pp. This dissertation describes and analyzes the development, consolidation, and decline of the SusquehannaOhio Indian alliance, an intercultural alliance among the Eastern Woodland Indians of the Susquehanna and upper Ohio Valleys during the first half of the 18th century. This includes the peoples of the Iroquois Confederacy, the Lenapes (Delawares), Shawnees, Wyandots, Miamis, Susquehannocks, and other groups. The standard colonial primary sources for this era were used, including sources recently uncovered by modern researchers in the field. The study also utilized ethnohistorical sources and tapped disciplines such as archaeology, ethnography, cultural anthropology, weapons history, and material culture studies to further illuminate the history of these native peoples. Under the direction of its greatest sachems during its first three decades, the Susquehanna-Ohio Indian alliance was an elastic and durable structure that easily met the needs of its members for peaceful intercourse and the resolution of problems among themselves and with Euro-Americans. The alliance survived during the 1740s and early 1750s despite increasing factionalization and polarization among its peoples and the meddling of French and British colonials. The alliance's downfall in 1754 was due primarily to the invasion of the Ohio Valley by the French and British militaries and secondarily to the inability of its leaders to modify their thinking to effectively resist such aggression. Brown, Stephen G. (1997) "Teaching to hybridity: Beyond a pedagogy of the oppressed." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of South Florida. 410 pp. The aim of this dissertation is not merely to describe the diverse factors problematizing writing instruction on and Athabascan Indian Reservation, nor merely to proffer a series of critiques: of the aims, assumptions, and activities of Basic Writing pedagogy; of the limitations of Mary Louise Pratt's 'contact zone' and of Gerald Graff's model for conflict pedagogy. The primary purpose of this dissertation is to posit a strong theoretical and practical rationale for a radical pedagogy foregrounding the lived realities of borderland learners. This inquiry into borderland pedagogy is driven by a number of questions: are the aims, assumptions, and activities of Basic Writing pedagogy practicable in such a setting? What might be the pedagogical alternatives to basic writing praxis in such a milieu? Is the acquisition of academic or critical literacy of any practical or ethical value to such students? To what extent are the bush teacher and the reservation school complicit in the process of cultural genocide? And finally, is there some pedagogical means of bridging the

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gap between knowledge and morality? Is there some means of representing the Other that does not reinscribe colonizing gestures of domination, that enables the Other to remain as such? Throughout this dissertation I draw on the diverse discourses of postcolonialism, resistance pedagogy, and Native American resistance struggle in an effort to discover connections between them and to enunciate an emancipatory borderland pedagogy. I necessarily engage in issues currently being contested in this interdisciplinary arena: canonicity, representation, marginalization, identity, agency, and authenticity. If the first half of this work emphasizes the theoretical over the pedagogical, the second half inverts this relationship. Finally, this dissertation attempts to articulate a pedagogy that is an eclectic fusion of autobiography, critical ethnography and case study, of canonical and non-canonical texts, of the Foxfire Program and conflictoriented pedagogy: a pedagogy which was as much a hybrid as the subaltern students it sought to engage -- a praxis which, in the last analysis, argues the efficacy of teaching to hybridity. Browne, Annette J. (2003 ) "First Nations women and health care services: The sociopolitical context of encounters with nurses." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of British Columbia (The). 285 pp. Health care provided to Canadian aboriginal peoples continues to unfold against a backdrop of colonial relations. This study explored the sociopolitical and historical context of encounters between nurses and First Nations women. Using an ethnographic design and Dorothy Smith's standpoint perspective as the method of inquiry, interactions between nurses and First Nations women were observed in a northern hospital setting. Subsequently, in-depth interviews were conducted with First Nations women, nurses, and three other health professionals (n = 35). Incorporating aspects of postcolonial and feminist theories, this study illustrates how dominant ideologies and professional discourses intersect to organize the knowledge and attitudes that nurses bring to their practice. Three related frames of reference were examined: (a) theories of culture, (b) liberal notions of egalitarianism, and (c) popularized images and discourses of aboriginality. In the absence of competing frames of reference, embedded assumptions about aboriginal peoples, culture and 'difference' influence the relational aspects of nurses' work with First Nations women. Using vignettes from the data, I explain how women's social positioning, material circumstances, past experiences and pragmatism shape their patterns of relating with nurses, their efforts to 'get along with all the nurses,' and their perceptions of nurses as 'all good.' Turning their analytical gaze inward, women focused on how they were perceived by health professionals, and how they could best position themselves. To unpack the layers of subtext embedded in women's accounts, critical consideration is given to mediating life circumstances and to particular methodological issues. The study concludes by analyzing strategies for challenging taken-for-granted assumptions and discourses that inadvertently perpetuate colonial relations in health care. The concept of cultural safety, positioned within postcolonial perspectives, is discussed as a means of fostering critical consciousness. By directing nurses to examine historically mediated relations of power, long-standing patterns of paternalism/maternalism, and assumptions about 'race', culture and class relations, cultural safety has the potential to shift nurses' knowledge and attitudes. Locating heath care interactions within these wider historical and sociopolitical contexts can help nurses to more fully contribute to social justice in the realm of aboriginal health. Bruyneel, Kevin M. (2001 ) "Politics on the boundaries: Indigenous people's politics in the United States." Ph.D. Dissertation, New School for Social Research. 425 pp. The politics of indigenous people is one of the least understood components of American political life, and is rarely addressed in the field of political science. My dissertation defines and illustrates a logic of indigenous political practice and purpose, which I call 'politics on the boundaries.' Politics on the boundaries refers first to the practice of indigenous politicians seeking to secure rights and resources within the American political system while, at the same time, arguing for greater self-government outside that same system. The purpose here is to secure a level of sovereignty that is neither complete secession from nor complete assimilation within the American polity. This form of sovereignty sits between the internal pole of assimilation (first space) and the external pole of secession (second space) in what I call a post-colonial third space. The dissertation starts by theoretically exploring the relationship between sovereignty, identity and boundaries in indigenous political life. The historical narrative begins with the US Civil War, a critical period not only for America but also for indigenous people. The shift in indigenous-American political relations that occurs at this time does not significantly alter until the 1960s, where my dissertation assesses the changing terms of indigenous sovereignty and political identity. Presently, questions about tribal sovereignty and indigenous

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identity are most notable with regard to casino gaming. Thus, I look to the politics of tribal casinos in California as a vibrant example of politics on the boundaries in the contemporary era. To shed comparative light on indigenous politics in the US, I also examine the politics of indigenous people in Canada during both that nation's founding period (just after the US Civil War) and the present era. Bryant, Michael J. (1989 ) "Canada and U.S. public policy on aboriginal land claims, 1960-88: Alaska and British Columbia compared." M.A. Thesis, University of British Columbia (The). Buck, Constance M. A. (2001) "Killing beauty in North America." Ph.D. Dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute. 269 pp. The first recorded battle after the Battle of the Little Big Horn between Plains Indians and the United States Army occurred in September of 1876. My great grandfather led an assault against the Plains Indians and acquired war trophies from the Northern Cheyenne Indians. These objects, held by my family for 122 years, were returned to traditional society members in the summer of 1998. This paper is a heuristic and hermeneutic interpretation, amplification and reflection of the consequences of 500 years of denied genocide, a depth psychological analysis of cultural trauma, primitive mental states, Coyote the Trickster, and group functioning. Our historical shadow includes our participation in the attempted genocide of Native Americans. Revisionism -- the cunning assertion that memory is a deliberate lie -- is hatred's ultimate obscenity (Bertman, 2000, p. 62). Our schools have traditionally taught both Indian and Euro-American children a revisionist view of our heroic conquest of the American West that denies that the Holocaust ever happened. Past and current local and international political policies support this delusion. Eigen (1993) writes that the intensity of belief attached to delusions indicates that the individual is trying to hold fast to a terrifyingly important dimension of his own story (p. 10). Our nation's tendency to idealize itself is a perversion resulting in unrealistic and unattainable attitudes that are related to our society's affinity for killing beauty. Collectively we continue to both idealize and denigrate Native Americans, perpetrating the same perversion on ourselves. The destructiveness of idealization is expressed through primitive mental states that no one fully outgrows. Primitive intrapsychic affect is linked to primitive expressions in the larger collective. Our lack of collective awareness of history and our ongoing attempts at cultural genocide are affecting us through a process of denial that splits us off from the violence of our past that is being expressed by our youth. Individual or collective perversion results in losses of human vitality and creativity that insult the nature of soul. Buck, Elizabeth B. (1986 ) "The politics of culture: A history of the social and cultural transformation of Hawai'i." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Hawai'i. 271 pp. This study offers an alternative interpretation of Hawai'ian history. Marxist and neo-Marxist theories in the fields of political, anthropological and literary studies have been drawn on and critiqued for their applicability to the historical experience of Hawai'i. Marxist conceptualizations of social structures, their ideological and material reproduction, and their historical transformation are used to trace and analyze changes in Hawai'i's structural formations at historical conjunctures of competing modes of production, particularly the radical social restructuration that occurred with the intrusion of capitalism into the islands during the 19th and 20th centuries. This neo-Marxist interpretation is supplemented by post-structuralist notions of the power that resides in language and discourse. Hawai'i's move from an oral to a literate culture in the historical context of Western imperialism, and the subsequent shift from Hawai'ian to English as the dominant language of discourse, have had far-reaching implications for the structures of power in Hawai'i. A major focus of the study is the relationship between the changing material conditions of the islands, and forms of social representation, most particularly chant, hula and contemporary Hawai'ian music. Hawai'ian music is presented as a site of struggle between Hawai'i and the West, that music used, over time, as part of contending myths of Hawai'i. From the 19th century to the present, Hawai'ian music has been a site of struggle between Hawai'ian and western conceptualizations of reality and human relationships, between indigenous and western forms and practices of musical production, and between the different ideologies that constrain and inform such practices and that are reproduced by them. Since contact, Hawai'ian music has been constituted and reconstituted into different objects and practices by different discourses: into the exotic ritual of the Other by early Western observers; into heathenistic ritual by the 19th century American missionaries; into cultural commodities by the tourist and recording industries; and into symbols of cultural identity and nationalism by Hawai'ians. The dialectic between indigenous forms and Western forms of music that began in the early 19th century continues to the present. The currently dominant myth is that Hawai'i is an exotic paradise where a multi-ethnic population shares in the social

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benefits of progress. This myth has appropriated Hawai'ian music to entice and entertain tourists. The alternative myth, that of politically and/or culturally active Hawai'ians, is that Hawai'i was a socially harmonious society in touch with nature. This counter myth has reappropriated Hawai'ian music as a route to recovering Hawai'ian history and identity. Bull, Catherin J. (1990) "Sustainable tourism in remote Australia: Strategies for physical planning and infrastructure." Ph.D. Dissertation, Harvard University. 385 pp. Using theoretical and case studies, this dissertation explores how remoteness, tourism and sustainability relate to the planning of infrastructure for National Parks in remote Australia. Remote Australia is attractive to tourist activity because of its qualities of difference, uniqueness, naturalness, vastness, emptiness, ancient culture and "reality". Irregular and extreme natural disturbances, lack of formal knowledge, a sparse and often unstable population, however, combine with a reliance on distant markets to constrain how any enterprise proceeds here, including tourism. The characteristics of remoteness influence the type of planning required to ensure that tourist activity conserves environments as it interprets them, and suggest that modes of travel based on the experiences of discovery, exploration and education are the most appropriate. This thesis presents an evaluative model for sustainable tourist activity. This model links the major criteria constituting (1) care of the natural and cultural environment, and (2) use for environmental experience, with (3) the processes controlling them, especially physical planning and infrastructure provision. It is used to evaluate three cases -- Bedarra Island, Lizard Island and Uluru/Yulara -- over the period of their use and development. In terms of care, the major measures are control of mechanical and systemic disturbance in the form of species invasions, erosion, and aural and visual impacts. Though many techniques were developed to control disturbance, they were used inconsistently across cases and only where environmental experts were involved. Staff environments, service areas and networks were consistently underplanned and have become significant sources of negative impact. The measure of use is the provision of a rich palette of experiences promoting environmental appreciation. Lack of interpretation, possibilities for exploration or reflection, and a restricted choice of on-site experiences were the major weaknesses identified from the cases. Accommodation isolated from major attractions exacerbated these problems. These issues, combined with an evolving knowledge base and the administrative division between care and use, indicate the need for a significant investment in the processes of resource assessment, coordinated management planning and the clarification of experiential goals, along with a more consistent application of those strategies which successfully contributed towards sustainability on the case sites. Burke, Pamela L. (1999) "The globalization of contentious politics: The Amazonian indigenous rights movement." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Maryland College Park. 248 pp. In this project, I argue that Amazonian indigenous peoples organized via transnational networks due to the domestic blockages presented to them in their respective countries. Due to these blockages and the growing number of transnational political opportunity structures, such as national and international nongovernmental organizations, inter-governmental organizations, multi-lateral development banks, and multinational corporations, indigenous peoples mobilized through transnational advocacy networks and eventually formed transnational social movement organizations. Through a comparative-historical analysis of five Ecuadorian Amazonian indigenous organizations and two transnational Amazonian social movement organizations, I illustrate the processes of transnational collective action and its outcomes. This empirical evidence in this study is based upon two years of fieldwork in Ecuador and archival research. While many studies of globalization and transnational collective action claim that a global civil society is forming, the evidence presented in this study also demonstrates a decline in national social movement organization as transnational collective action increases. This is due to the competition among regional and local social movement organizations for funding and program development. Thus, while transnational collective action may increase policy outcomes on local, regional, or transnational levels, it may also diminish the sustenance of coherent national social movements. Byers, Lisa G. (2005) "Depression, discrimination, trauma, and American Indian ethnic identity." Ph.D. Dissertation, Washington University. 134 pp. Major depression is one of the most debilitating conditions experienced worldwide. The available research indicates that American Indians experience depressive disorders at higher rates than those reported by the

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general American population. Despite this disparity, the research on depression in tribal populations is severely inadequate. This dissertation utilizes multiple regression to perform a secondary analysis of data from a recently completed American Indian mental health study. The dissertation represents the first application of an integrative theory to the study of discrimination, ethnic identity, historical trauma, and individual trauma in relation to depression vulnerability. Multiple regression results indicate that traumatic distress, marginalized identity were significant predictors of current depressive symptom distress. Male respondents reported significantly more depressive symptom distress. The findings have implications for social work intervention and prevention programs to decrease the burden of depressive disorders for American Indians. Byington, Michelle L. (2001) "Bicultural involvement, psychological differentiation, and time perspective as mediators for depression and anxiety in Native Americans living on and off-reservation." Ph.D. Dissertation, Columbia University. 136 pp. The effects of bicultural involvement, psychological differentiation, and time perspective on depression and anxiety in 100 Native Americans (n = 100) living on- and off-reservation are measured by: the Bicultural Involvement Questionnaire (BIQ); Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT); Beck Depression Inventory (BDI); centre for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D); Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) Vocabulary; Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) Anxiety-Related Disorders (ARD); and Time Estimate. Degree of Indian Blood is neither associated with nor predictive of any bicultural measures except "wish" for more involvement in native culture. As predicted: individuals with high involvement in both native and Anglo cultures are less depressed than those with low involvement particularly off-reservation; high Total Anglo involvement, independent of Total Native scores, predicts less depression on both CES-D and BDI, in total sample, while predicting less BDI depression in off-reservation. Level of bicultural involvement is predictive of obsessions and traumatic stress. Off-reservation residents show clinical levels of depression, while reservation dwellers do not. Balanced cultural involvement groups show the least anxiety-related disorders. However, on reservation residents who are highly involved in both cultures show much less anxiety than those who reject their native culture while passively aspiring to Anglo values and practices. As predicted, psychological differentiation discriminates the most accurate Time Estimators who are more field independent than those less differentiated who show the most time errors. Additionally, groups showing more anxiety, as well as those with higher levels of involvement in native culture, have the most inaccurate Time Estimates. Finally, biculturalism differentially mediates depression in off-reservation residents and anxiety in onreservation natives. Furthermore, psychological differentiation predicts anxiety in off-reservation groups such that the most anxiety is evidenced in the least differentiated groups. Finally, implications among biculturalism, psychological differentiation, and time estimate in relation to psychological distress and resilience in on and off-reservation Native Americans are discussed. Caldbick, Mary L. (1997) "Locke's doctrine of property and the dispossession of the Passamaquoddy." M.A. Thesis, University of New Brunswick (The). 141 pp. This work examines John Locke's doctrine of property, as developed in his Second treatise of government, in the context of colonial expansion in North America. Specifically, the thesis analyzes the role that the Lockean view of property acquisition through labour played in rationalizing the dispossession of the Passamaquoddy people of the Maine-Maritime region. Locke's view that humans could come to have ownership rights in lands upon which they expended labour was used as a justification for displacing aboriginal groups like the Passamaquoddy. Native peoples in North America possessed a radically different view of the relationship between humans and Nature. They saw themselves as intimately connected to their surroundings, as part of a continuum between humans and the earth. Europeans were able to undermine the legitimacy of this relationship and vindicate the dispossession of the Passamaquoddy by characterizing Passamaquoddy land use as wasteful. Callahan, Ann B. (2002) "On our way to healing: Stories from the oldest living generation of the File Hills Indian Residential school." M.A. Thesis, University of Manitoba (The). 147 pp. The story of Indian residential schools is a sad one in Canada. The government's policy of assimilating the aboriginal people into mainstream society began in the early years of the 19th century in western Canada. One of the strategies the government employed was through the founding of the Indian residential school. The churches were the 'hand maidens' in bringing about this movement. There were many effects experienced

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by the residents of these establishments. For the most part, the survivors proclaim that this experience was a negative one while few say that the experience was a positive one. This thesis will examine the various approaches taken by these survivors to become centred in oneself once again as an aboriginal person, which is to know one's own identity as a First Nations person. In addition, this paper will specifically examine the perspectives of the oldest generation of those survivors of the File Hills Indian Residential School (FHIRS), Balcarres, Saskatchewan of this experience and if returning to or renewing of aboriginal spirituality was a means of healing from the residential school trauma. Callahan, Manuel. (2003) "Mexican border troubles: Social war, settler colonialism and the production of frontier discourses, 1848-80." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Texas at Austin (The). 399 pp. This study analyzes the social war of the US-Mexico borderlands during the second half of the 19th century. The more prominent conflicts, or 'brushfire wars' -- the Merchants War, Cortina War, Las Cuevas War, and the San Elizario Salt War -- are fully elaborated to show a more complex resistance by the Mexican community. Mexicanos' short-lived and often narrow victories in opposition to Anglo processes of domination not only reveal the ambiguity of settler colonialism but the ambivalences of ethnic Mexicans and indigenous peoples who played an integral part in frontier expansion and defence. The research allows for a thick description of the large-scale violence as well as the 'everyday forms' of conflict, combined with social and structural violence, which constitute the ongoing social war of the greater borderlands. Data derived from state-sponsored investigations, military records, testimonies from a variety legal processes, and the urgent pleas for government protection documents the social war as constituting and constituted by violent episodes that were as much discursive events as irregular warfare. The study challenges manichean constructions of domination and resistance by complicating the rigid boundaries that have been constructed as a 'three cornered conflict' between Anglos, Indigenous peoples and Mexicanos. Frontier defence as a discourse formation, revealing both the symbolic and material operations of violence, not only erased the contributions of Mexicanos and indigenous peoples to frontier settlement but also invites a reinterpretation of capitalist transformation and state formation as ongoing processes linked to the enduring consequences of violence. The dissertation concludes that the social war in the US-Mexico borderlands unfolded not only as a struggle between alienation and accommodation to market, state and cultural forces, but also as a complex and shifting struggle for dignity. Calverley, David. (1999) "Who controls the hunt? Ontario's Game Act, the Canadian government and the Ojibwa, 1800-1940." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Ottawa. 460 pp. In 1892 the Ontario government passed the Ontario Game and Fisheries Act. This legislation, designed to conserve wildlife throughout the province, was applied to Native peoples residing in Ontario. This led to conflict between the Ontario government, through its Game Commission, the Dominion government, via Indian Affairs, and Aboriginal peoples throughout the province. Natives, in this thesis the Ojibwa of the Robinson Treaties, were and are a federal responsibility under the constitution. Ontario, however, was acting within its constitutional jurisdiction by regulating a natural resource within its provincial boundaries. The conflict arose over whether provincial legislation can be applied to an area of federal concern, and contrary to promises contained within the Robinson Treaties that the Ojibwa could continue to hunt trap and fish as they had “heretofore been in the habit of doing.” Beyond this constitutional and jurisdictional level, political concerns also played a part. Indian Affairs' bureaucrats were not completely adverse to regulating Ojibwa hunting as a means of hastening its own policy of acculturation, and they were unwilling to openly challenge the Ontario government over Native rights. The Ontario Game Commission, and its later incarnation was unwilling to compromise its control over wildlife which during the 20th century became an increasingly important resource. The Ojibwa, politically powerless, lost control of the one resource which they were guaranteed access to by the Crown during treaty negotiations in 1850: wildlife. Ojibwa arguments for continued access were founded almost exclusively on the Robinson Treaties, but these were agreements which neither the Dominion nor the Ontario government were interested in. Campbell, Dean E. (2000) "A search for justice in First Nations communities: The role of the RCMP and community policing." M.A. Thesis, Carleton University. 162 pp. In this thesis, I examine the role that the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) has played and is playing in the lives of Native peoples in Canada; furthermore, I argue that there is the need to refocus policing efforts. From its beginnings in 1873, the RCMP has slowly evolved as one of the most important institutions in the imposition of political destructive processes upon Native peoples. As the RCMP carried out its role, the wounds it inflicted upon Native peoples ran deep. Today, Native peoples have focused themselves upon self-

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determination as the key to revitalizing their communities. In effect, there has been a call for policing in First Nations communities to respond more to the needs and aspirations of Native peoples. Within this context, I argue that the RCMP can best accommodate these efforts by becoming a valued partner through community policing initiatives. Campbell, Janis E. (1997 ) "The social and demographic effects of Creek removal, 1832-60." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Oklahoma (The). 260 pp. This analysis will show the social and political aftermath of Creek Indian removal in the early 19th century. To accomplish this, this study explains specific demographic characteristics both before and after removal. This analysis examines one specific area of Creek social organization -- names -- both before and after removal. Additionally, this analysis indicates that there was a decrease in Creek population. However, among the Upper Creeks, there was a less severe decrease and a significant increase in household size, suggesting increased fertility, from 1832 to 1857/58. Likewise, there was a larger increase in household size among Upper Creeks and Muskogee Creeks. This analysis uses Creek personal names to show social changes during this period. Initially, in both pre- and post-removal periods, Upper Creeks were the most Muskogean, at least using the criteria in this study. In this analysis Muskogean means a group had a higher percentage of Muskogee clan, town, or title names. Upper Creeks also had more English names. Not unexpectedly, Muskogee towns had a higher proportion of Muskogean personal names. Furthermore, both Upper and Lower Creeks increase in Muskogean names; by 1858/59 Muskogean names were more common than in 1832. Likewise, there was less variety in 1858/59 than in 1832. There was a significant increase in the percentage of English names between 1832 and 1858/59. All of this suggests that some Creeks adjusted to removal better and faster than others. This data suggests two strategies for adaptation to Creek resettlement. The first strategy was a return to and intensification of Muskogean social patterns as shown by an increase in Muskogean names, particularly political and social titles. The second strategy was to increase relations with Americans. Both strategies existed before removal, but after resettlement the patterns intensified. In short, both conservatism and, possibly, innovation, became more important. The latter route to adaptation among the Creek is well known, but the former has not been discussed in previous works. Campbell, Karen A. (1999 ) "Community life and governance: Early experiences of Mnjikaning First Nation with Casino Rama." M.S.W. Thesis, University of Manitoba (The). 92 pp. Casino gambling offers large profits to support self-government and economic self-sufficiency for First Nations communities. Casinos also increase the number of problem gamblers, redistribute money from families with low and moderate incomes, and exacerbate community divisions and cultural conflicts. This qualitative study explores the experiences of Mnjikaning (Rama) First Nation, approximately one year after it opened the largest Native casino in Canada. Primary data are from fifty-three formal interviews, conducted from July to October 1997, and informal discussions between June 1994 and September 1998. The report focuses on how the casino affected community life and governance. Casino development gave Rama increased employment, new buildings and more social and administrative services. It has also been extremely disruptive, with increased traffic, many more strangers in the community, and a greater incidence of gambling problems among community members. The casino's considerable influence over community decisions and priorities has serious implications for future self-government processes. There are many lessons to be learned from Rama's experience for other First Nations communities that are considering casino development. Most important is to make explicit the negative impacts associated with casino development, and to ensure the community is able to retain a measure of control over the project. Campbell, Tracy A. (1996 ) "Aboriginal co-management of non-renewable resources on treaty or traditional territory." M.A. Thesis, University of Calgary. 172 pp. Co-management has been loosely defined as a transfer of decision-making authority to non-traditional actors in the process of natural resource management. Most co-management agreements have been developed in the context of land claim agreements in the territories. Co-management has not been utilized to any great extent in the provinces. This can be traced to a lack of clarification of rights held by First Nations to land and resources off-reserve. Nevertheless, co-management terminology and theory are increasingly being cited outside of land claims, within a provincial resource management context. Co-management is not possible under present circumstances within the provinces. Without a drastic change in the relationship between First Nations and the provincial and federal governments, co-management is simply an empty promise. In the absence of equal rights of participation gained through rights to land off-reserve, co-management cannot be

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realized. Candler, Craig T. (1999) "Healing and cultural formation in a Bush Cree community." M.A. Thesis, University of Alberta. 146 pp. This thesis is based on fieldwork conducted with the Cree and Métis community of Wabasca-Desmarais, Alberta in 1996 and 1997. By comparing three case studies involving Cree traditionalism, northern industry, and Pentecostalism, traditional knowledge is explored as a critical resource for the formation of healthy and effective worldviews within rapidly changing circumstances. This process of cultural formation involves developing models of the world that are both aesthetically meaningful and pragmatically rewarding within individual lived contexts. If northern development is to be truly sustainable, we must recognize that industrial activities have an impact not only upon material resources critical to traditional health and healing (e.g. plants and animals), but also upon the institutions in which traditional knowledge is encoded and transmitted. The thesis concludes with a set of recommendations as to how such impacts might be recognized, reduced, or mitigated in the future. Caouette, Julie. (2004) ""Don't blame me for what my ancestors did!": Factors associated with the experience of collective guilt regarding Aboriginal people." M.A. Thesis, McGill University. 133 pp. Egalitarianism is highly valued in Canada and yet some groups are profoundly disadvantaged. This can be explained by sociological and psychological theorizing that claims advantaged group members are motivated to maintain a system of inequality from which they benefit. The challenge is to explain the few advantaged group members who defy self-interest and support disadvantaged groups. My research objectives were to understand what motivates selected advantaged group members to support disadvantaged groups, and to understand how the majority of advantaged group members maintain their belief in egalitarianism in the face of clear social inequality. Results revealed that most advantaged group members value egalitarianism highly, but only those who define egalitarianism in terms of social responsibility unequivocally support the interests of disadvantaged groups. Most advantaged group members conceive egalitarianism in terms of equality of opportunity, rights or treatment, allowing them to legitimize inequality; consequently, they are less willing to sympathize with the demands for fair treatment by disadvantaged group. Caplan, Karen D. (2001) "Local liberalisms: Mexico's indigenous villagers and the state, 1812-57." Ph.D. Dissertation, Princeton University. 462 pp. After the collapse of the Spanish Empire, Mexico's indigenous citizens and government representatives were forced to rethink their relationship and rebuild the bases for state legitimacy. When Spain and then Mexico adopted liberalism as a guide for establishing new governments, colonial ethnic distinctions were formally abolished. Nonetheless, governments and indigenous people continued to recognize ethnic distinctions in both institutions and informal agreements about the legitimacy of government. This study argues that these arrangements were not simply colonial holdovers but rather unique forms of liberalism, constructed around both colonial and liberal ideals and institutions. The dissertation examines local politics in two states with large indigenous majorities -- Oaxaca and Yucatán. It shows how local institutions of government that took shape between 1812 and 1857 were products of negotiation between indigenous villagers and state agents. In negotiations over land use, taxation, and the draft, these parties refashioned colonial assumptions about reciprocity in light of liberal ideas and institutions. Oaxacans and Yucatecans created very different systems, reflecting economic conditions in each state. Oaxacans used liberal institutions to reinforce a relationship in which non-indígenas indirectly exploited indigenous goods and labour in tacit exchange for government protection and advocacy. In Yucatán, by contrast, non-indígenas increasingly used liberal ideas to justify intrusions on traditional indigenous prerogatives and to tie indigenous labourers to the production of new commodities, leading to indigenous insurrection by 1847. After that year, both state governments attempted to transform earlier political compromises. Oaxaca's government couched its reforms in terms of indigenous integration into a liberal polity, while Yucatán's sanctioned the explicit subjugation of indìgenas, in part in the service of liberal economic goals. Historians have often characterized liberalism as having a predictable and largely destructive impact on indigenous Mexicans -- or as having little impact at all. This dissertation argues instead that liberal institutions were subject to local interpretations, whereby the ideas and practices of colonialism and liberalism combined to produce multiple systems with divergent consequences for indigenous people. Mexican liberalism was not a monolithic set of institutions with predictable outcomes but rather a collection of local responses to a common ideological and institutional challenge.

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Caragliano, Maureen O. (1997) "Beyond princess and squaw: Wilma Mankiller and the Cherokee gynocentric system." M.A. Thesis, San Jose State University. 102 pp. This thesis takes the reader beyond the historically accepted descriptors of princess and squaw for Native American women. In popular and scholarly literature, Native American women have been overlooked as leaders in their own communities and as political activists. Using the Cherokees as an example, my research shows that before colonization Cherokee women held positions of power and authority. They had political, social, and economic status in their society. After colonization, Cherokee women ceased to have a voice in government. The patriarchal nuclear family replaced the matrilineal clan system, and the home, not the field, became the domain of women. The election of Wilma Mankiller as the first female principal chief of the Cherokees restored women to their rightful place in Cherokee society. Her political campaign strategy and her successful leadership of the second largest Native American tribe in the United States serve as a model for all women. Carey, Janet M. (2001) "Continuing cultural viability via cultural tourism as an economic survival project for Pueblo Indian people." Ph.D. Dissertation, Northern Arizona University. 408 pp. This study increases the knowledge of indigenous peoples' quest to utilize their unique life ways for cultural survival through cultural tourism in the 21st century. Tourism is the fastest growing international economic endeavour and this study examines the Pueblo Indian tribes within the tourism industry both domestic and international. The political culture within the United State southwestern region where the Pueblo have lived since time immemorial, became dominated by the Western Europeans beginning 450 years ago with exploration and colonization by the Spanish in 1540, continuing on through the present time with the introduction of American territorial government in 1848. In relationship to the Pueblo people the political culture of the states of Arizona and New Mexico in the year 2001 still reflects political characteristics of those original Spanish and American governmental agents. The Pueblo tribes, because of their non-nomadic way of life, have been hosts to guests since their cultural beginnings. Modern tourism came to Pueblo Indian County with the coming of the railroads in 1880. The Pueblo were a great attraction for tourists from all over the United States and the world. Tourist operators brought the tourists "out to the pueblos to see the Indians." The tourists still come to the Pueblo villages, both ancient and modern, to visit and enjoy Pueblo culture. Today, the Pueblo are entering the tourism industry for themselves, rather than being the in situ destination provided by others in the tourism industry. The Pueblo strive for their own successful cultural tourism enterprises for their cultural survival. The outcome of this study provides prescription for successful Pueblo tourism negotiation and enterprise for their survival in the 21st century. This study also provides information for reciprocal tourism -- agent and operator participation -- regarding the survival of the Pueblo culture which could insure a sustainable Pueblo culture in the American Southwest. Carisse, Karl. (2000) "Becoming Canadian. Federal-provincial Indian policy and the integration of natives, 1945-69: The case of Ontario." M.A. Thesis, University of Ottawa. 140 pp. Since Confederation, the federal government has pursued a policy of assimilation toward Canada's First Nations. Measures such as the Indian Act, the creation of reserves, and numerous treaties were implemented to “civilize” natives, dispose of aboriginal land rights, and ultimately integrate natives within Canadian society. However, by World War II, most federal authorities realized that the government's policy had failed. Thus, other means were adopted to achieve the goal of assimilation. The new method, first elaborated in the late 1940s, proposed that the federal government devolve its jurisdiction over First Nations to the provincial governments so that natives could receive provincial services on the same basis as non-natives and thus be considered “normal” citizens. Consequently, federal Indian administration, the Indian Act, and the special status of natives could be abolished since they had received full citizenship with all its benefits and responsibilities. Throughout the 1950s and 1960s, the federal and provincial governments signed agreements to arrive at this end with Ontario leading the way. However, in 1969, this method of integration met the same forsaken fate as its predecessors. This thesis will examine the federal government's integration policy from 1945 to 1969 by focusing, but not limiting itself, to the agreements that were signed between Ontario and Ottawa regarding the delivery of social services. The study will also look at the native reaction toward this policy and the rise of opposition which led to its demise. Carlson, Keith T. (2003) "The power of place, the problem of time: A study of history and aboriginal collective identity." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of British Columbia (The). 406 pp.

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This dissertation historicizes and explains the tensions that arose between localized and regionally dispersed expressions of group affiliation and political authority among the indigenous people of the Lower Fraser River watershed after European contact. It accomplishes this by directly engaging indigenous historiography and epistemology. The period examined covers the late 18th century, just prior to the first smallpox epidemic, through to 1906 when a delegation of Salish men met with King Edward in London on behalf of all the native people of British Columbia. I argue that aboriginal collective identity and political authority are and were situationally constructed products of complicated negotiations among indigenous people and between natives and newcomers. Multiple options were always available and the various expressions that shared identity assumed never were the only ones possible. Consequently, among the local indigenous population, history has always been regarded as an important arbitrator of identity and disagreements over competing historical interpretations highly contentious. To a greater extent than has been appreciated, changes in the way native collective affiliations have been constituted have been informed by reference to ancient sacred stories and an ongoing process of interpreting past precedence. They are also intimately linked to migrations. Over time and across geography, different indigenous people have used these stories to different ends. Gendered and class-based distinctions in the way these narratives have been applied to either the creation of innovative collective identities or to the defence of older expressions reveal the tensions within aboriginal society and between natives and newcomers that arose as indigenous people struggled to make sense of a rapidly changing colonial world. The uncertainty following pivotal historical events allowed these submerged tensions to assume more public forms. Examined here are the important identity shaping historical events and migrations that indigenous historiography has emphasized: Creation, the Great Flood, the 1780 smallpox epidemic, the establishment of local Hudson's Bay trading posts in 1827 and 1846, the 1858 goldrush, the imposition of colonial reserves, the banning of the potlatch, the 1884 hostile incursions into Canadian native communities of an American lynch mob, and the government policy to transform Salish fishermen into western-style farmers. Ultimately, Western ideologies, colonial authority and global economic forces are considered as forces acting within indigenous society, and not merely as exogenous powers acting upon it. Carlstroem, Catherine M. (2001) "Homicidal economics in Mark Twain: Legacies of American theft." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California, Santa Cruz. 358 pp. 'Homicidal economics in Mark Twain: Legacies of American theft' examines the roles and representations of money -- economic valuations, definitions, and transactions -- within the context of two critical economic events in 19th century America: the culmination and virtual completion of Native Americans' dispossession, and the existence and abolition of race-slavery. I focus on four of Mark Twain's major works: Roughing it, The adventures of Tom Sawyer, Life on the Mississippi and Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. My thesis, greatly simplified, is that Twain's work is profoundly informed by particularly disturbing aspects of the national economy, the homicidal-economy. His vision of economics is fundamentally, irrevocably altered by the twin realities of American economics, particularly pointed for a Southerner from Missouri: stolen land and stolen labour. It thereby encompasses a range of interpenetrating issues: the Civil War, murder, violence, racial prejudice, theories of racial difference -- the civilized and savage -- supporting economic exploitation, the authority of law, property rights, theft, and the influence of economic valuation on humanistic values. My study necessarily generalizes to adapt to these complexly related parts, using a broad definition of economic, including economic models of framing an issue -- profit and loss, risk and investment -- even with no strictly financial subject. Indeed, Twain employs this language regularly to describe interpersonal, political, and religious interactions. The word money serves as shorthand for several different but closely related and frequently conflated things: currency, the different species of money like gold and coins, which are symbols of exchange value; property and wealth, which currency represents; ownership as a concept, and its logical compliment -- robbery. The foundation of my method is close-textual analysis, with attention to the historical/cultural context of the works, and to a lesser extent, its biographical context. Since bonds between the larger US homicidal economy and economics in Twain's texts are sometimes submerged or overlaid, visible only with dose inspection, I rely on the emergence and repetition of patterns, and the intersection of these within and among the texts to reinforce my argument, so that it has a cumulative power beyond the individual interpretations of specific sections and subjects. Carr, Gerald L. (2004) "Northern Tutchone (Athabascan) poetics." Ph.D. Dissertation, State University of New York at Buffalo. 261 pp.

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Storytelling is an art form that has been in rapid decline among Yukon First Nation peoples. However, in the current political environment, storytelling has been stimulated through language revitalization efforts. In this context, an ethnopoetic survey was conducted among the Northern Tutchone-speaking people of the Little Salmon/Carmacks First Nation, located in the central Yukon Territory, Canada. Ethnopoetics entails two goals: first, the textualization and translation of verbal art and, second, the analysis of its constitution. Analysis of rhetorical structure here was initiated by defining and demarcating the line. To do this, I have drawn on conversation analysis, ethnopoetics and other areas of anthropological linguistics that analyze naturally-occurring language data. In the Northern Tutchone texts, the ends of lines are signalled by a convergence of features constituted in the fields of morpho-syntax, pragmatics, and prosody. Regarding levels of organization above the line, it appears unlikely that storytellers follow models or templates comprised of verses and stanzas, or acts. Instead, building on performance-centred approaches and dialogic anthropology, I conclude that the deployment of linguistic and social resources by storytellers in the evocation of structure can be seen as a literary device that creates emergent structures to serve rhetoric/poetic needs in the moment and context of performance. The use of these resources may or may not be textualized as higher levels of organization in analysis. One of the most significant domains of storytelling resources is the evidential system. Defining evidentiality broadly, as metapragmatic commentary instead of strictly a grammatical feature, can better account for the assertions storytellers are making about the truthfulness and importance of their stories. When the totality of evidential reflection is considered, we see a relationship between evidentiality and genre. Since all stories are 'true,' the difference between genres is based on how their truthfulness is established and how confident the storyteller feels she or he is about relaying the content accurately. Furthermore, this discrimination is not arbitrary; it patterns along the lines of categories in Dene epistemology. Carranza-Mena, Douglas G. (2003) "Indigenous communities and the ethnography of governmentality in El Salvador." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California, Santa Barbara. 340 pp. In this dissertation, I develop an ethnography of governmentality that addresses the deployment of politics and imaginings on the mode of governing of Salvadoran state. I consider the ideas and the influence of the Enlightenment in pre-independence days. I also examine the effects of pastoral power and policing of the Indigenous population through measures implemented in the realm of education, statistical administration, and genocide. Moreover, even though it has been said that civil society and the public sphere (in the traditional sense) did not emerge in Central America until this century, I show the emergence of a different kind of public space, the process of its construction and its implications for public life since the 19th century. In addition, I examine the recycling of colonial and modern European techniques of governing in El Salvador that led to dictatorships and to a special notion of democracy. In particular, I critically examine the techniques employed by the newly created Salvadoran state and argue that they are a hybrid of earlier Spanish Colonial measures and modern European methods to assert domination over the indigenous population. Furthermore, the continuing unfolding of these techniques and the over-exploitation of the indigenous communities led to an indigenous insurrection in 1932 that has been misrepresented by the official discourse of the state and has also been discursively appropriated by the left. Both discourses have created the invisibility of indigenous people in contemporary times and have provoked a theoretical reinterpretation of the rural aimed at supporting the modernization of the state and the implementation of capitalism. Finally, I explore the effects of globalization and sustainable development in civil society through the deployment of contemporary administrative techniques and financial support. Sustainable development has come to substitute the developmental theories and policies of the 1960s and 1970s. This replacement goes hand in hand with capitalism and its influence in determining the spaces of struggle. Carroll, James T. (1997) "Americanization or indoctrination: Catholic Indian boarding schools, 1874-1926." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Notre Dame. 319 pp. This dissertation examines the role of four Catholic Indian boarding schools -- Fort Totten Indian Industrial School (Devils Lake reservation), Fort Yates Indian Industrial School (Standing Rock reservation), Saint Francis Mission (Rosebud Reservation), and Holy Rosary Mission (Pine Ridge reservation) -- from the inauguration of the peace policy (1870) to the start of the Meriam investigation (1926). Particular emphasis is placed on the unique role that Catholic boarding schools played in the program of Indian assimilation. Institutionally, Fort Totten and Fort Yates were under the jurisdiction of the Bureau of Indian Affairs and Saint Francis and Holy Rosary Missions were contract schools under the auspices of the Bureau of Catholic Indian Missions. The schools were staffed by religious sisters -- Grey Nuns of Montréal, Benedictine Sisters of Pontifical

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Jurisdiction, and the Sisters of Saint Francis -- who were recent immigrants to the United States. This immigrant background significantly influenced the program of assimilation that was implemented at the four schools. The sisters struggled to create a cultural 'middle ground' that fulfilled the mandates of the federal government, but still allowed some integration of Sioux culture. The Indians, for their part, were strong supporters of these schools and favoured them over other government and Protestant alternatives. The overall success of these schools was predicated on prudent leadership and a willingness to search for creative responses to the cultural challenges that emerged during this 50-year period. As a result, both Indian student and religious sister struggled to create a 'middle ground' between European and Sioux cultures; these schools were an important part of frontier Catholicism; and through a process of selective accommodation the students created a bicultural environment that was tacitly acknowledged by the religious staff. Cashin, Jeanne. (2000) "Trauma and multigenerational trauma caused by genocide and oppression: A comparison of western and Native American healing methods." Ph.D. Dissertation, Union Institute (The). 178 pp. This dissertation examines trauma and multigenerational trauma that is caused by genocide and oppression. The specific focus is on oppression and genocidal traumatic effects with a comparison of healing methods from the dominant western culture and Native American culture. The interpretive material helps to define the literature from western culture on the nature and effect of trauma on people and groups. The literature reviewed covers the topics of the psychology of trauma and multigenerational trauma, history of trauma studies, biological origins of traumatic states, neurobiology, emotional responses, trauma transmission, healing methods, psychotherapy, body-centred therapy, Hakomi, and EMDR. The comparison information with Native American healing was conducted in open-ended interviews of nine native people who are involved with native communities in many areas of helping and healing. The research used was qualitative, heuristic, and decolonizing, using augmentation from interpretive material from Native Americans. The results of the interviews were sorted by topics and the depth of information gathered. The themes for discussion were: Multigenerational and Historical Trauma; Silence and Talking, Coming Together; Individual Healing; Healing Between Native and White People; Healing as a Tribe; and, Healing Sacred Sites. The findings from the interviews were augmented by interpretive material from Native American authors, artists and poets. The research suggests different modes of healing within the two cultures, specifically in the area of individual healing of western culture compared with group healing of tribes. The key finding suggests group healing vs. individual healing. Groups appear to be a primary value of native people while individual healing is a strong focus in western culture. The study implies that healing methods reflect specific cultural values, norms, cultural beliefs, spiritual beliefs, and predispositions in both cultures. Cassidy, Barbara E. (2002) "Getting rid of the Indian problem: Aboriginal suicide as a manifestation of genocide." Ph.D. Dissertation, York University. 267 pp. This dissertation explores the possible links between aboriginal suicide and genocide. I am not attempting to prove anything but rather to explore the possibilities that aboriginal suicide is less a health-related problem and more of a political issue. It is a hypothesis-generating dissertation, not a dissertation designed to result in a concrete solution. The introduction states what my goals are in the dissertation by discussing my own personal narrative. I also provide an alternative definition for 'environment' as being not merely the physical realm but also the mental, emotional and spiritual realms as well. The methodology chapter discusses the issue of ethics in writing about such a personal and potentially volatile subject. There is an overview of 'western' suicide theories, along with some theories which arose from the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples in 1996. I further discuss the issue of aboriginal identities and how the lack of aboriginal identity due to colonialism exacerbates aboriginal suicide. Then comes a discussion of environmental racism which deals with aboriginals connections with the land or, more specifically, the loss of land. I provide an analysis of 'ethnostress', a concept that can be used for either individuals or groups. The first chapter on genocide focuses on the UN Convention on Genocide, 1948 and how each of the five criteria which constitute genocide, according to the UN, relates to aboriginal suicide. The second chapter on genocide examines genocide in Canada itself and the problems which have arisen as a result of Canada's signing the UN Convention's definition of genocide yet includes only one criterion (the actual killing of a group). In a dissertation such as this, there can be no clear-cut solutions although I present the notion of selfdetermination as being a possible way of ending or modifying aboriginal suicide. Ceppetelli, Gary E. (1987) "The effect of transportation policies on the socioeconomic viability of remote northern

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Manitoba native communities." M.C.P. Thesis, University of Manitoba (The). Chanteloup, Francoise N. (2002) "Considering the myth of the drunken Indian." Ph.D. Dissertation, Carleton University. 179 pp. This project explores the contribution of myth as a way to expand our current understandings of concepts of alcohol and alcoholism. The paper considers the relationship between aboriginal peoples and alcohol from the perspective of myth and explores the existence of fundamental differences between aboriginal and nonaboriginal concepts of alcohol and uses of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA). Designed for Europeans, Alcoholics Anonymous has gained currency among many other groups as a viable treatment option. Among aboriginal peoples, the use of AA continues with significant controversy. The transcripts of the public hearings of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples (1997) were analyzed so as to explore narratives of alcohol. In particular, the myth of the drunken Indian, generally understood as stereotype, is considered as a story thus permitting an exploration of the way in which this myth can be thought of as articulating important ethics inherent in an aboriginal worldview. Three myths were identified. Firstly, it is argued that the drunken Indian is a part of western society's alcohol mythology. It tells the story of how aboriginal peoples became alcoholics because of an immoral and lazy disposition. Secondly, the myth of the drunken Indian recounted by the dominant society is the antithesis of that narrated by members of mainstream Alcoholics Anonymous about themselves. Specifically, the myth of individualism tells the story of alcoholism, a bodily disease, resulting from the notion of radical individualism. Thirdly, another fundamentally different myth of the drunken Indian told by aboriginal peoples about themselves. This myth narrates alcoholism as the result of 'diseased' relations between aboriginal peoples and their historical oppressors. It is within this context that we might reconcile both acceptance and rejection of a 'drunken Indian' by aboriginal peoples. Alcohol has been a real part of their experience whether or not there has been involvement with the substance on an individual level, and is heavily implicated in their relationship with the dominant culture. As such, the discussion also considers alcohol within the context of symbol and the way in which it encapsulates an entire history of relations. ———. (1994) "modeling drinking behaviour among aboriginal and non-aboriginal males and females in the Yukon: An analysis of the Yukon Alcohol and Drug Survey." M.A. Thesis, Carleton University. 236 pp. Due to the descriptive nature of explanations proposed to account for aboriginal drinking behaviour, this study examined factors associated with heavy drinking among male and female aboriginal and nonaboriginal residents of the Yukon. Arguing that the existence of social control mechanisms, specifically the presence of a stake in conformity, contribute to drinking behaviours, statistical and hierarchical regressions were performed on drinking, 5+ drinks on any one occasion, the maximum number of drinks on any one occasion, and quantity-frequency. Hierarchical regressions were performed using the variables indicating stake in conformity in addition to demographic variables. Stepwise regression was performed for the entire sample also using the variables indicating stake in conformity as well as gender and ethnicity. Considering that the study was biased against assessing aboriginal situations, it is striking that the drinking of aboriginal females was more successfully predicted by the variables than drinking by aboriginal males and non-aboriginal males and females. Furthermore, the fact that respondent characteristics associated with heavier drinking are markedly different among aboriginal peoples and on-aboriginals has important implications for research and policy initiatives. Chapeskie, Andrew J. (1986) "This land is whose land? Aboriginal territories, aboriginal development and the Canadian state." M.A. Thesis, Carleton University. 250 pp. Aboriginal peoples in Canada have not yet been able to alter significantly a pervasive Eurocentrism in the Canadian legal system to the point where that system would recognize them as distinct peoples with aspirations to determine the ongoing development of their territories. Given the relatively recent evolution of collective rights norms in the international legal system and the long tradition of the assertion of the right by aboriginal peoples to self-determination, it is natural that international fora are being made a focus of increasing activity by those peoples to achieve recognition of their status as subjects of international law. The contributions by aboriginal peoples in Canada to the evolution of international human rights concepts have been notable and any possibility of further long term significance change in the international system will depend upon their increasing involvement in the process. Chartrand, Larry N. (2001) "The political dimension of aboriginal rights." LL.M. Thesis, Queen's University at

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Kingston. 124 pp. This thesis critically examines the Supreme Court of Canada's interpretation of s. 35 of the Constitution Act, 1982. In particular, the author examines the Court's legal tests for interpreting the meaning of 'aboriginal rights.' The author focuses his critique on the Court's inability to understand that each aboriginal right claimed includes a jurisdictional quality (political dimension). This is true not only for claims that on their surface involve a jurisdictional element such as an aboriginal right to control gaming, but is also true for all aboriginal claims including claims for hunting moose. This jurisdictional quality is present in all aboriginal rights claims because of the collective nature of the right employed by the community as a whole. Any right possessed by a collective must by its very nature include an authority to control the exercise by the collective of how the right will be managed. Otherwise, the right would no longer be considered collective in nature. The author criticizes the Court's failure to understand the collective nature of Aboriginal rights and the implications of recognizing such rights. In addition, the author makes the argument that the courts have exceeded their jurisdiction when they apply the “justification test” formulated by Sparrow to the context of a recognized aboriginal right. Once an aboriginal right is recognized as being possessed by an aboriginal collective (political society) under s. 35 of the Constitution, the courts are no longer free to interfere in how conflicts between the exercise of the right, including the jurisdictional aspect of the right, and federal or provincial government's interests are accommodated. This is son because the Québec Reference case has held that when two equal constitutional powers possessed by independent political authorities come into conflict, the matter is a political matter requiring good faith negotiations. The courts are ill-equipped and do not have authority to interfere in the resolution of disputes of such a nature. Likewise, the same power relationship exists between an aboriginal authority exercising power under s. 35 and the federal or provincial governments exercising authority under s. 91 and s. 92 of the Constitution. Consequently, the Sparrow justification test which allows for one party to infringe a right as between two equal but conflicting constitutional authorities is inconsistent with the principles set out in the Québec Reference case. The author concludes that the same result should apply to the aboriginal context as well as the Québec secession context. Chen, Xiaojin. (2003) "Life stressors, anger and internalization, and substance abuse among American Indian adolescents in the Midwest: An empirical test of general strain theory." Ph.D. Dissertation, Iowa State University. 133 pp. Agnew's general strain theory (1985, 1989, 1992) has been tested several times since its development in the last decade. This theory, however, has seldom been applied to minority groups, such as American Indian population. Using a sample of 212 American Indian 5th to 8th grade adolescents, this analysis tests general strain theory by tracing the linkage among the measures of perceived discrimination, negative life events, family conflict, anger and internalization, and early onset of substance abuse. Mediating effects of anger and internalization were investigated using structural equation models. In addition, the strength of the stressorsubstance abuse relationship was examined across groups with different levels of personal/social resources. High prevalence of substance abuse and life stressors, such as negative life events and perceived discrimination were found among these American Indian adolescents. Multiple indicators of life stressors were found to have positive effects on early onset of substance abuse directly and indirectly through selfreported anger. Specifically, effects of inconsistent parenting on adolescents' substance abuse were completely mediated through reports of anger. Negative life events directly affected substance abuse and had indirect effects on substance abuse through anger. Perceived discrimination led to negative affects such as internalization symptoms, but did not have significant effects on substance abuse. This study confirmed the mediating role of anger linking stressors and substance abuse; however, no mediating role of internalization was found. Furthermore, there was evidence that the strength of the anger-substance abuse relationship varied across groups with different levels of social/personal resources. With increasing levels of anger, adolescents with high self-esteem, negative attitudes toward deviance, and low levels of association with deviant peers were less likely to engage in substance abuse, compared with those with low level of selfesteem, positive attitudes toward deviance, and high levels of association with deviant peers. The relationship of life stressors and negative emotion (anger and internalization) was not moderated by social and personal resource variables. This study provided strong support to general strain theory and broadened its empirical generality to American Indian adolescents. Chen, Yi-fong. (1998) "Indigenous rights movements, land conflicts, and cultural politics in Taiwan: A case study of Li-shan." Ph.D. Dissertation, Louisiana State University (The). 273 pp. Land rights claims remain the major focus of world indigenous movements. Lands relate to the formation of

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indigenous identity, religious practices, and the material base for indigenous cultural survival. From a spatial/geographical perspective, this dissertation explores the influences of Taiwan's state policies on indigenous peoples, their cultures, identities, and human-land relationship. The Li-shan area, in central Taiwan, is the focus of the research due to the fact that the most severe land disputes are in this area, as well as longest history of economic interactions among indigenous peoples, the dominant Han people, and the State, in the postwar Taiwan. The rise of indigenous movements in the mid-1980s in Taiwan indicated that the indigenous peoples remain the victims of colonialism. Appreciating this fact, the movements made demands against the State in struggling for 'ethnic space.' Although the movements drew significant concessions from the State, the majority Han people systematically fought back with appeals which deny the existence of any indigenous peoples in current Taiwan and requested the abolishment of Aboriginal Reservation Lands. Political economy, new cultural geography, and post-colonial theories provide the major theoretical framework for this study. The perpetual uneven ethnic power relationships between the dominant Han people and the dominated indigenous peoples are examined from the critical perspective of political economy. The new cultural geography offers the theoretical backgrounds for discussing cultural and identity politics, and multiculturalism. Post-colonial theories are especially helpful in explaining the social construction of a new indigenous/Taiwanese culture through the combination of the colonizing and the colonized cultures, as well as in deconstructing mainstream social values, and in illustrating the geography of resistance. Finally, I wish to summarize the impacts of indigenous movements on three aspects of mainstream culture. First, indigenous movements shatter the mainstream definition of social justice and question the superficial multiculturalism. Second, the indigenous claim of 'natural sovereignty' challenges the ideological myth enshrined by modern nation-states. Third, indigenous ecological wisdom injects a new and different ethic between society and nature. The formation of respect of the indigenous 'situated' knowledge through an appropriate application in eco-tourism will uphold the improvement of ethnic relations. Chenault, Venida S. (2004) "Violence and abuse against indigenous women." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Kansas (The). 175 pp. Numerous studies have documented widespread and disproportionate levels of violence and abuse against Indigenous women. In spite of the troubling statistics that have been reported in national studies, little is known about best practices with this under served population in the social work discipline. This study explores the phenomenon of violence and abuse against Indigenous women using a culturallybased empowerment framework. Two primary research questions were considered in this study. What is the lifetime prevalence and incidence of violence and abuse in a college sample of tribal women? The second question considered in this study was whether significant group differences on four variables associated with empowerment (self-esteem, sense of belonging, social support and social action) existed between First Nations college women who had experienced violence and abuse and those who had not. Data was collected and analyzed (n = 112) using univariate, bivariate and multivariate analysis. The overwhelming majority of the sample (86%) reported violence and abuse. The most common form of abuse was emotional abuse (76%) followed by physical victimization (66%), sexual victimization (36%), being threatened (28%) and being stalked (27%). Initial analysis reported no significant differences between groups on the dependent variables. Follow-up analysis reported lower self-esteem scores for those who had experienced violence and abuse in adolescence and as an adult. Higher self-esteem, social support and social action scores were reported for those raised on reservations, tribal lands, pueblos and villages. The majority of the sample (66%) had never reported the incident to the police or talked to a professional (64%). Slightly over one-half reported talking to a trusted friend or relative (53%) or using a traditional healer or ceremony (54%) to overcome the incident. Those who had been threatened, stalked or physically victimized were more likely to report the incident to police. Those who were sexually victimized were more likely to talk to a trusted friend or relative. Those who had been threatened and sexually victimized were more likely to talk to a professional and to use a traditional healer or ceremony. Cheng-Levine, Jia-Yi. (1997) "Neo-colonialism, post-colonial ecology, and ecofeminism in the works of Native American, Chicano/a, and international writers." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania. 280 pp. The mind/body, man/woman, culture/nature dichotomies dominant in Western ideologies have subordinated women, nature, and minority groups and subjected them to exploitation and oppression. In this study, I examine how Western civilization has affected the environment and, at the same time, degraded the status of women since the time of imperialist expansion due to the Western patriarchal traditions and colonial

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legacies. My thesis centres on the relationships between environmental racism, gender-biased colonial ideology, and ecological imbalance. I historicize such concepts as nature, development, science, and technology from the 16th century European colonial expansion to the modern neo-colonial stage of 'maldevelopment', as Vandana Shiva terms it. Influenced by Edward Said's theory of 'contrapuntal reading', I stress the significance of juxtaposing both canonical and non-canonical literary works. The centre chapters, for instance, focus on writers such as Leslie Silko, Joy Harjo, Pat Mora, and Ana Castillo, in order to contrast their representations of the land and culture to the dominant European tradition. I also develop the definition of multi-culturalism beyond US borders and discuss such writers as Mahasweta Devi and J.M. Coetzee of India and South Africa. Women as subject and its heterogeneity are my focus. I employ Gayatri Spivak's theory of the subaltern to support my argument that decolonization, accompanied by the growth of multi-national capitalism, brings more destruction to the land and women than the previous colonial stage. I conclude with Amilcar Cabral's theory on national culture; Cabral's theory insists that a nation will not achieve a total economic and political independence unless its mode of production is in harmony with the land. The purpose of this dissertation is to help develop the common ground between ecology, literary theory, and literature. Cheng, Sheng Yao. (2004) "The politics of identity and schooling: A comparative case study of American Indians and Taiwan Aborigines." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles. 165 pp. The purpose of this research is to figure out the interaction among indigenous identity, educational experience, and career aspiration under the context of American Indians and Taiwan Aborigines. Three major research questions of this study are the followings: (1) Which factors will influence the formation of Native students' Indigenous identities? (2) What is the relationship between Indigenous identity and native student's educational experiences? (3) How do Indigenous identities and educational experiences influence Native students' educational aspiration and cultural aspiration? To interpret these questions, I conducted two field studies which are one in Taipei and the other in Los Angeles. After three month's classroom observations and in-depth interviews, I discover that indigenous identities are highly interrelated with their indigenous blood heritage, tribal language usage at home, traditional ceremony participation, reservations/tribes visit regularly, and parent's connection with their tribes. Indigenous students who possess higher Indigenous identities tend to criticize the unbalance of race and ethnicity in the curriculum, pedagogy, peers interaction, and educational policies which they face in schools every day. In contrast, those students who keep weaker indigenous identity might feel satisfied with the mainstream curriculum design. Furthermore, native students who maintain stronger tribal identities like to do something for their tribes and hope to go back to live in their tribes in the future, but those who just grasp mainstream cultural identities may not think about doing anything for their tribes. To compare the identity issue between Taiwan and the United States, the study shows that American Indians live in a more multicultural society than Taiwan Aborigines so the students don't feel the same degree of stereotype or racial discrimination from their teachers and peers like Taiwan Aborigines. However, the educational policies for Taiwan Aborigines could help more indigenous students to go to better schools than those in the United States. Even so, the extra score policy for Taiwan Aboriginal students also cause some problems between indigenous students and their nonTaiwan Aboriginal students. Moreover, due to geography, Taiwan Aboriginal students have more opportunities to visit their tribes, join their traditional ceremonies, and their parents' strong tribal connection, and urban Taiwan Aboriginal students seem to possess stronger tribal/indigenous identities than urban American Indian students. Chilton, Mariana M. (2000) "An ethics of care: Politics and religion in American Indian health." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania. 375 pp. Southern Cheyenne ethics of care, based on notions of humility, social connectedness and active participation, are almost diametrically opposed to the values of contemporary biomedicine and to the practice of ethnography. For this reason, many American Indian illness experiences are ignored in the ethnographic record, and American Indian encounters with biomedical health care systems are often uncomfortable, ineffective and unjust. Discourse analysis and experience-centred theories, coupled with four years of ethnographic field research, bring to light how caring ethics are idealized and practiced in ceremonial healing and everyday life among Southern Plains Indians in Oklahoma. These caring ethics are viewed in historical context and are juxtaposed with the coercive rhetoric of care used by the U.S. government and the biomedical system that define, distance and remove themselves from socially responsible action. A case study of a Cheyenne man's struggle to survive cancer using traditional ceremonial and hybrid healing practices as well as American

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biomedicine demonstrates how caring ethics are enacted and experienced. In the illness experience, ethics of care as defined in American Indian life, in medical and governmental systems, and in ethnographic study are impossible to unravel and disconnect. Instead, these various ethical systems conflate, conflict and complement each other in the individual and community's attempts to overcome sickness and in the attempt to portray these experiences in ethnography. By adapting professional approaches to incorporate compassion and spirituality, the practice of medicine would improve clinical outcomes and the illness experiences of patients. Similarly, in ethnography, a more intimate approach to the study of religions and healing experiences would enhance ethnographic theory and refine its applications while not losing site of its ethical responsibility to those they study. Chirinos, Sally E. (1991 ) "Cultural restructuring among the Lakota: A case study in forced acculturation and human adaptation." M.A. Thesis, University of Texas at Arlington (The). 121 pp. During the mid- to latter the nineteenth century, one indigenous group of the Great Plains, known as the Lakota, saw their world rapidly deteriorate and disintegrate, leading to a severe dysfunctional state. The culture did not die however, and began to "mend the broken hoop," via several adaptive strategies including renewal and revival, reformulation, and Pan-Indian solidarity. Contemporary Lakota are becoming a respected sociopolitical force, utilizing legal and political means to obtain desired goals. This thesis is an overview and assessment of a contemporary case of acculturation, and of the coping mechanisms human beings use to survive. Chowdhury, Md. Khairul Islam. (2002) "Articulation and dynamics of 'Jumma nationalism': The case of the Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh." M.A. Thesis, Dalhousie University. 178 pp. This thesis analyses the process of identity formation known as 'Jumma nationalism' in the Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh. Following Stuart Hall, I argue that 'Jumma identity' and the political movement concerning it are the products of cultural and political work of articulation. My analysis is grounded in theories of nationalism and ethnonationalism, and I argue that the emergence of an educated middle class in the CHT and ethnicization of the political system played determinant roles in the development of 'Jumma nationalism.' Specifically, the nationalist movement in the CHT developed out of struggles with Bangali/Bangladeshi nationalism; however, it was generally informed by the anti-colonialist and postcolonialist nationalism of South Asia and other parts of the world. Regarding the phenomena of ethnonationalism, the case of Jumma nationalism is located at one end of the spectrum, as it is not based on religious, ethnic or linguistic criteria. Nevertheless, the case found in the Chittagong Hill Tracts is an example of how far construction of group identities can go. Christen, Kimberly. (2004) "Properly Warumungu: Indigenous future-making in a remote Australian town." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California, Santa Cruz. 384 pp. This dissertation examines cultural preservation and innovation in practice. Based on fieldwork in Tennant Creek, Northern Territory, Australia, I explore one community's entanglements with national land rights legislation, transnational interests in mining, and shifts in cultural tourism. In this network of sometimesunlikely partners, I trace the emergence of coexisting forms of aboriginality-through material objects, cultural performances, and unexpected alliances. Within these collaborations -- old and new -- the Warumungu sense of "properness" recasts contested sets of actions and events that align with -- but don't necessarily recreate -- an ideal notion of the past. New partnerships and mutually beneficial projects, although not devoid of power imbalances, are a necessary part of the community's future. Each chapter confronts the web of issues involved in these future-making activities: refraining performance as part of commercial ventures, creating new cultural products, rearticulating generational and land-based relationships, effectively engaging with consultants to display Warumungu culture, and re-narrating painful as well as joyous pasts for commercial benefit. These local concerns intersect with and redefine global indigenous debates over commercial land use, cultural reproduction, intellectual property rights, and nonAboriginal access to Aboriginal cultural knowledge. Christensen, Michelle L. (1999) "The role of ethnic identity and family support in the psychological well-being of American Indian elders: A comparison of men and women in reservation and urban settings." Ph.D. Dissertation, Loyola University of Chicago. 122 pp. In the current study, the role that ethnic identity and family relationships played in the psychological wellbeing of older American Indian people was explored. The relative importance of these two variables for men and women and for reservation and urban residents was also investigated. 96 American Indian people over

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the age of 55 who were living on one of three Midwestern reservations or in one of two Midwestern cities were included in the study. A strong family support system was related to fewer symptoms of depression, anxiety, and psychosomatic complaints for all study participants. There was no greater relationship between family support and psychological well-being for men or women nor for reservation or urban residents. Reservation residents did, however, report stronger ties with their families whereas urban men appeared to have the least connection with their families. Ethnic identity was not significantly related to any measures of psychological well-being in the current study. However, urban residents reported a stronger sense of ethnic identity than did reservation residents. The ways in which the findings of the current study converge with and diverge from the extant literature are discussed. Christensen, Roger B. (1999) "Risk factors in adolescent problem behaviours among native and non-Native Americans." Ph.D. Dissertation, Utah State University. 106 pp. The high incidence of adolescent problem behaviours in the United States raises major concerns. These problem behaviours include: sexually transmitted diseases, unintended pregnancies, suicide, depression, substance abuse, crime against persons and property, and delinquency. Consequently, there continues to be a high level of concern and interest in different ethnic populations of adolescents and their level of risk. This study evaluated the following problem behaviours: substance abuse, suicide, delinquency, and sexual intercourse; and the risk factors that increase the probability of these problem behaviours occurring. Specifically, the study identified the profiles of the population in relationship to the problem behaviours comparing native and non-Native American adolescents. This study also described how both samples of high school students reported the connectedness of school, home, and community with their perceived feelings of belongingness and safety, in addition to their reports of problem behaviour. The prevalences of problem behaviours in native and non-Native American adolescents were compared, the differences in the importance of risk factors related to problem behaviours in the two groups were examined, and the extent to which the risks and protective factors predict problem behaviours in native and non-Native American adolescents also was assessed. In comparing problem behaviours between native and non-Native American adolescents, there were significantly higher incidences of problem behaviours in the Native American sample. Statistical analyses demonstrated that problem behaviours were not consistently predicted by the risk and protective factors for the Native American females, but they were predictable for the non-Native American female sample. The risk factors explained less of the variation in problem behaviour for the males than for the females from both samples. The risk factors explained less variation in problem behaviours for Native American males than their non-Native American counterparts. This research demonstrates the need to develop models to better understand cultural influences on adolescents in order to improve the intervention and prevention techniques necessary to reduce the number of youth at risk. There is a particular need to better identify the risk factors of importance to Native Americans. Chupik-Hall, Jessa. (2001) ""Good families do not just happen": Indigenous people and child welfare services in Canada, 1950-65." M.A. Thesis, Trent University. 108 pp. A disproportionate number of indigenous children in Canada were removed from their families into the child welfare system beginning in the 1960s, a total consistently higher than that of the non-aboriginal child population. The reason behind these numerous removals has been attributed previously to jurisdictional disputes between the federal and provincial governments, cultural misunderstandings, and colonialism. This thesis explores the impact of the early child welfare services provided by the Indian Affairs Branch from 1950 to 1965 upon the subsequent extension of provincial child welfare services to aboriginal communities. The Branch provided only minimal preventive child welfare services and used an equality rhetoric which justified the removal of children. The Branch in essence instructed and encouraged mainstream providers to treat everyone the same. This thesis demonstrates that these were the two key factors which influenced a policy that encouraged the removal of a disproportionate number of aboriginal children. Churchill, Elizabeth. (2000) "Tsuu T'ina: A history of a First Nation's community, 1890-1940." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Calgary. 584 pp. Contemporary First Nations' historiography in Canada emphasizes an 'agential' approach in which native individuals are seen to resist the imposition of European hegemony. Framed within a narrow Marxistinspired context of reproduction and resistance, such studies reveal a paucity of social theory in which agency and structure are treated as dichotomous factors in history. The agency/structure dichotomy,

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however, is very often equated with the opposition between tradition and modernization. The central difficulty from a theoretical perspective is that these types of formulations leave the historian unable to conceptualize change and modernization in native cultures through time. This study, in contrast, presents a revised conceptual framework for the historical development of the Tsuu T'ina reserve community near Calgary, Alberta. It is intended as a critique of cultural-based perspectives and economic reductionism. The issue of community identity is not treated as a 'given' but rather as a problem to be addressed in analysis. Using the structural history approach of Marshall Sahlins, the analysis focuses on the dialectical relationship between external forces of change and internal factors within Tsuu T'ina reserve society which resulted in new forms of community solidarity and identity. The formation of the Tsuu T'ina reserve community is traced in relation to three generations of individuals between 1890 and 1940. The generational approach provides a means to compare transformations in religious, political, economic and social dimensions of Tsuu T'ina culture for the time period selected. Ciborski, Sara. (1990) "Culture and power: The emergence and politics of Akwesasne Mohawk traditionalism." Ph.D. Dissertation, State University of New York at Albany. 285 pp. The author offers an interpretive study of efforts by Mohawk (Iroquois) traditionalists to build cultural and political awareness at Akwesasne, an Indian community located on the US-Canada border. Conceptions that Mohawks have about Iroquois culture, a specific history of relations with the dominant society, and the continuing struggle to solve serious social and economic problems in the community -- are all important contributing conditions to Akwesasne Mohawk traditionalism. The study is framed by two narratives that raise issues of representation and ethics in the field of Indianscholar relations: a narration of the evolution of the author's understanding of traditionalists' efforts, and a narration of a conflict between some Iroquois traditionalists and a number of prominent scholars in the field of Iroquoian studies. Traditionalists are defined as those Iroquois people who choose to represent Iroquois culture and society to both the Indian and non-Indian public. Traditionalist strategies that are considered include: public elaboration of Iroquois conceptions of culture, tradition, history in journals, media, conferences, and international forums; leadership in debates internal to the community on culture, identity, and sovereignty; confrontation of social problems like casino gambling and inadequate education through a discourse on culture, sovereignty, and community well-being; construction of a sense of mission and cultural identity through intercultural encounters with non-Indian social activists; contesting of the authority of nonIndian scholars to define Iroquois culture and write Iroquois history. The author argues that the cultural expressions and national aspirations of Akwesasne Mohawk traditionalists are a form of cultural nationalism, insofar as they are responses to the experience of internal colonialism, a structural relationship to the dominant society suffered by other US racial minorities. Coffin, Michelle. (2003) "United they stood, divided they didn't fall: Culture and politics in Mi'kmaq Nova Scotia, 1969-88." M.A. Thesis, Saint Mary's University. 188 pp. The structure and membership of First Nations political organizations can reveal much about the culture of an aboriginal society. This thesis is an examination of the cultural experiences found within the political organization of the Mi'kmaq of Nova Scotia between 1969 and 1988. The analysis demonstrates that within the political realm, the Mi'kmaq of Nova Scotia displayed distinctions with respect to the values placed on particular aspects of their culture. The Union of Nova Scotia Indians was established in 1969 to politically represent the Nova Scotia Mi'kmaq population. By the mid-1970s, however, tensions and divisions were evident that eventually resulted in the formation of the Confederacy of Mainland Micmacs in 1986. The result was a divided Mi'kmaq political landscape in Nova Scotia along a geographical boundary -- Cape Breton and mainland Nova Scotia -- with each organization representing a segment of the provincial population and attempting to control as much of the sociopolitical space as possible. The thesis argues that although cultural differences were not solely responsible for the splintering of the first provincial organization in Nova Scotia, the cultural value placed on language, religion, politics and economic factors varied between the two organizations. Cohen, Benita E. (1994) "The development of health services in Peguis First Nation: A descriptive case study." M.Sc. Thesis, University of Manitoba (The). 286 pp. This study -- a combination of a history, contemporary case study, and ethnography -- describes the development of community health services in Manitoba's largest reserve, Peguis First Nation, located approximately 170 kilometres north of Winnipeg. Using documentation (both contemporary and archival),

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participant observation, and key informant interviews, the development of health services in Peguis is explored within the context of the overall development of the community as a whole, and within the context of the major stages of federal Aboriginal health policy and health services delivery in Canada over the past century. Beginning with the relocation of the reserve to its present site, the study traces health care in Peguis from the late 1800s to the summer of 1993. The period before 1980 was characterized by the loss of the traditional medical system in Peguis, and increasing government hegemony over medical services -coinciding with a period of social and economic underdevelopment of the community. By contrast, the past 15 years have been characterized by relatively rapid community development due to increased political organization and a determination to achieve local autonomy. It is within this context that control over health care has begun to shift back to the community -- beginning with local administration of its Health Centre in 1980 and then, in 1991, the signing of a Health Transfer Agreement with the federal government. Peguis' experience with Health Transfer is examined in detail. However, it is noted that two of the most innovative examples of health programming in Peguis have occurred outside the mandate of the Health Transfer initiative -- the Peguis Mental Health Program and the Traditional Program. Cole, Donald C. (1981) "An ethnohistory of the Chiricahua Apache Indian reservation, 1872-76." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of New Mexico (The). 397 pp. It is the purpose of this paper to explore the interaction of Chiricahua Apache Indian culture and Chiricahua history. The focal point of this paper is the period 1872-77 when a Chiricahua reservation existed. The scope of the paper touches the extreme ranges of earliest Chiricahua mythic history and the current reality of Chiricahua experience. Concentrated study has been made of aspects of Chiricahua culture which served to bring the people to the reservation and later to drive them from it. Detailed description has been made of Chiricahua cosmology and the relationships of philosophy to the maiden's puberty ceremony and boy's war novice complex, both of which required raiding and war for their fullest expression. Other pertinent aspects of Chiricahua culture, particularly equality of sex role differentiation, democratic and equalitarian leadership patterns, and influence of age and power in the society, are explored. From the earliest mythic times, Chiricahua Apache culture emphasized a universe filled with contending powers in conflict. To meet this challenge, the society developed a warrior society which came into conflict with neighbouring Indian groups and European settlers in the Southwest. After centuries of conflict with the Spanish and Mexicans, the Chiricahuas welcomed Americans into their homeland. Within a generation, the Americans had also become enemies due to scalp-hunting, mining, and expropriation of lands used by Chiricahuas as agricultural plots. During the 1860s, the Chiricahuas were at war with or raiding nearly every other group of people in Arizona, New Mexico, Chihuahua, and Sonora. By 1869 the people's foes in Mexico had formed alliances of Yaquis, Tarahumaras, Opatas, Pimas, and Mexican soldiery against them. This alliance temporarily drove the Chiricahuas from the Sierra Madres into the United States. American generals were at the same time mounting major offensives in Apacheria and the Chiricahuas were forced to seek peace. Cochise made a number of contacts with United States officials beginning in 1869 which resulted in the Cochise-Howard agreement of 1872. This established the Chiricahua Apache Indian Reservation with Thomas Jeffords becoming the Chiricahuas' agent. The people remained armed and free from military control. The reservation was beset by periodic troubles during its four years of operation. Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs disclose that Jeffords suffered yearly problems with budget and supplies. In spite of the agent's attempts to solve these problems, they were beyond his ability to do so. Bureau officials never clearly grasped the difficulty and expense of providing subsistence and self-sufficiency to the Apaches of Arizona. As soon as war was over, they attempted to cut costs, consolidate reservations, and force Apaches into preconceived patterns of desirable economic and social activity. For their part, Chiricahuas were unwilling to give up the lavish distribution of goods attendant to the maiden's ceremony or the violence of the war novice complex. In order to fulfil these requirements, the Chiricahuas continued to raid in Sonora. Attempts to suppress raiding from the reservation failed. Alternatives such as limited gold mining by Apaches and conversion of the agent's personal resources into annuities for ceremonials also failed. After the death of Cochise in 1874, the situation on the reservation deteriorated. Chiricahuas split into factions and raiding into Mexico increased. As the result of diplomatic pressure from Mexico and in accordance with policies of consolidation, the government ended the reservation and transferred the Chiricahuas to San Carlos. The majority of them fled into the mountains or to Mexico and ten years of renewed warfare resulted.

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Cole, Peter J. (2000) "First Peoples' knowings as legitimate discourse in education: Coming home to the village." Ph.D. Dissertation, Simon Fraser University. 329 pp. This dissertation presents a mutual intercultural conversation about ethics, experience and education, whose purpose is to share with the academy indigenous epistemologies and methodologies which have existed for millennia and which, rhizomatically, are in continuous creation and evolution. In this text, indigenous knowings are not, and never were, alter/native or marginal. As a means of demonstrating this epistemological standpoint, rather than building on Western ways of taking up histories and theories of “education”, this research makes central the knowings of its key participants: First Peoples in British Columbia, as well as Mäori, Koori, Mayan, Kenyan, Malawian, Anishinaabek, and Haudenosaunee. Drawing upon interviews with Aboriginal people, both university- and non-university-based, as well as on the published work of indigenous scholars, on a set of conferences concerned with First Peoples and education, and drawing no less on fiction, poetry, and the measured silences traditional scholarly text finds itself incapable of representing, this study interrogates from an indigenous standpoint the ethics of research especially the right of western academics to know “other” cultures by means of what are universally accepted within the academy as “legitimate” and “ethically approved” research practices. It takes up the thorny question of what “curriculum” has meant and might mean, and it adds to and enriches an understanding of how “knowledge” has been understood and acted upon in Aboriginal communities and contexts concerned with the “upbringing” of children and youth. Employing a series of conversations in which indigenous epistemologies are foregrounded, the text itself is composed of poetic, dramatic, and storytelling voices, a rhetorical strategy intended better to reflect the orality of my own First Nations culture (In-SHUCK-ch/N'Quat'qua Nation of British Columbia) and the primarily oral cultures of my co-participants. An extended metaphor -- that of a canoe journey -- draws together these various conversations in a manner that resists the narrative conventions of beginning, middle, and end. Rather, the text seeks to represent through this literary device, knowledge understood and enacted as a continuous engagement in storytelling, in conversation. These literary 'tactics' rhetorically accomplish, then, a significant decolonization, separating Aboriginal being, language and knowing from the violence wrought upon them by English grammar, syntax, spelling, and other never merely linguistic conventions which have silenced and absented from serious scholarly attention, indigenous ways of understanding what 'education' was, is, and might yet become for People of the First Nations. Forcing indigenous people to articulate and understand their educational experiences exclusively in the ways and means of western academic discourse, it is here argued, constitutes both epistemological racism and cultural genocide. In resisting any such imperative, trickster discourse, narrative chance and pleasurable misreadings in this dissertation gesture toward a postpositivist and anti-colonial isomorphing of stories and epistemologies from indigenous languages into English and back. Indeed, the first and last words of this dissertation are in my own language, Tl'atl'imx, as a means of imposing a symbolic counter-forcing which compels listening rather than speaking, and which instantiates however briefly for academic readers a position of incomprehension, one which, in relation to the education of First Nations Peoples, is long overdue. Confer, Clarissa W. (1997) "Turmoil in Indian country: The Civil War experience of the Five Nations." Ph.D. Dissertation, Pennsylvania State University (The). 242 pp. Native Americans in Indian Territory experienced the Civil War in a unique way due to their position as autonomous nations within the United States. The Creek, Cherokee, Choctaw, Chickasaw, and Seminole nations acted as sovereign entities when forming alliances with the Confederacy. They negotiated treaties which offered more favourable terms of protection, economic advantages, and political participation than any previous agreements. However, three of the nations could maintain neither their unity nor their allegiance to the Confederacy, and the Five Nations became badly divided over the course of the war. The Cherokee, Creek, and Seminole tribes had a legacy of internal division and factionalization stemming from the removal crisis in the 1830s. Creeks and Seminoles opposed to the Confederate alliance made by their nation fled the territory in 1861. They survived a miserable existence in temporary refugee camps in Kansas for much of the war. The Cherokee faction loyal to Chief John Ross also rejected the Confederate alliance and joined the Union cause. For the remainder of the war, the Cherokee Nation had northern and southern governments, under the leadership of Ross and Stand Watie respectively. The four years of the Civil War proved disastrous for the residents of northern Indian Territory. Both Union and Confederate armies, as well as guerrilla raiders and bushwhackers, rampaged through the region. While Indian men served in the Union and Confederate armies, women and children had to survive on their own. Thousands of families fled their homes, living as refugees in Kansas or the Red River region near Texas. The

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Choctaws and Chickasaws remained true to the Confederate cause, but also suffered the ravages of war and the pressures of hosting refugee populations. By 1865, farms were abandoned, homes burned, schools and churches closed, and governments dysfunctional. Thousands of men had died in the war, and tens of thousands of people were homeless. Then in 1866, the federal government further weakened Indian sovereignty under the terms of harsh new treaties. The experience of the Civil War forced the Five Nations toward the complete loss of autonomy which came with Oklahoma statehood. This study blends the techniques of ethnohistory and social history to present an account that places American Indians within the context of Civil War history while emphasizing their unique experiences. It incorporates both native and non-native by utilizing oral history, memoirs, letters, government correspondence, and military reports. The study draws on both scholarship relating to native people as autonomous participants and from recent work in military history. It advances the literature of Civil War history and American Indian studies, and reflects the recent trends in each discipline. An awareness of the position of America's indigenous people in the most critical test the United States has faced will further scholars' understanding of this crucial period. Colin, Jennifer. (2004) "Profile of a suicide attempter in the Sioux Lookout District." M.Sc. Thesis, University of Manitoba (The). 95 pp. Many First Nations communities in the Sioux Lookout District have been experiencing a high rate of completed and attempted suicide over the last decade. The objective of the present study is to identify and profile the demographic features and other characteristics common to those aboriginal individuals living in the Sioux Lookout District that have attempted suicide. A retrospective chart review of suicide attempts and completed suicides from the years 1995 to 2000 was undertaken. A total of 150 suicide attempts and 36 competed suicide charts were reviewed. In addition, six semi-structured interviews also took place with key informants from Nodin Counselling Centre who had substantial experience working in response to the suicide situation in the region. Chi-square analysis was used to test for differences between completed and attempted suicides, male and female suicide attempters and first and previous suicide attempters. Odds ratios were calculated for the significant x2. The dominant profile for a suicide attempter that emerged from the results is female under the age of 25 who has a history of repeated attempts. She tends to have lived a life marked by negative experiences such as a history of alcohol abuse, and more than likely a combination of physical, verbal and sexual abuse. She also experienced a break-up with a partner/boyfriend or a fight with a significant other, and used alcohol right before the event occurred. This is consistent with much of the literature that looks at risk factors for suicide attempts. There are several factors that contribute to the decision to attempt suicide. Having knowledge of these factors can further the development of effective intervention and prevention programs to address this issue. Conte, Christine F. (1985) "The Navajo sex-gender system: The impact of economic development in two northern Arizona communities." Ph.D. Dissertation, New School for Social Research. 400 pp. The dissertation investigates the impact of economic development, or the penetration of the market economy, on the Navajo sex-gender system. Previous studies of economic development and sex-gender systems have been confined to Third World contexts with relatively little attention given to the unique, but related, experiences of native North Americans. The dissertation contributes to our understanding of these experiences in two ways. First, it describes two key components of Navajo women's status; their rights and duties and the values accruing to these rights and duties. Second, through the investigation of specific hypotheses, it illuminates the relationship between production, reproduction and sex-gender ideology. To these ends, comparative analysis focuses on 85 households in two culturally and economically diverse communities in northeastern Arizona. One is a primary node in the regional dendritic market system and a reservation border town. The other is a hinterlands reservation community and a tertiary node in the same regional system. Within each community, all aspects of the gender-based division of labour are described at key loci of production, consumption and distribution. Analysis of women's kin-based resource networks in the two communities reveals systematic structural differences between them. These differences are linked to larger market forces and the social relations of particular types of workplaces. Within each community, women's resource networks are demonstrated to promote economic autonomy for women and, at the same time, to contribute to socioeconomic stratification among them. A broader range of diversity in sex-gender values is exhibited in the wage labour centre and is related to both economic strategies and cultural meanings. Analysis of the descriptive data does not support the hypothesis that participation of the household in the labour force either diminishes actual decision-making authority for women or encourages patriarchal

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values. Instead, women's status is more likely to covary with their financial contribution to the household. The relationship between resource strategies, religious preferences and other cultural factors and Navajo women's power and authority in the household is also explored. Contreras, Sheila M. (1998) "Blood lines: Modernism, indigenismo and the construction of Chicana/o identity." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Texas at Austin (The). 295 pp. This dissertation examines the image of the Mexican Indian in three historical contexts: Anglo Modernism of the 1920s, Chicano cultural nationalism of the 1970s, and Chicana feminism of the 1980s and 1990s. My research takes a critical perspective on each of these movements, and at the same time theorizes the transformative potential of textual enterprises that elaborated distinct forms of indigenismo (indigenism). The three contexts that I address manifest different, although related, representations of the Mexican Indian. In juxtaposing the work of authors between periods, I foreground the use of the Mexican Indian as a vessel for authorial critique -- a rhetorical strategy dating back to Enlightenment valorizations of 'the Noble Savage.' Chicana/o textual projects of indigenismo, then, must be understood in the context of a larger semiotic field that precedes them. I assess the process by which an 'authentic subject' or the authentication of a claimed subject position is facilitated by assertions of indigenous identity in Chicana and Chicano literary discourses. I argue that the mythologization of the Mexican Indian is a strategy that initiates counter-hegemonic discourse at the same time that it undercuts the emancipatory objectives of its authors. In each of the three chapters, I acknowledge the radically different contexts of each author, yet bring into relief their common investment in particular and familiar signifiers of Mexican Indian culture, or 'Indian Mexico.' Further, I explore the unacknowledged influences of ethnography, Modern Primitivism and Mexican post-Revolutionary state discourse on Chicana and Chicano indigenismo. My work insists upon a more acutely critical perspective on representations of the Mexican Indian as cultural ancestor and foundational trope for resistant Chicana/o discourse. In acknowledging the limitations of indigenismo as a discursive strategy for a liberatory Chicana and Chicano poetics, I argue for alternative reading and writing strategies that move beyond a mythologized and dehistoricized Chicana/o Indian identity. Conway, Liam A. (2004) "The 'Starlight tours': A study of racist dynamics in a prairie city." M.A. Thesis, University of Regina (The). 183 pp. This thesis examines the racist dynamics in evidence when the story of the Starlight tours broke in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan in 2000. Darrell Night, an Aboriginal man from Saskatoon, filed a complaint against two Saskatoon Police Service constables for abandoning him on the outskirts of the city on a freezing winter morning when he was not dressed for the weather. Night came forward with his allegations after the bodies of two other Aboriginal men were found frozen in the same vicinity where he had been abandoned by the two constables. The filing of Mr. Night's complaint eventually resulted in the largest Royal Canadian Mounted Police investigation the province had ever seen, as well as the initiation of a province-wide Aboriginal justice inquiry. In the wake of Mr. Night's allegations, hundreds of other Aboriginal people around the province alleged similar treatment at the hands of various police forces using telephone hotlines set up by the Native Law Centre at the University of Saskatchewan and by the Federation of Saskatchewan Indian Nations. The thesis argues that, despite attempts to characterize the Starlight tours and the related events as isolated incidents attributable to rogue elements on the police force, the Starlight tours more accurately represent a consistent and predictable event given the context of the neocolonial racial order that has developed over time in Canada. Furthermore, the thesis undertakes an examination of the constitution of this racial order in the context of colonial policy regarding education and reserve-based agricultural programs, and traces its evolution to its present neocolonial incantation focusing particularly upon the criminalization of Aboriginal people by the Canadian criminal justice system. The Starlight tours are placed in this context. Cook, Samuel R. (1992) "Indian self-determination: A comparative analysis of executive and congressional approaches to contemporary federal Indian policy." M.A. Thesis, University of Arizona (The). 242 pp. Scholars of American Indian policy refer to the period from 1960 to present as the Self-Determination Era. However, President Richard Nixon is commonly credited with making self-determination the fundamental tenet of contemporary Indian policy through his 1970 message to Congress. The concept of selfdetermination embodies three main goals: tribal self-government; cultural survival; and economic development. Furthermore, Indian participation in tribal activities as well as the federal policy-making process is a key principle of self-determination. Self-determination, however, is not a single policy, but rather, a conglomeration of policy approaches originating in different branches of the federal government.

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There has been little uniformity in the executive and legislative approaches to contemporary Indian policy. As this thesis illustrates, congressional approaches to self-determination policy since 1970 have been more consistent than those of the executive branch. ———. (1997) "Monacans and mountaineers: A comparative study of colonialism and dependency in southern Appalachia." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Arizona (The). 429 pp. For scholars of underdevelopment, Appalachia is an enigma. The vast and diverse natural resources of the region offer the potential for local prosperity, but much of the region is characterized by widespread poverty. Accordingly, many writers have tended to characterize Appalachia as a homogeneous region, in spite of its cultural, environmental, and economic diversity. This study assesses the causes and consequences of underdevelopment in Appalachia through a controlled comparison of two mountain communities: the Monacan Indians of Amherst County, Virginia, an aboriginal community located in the Blue Ridge foothills; and a mining community in Wyoming County, West Virginia, located in the rugged plateau coalbelt. Two mutually related theoretical approaches are used: the internal colonialism and dependency models. This study is concerned with the relationship between colonial processes within the region and the variable ways in which these have been related to conditions of economic dependency. The study begins with the hypothesis that each community is an internal colony, but that the extent of colonization and dependency may vary between the two, and that the historical processes of colonization and dependency may also vary profoundly between the two. To test this, several variables are examined, including who the initial colonizers were, salient cultural patterns of each community prior to and after colonization, traditional subsistence patterns, and local environmental factors which may have effected exploitative processes differentially in each community. It is shown that the differences in these variables between the two communities have had profound effects on their colonial experiences. Although doctrines of racial/ethnic superiority were used to justify colonial endeavours in both cases, these were much more salient in the case of the Monacans. While the Monacan's engagement with colonial forces began much earlier than that of the Euro-American settlers and their progeny in Wyoming County, various social, economic, and political changes have converged in recent years to allow the Monacans to break away from the bonds of colonialism and dependency. In Wyoming County, however, land alienation and a corporate controlled state government have severely crippled the possibility of local grassroots empowerment. Cooke, Martin J. (1999) "On leaving home: Return and circular migration between First Nations and prairie cities." M.A. Thesis, University of Western Ontario (The). 172 pp. This study uses 1991 Aboriginal Peoples Survey data and interviews with migrants to Winnipeg to investigate the personal characteristics of Registered Indians who have returned to reserves after moving to cities, and those who made multiple moves between the two areas. Multivariate analyses of the effects of demographic, socioeconomic, and some community variables on return migration found that return migrants were little different than those who did not return. While interviews indicated that circulation was common, models predicting circulation failed to adequately capture multiple moves. While there is migration to cities for employment and education, other reasons include the attraction of urban life to youth, health care, and housing issues. Reasons for return migration included the pull of community, and the supports of extended family. Social integration into the reserve or urban community seems to be important in return migration. Return on retirement and commuting may be common strategies. Cooper, Carol A. (1993) ""To be free on our lands": Coast Tsimshian and Nisga'a societies in historical perspective, 1830-1900." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Waterloo. 485 pp. This dissertation studies the efforts of the Coast Tsimshian and Nisga'a to preserve their identity and cultural integrity under the fur trade, missionization and industrialization, which were established in rapid succession on the northern Pacific coast after 1830. The Coast Tsimshian and Nisga'a, two linguistically and culturally similar tribes, accepted change and deliberately sought innovations, but often they did so in order to survive as distinct cultures. A complex process of incorporation was involved whereby such developments as the fur trade, Christianity and participation in the commercial fisheries became part of their tradition and their very identity. At the same time, the Coast Tsimshian and Nisga'a consciously endeavoured to preserve many of their traditional economic activities and sociopolitical arrangements. While the study acknowledges that Coast Tsimshian and Nisga'a societies were profoundly influenced by contact with Euro-Canadians, it is not primarily intended as an analysis of Native-Euro-Canadian relations. Rather, it focuses upon the political, economic and social strategies employed by these tribes and by the corporate groups which comprised them, in order to maximize their autonomy and retain their cultural

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distinctiveness under changing conditions. Comparative insights are also offered regarding Coast Tsimshian and Nisga'a responses to contact. The Coast Tsimshian accepted a greater degree of innovation in their material culture and their sociopolitical arrangements over time, which is understandable since they had always been the most receptive of the northern coastal tribes in regard to new economic and spiritual influences and they alone experienced the unbroken presence of non-Natives in their territory after 1834. In contrast, the Nisga'a benefited by their isolation, for they were able to carry out more of their traditional subsistence pursuits and ceremonial functions with less frequent intrusion by Euro-Canadians. Thus, they could incorporate change in a more gradual fashion than the Coast Tsimshian. Yet, regardless of their differences, neither group surrendered their fundamental identity as Native Peoples. As the century closed, both remained committed to preserving their cultural integrity and to retaining the land-base from which their autonomy and identity flowed. Copenace, Sherry J. (2001) "A group work approach with aboriginal children exposed to parental violence." M.S.W. Thesis, University of Manitoba (The). 118 pp. This practicum concentrated on a time limited, structured and closed group work approach with Aboriginal children between the ages of seven and ten years old who had been exposed to parental violence. All of the children were living in homes led by single mothers. The majority had sought refuge in women's shelters and for them the violence had stopped between five months and five years before becoming involved with this process. The treatment modality was a psychoeducational group work intervention for the children, with the inclusion of an Aboriginal tradition, a 'mudge.' A total of eight children were involved with this practicum and all but one child completed the group program(s). Clinical impressions suggested that some of the clients' objectives were met as many of the children were able to identify their feelings and experiences related to parental violence, to develop a personal safety plan, and seemed to experience an increase in self confidence. In general, the children seemed to benefit from a safe, fun and supportive group environment. Coppersmith, Clifford P. (1996) "Cultural survival and a Native American community: The Chiricahua and Warm Springs Apaches in Oklahoma, 1913-96." Ph.D. Dissertation, Oklahoma State University. 287 pp. This study describes how the Chiricahua and Warm Springs Apaches of Oklahoma maintained elements of traditional culture and tribal identity in the 20th century. Employing ethnohistorical method and the use of traditional historical sources, the author has attempted to present a more accurate history of the Chiricahua and Warm Springs Apaches by incorporating their own perspective of the past. This study reviews Chiricahua and Warm Springs history from pre-history through the 20th century but emphasizes the period from their release from captivity in 1913 to the present. Findings and conclusions. Despite the federal government's efforts to erase their existence as a distinct people the Chiricahua and Warm Springs Apaches of Oklahoma remain a politically organized tribe. While accommodating to the social and economic requirements of life within the larger Euro-American culture of southwestern Oklahoma tribal members managed to preserve and pass on distinctive elements of tribal culture such as the Mountain Spirit Dance. The tribe also maintained its identity by successfully pressing land claims through the Indian Claims Commission and rejecting federal termination policy. Despite the loss of language and other elements of traditional culture, the Chiricahua and Warm Springs Apache community continues to exist. Cormier, Edward F. (1996 ) "A lawless life, unrest and strife? The existence of aboriginal customary law in Manitoba First Nations communities: An explanatory study." M.A. Thesis, University of Manitoba (The). 118 pp. The literature dealing with traditional methods of dispute resolution indicate that increasing support is found for the contention that the application of customary law in First Nations communities is the most promising route to improving upon the current dismal relationship between First Nations peoples and the Canadian criminal justice system. There is, however, a lack of information regarding the current state of knowledge of - and belief in -- customary law. This is compounded by a lack of clear descriptions of its content. This research is intended to address these questions through an examination of current attitudes of First Nations peoples in Manitoba toward customary law. Data were collected through interviews conducted in the member-communities of the West Region Tribal Council. Respondents are asked to describe what they believed to be the most appropriate response to several detailed hypothetical instances of deviance. Respondents were drawn from three age groups: 'older' (56 years and over), 'middle aged' (36-55 years), and 'young' (18-35 years). Analysis of the data showed that the three age groups applied three differing methodologies for responding to deviant acts. The 'older' group displayed a 'community focus', the middle aged group a 'family focus' or 'mixed focus', and the young group a 'state focused' approach to devianceresponse. Analysis of the content of customary law shows that context, restoration, prevention, publicity,

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group decision-making, and apology/forgiveness are its central elements. Belief in customary methods of dispute resolution remains strong among the older respondents. It is concluded that while the application of customary law is a viable and desirable option for justice initiatives in the future, caution must be exercised in the design of any such programs to ensure recognition of the complexity of this issue. Correia, Maria S. (1995) "An anthropological reinterpretation of contact, conflict, and crisis at Oka 1990: From western authority to postmodernity." M.A. Thesis, University of Manitoba (The). 155 pp. The Oka crisis is the departure point for a study of prolonged and sustained contact between cultures. Based upon a central tenet which recognizes the bidirectional nature of contact, the textual body of this thesis is arranged into the following four broad themes: (1) nations and nationalism; (2) the Indian; (3) the Mohawk; and, (4) Oka as a postmodern crisis. The contact that occurred between civilizations in the Western Hemisphere (indeed the contact that occurred between cultures around the world) created a mixed reality of multiple codes, overlapping histories and shared experience and ideology. Nationalism is a product of modern, Western ideology. The First Nations became nations in the Western sense through a process of nationalism developed through contact between traditional aboriginal societies and modern European ones. Conversely, the transplanted European culture and society developed into the North American sociocultural complex through contact with the indigenous societies and cultures. The critique of colonialism has questioned Western authority and presentation in almost all Western disciplines, including anthropology. In the postmodern age, anthropology now acknowledges the differences within cultures and the similarities between cultures. The formerly colonized continue to criticize and challenge Western authority, representation, and knowledge. The breakdown of Western authority positions Oka as a postmodern crisis and reveals Mohawk society to be complex and heterogeneous, struggling against the Canadian nation state and those who still accept the Canadian master-narratives. Cosgrove, Sondra K. (2004) "Biology, culture, and environment: The struggle for hegemony in Arizona." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Nevada, Las Vegas. 164 pp. This is an examination of the various cultural groups who have attempted to extend hegemony control over what is now the state of Arizona. Each chapter focuses on the ways different societies adapted to the region's challenging environment; paying particular attention to those that sought to integrate their neighbours into their own socioeconomic systems, whether by force or through negotiation. The rise and fall of the indigenous Hohokam civilization marks the first phase in this struggle for hegemony, while conflicts between Spaniards and Indians characterize the second. The third, and so far, final cycle concludes with EuroAmericans seizing the region from Arizona's Hispanic and Native Americans residents. A brief preface introduces this work's underlying, interdisciplinary methodology, while the body of the text proceeds chronologically from prehistory to 1886. The first chapter examines the various prehistoric people who took up residence in Arizona. It describes how the Hohokam Indians were able to adopt a sedentary lifestyle and then translate their Subsistence success into political power. The chapter concludes with the collapse of Arizona's prehistoric political economy due to climatic change. Chapter two then provides an overview of the conflicts, beginning in the 17th century and continuing into the early 19th century, between Athabascan Indians and Spanish colonists. Throughout this period, both groups endeavoured to exert control over the Southwest's trade economy, yet each blocked the other's efforts. Chapter three analyzes the American ideology of Manifest Destiny and its role in westward migration: while the arrival of Americans in the Southwest and their successful quest to capture Arizona's resources is the focus of the remaining chapters. A brief summation then concludes this work. Coupland, Mary Ann. (2004) "Neuropsychological deficits and other variables as predictors in the successful completion of alcohol treatment with Native American population." Ph.D. Dissertation, Capella University. 168 pp. Cognitive impairment is overrepresented in substance abuse populations and has been considered as a possible deterrent in an individual's ability to achieve the objectives established while in substance abuse treatment. The results of this study indicated that there were deficits in the neuropsychological domains of executive functioning (abstract reasoning, perseveration), memory (immediate, delayed, working, and visual), complex motor skills, and intelligence levels (Full Scale Intelligence Quotient, Verbal Intelligence Quotient) with the Native American participants who were enrolled in a 30-day residential substance abuse treatment facility. A correlation of these deficits with the achievement of the treatment objectives resulted in the domains of intellectual abilities, executive functioning, and memory hindering the participants from achieving their treatment objectives.

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Cowger, Thomas W. (1994) "Sovereign nations, shared identity, and civil rights: The National Congress of American Indians, 1944-64." Ph.D. Dissertation, Purdue University. 282 pp. The historiography on Native Americans in the 20th century remains uneven and sketchy. Few historians have investigated the post World War II pan-Indian movements. The focus of the dissertation is on the activities of the National Congress of American Indians (NCAI) during the critical 'termination period', 1944 to the mid-1960s. The general outline of the termination period is well known. Historical scholarship on the termination period, however, has tended to focus on federal policy and tended to treat Indians as ancillary members of American society, as people acted upon by legislators and bureaucrats rather than actors in their own right. In 1944 to the NCAI first arose as a national reform pan-Indian organization which campaigned fervently and on the whole successfully against the termination policy. The NCAI founders included important tribal leaders who recognized the threat posed by termination and fought to maintain Indians' legal rights and cultural identity. More importantly, the NCAI became prime movers, increasingly, in determining their own fate. The dissertation is based on multi-archival research and oral interviews with participants. As the first systematic study of the NCAI during its early years, it identifies the goals, tactics, and ideology of the organization. The study analyzes the NCAI's organizational base, internal structure, conflicts, resources, and leadership, and how these changed over time. In the bulk of the study I explore the ways in which federalIndian relations and political events shaped collective action. Demonstrating that the NCAI did not respond passively to termination and other political events, I show that the organization was an important vehicle of resistance to changes in federal Indian policy and served as an important instrument for the preservation of cultural continuity and identity. To provide context I place Indian affairs in the setting of the postwar period. In these ways this study of the NCAI stands at the intersection of Native American history, the history of American reform, and the history of the United States since 1940. Cradock, Gerald A. (1997 ) "First Nations' political economy in British Columbia: A partnership recovered?" M.A. Thesis, Simon Fraser University. 173 pp. First Nations role in the fur trade and early settler periods of British Columbia history has been reconceived in recent scholarship from simple victimization by European colonial expansion to active participation in commercial partnerships. This work builds upon this insight. First Nations participation in the British Columbian economy is traced from its roots in the fur trade, its crucial contribution during the initial settlement and early industrialization periods of British Columbia through to its eventual demise in the early decades of the 20th century. By arguing that First Nations possess cultural barriers to successful economic activity non-aboriginal interests have justified: land cut-offs, the restrictive regulation of water access, fishing, logging, and hunting, and the repression of First Nations political activity. These policies extinguished an aboriginal entrepreneur class and severely limited aboriginal employment opportunity. After World War 2, increasingly capital intensive practices in the fishery, forestry and agricultural sectors prevented First Nations from competing on an equal footing. Beginning in the 1960s, a well-educated aboriginal cohort emerged that, while unable to pursue large scale economic activity, did create an expanding and activist aboriginal bureaucracy. From the 1980s, aboriginal political activity specifically targeted private corporate interests. This strategy succeeded in bringing the British Columbian government to the treaty table. Meanwhile, federal and First Nations' initiatives have supported the recreation of an aboriginal political economy. Some members of the corporate sector have encouraged these developments as a means of stabilising investment conditions. Consequently, new business alliances are emerging. It is concluded that First Nations political aspirations are directly dependent upon a healthy aboriginal economy. Furthermore, this economy will necessarily require partnerships with the non-aboriginal sector as it functions in the provincial, national and global marketplace. Craig, Barbara. (1992) "Jurisdiction for aboriginal health in Canada." LL.M. Thesis, University of Ottawa. 227 pp. The purpose of this thesis is to determine which level of government has jurisdiction for aboriginal health in Canada -- the federal or the provincial. As background to the consideration of jurisdiction for aboriginal health in Canada, three things are examined: the existing legal and policy frameworks for aboriginal health; the development of the delivery of health services to aboriginal people; and the current health status of aboriginal people in Canada. The distribution of exclusive legislative powers between the federal and provincial legislatures contained in sections 91 and 92 of the Constitution Act, 1987 is examined and the 'peace, order and good government' power of the federal Parliament is considered. Legislative jurisdiction

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over health is considered. The extent of the federal power over 'Indians, and Lands reserved for the Indians' as a result of subsection 91(24) of the Constitution Act, 1867 is explored. Parallels are drawn between labour relations and health jurisdictional issues, in an attempt to determine where legislative jurisdiction for aboriginal health rests. The spending power of Parliament, the Crown-Indian treaty process and the nature of Indian treaties, and the fiduciary relationship between First Nations and the federal and provincial governments is examined. The final conclusion is that aboriginal health is a double aspect matter, to which valid legislation of both levels of government can apply. Although there are spheres of exclusive provincial jurisdiction, e.g. regulation of health practitioners and hospitals, there is no exclusive federal sphere. However, the federal government does have concurrent jurisdiction with the provinces over the public health of aboriginal people. The doctrine of paramountcy applies to give valid federal legislation pre-eminence over inconsistent provincial legislation. In this thesis, the term 'aboriginal' is intended to have the same meaning it does in the Constitution Act, 1982, section 35. Section 35(2) states: 'In this Act, 'aboriginal peoples of Canada' includes the Indian, Inuit and Métis peoples of Canada.' It is my submission that 'Indian' as it is used in section 35 includes both status and non-status Indians. Craig, Daniel. (1980) "The social impact of the state on an Aboriginal reserve in Queensland, Australia." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California, Berkeley. 293 pp. Law has many different functions. One of its primary roles in highly differentiated societies is integration. Legislators in plural societies face the problem of how to incorporate different ethnic minorities into a single nation-state. This dissertation analyzes the role of law in charting the development of Yarrabah Aboriginal Reserve in Queensland, Australia. Specifically, it considers the State Government's use of the reserve to implement a policy of assimilation and evaluates the impact of the Aborigines Acts on the local community. Queensland's legislation raises a question that has occupied legal scholars for a long time: what is the role of law in initiating social change as opposed to codifying existing social mores? The Federal Government in Australia recognizes the Aborigines' right to be different and manage their own affairs. The State Government however advocates 'one community of Queenslanders.' It opposes the existence of distinct Aboriginal communities and is trying to incorporate reserve Aborigines into the mainstream of Australian society. Once considered innovative at the turn of the century, Queensland's laws are now lagging behind the rest of the country. They force us to reconsider the extent to which a dominant group can, or should, dictate the course of a minority's development. This study evaluates the functions of law in terms of (1) its subjective purposes, overt and covert; (2) its objective consequences, planned and unplanned; and, (3) the public's perceptions of both the legislator's intentions and the law's effects. The relationship between goals, outcomes, and public opinion is important because law derives its legitimacy in part from the way in which it is received by those whom it governs. The consequences of Queensland's Aborigines Acts are evaluated in terms of the four different levels on which the legislation operates: policies, the laws themselves, local administrators, and the people to whom they administer. The dissertation is based upon six months of archival research and 16 months of fieldwork on Yarrabah (1976 to 1979). It begins with an overview of Queensland's Aboriginal policies from 1859 to 1979. The goal is to elucidate the ideologies and events that shaped the State Government's attitudes toward indigenes and to contrast them with Federal policies. The study then describes Yarrabah's evolution from a closed, total institution under Church administrators to an open institution under the State's Department of Aboriginal and Islanders Advancement (DAIA). It analyzes the reasons for the Aborigines' rapid conversion to Christianity and the loss of their traditional culture. In discussing the effects of voluntary and involuntary resettlement, it elaborates the indigenes' various responses to institutionalization, viz. escape, retreat, reconciliation, and innovation. The dissertation describes Yarrabah today in terms of its two constituent subsystems -- white and Aboriginal. It first considers the DAIA, the bureaucratic nature of its administration, and the extent of its control over the reserve population. It then describes the Aboriginal community's social organization, which is patterned according to the constraints of the reserve system. The social consequences of Queensland's laws include alcoholism, chronic unemployment, health problems, male homosexuality, and steady increases in the number of single parents and matrifocal families. The Aborigines' responses to the Aborigines Acts include an emerging sense of ethnic identity and a request to the Federal Government for self-management and land rights. The study concludes with an evaluation of Yarrabah's position as an internal colony. It analyzes the structural reasons for the reserve's failure as a training camp for assimilation. Using Queensland as an

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example, it considers the different functions that law can play in plural societies. It suggests that parametric or enabling laws are better suited to democracies than prescriptive laws. Crawford, Jessica L. (1994) "Worlds apart: Conceptualizing mental health knowledge from Dogrib women." M.Sc. Thesis, University of Toronto. 111 pp. Dogrib women are the recipients of treatment for conditions designated as 'mental illness.' How do they perceive and talk about this experience, known to health professionals as 'mental illness'? Informants include: (1) Dogrib women, who have been receiving long term treatment in the mental health system in the Northwest Territories; and, (2) men and women from related native organizations. Data were collected during formal and informal interviews and comprise written field notes. The interpretation is guided by a framework of semiotics contrasting what the Dogrib disclose, with assumptions and approaches in professional mental health services. The Dogrib women's talk was seen to focus upon: precipitating factors, healing approaches, involvement of gender and relationships with health care professionals. A system of conceptualization tentatively referred to as 'fluid boundaries' is used to organize some of the findings selected for the semiotic reading. Implications for organizing health services, and suggestions for future research are noted. Crawford, Rebecca R. (1992) "Identification of the causes and characteristics of suicide among American Indian youth." Ph.D. Dissertation, Utah State University. 67 pp. Blackfeet youth suicide attempters and a sample of non-suicide attempters were compared on the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales (FACES-III), the Family Environment Scale (FES), the Scale for Suicide Ideation (SSI), the revised Beck Depression Scale (BDI) and a biographical inventory. The purpose of this study was to define a set of variables that identify Indian youth with a high potential for suicide. The study sample consisted of 60 participants between the ages of 15-24, 30 suicide attempters and 30 non-suicide attempters, from the Blackfeet reservation. 15 identified variables were proposed to differentiate between the two groups. Analyses involving nine variables revealed a significant correlation between the revised Beck Depression Inventory variable of depression and the Biographical Inventory selfreport variable of suicide attempt. Results indicated that suicide attempters scored higher on the revised Beck Depression Inventory than did those subjects who did not attempt suicide. Crelinsten, Rohana. (1999) "Mäori stereotypes, governmental policies and Mäori art in museums today: A case study of the Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa." M.A. Thesis, Concordia University. 86 pp. Mäori art in New Zealand museums has a long history extending back to the first contacts made between Mäori (New Zealand's native peoples) and Europeans. The Europeans settled in New Zealand with a colonialist attitude, leading to the notion that the Mäori people would soon be extinct. This promoted the vigorous collection of various samples of Mäori material culture. Museums were then established to store these artefacts. Governmental policies dating back to the turn of the century, gradually influenced the ways in which museums dealt with these Mäori holdings. The current situation in New Zealand, particularly at the Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa is largely a reaction to the past. Mäori people are demanding that they have more say in the treatment of their taonga (treasures). Slowly, through decades of debate and reworking of policies, new standards are developing for the ways in which New Zealand museums collect and exhibit Mäori art. This on-going process is a result of the enhanced sense of empowerment of Mäori people in New Zealand today. Art educators in museums and schools can look to museums such as Te Papa Tongarewa for inspiration and guidance. Crockford, Cairn E. (1998) "Nuu-Chah-Nulth labour relations in the pelagic sealing industry, 1868-1911." M.A. Thesis, University of Victoria. 150 pp. This thesis presents an analysis of Nuu-Chah-Nulth labour relations in the Canadian pelagic sealing industry from 1868 to 1911. During the life span of the industry the dominant economy within British Columbia shifted from mercantile to industrial capitalism, and the economic role of aboriginal people changed from independent commodity producers to a wage labour force. The process by which one set of labour relations replaces another cannot be taken for granted as the inevitable by-product of capitalist intrusion and dominance. Labour relations in pelagic sealing developed out of the existing relationship between Nuu-Chah-Nulth commodity producers and coastal traders. Strategies employed during labour negotiations represented adaptations of strategies used during commodity exchange. Despite their efforts, capital investors were unable to apply normal capitalist labour relations in sealing. They could not do so because capitalist labour relations had not supplanted the older form of co-

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operative labour relations. Culhane, Dara. (1994) "Delgamuukw and the people without culture: Anthropology and the Crown." Ph.D. Dissertation, Simon Fraser University. 453 pp. This thesis examines the response of the British Columbia and Canadian judiciary to aboriginal efforts to obtain legal recognition of aboriginal title and rights, and the role played by anthropology and anthropologists in this historical process. Specifically, the thesis provides a detailed case study of the longest and costliest aboriginal title litigation in Canadian history: the Gitksan and Wet'suwet'en case, also known as Delgamuukw et al v. R. This case is analyzed within the historical and political context of the relationship between aboriginal and non-aboriginal peoples in Canada. Drawing on current theoretical work in the fields of anthropology and law, and cultural critique, the thesis argues that law and legal discourse are embedded in historical and contemporary relations of power and resistance, and shaped by the cultural and political context in which they are practiced. Law is analyzed as a form of sociocultural reflection, and the courtroom as a site of political struggle. A critical analysis of the use of the theories and data of social science to legitimate various ideologies and strategies in the legal forum provides an original contribution to the theoretical and substantive study of aboriginal and non-aboriginal relations in Canadian society, and to theoretical development within the discipline of anthropology. Anthropologists have served as researchers and as expert witnesses on behalf of both the Crown and aboriginal litigants. This thesis focuses on theoretical analyses and substantive evidence presented on behalf of the governments of Canada and British Columbia to support the Crown's claims and counter-claims to land title and sovereignty as against aboriginal peoples. That is to say, this thesis locates itself within the field of anthropological analyses of 'western' cultures, rather than the traditional anthropological focus on the representation of aboriginal cultures. The methodology adopted is based In a critical hermeneutic, or dialectical, reading of the texts of anthropologists' opinion reports submitted to courts, transcripts of trials, and reasons for judgment. The thesis argues that an examination of the theory and practice of Canadian law in relation to aboriginal peoples and aboriginal land title from a critical anthropological perspective illuminates the interrelationship between culture, power, history, and law. In conclusion it is argued that anthropologists may make a valuable contribution to disciplinary and public debates on aboriginal issues by turning our attention to an analysis of Canadian society's relationship to aboriginal peoples. Cummings, Tracie Ku'uipo. (2004) "Hawai'ian sovereignty and nationalism: History, perspectives and movements." M.A. Thesis, University of Hawai'i. 219 pp. This thesis analyzes three divergent perspectives regarding the current status of the Hawai'ian nation and aboriginal Hawai'ians. The disparities over perspectives of the political and legal status of the Hawai'ian nation and aboriginal Hawai'ians are linked to the disparity over the root of legitimate control, influenced through significant legislation, international and domestic laws, and informs the actions of nationalist and anti-nationalist initiatives in Hawai'i. Some nationalists look to International Law and appeal to the International Court of Arbitration in the face of American occupation. Others follow the de-colonization process already laid out by international instruments. Yet others prescribe to a strategy that centres on aboriginal Hawai'ian needs and efforts of reparation and reconciliation through U.S. domestic laws. Each avenue has positive and negative aspects, which will affect the future of aboriginal Hawai'ian as well as everyone in Hawai'i. Cunningham, Alain M. (1995) "Canadian Indian policy and development planning theory." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of British Columbia (The). 371 pp. This thesis addresses questions of how development planning theory has influenced policy-making for Indians in Canada and how it could be improved for making better policies in the future. These questions are considered around a nexus of central state-Indian relations. There is a focus on the multi-dimensional problems of poverty faced by many reserve communities, especially of those located in more rural and remote regions. The thesis criticizes the serious dualism within and between prevailing development doctrines and proposes remedies through a 'relational' approach. An original typology categorizes 'substantive' development planning theories into two opposing doctrines. The more dominant liberal assimilationist doctrine centres on modernization theory and internalizes blame on Indians for their 'own' problems, but is challenged by radical autonomist doctrine which centres on underdevelopment theory and its 'internal colony' variant, and contrarily externalizes blame onto the state. A third body of reformist planning is grounded in the practices of welfare statism. Relational analysis of the history of Indian policy shows that underdevelopment of Indian communities has

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been caused by the interaction of both external and internal causes. Liberal doctrine strongly influenced the central state's assimilative agenda during the 'traditional' era of Indian policy, including its oppressive 'reserve system' and landmark 1969 White Paper. It is agreed that radical criticism properly reveals the racism and economic exploitation underlying state-sponsored process of 'internal colonization', and also helps to explain the consequent rise of Indian ethnic nationalism. However, it is concluded that radical criticism does not adequately explain events in the 'contemporary era' where Indian leaders have more influence over policy-making, but have expended much of their energies pursuing a 'modernist' nationalist agenda in a power struggle with the central state. The resulting policy vacuum between the deadlocked liberal state and radical Indian positions has been filled by default with misguided reformist programs of welfare statism, with terribly destructive effects in many reserve communities. The criticism of current development theories when applied in practice is reinforced by their criticism as theories. The deficiencies of current 'substantive' development theories are shown to be endemic because of shortcomings in their underlying 'process' planning theories. In particular, the reductionist dualism of extreme liberal and radical development doctrines, which contributes to polarization in practice, is revealed. Instead of the current practice of applying single explanations and prescriptions to Indian policy-making, a relational approach is advocated which selectively combines liberal, reformist, and radical perspectives. The thesis concludes with an exposition of how a relational approach can be applied to examine widespread poverty and dependency in reserve communities as an interconnected 'external/internal' problem, and, leading from this, to propose mutually-reinforcing state and community actions. D'Aoust, Ian L. (1998) "The idea of barbarism in the American mind: Progress, liberty, and the American Indians, 1750-1835." Ph.D. Dissertation, Yale University. 274 pp. The 18th century idea of barbarism was instrumental in determining how Native Americans were perceived and treated in the Revolutionary era. The present scholarly tendency is toward viewing American Indians as anthropologically exceptional, with the presumption that special ideas and interpretive theories were applied toward understanding the natives' societies and ways. In the 18th century, however, no such exceptionalism obtained. Those ideas by which Thomas Jefferson and John Adams understood natives were those by which they explained the histories and genesis and mores of their own societies. Barbarism in the 18th century consisted of a series of mores and vices to which all peoples were prone. The Indians did not embody the barbaric mores, exactly, rather they exhibited them to a much greater degree than did other peoples. The scholarly tendency to believe that Indians needed to forsake completely their national, Indian character in order to be assimilated and civilized into American culture rests upon a misapprehension of the 18th century idea of barbarism. Indians, like the ancient, aboriginal French, possessed a distinct national character and a distinct human character which existed independent of their barbarism. An assimilated Indian would have remained an Indian, as a Frenchman remained French, but both would be civilized. The intellectual trends of the 18th century informed the genesis of civil society as much as they informed an idea of barbarism. The cyclical theory of history, the growth of human reason, the idea of telos, the necessity of law, the problem of property, and the requirement to labour all applied equally to Indians as to Americans and all others. The irony of 18th century American Indian history is that the policies that the Jeffersonians used in attempting to assimilate the Indians were crafted from the same conjectured histories they employed to explain their own genesis and civilization. What worked for the Americans failed when applied to the natives, and the Jeffersonians could not explain this failure without reneging on the ideas of republicanism and the Revolution. Dabulskis, Susanne E. (1997) "Outsider research: How white writers 'explore' native issues, knowledge, and experiences." M.A. Thesis, University of Toronto. 159 pp. This thesis explores the perceptions of six non-aboriginal, employed knowledge producers (academics, filmmakers, journalists) who are of Euro-Canadian background, and whose work is primarily on aboriginal issues and peoples. The author, also an outsider researcher of Euro-Canadian descent, begins by noting that a cultural genocide is presently occurring in Canada with respect to aboriginal people. Through exploring in depth aboriginal views on knowledge production, including the concept of writing as resistance, the thesis shows how aboriginal peoples have clearly articulated their need to 'tell their own stories' and how critical are the issues of access and appropriation to the aboriginal communities faced with cultural genocide. Exploring the views of white knowledge producers using qualitative research methods, the thesis is able to show that, often, white writers defend their 'right' to work on aboriginal issues through relying on a conceptual framework of cultural difference. That is, aboriginal peoples are seen as culturally different from

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the mainstream, as peoples who require 'help' in telling their stories. The thesis concludes that white knowledge producers will contribute to cultural genocide unless they become critically aware of aboriginal views, and of the impact of their own activities on a continuing cultural genocide. Relying on roles such as facilitators or bridges between cultures enables white knowledge producers to minimize the continuing oppression of aboriginal people in which they play a part. The study is grounded in critical race theory, and is a reflection of the discourse of cultural difference and its relation to the knowledge production of dominant groups within society. The importance of social responsibility, tracing one's power and privilege as it enters into exchanges between Native and non-Native people, and recognizing one's complicity as Euro-Canadian group members in a racist society like Canada's, is emphasized. Dahl, Kathleen A. (1990) "Sovereignty, environmental use and ethnic identity on the Colville Indian reservation." Ph.D. Dissertation, Washington State University. 264 pp. Over the past two decades, there has been a world-wide upsurge in ethnic and nationalist sovereignty movements, including the efforts of tribal and indigenous groups to maintain or re-establish autonomous control over their own territories, resources and destinies. American Indian tribes, as participants in these sovereignty movements, are regaining political and economic authority over their lands and people. The Colville Confederated Tribes and the Colville Indian Reservation in Washington state provide a case study of one Native American group's long and difficult quest for sovereignty. Using an ethnohistorical approach focusing on the Colville Tribes' use of the environment, this dissertation examines some important economic and environmental upheavals experienced by the Colville Tribes since the establishment of the reservation in 1872, and analyzes the impact of these changes on ethnicity and tribal identity. Major works by anthropologists Charles F. Keyes, Leo A. Despres and John H. Bodley provide theoretical foundations for this analysis. The following historical periods and/or events are examined: the establishment of the Colville Reservation and its subsequent allotment (1870-1910); the era of the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 (1925-40); the construction of Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph Dams on the Columbia River (1933-55); the termination period (1953-71); the Indian Self-Determination Act (1971-89); and the 1990s and the future. This dissertation ends with a summary of the characteristics that distinguish Colville tribal identity from that of non-Indians, as well as a discussion of the relevance of Marxist theory to American Indian ethnicity and sovereignty, and the preferability of the term and concept of 'adaptation' as opposed to 'acculturation' when examining ethnic change. It is argued that an Indian tribe's ethnic identity is no less valid for having changed. Dale, William S. J. (1936) "The Mäori of New Zealand: A socio-educational study in race relations." Ph.D. Dissertation, Yale University. 411 pp. This study is introduced by a brief survey of the impacts on native life in New Zealand. From the historical data presented the inferences are drawn that the development of the native is, in a large measure, one which he himself prefers to control. The four sections which comprise the main thesis, that the Mäori of New Zealand can only develop when in a position to control the forces which shape his life, are set out in order of history, and concern themselves with the following detailed survey: Section One: Primitive education in New Zealand, in which are shown the influences brought to bear on the child almost from birth; the delimitation of the duties according to sex and birth (breeding); the relation between the life of the child and the social organization wherein he is to take a place; the positive educational institutions which are brought to bear upon him; and, the relation between the individual and the village as a reflection of this system. A summary of the section shows the relation between the psychological and the practical. Section Two: The transition period, when the native first saw the white man as a permanent factor in his life. The contribution of the sealer, the whaler and the trader in the adjustment of the native to a new mode of living and a new set of concepts. The work of the missionaries as a definitely educative factor in the life of the people. The section concludes with an examination of the psychological effects of theses impacts. Section Three. In this section a critical examination is made of the system of native education, keeping in mind the definition of the terms as set out in Section One. The historical bases for the system, and the critical periods are considered for their effects on the people as a whole. The question is also considered from the native angle and a short consideration is developed of the factors which the native has placed in the way of development of the factors which the native has placed in the way of development from the pakeha aspect. The merits of living or learning as the basis for an educational policy to be applied to the Mäori form the central thought. Section Four. How best to meet the needs of the people is developed in the last section. If the thesis that self-

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determination is the mainspring of action in the development of the Mäori people then, in the light of modern psychology, educational and sociological principles the shaping of the pattern for the educational growth and development must be in accordance with this aim. The system should include not only schooling, but a development plan that takes in the whole matter of living -- socially, economically, and spiritually. Dalla, Rochelle L. (1996 ) "American Indian Navajo adolescent parenting: Multiple perspectives within context." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Arizona (The). 398 pp. In this descriptive investigation, Navajo Native American teenage parenting was examined. Two goals were addressed. To begin, despite high rates of teenage parenting on the Navajo Reservation, in comparison with the country in general, no literature exists examining this topic. In response, the first goal was to examine Navajo teenage parenting from a broad, inclusive perspective. Bronfenbrenner's (1989) Ecological System's Theory comprised the theoretical foundation for accomplishing this task. Second, this investigation was conceptualized in reaction to the extant teenage parenting literature which paints an oversimplified picture of youthful parenting, and which largely characterizes adolescent mothers as "deviant." In this investigation, teenage parenting was examined through the lives of those women experiencing it, divorced from the typically applied "medical model" framework. Principles of Postmodern Feminism provided an alternative perspective from which to view teenage parenting. To capture the essence of the ecology of teenage parenting on the Navajo Reservation, three groups of participants were included: Navajo adolescent mothers provided an individual/personalized perspective, their own mothers provided an historical/cross-generational perspective, and community members provided a global/community wide perspective. Each participant was interviewed at length; data were recorded, transcribed and then analyzed using Phenomenological Descriptive Analysis (Colaizzi, 1978). Data analysis resulted in the teenage mothers being classified according to their expressed degree of identification with two roles, namely, those of mother and adolescent. Results suggested that role identification may be a powerful construct, or developmentally structuring attribute (Bronfenbrenner, 1989), from which to examine individual orientations and reactions toward teenage parenthood. Grandmothers were classified according to the amount of support each provided her teenage daughter and grandchild(ren) and was significantly affected by the youths' role identification. Community members concurred that teenage parenting was not condoned, but that teenage mothers were supported by their families or extended kin. Results from this investigation (a) affirm the heterogeneity both within and among teenage parenting populations, and their families, and (b) may be utilized to enhance existing models of adolescent parenting which overlook key individual differences. Dames, Vivian L. (2000) "Rethinking the circle of belonging: American citizenship and the Chamorros of Guam." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Michigan. 704 pp. In this dissertation I explore a fault line in the historicity of inclusion and exclusion in the “circle of belonging” as equal citizens in the United States through a case study of the experience of the Chamorros of Guam as US citizens and as an indigenous people in an unincorporated territory seeking decolonization. The Guam case raises important questions, from an indigenous perspective, about the meaning of citizenship, equality, national identity, and difference which are absent from the American story. The central questions are: What is the significance of the Guam story in terms of theorizing and historicizing national citizenship? In what ways did the grant of formal citizenship serve to integrate the Chamorros of Guam into the national community and to foster a common sense of “being American”? What is the relation between being a citizen and being indigenous as national identities? These questions are explored using an interdisciplinary narrative approach to analyzing text from multiple sources with attention to the themes of indigenous resistance, formation, and reformation of collective identities. This process is examined diachronically, from pre-contact to the present, and synchronically, through three recent episodes of opposing claims to national political, civil, and social rights. This research debunks the myths of the United States as an immigrant country and as “One Nation Under God” and reframes Guam's quest for commonwealth as not only about the claiming of individual and collective rights but as creating a political opportunity for the United States to develop an alternate model of belonging, one that values “deep diversity”, including more diverse forms of cultural and political membership, and that accommodates rather than subordinates national identities. I argue that the success of this project of decolonization with inclusion requires a renarrativization of the Chamorros as a national, not ethnic, minority. Such a reworking would more clearly differentiate Guam's ambiguous history of “incorporation” and the desire of the people of Guam for greater autonomy within a mutually negotiated relation with the United States. Rejecting this opportunity in the name of common

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citizenship is likely to promote growing alienation among some Chamorros in Guam and may jeopardize US interests in the Asia-Pacific region. A fully integrative, multicultural citizenship for these Americans requires both universal rights, assigned to individuals regardless of group membership, as well as certain groupdifferentiated rights or “special status” for the Chamorros. Dana, Pamella J. (1996) "Commercial enterprise ownership among Aboriginal Australian women: Economic control through entrepreneurship." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Southern California. 209 pp. The growing influence of Aboriginal women as emerging entrepreneurs presents them as a significant component of the Australian economy. Moving from traditional subsistence providers through welfare dependence, Aboriginal women today are positioning themselves in the normally male dominated, nonAboriginal world of commercial enterprise. These commercial entrepreneurs are found throughout Australia where they own a diverse range of ventures from rural bee farms to urban movie production companies. Yet, despite their numbers, few non-Aboriginal Australians have heard of even one commercial enterprise effort accomplished by Aboriginal women. This study takes a first time look at the phenomenon of Aboriginal women commercial entrepreneurs, and investigates the various cultural, social, economic, and educational factors which affect them in the entrepreneurial process. Through interviews with 76 Aboriginal Australian women entrepreneurs, the research focuses on the reasons advanced for commercial enterprise ownership, the impact which social and cultural factors have had on entrepreneurial endeavours, the educational and economic issues affecting entrepreneurship, the varied strategies the women develop to succeed in enterprise ownership, and the prospects they offer to national development efforts. This study concludes that while social and cultural factors are vitally important to Aboriginal women in their entrepreneurial choices and commercial endeavours, the women's motivation to be economically independent, in control of income, and able to care for domestic needs will supersede the social stigma they risk from entrepreneurship. Yet, there are greater institutional factors which detrimentally affect, if not outright impede, the entrepreneurial aspirations of Aboriginal women. In particular, the lack of capital available to Aboriginal women has been recognized as a leading factor affecting their long-term success in commercial enterprise. Policy recommendations and future research needs are identified in response to the critical findings of the study. Danelski, Christine M. (2003) "Trauma and typology: 'The Last of the Mohicans' and its filmed versions (1909-92)." Ph.D. Dissertation, Claremont Graduate University (The). 193 pp. This study compares The last of the Mohicans by James Fenimore Cooper with five of its filmed versions: Leather stocking (1909), The last of the Mohicans (1920), The last of the Mohicans (1932), The last of the Mohicans (1936) and The last of the Mohicans (1992). These comparisons demonstrate and comment upon how American ideas about race and gender have been constructed and reconstructed since the 19th century. Film adaptations are not only a reworking of the original text, but may include any cultural references that have accumulated around the original or subsequent versions at the particular time the adaptation is made. Adaptation is fundamentally a phenomenon of repetition. It formally announces its self-consciously referential status most often by claiming the original text's title as its own. I situate film adaptation next to two other modes of repetition -- trauma and typology -- phenomena of compulsive repetition -- to understand why this particular narrative has been revised so many times. While traumatic repetition is involuntary and due to disassociation, typological exegesis is deliberate and formal, fundamentally a narrative technique which recycles narrative in response to cultural anxiety around issues of identity and historical culpability. I locate the impetus for The last of the Mohicans repetition in an anxiety about national origins and identity, specifically guilt concerning the extirpation of indigenous peoples during the colonization of North America. This extirpation is the trauma that the repeated narrative continually represses. The trauma of the 'massacre' by Native Americans of the British and colonials after the French victory at Fort William Henry in August, 1757 is substituted for the trauma of the extirpation of Native Americans during the 18th and 19th centuries. Moreover, more often than not, the trauma of the Fort William Henry 'massacre' is evaded as well. This historical and cultural analysis tracks the colonial and national treatment of Native Americans, the development of the Hollywood studio feature and how colonialism, masculinity and race are depicted and re-enacted in these six texts. Danielson, Dale L. (1992 ) "Comorbidity of substance abuse and other mental disorders among Native Americans." Ed.D. Dissertation, University of Tulsa (The). 117 pp. The purpose of this study was to examine the rate of comorbid mental disorders in a sample of Native

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American substance abusers. The subjects were 90 Native Americans currently receiving treatment for substance abuse problems. None had been previously diagnosed with any other mental disorder. The subjects were asked to complete a questionnaire about family environment and family substance abuse in the family of origin. They were also given either the Diagnostic Interview Schedule Screening Inventory (DISSI) for the adults or the Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents-Revised (DICA-R) for adolescents. This was done to screen for DSM-III-R diagnoses. The results were compared with the rates of comorbidity of substance abuse and other disorders from the National Institute of Mental Health Epidemiological Catchment Area Studies. The present study showed a significantly higher rate of comorbidity of substance abuse and other mental disorders (p < .001) than the ECA Study using the Chi Square method. The comorbid rates for substance abuse and depression and antisocial personality disorder were also significantly higher (p < .001) than the ECA Study. It was hoped the data from the questionnaire would yield information regarding the aetiology of comorbidity in this population. It was predicted that a warm nurturing environment in childhood would result in less comorbidity. In order to test this, the adjectives from the questionnaire regarding parental caretakers and home environment were subjected to a factor analysis. Four factors were extracted and compared on rates of comorbidity. The four factors were nurturing, uncaring, authoritarian, and strife-filled. In general, the results did not support the hypothesis. However, low scores on the nurturing factor were correlated with drug abuse disorders, generalized anxiety disorder, depression and antisocial personality disorder. There was no significant relationship between comorbidity and caretaker's drinking. Recommendations were made for further study, including epidemiological studies to get getter figures on the incidence and prevalence of mental disorders, including comorbid disorders in the Native American population. In addition, the results appear to support the need for more individualized assessment and treatment planning for dual diagnosis in Native American substance abuse treatment programs. Dark, Alx V. (1998) "Public sphere politics and community conflict over the environment and native land rights in Clayoquot Sound, British Columbia." Ph.D. Dissertation, New York University. 421 pp. Based on seven months of fieldwork and subsequent archival research, this dissertation provides a social history of a 20 year conflict over logging and native land rights in Clayoquot Sound, which lies on the west coast of British Columbia, Canada. Due to an early alliance between local environmentalists and Nuu-chahnulth (formerly Nootka) Indian political leaders, who were pressing for government recognition of Nuu-chahnulth aboriginal title, the two political issues of environmental protection and native land rights have been closely associated in Clayoquot Sound politics. In later years, counter-environmental organizations (known collectively as the Share Movement) also formed in the area to oppose reductions in logging, in a series of political processes which generated friction between environmentalists and Nuu-chah-nulth leaders. In recounting this history of alliances and opposition between local people, my theoretical purpose is to examine assumptions in social movement theory about the nature of political relations. I argue that local residents and representatives of government and industry construct and contest social movements and government authority through public political 'dramas', such as planning committees and protests. These social dramas provide a public sphere through which residents and institutional representatives enact, experience and contest political authority and the legitimacy of political relations. Expanding further on the cultural construction of political relations, I argue that political interaction between residents has been organized through discourses about social difference (particularly class, urban-rural differences and race, but also including gender). Finally, new definitions of 'community' arise from these discourses when residents of the Sound interpret opposition by other residents as an expression of the coercion or co-optation of local groups by government and industry (seen as external and therefore illegitimate political forces). Increases in violence and harassment over logging issues in the 1990s can be interpreted in part as a response arising from these new conceptions of the local community, besieged not only by conflicts over these land policy issues, but also disrupted by larger economic and social changes. Daschuk, James W. (2002) "The political economy of Indian health and disease in the Canadian northwest." Ph.D. dissertation, University of Manitoba (The). 511 pp. The dissertation identifies the origins of the present disparity of health conditions between Indian communities and mainstream society in western Canada. It examines the relationship between economics and health of Indian populations in the Canadian northwest from the early 1eighth century to the end of the 19th century. It documents the development of the fur trade in relation to changes in the geographical distribution of aboriginal societies resulting from the differential impact of introduced European diseases. For a period of 150 years, infections that came as a consequence of trade were the primary source of mortality due to

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illness among First Nations. In addition, social pathologies resulting from European trade strategies affected the well being of communities in the northwest. Climate and environment contributed to the differential success of many groups integrated into the global economy through the fur trade. Canada's acquisition of the northwest changed this pattern. Its commitment to the terms of treaties opened the west for agricultural development and settlement. The Dominion's development strategy, the National Policy, coincided with the extinction of the bison, undermining the ability of plains Indians to compel the government to deliver on their treaty commitments. To facilitate the implementation of its economic and political order, the Dominion used its famine relief strategy as a means to subjugate them. By the early 1880s, tuberculosis emerged as a full blown epidemic among the Indians of the plains. The spread of tuberculosis through the Indian population of the plains was the result of the protracted period of malnutrition. Punitive measures imposed after the brief armed resistance to Dominion hegemony further weakened the population already largely infected with the disease. Severe mortality weakened the population already largely infected with the disease. Severe mortality resulted from the spread of acute infectious disease among the compromised population. Within 15 years of signing treaties many plains populations declined to their demographic nadir. Daubenmier, Judith M. (2003) "The Meskwaki and Sol Tax: Reconsidering the actors in action anthropology." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Michigan. 394 pp. In 1969, Native American activist Vine Deloria, Jr. stunned anthropologists with a blistering critique of their profession in his book Custer died for your sins. Deloria labelled anthropologists a “plague of locusts” that descended upon Indian communities each summer, living off grant money and gathering information for books that were irrelevant to poor Indians. Deloria's critique, however, overlooked an effort 20 years earlier to practice anthropology in a more ethical manner, called “action anthropology.” In 1948, some residents of the Meskwaki settlement near Tama, Iowa, delivered their own grass-roots critique of anthropology to graduate students from the University of Chicago. Through subtle hints and blunt questions, they demonstrated their resentment at being studied and their expectations of reciprocity from the researchers. In response, University of Chicago anthropologist Sol Tax and his students committed themselves to collaborating with community members on goals they set. In the encounter, Meskwaki individuals manipulated their would-be helpers and set limits on their behaviour. Previous analyses of action anthropology on the Meskwaki settlement focused on its scholarship program and arts and crafts project on the settlement, but the project's influence went beyond that. Some settlement residents said contact with the anthropologists deeply influenced them by allowing them to come to know whites for the first time or making it possible for them to attend college. A decade of carrying out action anthropology on the Meskwaki settlement also helped to mold Tax's views on federal Indian policy and to establish his credentials as a consultant in that field. Tax spent much of the rest of his career promoting themes that emerged in his experiences at Tama -- self-determination for Native Americans, leadership development in Indian youth, higher education for Indians, and cultural freedom. Until now, knowledge of Tax's contributions to Indian activism of the 1960s has been limited to his organization of the 1961 American Indian Chicago Conference. Tax's career, however, had other links to Indian political activity. A close examination of the effects of Tax's relationship with the Meskwaki shows his influence on Bob Thomas, who developed the concept of internal colonialism, as well as Tax's role in summer workshops for youth that brought together many of the next generation of Indian leaders. Thus, the encounter between the Meskwaki and Chicago anthropologists emerges not only as another way of doing anthropology but also as another source of 1960s Indian activism. Davies, Sarah J. (1996) "Appropriate planning for Aboriginal self-determination." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of South Wales. This thesis investigates the practice of Aboriginal community planning in order to establish how planning by Aboriginal people can empower them to pursue aspirations for collective self determination. Planning empowers people if it adds to the information, knowledge and control they have over decisions that affect their lives. However, much of the planning that is undertaken by governments acts to perpetuate Aboriginal oppression. The study used action research methods through which the researcher worked as planning facilitator with Irrwanyere, a large extended Aboriginal family whose ancestors lived in the Simpson Desert, and Wallaga, a smaller group of Aboriginal people who live on the far south coast of New South Wales. Investigation of the basis for community self definition was a necessary starting point for establishing how planning can be appropriate to each group's aspirations for self determination. 'Country and culture' provided a central structuring principle for the vision, goals and strategies articulated in each planning process and for addressing issues related to sustainable development. Each case study implemented a

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participatory, developmental planning process and also documented community plans for use in communication and negotiation with stakeholders. The study found that planners need a wide variety of skills to be effective in such contexts but foremost the capacity to work with the authority and skills of community members. It confirms that planning needs to be an on-going, flexible and adaptive process, integrally linked to management, if it is to achieve its potential for Aboriginal empowerment. The study establishes the difficulties that Aboriginal people have in obtaining long term support from governments for their planning and particularly for implementing approaches to community development that are structured around sustaining their relationships to land and natural resources. It concludes by proposing a strategy for improved government support for community based planning by Aboriginal people which would also facilitate Aboriginal participation in government planning processes and the negotiation of regional agreements about Aboriginal rights, aspirations and resources for self determination. Davis, Michael G. (1988) "The cultural preadaptation hypothesis: A test case on the southern Plains." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Oklahoma (The). 264 pp. Recent contributions to the Americanist literature suggest that ecological adaptations and cultural evolutionary statuses constitute levels of preadaptation for contact with large-scale societies. These studies suggest that those sociocultural systems farthest removed from the universal human heritage of hunting and gathering and with the highest levels of sociopolitical organization have an evolutionary-based advantage in contact situations. The cultural preadaptation literature is reviewed and a testable hypothesis formulated. This preadaptation hypothesis is tested diachronically from the earliest recorded contacts through the early 1980s using southern Plains Indian materials. The hypothesis was not supported by the data reviewed. Davis, Tracy R. (2001) "The role of First Nations in oil and gas development under federal regulatory regimes: Options for change and lessons from New Zealand." LL.M. Thesis, University of Ottawa. 144 pp. The objective of this thesis is to determine what role First Nations have under federal oil and gas regulatory regimes and to make recommendations to enable them to participate in oil and gas development. The author argues that there are persuasive legal and policy grounds to support an active role for First Nations in oil and gas development within their traditional territories. This position is supported through a comprehensive analysis of three federal oil and gas regimes (Northern, Offshore and Indian Reserve Regimes), their legislative frameworks, and recent developments in aboriginal jurisprudence and policy. An assessment of what role First Nations have under the federal environmental assessment regime is undertaken to supplement the overall analysis. The thesis is further supported by an international comparative component that highlights contemporary resource management issues in New Zealand. De Macedo, Patricia M. (1995) "First Nations and the establishment of protected areas in British Columbia: A case study of the campaign to protect the Kitlope watershed." M.R.M. Thesis, Simon Fraser University. 110 pp. Although native groups have historically been marginalized in protected area planning processes and establishment, there have been several instances in which First Nations have sought permanent protection for portions of their traditional territory. In doing so, they have utilized a variety of mechanisms, including direct action campaigns, litigation, treaty negotiations and government-initiated processes. First Nations' concerns regarding land tenure and aboriginal rights, designation options, joint-management and exclusion from decision-making, often arise during these processes. At times, aboriginal groups have joined with environmentalists to further their cause, however due to the often different priorities of the two groups, these coalitions are sometimes unsuccessful. In the campaign to protect the Kitlope watershed in north-western BC, the Haisla First Nation and Ecotrust, an environmental organization, formed such a coalition. The two groups successfully achieved protection of the watershed with a minimum of confrontation with industry and without the massive public attention of many other environmental campaigns. The Haisla Nation's role in the campaign was distinctive in comparison to other campaigns involving First Nations and contributed greatly to the Kitlope's protection. Other factors that influenced the final result were the favourable political climate, the low timber values, the high ecological values of the area and effective campaign management by the Haisla and Ecotrust. The government-to-government relationship of First Nations to the province is not recognized nor is aboriginal traditional ecological knowledge incorporated into the site selection or gap analysis processes. Finally, there is a lack of coordination with treaty negotiations, a link which may be of considerable importance to the continued viability of existing protected areas. De Vere, Katherine M. (1995) "Aboriginal diversity and politics in Canada." M.A. Thesis, University of Windsor. 162 pp.

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In assessing the progress toward a mutually acceptable agreement on aboriginal issues between native Canadians and Canadian governments, it is apparent that several obstacles have come to derail the process. This study attempts to identify one of those impediments: diversity within the native Canadian community. This study outlines two particular types of diversity within the native Canadian community: historicallybased diversity and legally-based diversity. It also outlines the role that native Canadian organizations such as the Assembly of First Nations and the Native Council of Canada have played in articulating this diversity. The primary findings of this study are: (1) There is certainly historically-based diversity within the native Canadian community; (2) there is certainly legally-based diversity within the native Canadian community; and, (3) legal divisions within the native community, particularly those which dictate whether an individual or group is granted status, have influenced the level of diversity within the native community by creating different interests and agendas for status and non-status Indians respectively. The conclusions of this study are that there is a significant amount of diversity which exists within the native Canadian community, and that therefore there are a variety of interests held therein. In order for a mutually acceptable agreement to be reached on native issues, Canadian governments must recognize the existence of this diversity when formulating policies which affect native Canadians. Similarly, native Canadians must recognize that diversity within their community makes devising a policy which will be acceptable to all is virtually impossible. Dean, Bartholomew C. (1995) "Chanting rivers, fiery tongues: Exchange, value and desire among the Urarina of Peruvian Amazonia." Ph.D. Dissertation, Harvard University. 353 pp. This is an ethnographic investigation of the Urarina, an indigenous Amazonian society inhabiting the Chambira Basin of northeastern Peru. It is both a contribution to the political anthropology of social inequality and to our basic understanding of symbolic forms. The interplay between the cultural and the material conditions of Urarina society is the dissertation's primary focus: it is an exploration of the ways in which the Urarina people organize their lives with regards to both subsistence and petty-commodity production. Broadly speaking, the dissertation is an analysis of the historical reproduction of Urarina society as it has both been inspired by, and resisted the violence of the colonial and post-colonial encounters. As such, it explores the Urarina's involvement in regional and global political-economies, namely pettycommodity production mediated through relations of debt-peonage. Turning to the 'internal' dynamics of Urarina society, the dissertation critically examines how affinity and consanguinity are both mediated and constituted by larger processes of marital and communal exchange, the creation of value and interpersonal desire. Taking as its point of reference the circulation of phenomena and objects as diverse as narcotic trance, palm-bast cloth, hunted bushmeats, myths, and shamanic wizardry, the dissertation investigates the processes of detachment, transformation and equivalence corresponding to the Urarina's engagement with market relations and the resultant commoditization of social life. The aim of examining the Urarina's involvement in supra-local economic arrangements is to deepen our appreciation of the ways in which local actors determine and are shaped by large-scale economic systems. Indeed, the thrust of this dissertation is to expunge the idea of the isolated Amazonian society by attending to the region's long engagement with purveyors of international capital, and its responses to the overtures of the 'outside world.' Finally, by exploring the interplay between social practice, systems of belief, political oratory, and mythopoeic discourse, the dissertation elucidates the Urarina's profound ambivalence towards their own position vis-àvis an assimilationist, self-aggrandizing national society. Debassige, Brent D. L. (2003) "Navigating the rapids and stumbling through the bush: A study in understanding resiliency through the lens of Anishnaabe." M.Ed. Thesis, Queen's University at Kingston. 183 pp. I do not pretend to know about the hardships that my ancestors have faced, and I cannot expect my readers to appreciate the dismemberment of a culture and way of life. I can only attest to the trials and tribulations that I have faced, which pale in comparison to my people. I have had opportunities that not all of my people can appreciate, and I try to be thankful for these things. I managed to accomplish a feat with which some aboriginal people are having difficulty. I successfully completed a high school diploma, a college diploma, and a university degree. I am Anishnaabe and I am a success, or am I? The purpose of this qualitative study was to investigate resiliency (educational and cultural) amongst Anishnaabe secondary students. To accomplish this purpose, I talked to four participants -- two school completers and two school leavers -- (ages 21 to 32) about their relationship to culture and their perceptions of their academic success. The data displayed a moderate Anishnaabe cultural connection amongst the participants during elementary school and a limited cultural connection during each participant's high school experience. However, upon

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completion of high school, the high school completers maintained a limited cultural orientation, whereas the non-completers strengthened their connection with traditional Anishnaabe culture. I have created a thesis that is both symbolic in style and representational in meaning. Defying convention, I have a constructed a thesis that was as much a process of self-exploration as it was conventional research. the bulk of the thesis deals with resiliency through the eyes of my participants as well as through subjective representation. In the context of holistic thought, I have facilitated a process of putting together a collaborative work that draws on different ways (i.e. academic writing convention [linear] and storytelling and experience-related writing [holistic]) of thinking and writing. Although the thesis may feel 'disjointed', the intentional abruptness in the writing may permit some readers to experience the discomfort of turning the proverbial holistic switch to the linear academic convention. many First nations students are expected to switch immediately to an academic environment that may be conducive to mainstream cultural, but not necessarily individual, maintenance. I hope this thesis helps readers relate, understand, and be confused, because then varying degrees of aware ness have been achieved. DeHart De Galicia, Monica C. (2001) "What is 'ethnic' about ethnic development? Cultivating community and local power in Totonicapan, Guatemala." Ph.D. Dissertation, Stanford University. 245 pp. This dissertation interrogates what is 'ethnic' about ethnic development in the context of the innovative programs of Cooperación para el Desarrollo Rural de Occidente (CDRO) in the rural indigenous communities of Totonicapán, Guatemala. CDRO is an explicitly Maya K'iche' organization that creatively combines traditional cultural practice and modern technologies to construct a unique development model. Through this structure, CDRO seeks to cultivate local power relative to the Guatemala state and the global market. My research provides a detailed analysis of how CDRO uses specific components of local culture -namely, the pop ('woven mat') organizational system and the community as a collective actor -- as concrete tools for the development process. However, I problematize the notion of a stable, pre-existent ethnic identity as the starting point for ethnic development by putting CDRO's notions about culture in conversation with local perceptions of ethnicity in three Totonicapán communities. Based on my ethnographic study of one model CDRO community and two non-CDRO communities, I argue that 'authentic' ethnic practice is constantly redefined within the development process. Dynamic interpretations of local culture and its relationship to development provide a means through which the rural communities strategically organize and project their collective identity in their articulations with broader political and economic arenas. This study also examines the concepts of 'local' and 'ethnic' in the context of two of CDRO's most compelling development projects: it's gender program and its goal of cultivating poder local (local power). I analyze attempts to develop a gender policy that complies with international development gender priorities, but which is grounded in local cultural tradition rather than Western feminist theory. Additionally, I demonstrate how emphasizing the 'local' offers CDRO a powerful political tool that is simultaneously attractive to the rural ethnic community, global capital, and the development system, yet also reveals ways in which CDRO's project has been formulated in conversation with the larger processes it appears to oppose. Throughout the study, I point to how ethnic development functions as an important vehicle for subverting traditional development priorities and for laying claim to new identities that disrupt the historical associations between local/ethnic and development. Dempsey, Catherine L. (2001) "Post-traumatic stress disorder symptomatology among American Indian Vietnam veterans: Mediators and moderators of the stress-illness relationship." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Colorado at Boulder. 266 pp. Results from the National Vietnam Veterans Readjustment Study (NVSRS) reported high rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among Vietnam Theatre veterans compared to rates in the Vietnam Era and others of the veterans' generation. Prevalence rates were even higher among minority groups, specifically Blacks and Hispanics. Results from the American Indian Vietnam Veterans Project (AIVVP) suggested that American Indian Vietnam veterans were also at increased risk for PTSD. However, not all American Indian veterans with high levels of trauma exposure developed PTSD, which suggests that other contributing factors specific to American Indian populations may also affect their vulnerability to PTSD outcomes. The objective of this study was to identify potential predictors of PTSD symptomatology across three military timeframes and to examine the relationships among personal resources, trauma, and PTSD symptomatology in American Indian Vietnam veterans. It was hypothesized that high levels of social support and ethnic identity may enhance one's psychosocial resilience to stress, resulting in positive health outcomes. This study was based on AIVVP data collected by the National centre for American Indian and Alaska Native Mental Health Research (NCAIANMHR) at the University of Colorado Health Sciences centre.

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Interviews with 621 American Indian Vietnam veterans living on or near their reservations assessed predisposing factors, characteristics of military service, military and non-military trauma, personal resources, and PTSD symptomatology. The results of hierarchical linear regression analyses showed a strong relationship between social support and PTSD symptomatology across all time flames. Although results did not support the stress-buffering hypothesis, combat trauma and social support during the military interacted significantly. In addition, post-military social support appeared to mediate the relationship between trauma and PTSD symptomatology. Identifying a relationship between social support and PTSD has implications for the development of interventions used to treat PTSD in ethnic minorities. The impact of personal resources on PTSD symptomatology may be important for traumatic survivors and long-term strategies for victims of PTSD. Dennis, Jeffrey W. (2003 ) "American revolutionaries and Native Americans: The South Carolina experience." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Notre Dame. 359 pp. This dissertation examines the impact of Native Americans upon American Revolutionary leaders and the course of independence in South Carolina. Throughout British North America, members of the colonial elite engaged with Indians. In the lower South, this interaction was especially extensive and significant to the creation of the United States. Without their experiences with Native Americans, Thomas Sumter, Francis Marion and Andrew Pickens would be unknown today; William Henry Drayton may have remained a loyalist; and Henry Laurens, Christopher Gadsden and William Moultrie might not have achieved the status and skills needed to help guide their state and nation through the Revolution. Key theatres for South Carolina's colonial-native experience included the Anglo-Cherokee War, frontier trade and diplomacy, and western land speculation. Besides helping to facilitate self-sufficiency, relations with Native Americans helped shape the manner in which leading colonists approached the Revolution. Specifically, conservative members of the southern elite such as Henry Laurens and John Rutledge identified their patriotism with greater tolerance towards Indians than radical leaders such as Christopher Gadsden and William Henry Drayton. The radicals rose to power with the coming of the Revolution and independence. During 1776, they equated love of country with enmity towards Indians. Great violence was visited upon the Cherokees that year; additional attacks were mounted thereafter. This violence expressed a deepening racism against Indians in a region where racism against Africans already was deeply embedded. Following the war, some conservative revolutionaries such as Andrew Pickens worked to protect the southern nations. Concerned with national honour, during the late 1780s and 1790s, this leadership envisioned a strong central government that could order the frontier and promote coexistence between natives and settlers. With the election of 1800, however, southern radicals regained command. The southeastern nations eventually were removed. Leading manuscript sources for this dissertation include records from the British Colonial Office, the Lyman Copeland Draper collection, and various materials from the Charleston Library Society, South Caroliniana Library, and South Carolina History Society. Many published documents and contemporary sources also are included. Desmarais, Diedre. (1998 ) "The Native Women's Association of Canada's struggle to secure gender equality rights within the Canadian constitution." M.A. Thesis, University of Regina (The). 158 pp. This thesis examines the evolution of the Native Women's Association of Canada as they embraced the challenge to secure aboriginal rights for all First Nation women in Canada's Constitution. Between 1978 and 1995, the Native Women's Association vigorously pursued what they believed was their right to participate in Constitutional negotiations as equal partners. They did not acknowledge present day First Nation political organizations as being true First Nation governing bodies. Thousands of Canadian First Nation women have been denied their rights as aboriginal persons due to the Indian Act and a consequence of that legislation has meant that First Nation women have been marginalized in Canadian society. Present day First Nation political governing bodies are a product of that legislation and many political leaders sought to legitimize denial of aboriginal rights to First Nation women citing that true self government meant the right to determine membership. The Native Women's Association of Canada chose to challenge that premise using the very political tools which denied their right to now reassert them. This thesis explores that struggle by examining the approach and position taken by both the national political organizations and the Native Women's Association of Canada concluding that true self government does mean determination of membership but that the women's rights to equality was of primary importance. Devrome, Robert J. (1991 ) "Indian education: Resistance to internal colonialism." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Alberta. 165 pp.

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This thesis is about the asymmetrical relations between Canada and the Indian Nations. It reviews colonial and internal colonialism theory to describe the social, legal, political and economic relations between superordinate and subordinate cultures. The history of the development of Canadian Indian policy is described to explain the powers of the Canadian Government over Indian people and the education of Indian children. Internal colonialism theory is used as a framework for the analysis of the relationship. It is also used to show how the legal and administrative powers of Canada affect the individual and collective social, civil and political rights of Indian people. The historical relations between the Joseph Bighead Cree and Canada are described to show the realities of the asymmetrical relationship, and to provide a historical context to the resistance of the Band to the structures that control them. Resistance theory is used in this thesis to explain the social and political measures taken by the Joseph Bighead Band Government to change the relationship with Canada. The self-defined aboriginal rights and powers of the Band are described. The ideological support for the resistance, by the parents, students and Elders of the Band, is also described to show the level of commitment to change that exists among the Joseph Bighead Cree. Dickson, Elizabeth J. (1988) "Indians, law and land claims problems and postulates regarding juridical selfdetermination for the Dene Nation." M.A. Thesis, Simon Fraser University. DiNova, Joanne R. (2003) "Spiralling webs of relation: Movements toward an indigenist criticism." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Waterloo. 295 pp. This dissertation builds on indigenous theory as evident in the writing of Willie Ermine, Gregory Cajete, Craig Womack, Jace Weaver, Laurie Anne Whitt, Linda Tuhiwai Smith, Viola Cordova, Dennis McPherson, and others. It works toward a criticism that, in accordance with the precepts of such theory, is communityoriented. It argues for an examination of literature in terms of its function for (or against) the community, in the expansive sense of the term. The examination of texts includes, perhaps emphasizes, critical writing about native literature and people, such that, in many ways, the dissertation is more meta-critical than critical. It seeks less to produce exhaustive criticisms of literary works, than to suggest the preparatory need for a reexamination of prevailing approaches to indigenous literature. It does, however, engage in some limited examinations of selected works of literature from an indigenist position. In dealing with indigenous literature, the dissertation suggests that aboriginal theory offers a compelling alternative to mainstream approaches. Postmodernism (which prevails theoretically in literary criticism) is characterized by fragmentation, but aboriginal theory, which informs much of the literature, takes a fluid view of language and existence and emphasizes a vibrant and pervasive connectedness. The criticism that emerges in this dissertation, then, evaluates critical and literary texts according to the discursive action of the text for (or against) the community. In addition to examining texts for social function, however, this criticism reads from and looks for an indigenous worldview and attempts to establish connections of its own to all of Creation. In other words, the dissertation seeks to infuse the practice of criticism itself with the aboriginal worldview evident in the literature. Dion-Buffalo, Yvonne. (1996) "Four generations: A story of a family of Plains Cree women." Ph.D. Dissertation, State University of New York at Buffalo. 239 pp. Canadian Indian history is about the gradual and ongoing dispossessions of land, natural resources, rights of self-determination and other things of value to the indigenous peoples since the arrival of the Europeans. The losses to indigenous nations included the great buffalo herds and access to other hunting and fishing resources. Among the stories central to this history is that of the Indigenous women who were enfranchised after Confederation in 1869. Their day-to-day experiences have gone largely unwritten and the impact of enfranchisement on their lives remains generally obscured. I have re-examined this issue and how it has impacted four generations of a family of Plains Cree women living in the prairie provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan. In 1946, when Monica Dion-Buffalo married nonstatus Indian and World War II veteran George Gladeau, she lost her Indian status under Canadian law. She was removed from the Hobbema membership rolls as were numerous Indian women despite protests from various Indian communities across Canada. She experienced George Gladeau's family's history of displacement from the Passpasschase reserve in 1888 -- a people wrongfully deprived of both land and rights as Indigenous nations. Canada has made little attempt to retrieve the voices of these dispossessed peoples and to hear what has happened to them. Their stories were muted and their voices relegated to the margins of western society. It can even be said with some truth that within the native circle they are looked down upon. Sometimes their misdeeds appear in newspapers with no adequate social context given to their stories. They do not write about themselves for the most part because they do not have access to a literary education nor to publishers, increasingly, because

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they have forgotten significant pieces of their history. The people within these stories do not understand what has happened to them and how things got to be the way they are. This dissertation explores one Cree family's history. First, a background was provided for the personal stories which were framed within an Indigenous framework. Moving beyond literature read from many different western disciplines, a deliberate shift to native oracy was made. The development of such a frame includes the evocation of cultural and personal memory. This dissertation is a work in process and is the production of a distinctive form about the traditional lives and experiences of four generations of Plains Cree women. Dion, Susan D. (2002) "Braiding histories: Responding to the problematics of Canadians hearing First Nations postcontact experiences." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Toronto. 300 pp. What is remembered and forgotten in the study of aboriginal people and the study of Canada contributes to an understanding of history that allows, indeed encourages, Canadians to distance themselves from and abdicate their responsibility for attending to the ongoing conditions of injustice that are a part of the day-today lived experiences of First Nations people in Canada. The Braiding histories project investigates and describes how teachers and students comprehend and make use of texts that detail post-contact histories between First Nations people and Canadian communities. It is a two part study that addresses both what it means to (re)tell and the problematics of hearing. The first strand of this thesis addresses issues and challenges in producing texts that contribute to a reformation of historical memory. Investigating dynamics of denial, I explore the problematics of non-Aboriginal people hearing First Nations post-contact experiences and investigate the pedagogical possibilities and difficulties of presenting testimony bearing on post-contact First Nations -- Canadian History. Reflecting on the process of writing a series of stories titled Braiding histories: Learning from the lives of First Nations people I think carefully about questions of (re)presenting the lived experiences of Aboriginal people in the service of pedagogy. The second strand of the study is a critical ethnography involving an investigation of what happened when the Braiding histories stories were taken up in intermediate history classrooms. Using questions initiated by post-structural theory as a guide, I look at how the teachers' understanding of their responsibilities as teachers, the structure of the school and the history class in particular affect their approach to teaching the stories. The work of the project reveals multiple and complex ways in which discourses of professionalism construct an approach to the stories that reproduces dominant ways of knowing. The research contributes to an understanding of the force of discursive practices in classrooms and opens up new possibilities for disrupting teaching and learning in schools. Dockstator, Mark S. (1994) "Towards an understanding of aboriginal self-government: A proposed theoretical model and illustrative factual analysis." D.Jur. Dissertation, York University. 218 pp. Aboriginal self-government will continue to be a major issue in Canada. This dissertation presents the necessary theoretical background that, although developed from the philosophical teachings of aboriginal society, serves as the basic framework for a more complete and comprehensive understanding of both the aboriginal and the non-aboriginal perspective to self-government. The work is divided into two parts: theoretical model and historical application. The first part sets out a model based on traditional aboriginal philosophy which analyses the interaction between aboriginal society and western society. In these five hundred years, the relationship has proceeded through five stages -separation, amalgamation, divergence, dysfunction, and negotiation -- from the arrival of the first Europeans in North America to the present negotiations on aboriginal self-government. In every stage, the characteristics inherent in aboriginal society and western society are discussed, along with the internal institutions in each society and the way these institutions affected their relationship. From the aboriginal perspective the model is important in presenting the broad philosophical principles of both aboriginal and western society which must be understood before there can be any useful discussion of the detailed institutional arrangements of self-government. The second part looks at several historical events chosen to illustrate the stages and characteristics of the model: the Royal Proclamation of 1763, the constitutions of the United States and Canada, the Indian Acts of 1876 and 1927, the White Paper of 1969, the Supreme Court of Canada decisions of Calder (1971), Nowegijick (1983), and Mitchell (1990), the Constitution Act of 1982, and, finally, the Charlottetown Accord of 1992. Again, both the aboriginal and the western perspective of these events are discussed, leading to the conclusion that, by the early 1990s, the basis for a common understanding of the self-government concept had been established. Doerr, Neriko M. (2000) "Learning to be different: The creation of subjects at a secondary school in Aotearoa New

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Zealand." Ph.D. Dissertation, Cornell University. 476 pp. This dissertation investigates the process of the creation of national subjects and the sense of differences in an educational setting in Aotearoa New Zealand in the 1990s. Aotearoa New Zealand is a former British settler colony coming to terms with three major shifts: its redefinition of nationhood from an 'England in the South Seas' to a 'Pacific country;' the re-positioning of the indigenous people, Mäori, and the descendants of the settlers, Pakeha; and an ongoing dismantling of the welfare state. I argue that, amidst these changes, the sense of nationhood and ethnic, class, and gender differences are inculcated in students through diverse practices at school. Each chapter illuminates different facets of this process with detailed analyses of everyday practices, observed during a long-term ethnographic fieldwork at a secondary school, Waikaraka College (an alias). First, this dissertation discusses the effects of schooling and argues that the school creates interchangeable subjects by constantly shuffling students into groups and by forcing them to temporarily form groups within the given mix of students. Through this process, school transforms students from the family-based relationship of unique individuals to being national subjects and labour power that are based on the interchangeability of individuals. Second, this dissertation examines the process by which students label themselves and its link to the students' positions at school. For example, most students in the bilingual (Mäori/English) classes identify themselves as being Mäori, while some students outside the bilingual class, who are potentially considered as Mäori, describe themselves as having Mäori in them. Third, this dissertation is concerned with the emerging relationship of nationalism and the market. Due to the free marketization of education, many schools began seeking more non-governmental sources of income, such as accepting foreign students with high fees. This internationalization of the student body, paradoxically, led to the strengthening of New Zealanders' sense of nationhood through the foreign students exoticized cultural performances, which were used to justify this sale of schooling as exposing students to 'different cultures.' Through these analyses, this dissertation illuminates the minute processes of identification at school and their relationships to the changing social landscapes. Donald, Dwayne T. (2003) "Elder, student, teacher: A Kainai curriculum metissage." M.Ed. Thesis, University of Lethbridge. 206 pp. Aboriginal education is an ambiguous field of study that presents many challenging dilemmas for educators today. A major part of this ambiguity stems from the tendency to emphasize traditional cultural values, Aboriginal identity, and experiences as distinct and unique, and therefore essentially different from mainstream approaches to education. By drawing upon the memories and narratives of my own Métis family as well as the history and memories of the people of the Kainai community from the Blood Reserve in Alberta, I confront some of these dilemmas in both personal and collective ways. Following Eduoard Glissant, Francoise Lionnet, and Mark Zuss, I explore the character of the Kainai community as a métissage of texts and genres which overlap, interact, juxtapose, and mix the textual contributions of an elder, a student, and a teacher (myself) to create a more complicated portrait of the Kainai community that stretches beyond the 'us versus them' binary. These texts are then interpreted using a (post)colonial framework largely based upon the works of Frantz Fanon, Gerald Vizenor, Homi Bhabha, and Neal McLeod. Dorsett, Shaunnagh G. (1996) "The Crown's fiduciary duties to indigenous Australians." M.A. Thesis, University of Calgary. 259 pp. In Canada and the United States, the Crown or government's fiduciary obligation to Indigenous peoples can be a powerful tool in protecting aboriginal rights. Since the recognition of native title in Mabo v. State of Queensland (No. 2) (1992) 175 C.L.R. 1, attention has turned to the issue of how native title is to be protected and whether the fiduciary principle could similarly provide protection for aboriginal rights in Australia. However, significant differences exist between the legal systems of Canada, the United States and Australia. These differences make it unlikely that the fiduciary principle will play a major role in Australia in the protection of aboriginal rights. In Australia, the fiduciary principle should be recognized as merely one of a number of appropriate mechanisms for the protection of these rights. Although North American experiences in the protection of aboriginal rights can provide a useful guide, care should be taken in applying jurisprudence from other jurisdictions. Doty, Colleen. (1996) ""For the peace of the community and the good order of society": Regulating aboriginal marriage relations in British Columbia, 1870-1940." M.A. Thesis, Simon Fraser University. 121 pp. Primarily using missionary and Department of Indian Affairs records, this thesis explores the confluence of interest of three different groups of men who were united in their efforts to reform aboriginal marriage and sexual relations in British Columbia. Between 1870 and 1940, missionaries, government agents, and Indian

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men lobbied the federal government to initiate reforms that would regulate the relationships between native men and women. Although these groups had different objectives to reforming the sexual relations of Indian people, they agreed that the intimate relations of aboriginal people were fundamentally tied to the betterment of society as a whole. These moral reformers believed that the state of marriage relations was highly reflective of the state of society in general. In this way, the family was regarded as a microcosm of society. Not only did the institution of marriage regulate the sexual, gender, economic, and/or rank and status relations between the specific parties involved, but moral reformers of the late 19th and early 20th century believed that the institution of marriage regulated 'larger' societal values. Because of this conviction, missionaries, government agents, and Indian men -- all hoping to improve their society and community appealed to the state for greater intervention into the sexual relations of Indian people. Dowling, Peter J. (1998) "''A great deal of sickness'': Introduced diseases among the Aboriginal people of colonial southeast Australia, 1788-1900." Ph.D. Dissertation, Australian National University. 370 pp. Palaeopathological studies have sought to build up a picture of Australian Aboriginal health before European settlement in 1788, and epidemiological studies of Aboriginal health in the 20th century are now legion. But, despite a growing body of literature on Aboriginal history in the intervening colonial period, this remains an under-studied period from the viewpoint specifically of Aboriginal health. This thesis is a contribution to filling that gap through an examination of documentary and skeletal evidence on the changing bio-medical situation experienced by Aboriginal populations of Southeast Australia from 1788 to 1900. This thesis examines one of the major biological components of this change -- the diseases that were introduced into Australian Aboriginal populations during the process of colonization. The epidemiology, timing, diffusion of diseases are considered with specific attention given to infectious and respiratory diseases that were responsible for causing major epidemics of morbidity and mortality. A medical model for the contact period in the late 18th and 19th centuries is proposed. This model considers three major stages in the disease environment of Aboriginal populations in Southeast Australia; a precontact stage with endemic pathogens causing chronic diseases and limited epidemics, an early contact stage where introduced exotic human diseases cause severe epidemics of infectious and respiratory diseases among Aboriginal populations, and a third stage where remaining Aboriginal populations were institutionalised on government and mission settlements and were subjected to a high level of mortality from the introduced diseases. The major epidemic diseases during the early contact stage were smallpox, syphilis, tuberculosis, influenza, and measles. Each of these diseases were responsible for excessive morbidity and mortality. During the period of institutionalization infectious and respiratory diseases were responsible for over 50% of recorded deaths on eight separate Aboriginal settlements in Southeast Australia. The major diseases recorded as causes of death were tuberculosis, bronchitis, pneumonia, diarrhoea and dysentery. Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australian infant mortality rates are calculated to provide an indicator to compare the state of health of the two populations. Aboriginal rates were high when compared to the nonAboriginal populations of Victoria and South Australia. The rates reveal a substantial health differential between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations. Aboriginal infant mortality has improved into the latter quarter of the 20th century but the corresponding improvement in non-Aboriginal infant mortality has been at a much higher rate. The gap between the health status of each has widened rather than narrowed over the last 100 years. Downing, Paul J. (1995) "Applying a post-modern framework to native self-government in Canada." M.A. Thesis, Concordia University. 122 pp. Due to their historical occupation of this country prior to European settlement Aboriginal people have special status in this country. Long viewed as wards of the Canadian state, Aboriginal people are no longer willing to remain in that position. Today natives are exerting pressure on the Canadian state to recognize them as self-governing people. This demand for self-government is one of the most complex issues facing the Canadian state and threatens the sovereignty of the nation-state. To date, a number of attempts have been made at arriving at a working form of native self-government. The Canadian state has been unsuccessfully trying to develop a universal concept for self-government, applicable for all natives and binding to all ten provinces. Instead what it should attempt is a community-based post-modern approach. Where each native community is consulted as to what type of self-government that particular community wishes to realize. Doyle-Bedwell, George H. (1998) "Whose face anyway? Images of First Nations protest and resistance in Kahnawake and Kanesatake, Kanien'kehaka territory 1990: A study in the social construction of voice and image." M.A.

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Thesis, Dalhousie University. 164 pp. Many images are presented in the mass media coverage of an event. In the case of print media, those images are found both in print and in photographs. I argue that, following the ideas presented by Berger and Luckmann (1966) and Herman and Chomsky (1988), the images are neither made by nor are they representative of the persons being reported on. This is especially true of images of First Nations protest. Although other writers, Baylor (1996) and Miller (1993) for example, have presented a similar theme, never, has this topic been written from a perspective that honours a mixed blood Mi'kmaw perspective while exploring the subject in a Canadian context. Furthermore, I use personal experience methods in the design and writing of this thesis in conjunction with my mixed blood Mi'kmaw voice. That combination means that my thesis is also a personal story. Therefore, I wrote it in a story-telling manner. I compared the images via a content analysis design, both in text and photograph, of the resistance to colonial oppression by the Kanien'kehaka (Mohawk) at Kahnawake and Kanesatake (commonly known as the 'Oka Crisis') in the Summer of 1990 as presented in the Micmac News, Windspeaker, and Maclean's magazine. My research was designed as a case study, therefore, it provides an understanding in depth rather than in breadth. My results support the Berger and Luckmann and Herman and Chomsky theses, that there was a definite difference in the reporting of content and cultural context in the three periodicals. Furthermore, the Maclean's coverage presented a stereotypically violent image of First Nations people. The Micmac News and Windspeaker expressed information from a personal experience perspective as would be expected from First Nations Traditions. Since the Maclean's images represent stereotypical views of First Nations people, I suggest, following Baylor and Miller, that those images act as a detrimental agent in First Nations and Euro-Canadian relations. Stereotypical images, after Miller (1993) and Seigal (1989), may, if internalised (as I did), have a detrimental effect on health. Therefore, i invite future researchers to explore the role of media images as an issue of First Nations peoples' health. Dreyer, Doris. (2005) "Impact and benefits agreements: Do the Ross River Dena benefit from mineral projects?" M.A. Thesis, University of Northern British Columbia. 136 pp. Impact and Benefits Agreements (IBAs) are arrangements between indigenous communities and industry to secure long-term local benefits from resource development projects. These local benefits include matters such as employment, training, economic development, business opportunities, social, cultural and community services, environmental protection, and cash payments. Despite the increasing use of IBAs in remote regions such as Alaska and the northern regions of Australia, Canada and Russia only limited information is available about key requirements for successful IBAs. This thesis presents a case study undertaken in collaboration with the Ross River Dena First Nation (Yukon). The study analyses the success of two IBAs negotiated by the Ross River Dena for mineral projects, through the use of a theoretical IBA framework developed from a review of current IBA literature. As the two analysed IBAs differed in outcomes, it was possible to suggest criteria for success and failure of the agreements. These criteria can be used as hypotheses in further study and issues of caution for other indigenous groups entering IBA negotiations with industry. Drzewieniecki, Joanna E. (1996) "Indigenous politics, local power, and the state in Peru, 1821-1968." Ph.D. Dissertation, State University of New York at Buffalo. 544 pp. This study uses a historical structural approach to analyze indigenous politics in the Peruvian Andes from 1821 to 1968 with particular attention to the distribution of power in the sierra, the political culture of indigenous people and other Peruvians, and indigenous people's repertoire of political strategies. It is argued that elite power was limited by various geographical, ecological, economic, and political factors that provided indigenous people with opportunities to limit domination and advance their interests. Particular emphasis is given to the role of elite conflicts, the considerable variation over time and space in the economic situations of all sectors of sierra society, and the strength of indigenous political organization. Addressing current debates regarding 'Andean culture,' this study concludes that the political behaviour of indigenous people had its sources in the dynamic interaction of evolving institutional and cultural structures with roots in Andean, Spanish, and Peruvian criollo traditions. Structures such as indigenous political organization and legal norms, dualism, factionalism, reciprocity, kinship structure, and Peruvian legal culture were continually recreated and modified in daily political interactions and had an impact on political behaviour throughout the period. The term 'Andean culture' continues to be useful once it is redefined to take into account cultural change and when it is linked to ethnicity. An analysis of indigenous strategies in the

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Republican period based on selected cases shows that indigenous people had a basic repertoire of political strategies for dealing with the rest of Peruvian society including the maintenance of their own political institutions, alliance formation, negotiation, lodging of complaints, use of the Peruvian legal system, and selective use of violence. New findings include the influence of intra-community political behaviour on dealings with outsiders, the importance of traditional authorities in limiting abuses against indigenous people, significantly greater intra- and inter-community cooperation on abuses than on land issues, the high salience of political autonomy as a community goal, and the benefits of alliances on the local and national levels. The evidence supports other recent research which demonstrates that indigenous political strategies in the 19th and early 20th centuries were much more effective than previously hypothesized. DuBois, Joan M. A. (2004 ) "Government termination policy and Canadian Indians: A fourth policy reality." M.A. Thesis, University of Manitoba (The). 104 pp. During the past thirty years Canadian 'Indian' policy has undergone significant changes. There is consensus amongst First Nations people that the 1969 White Paper, although formally retracted by the federal government in the early 1970s, has provided the framework for subsequent Canadian 'Indian' policy. In this thesis a distinction is made between 'Indian' and' Aboriginal' policy whereby 'Indian' policy refers to those groups of people legally defined as Indian according to the Indian Act. The policy distinction is needed because it is these indigenous peoples that were the focus of the Statement of the Government on Indian Policy (commonly known as the 1969 White Paper). While the literature shows that Indian policy was formulated according to three policy goals (civilization, protection, and assimilation), this study will investigate the extent to which termination and genocide was a fourth, and continued, federal Indian policy objective. Indian termination policy has usually been discussed in reference to the American Indian experience. Although termination and genocide are rarely allowed to enter into First Nations and indigenous 'Indian' discourse in Canada, First Nations and non-First Nations writers state that genocide has and continues to be the indigenous experience in Canada. As a fourth policy reality in Canada and part of the socio-political ideology of the indigenous 'Indian' or First Nations in Canada, termination can be termed as the process and procedure in Indian policy while genocide is the ideological frame of reference. In order to assess to what extent the 1969 White Paper has influenced 'Indian' policy during the last ten years in Canada, a comparative analysis between the 1969 White Paper and the 1994 Manitoba Framework Agreement, First Nations Governance 2001, and the First Nations Land Management Act will be included. Early in the literature search, attention was paid to reviewing Indian policy documents and written materials. Sally Weaver's 1981 work on Canadian Indian policymaking and the 1969 White Paper served as starting points. I determined that 1982 would be the 'cut-off' year whereby Indian policy sources written before 1982 would be included. This cut-off date took into consideration the 1982 patriation of the Constitution as I assumed that the new constitution would have ramifications for Indian policy. Post 1982 policy literature was also reviewed and a further distinction was made resulting in the placement of Indian policy as part of overall Aboriginal policy. First Nations policy becomes increasingly part of the discourse as a component of Aboriginal policy or Indian policy and the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples is included as a definitive example of Aboriginal policy. A select grouping of policy documents pertaining to Indians, as defined by the Indian Act, are part of a comparative analysis that also takes into account Canadian public policy-making in general. It is in this section of the thesis that Indian termination policy is revealed as one of the three historic policy objectives of the federal government. 'Generic' policy terms and analyses are applied to Indian policy and this discussion forms much of the thesis chapters. By bringing public policy-making into the analysis of Indian policy, any similarities across documents become apparent. The comparative analysis method was necessary in order to determine the extent that the 1969 White Paper has been incorporated into subsequent Indian policy. My research shows that, although formally and publicly retracted by the federal government, the 1969 White Paper policies were incorporated into future Indian policy initiatives. The important point is that the White Paper policy proposals would not necessarily find their way into the most recognizable form of Indian policy, the Indian Act, but would be manifest in related legislation pertaining to Indians and Indian lands. The study concludes by showing that termination, and ultimately genocide will be a realized policy objective by termination of 'Indian' ties to Reserve land. Dudziak, Suzanne. (2000) "The politics and process of partnership: A case study of the Aboriginal Healing and

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Wellness Strategy." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Toronto. 420 pp. This dissertation explores new aboriginal-Canadian relations that seek to move beyond colonial social relations and discourses. While both aboriginal and Canadian societies may desire a just and workable relationship, competing visions and understandings of what constitutes the post-colonial operate as a subtext in actual policy negotiations between aboriginal and Canadian governments. Cultural difference, as articulated through aboriginal epistemology and embodied in the aboriginal vision of co-existence, emerges as an unexplored terrain in liberal discourse. This helps to explain why many attempts at dialogue fail at the negotiating table. In addressing the issue of difference I argue that while liberal discourses may recognize aboriginality as part of a pluralistic worldview, the failure to enter into and embrace the content of that difference prevents new, truly bi-cultural relations from emerging. Because the content of difference is not entered into, an important epistemological dimension is left out of most analyses of aboriginal-Canadian relations. A discussion of aboriginal epistemology and postmodern positions on the issue of difference offers a partial resolution and way forward. Following Leonard, a move from domination and oppression requires a dual commitment to difference and to solidarity that is based on a different ethic, that of interdependence. To understand the implications of this possibility for aboriginal-Canadian co-existence, I analyze the development of the Aboriginal Healing and Wellness Strategy as a case study in joint policy-making involving a partnership between aboriginal organizations and government ministries in Ontario. As a unique exercise, this partnership provides an instructive example of how such relations can be constructed when aboriginal difference is taken into account and employed. Based on participants' accounts and my own engagement with aboriginal epistemology, this case study reveals key dynamics in terms of the politics and the processes that can facilitate and impede movement towards an aboriginal post-colonial vision of coexistence. The journey from the colonial to the post-colonial involves a shift from dichotomous ways of conceptualizing difference in relation to sameness towards a more wholistic, inclusive and dynamic conception that incorporates difference and commonality discovered in the process of co-operating together. Duran, Bonnie M. (1997) "The struggles and outcomes of colonial and indigenous discourse about Indians and alcohol: A historic and contemporary analysis." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California, Berkeley. 220 pp. Alcohol-related problems continue to be a major source of morbidity and mortality among Native Americans in the United States. While the predominant amelioration theories and approaches used in Public Health are important sources of intervention, they do not go far enough in illuminating the socio-cultural history of the problem nor do they describe the popularity or content of current amelioration efforts found in grass roots 'Indian Country.' Public health theories and approaches have been relatively ineffective both in preventing the problem and in reducing consequences for Indian people and society in general. Using a poststructuralist framework, this study traces the origins and functions of the drunken Indian stereotype in colonial America, and Native American resistance to those constructions. Secondly, it investigates present-day American Indian collective action related to alcohol, and explains its inherent aims, mechanisms of change, and relationship to older, colonial struggles. This research found that historically, alcohol was used as a metonomy by both sides of the Indian/White power struggle to define the meaning and value of ethnic identity, and to provide the colonization and its resistance's moral grounding. Alcohol, as a polysemic cultural artefact, played a profound role in the production, colonization and subjection of Native people both materially and symbolically. Contrary to popular culture beliefs, Native people have mounted successful alcohol-related amelioration efforts throughout history. Alcohol continues to be an important cultural artefact for Native Americans in the battle over wellness and a self-determined identity. The discourses of current Indian collective action challenges expert, popular and Native specific views on alcohol meanings and norms, racial essentialism, cultural identity, and racial hierarchy. The Sobriety Movement positively effects adherents by providing prescriptions about a substance-free cultural identity, bi-culturalism, and social support networks to support these changes, while uncovering the discursive processes of internalised oppression and cultural shame. The movement is beneficial in both Indian Country and American culture by supporting normative belief and behavioural changes, multiculturalism, and a less divisive conception of racial research and practice are discussed. Dyer, Linda C. (1994) "Assessing depression in American Indian children." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Wisconsin -- Madison (The). 83 pp. American Indian people are perhaps the most severely disadvantaged group within the United States. Indian adolescents exhibit higher rates of suicide, alcoholism, drug abuse, high school drop-outs, and out-of-home placements than any other group. Recent research efforts are beginning to explore depression and suicide in

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Indian adolescents. However, the research on Indian children is almost completely missing. The purpose of this pilot study is to assess depression in American Indian children and compare the results with the current findings of childhood depression in general. The Children's Depression Inventory (CDI; Kovacs andeck, 1977) and the Reynolds' Child Depression Scale (RCDS; Reynolds, 1989) were administered to 33 American Indian children aged 8 to 12 years. A boarding school environment was used to access a variety of different tribes. The Teacher Report Form (TRF; Achenbach and Edelbrock, 1986) was administered to teachers, with a focus on the distress index scales. Differences between the younger group (8 and 9 year-olds) and the older group (11 and 12 year-olds) were examined for age-related distinctions. The Children's Action Tendency Scale (CATS; Deluty, 1979) was also administered. The CATS explores behavioural tendencies of aggression, submission, and assertion and was used to compare the personality characteristics of children diagnosed with depression. The Children's Hassles and Uplifts Scales (CHS, CUS; Kanner, Feldman, Weinberger and Ford, 1987) were also given to examine possible relationships to adaptational outcomes. The efforts of this pilot study were to gain a better understanding of depression in American Indian children, hopefully leading to future research on prevention before Indian children reach the critical ages of adolescence. Edmonson, Jimmie R. (2000) "Hopelessness, self-efficacy, self-esteem, and powerlessness in relation to American Indian suicide." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of North Texas. 118 pp. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between the independent variables of age, gender, residence, tribal affiliation, and perceived government control over tribal rights and the dependent variables of hopelessness, self-efficacy, and self-esteem. These attitudes are then explored as to their relationship to possible feelings of powerlessness among American Indians. The survey instruments used are the Beck Hopelessness Scale consisting of 20 items (Beck, Weissman, Lester, and Trexler, 1974), (Reproduced by permission of publisher, Psychological Corporation), the Self-Efficacy Scale consisting of 30 items (Sherer, Maddox, Merchandante, Prentice-Dunn, Jacobs, and Rodgers, 1982) (Reproduced by permission of Dr. Ronald W. Rogers), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale consisting of 10 items (Rosenberg, 1972) (Reproduced by permission of Dr. Florence Rosenberg) and a demographic questionnaire consisting of 6 items. These instruments were administered to 60 American Indians that make up the sample population of 25 respondents from tribal lands (reservation setting) and 35 respondents from an urban setting. Statistical analysis consists of crosstabulations using Chi-Square and t-tests (used to verify Chi-Square) to determine the significance of the relationship of the independent variables to the dependent variables previously mentioned. 15 hypotheses (page 10) were tested to explore the relationships between the above independent variables and the dependent variables. Out of the 15 hypotheses that were investigated two were supported. The two hypotheses are hypothesis 10 and 11. Hypothesis 10 states: American Indians who live on a reservation have more hopelessness than those who live in an urban setting. This hypothesis was indicated to be marginal by Chi-Square analysis but when a t-test was conducted it was shown to be significant. Hypothesis 11 states: American Indians in urban residency will have more self-efficacy than reservation residents. While the data provided minimal support for the theory that hopelessness, self-efficacy, and self-esteem have a relationship to feelings of powerlessness and thus suicide in the American Indian population the outcome of the study provides pertinent data for future research. Edwards, Yvonne J. (2002 ) "Healing the soul wound: The retraditionalization of Native Americans in substance abuse treatment." Ph.D. Dissertation, California Institute of Integral Studies. 432 pp. Contemporary Native Americans suffer from a soul wound that is the historical legacy of trauma since the arrival of Columbus in 1492. Many Native Americans believe that healing this wound requires indigenous interventions and the retraditionalization of those individuals seeking help. On a deeper level, this soul wound represents the loss of one's soul and a sacred world. This research investigates the transformational experiences of Native Americans during the course of their retraditionalization and treatment for drug and alcohol dependence. 12 graduates of the residential treatment program at Friendship House in San Francisco were interviewed about the kind and quality of their healing experiences in this particular program, which provides a comprehensive matrix of Native American medicine as well as western models of psychological treatment. The purpose of this study was to understand and document the experience of substance abuse recovery from the perspective of the Native Americans in treatment. 12 themes emerged from the data analysis (a) feeling cared for; (b) spiritual experience; (c) insight; (d)

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making a commitment; (e) empowerment/self-esteem; (f) releasing emotional pain; (g) remorse; (h) reconnecting to traditional values; (i) forgiveness; (j) relief; (k) safety; and, (l) gratitude. When these themes were applied to the grounded theory Conditional Matrix, two models of recovery emerged: (a) the TraumaResolution Model; and, (b) the Self-Esteem Model. The results of this research suggest that substance abuse treatment that includes a retraditionalization process provides a necessary spiritual foundation in a spiritual setting so that some Native American clients are able to heal their soul wound, their childhood traumas, and their addictions to drugs and alcohol. Elias, Brenda D. (2004) "The influence of the social environment on the health of Manitoba First Nations communities." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Manitoba. 625 pp. Manitoba First Nations communities are assuming control over health services, and the way health information is collected is critical to shape the health and social policies and programs that First Nations peoples will create. Although identifying poor health and associated risk factors is critical for formulating health-promoting interventions, the potential still exists that this approach can stigmatize Aboriginal peoples for the state of their health. It is therefore time to move beyond a biomedical model of individual risk factors to an approach that can take into account the characteristics of, and processes occurring at, the levels of the individual and the broader environment. This study is the first ever to take a multilevel approach to understanding the health of First Nations communities. Of particular interest is the way that the social, cultural, geographic, economic, health status, risk factor, and health service environment of First Nations communities independently influences health risk, health status, and preventative health practices. The primary database used in this study is the Manitoba First Nations Regional Longitudinal Health Survey (1997). First Nation community level characteristics were derived from this survey and a number of other data sources. The data was analyzed using multilevel logistic regression modeling techniques. A major finding of this study is that community level factors, independent of individual characteristics, explain higher rates of health risk factors, poorer health status, and preventative health practices. Another important finding is that different social environments and elements of these environments, along with different individual social characteristics, account for the variation in health risk factors, health status, and preventative health practices within and between Manitoba First Nations communities. In light of these findings, this study proposes a number of multilevel social determinant pathways that First Nations policy makers, health directors, health service providers, researchers, and program developers may consider when addressing the health of First Nations peoples. Else, 'Iwalani R. N. (2002) "Modeling psychopathology: The role of culture in native Hawai'iian adolescents." PH.D. Dissertation, University of Hawai'i'. 170 pp. This dissertation examines the unique history of native Hawai'ians and the literature on the sociology of mental health. It examines the role of Hawai'ian culture, along with other structural and explanatory variables, in understanding the internalizing symptoms of depression and anxiety in a sample of native Hawai'ian adolescents. This study reviews theories regarding rapid social change, and models that aid our understanding of cultural loss and presents a theoretical model of how Hawai'ian culture is affected by structural variables and where culture was learned and how culture, in turn, affects major life events and support, and how these variables are linked to internalizing symptoms. Existing data from the Native Hawai'ian Mental Health Research Development Program (NHMHRDP) was used. These data included information from five high schools on three islands from the state of Hawai'i. Only Native Hawai'ian students with complete information on the study's variables were included in the analyses (n = 2,142). Group comparisons and structural equation models were used to examine the role of Hawai'ian culture in internalizing symptoms. There were significant differences found in categories of gender, socioeconomic status, and in the combination of the two. Univariate and multiple regression models indicated that major life events and family support accounted for the most variation in depression and anxiety. Hawai'ian culture was significantly related, both directly and indirectly, to depression and anxiety, although it explained a small amount of variation on both outcomes. When the relationship between the variables was examined with structural equation modeling, the model for native Hawai'ian females had the best overall fit for the data and the variables used. Despite this, only small amounts of variance were accounted for in depression (12%) and anxiety (6%). Exploring other sociological concepts of anomie, social integration, alienation, and the subtle effects of racism and discrimination could be fruitful areas of further research in how Hawai'ian culture affects not only psychopathology, but also overall health and wellness.

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Emberley, Julia V. (1990 ) "Thresholds of difference: Feminist theory, post-colonialism and native women's writing." Ph.D. Dissertation, York University. This thesis involves a critical examination of post-colonial theory, its relationship to current trends in feminist practice and its applicability to a selection of native women's writings in Canada. In the first part of the Introduction I discuss the recent move within feminist practice towards a materialist mode of analysis: a repositioning of the sociosymbolic relations between sexual difference, class, race and colonialism. The second part addresses post-colonial theory and its commitment to cultural intervention as a critical ground for examining the first worldist ideological centring of a 'Third World.' The articulation of a materialist feminist practice with post-colonial theory constitutes the theoretical basis of this thesis for the production of a feminism of decolonization. The first two chapters of this thesis examine post-colonial theorists Edward Said and Nawal el Saadawi in terms of the contradictions their work holds for a feminist practice applied to Native women's literature within Canada. In chapter three I examine native women's subjectivity as it is constituted by the Canadian state and interpreted by feminist analyses in the human sciences. Chapter four explores the possibility of an alternative method of interpreting native women's subjectivity in colonial archival history, making use of the New Historicist approach in the work of cultural critics Dominick LaCapra and Gayatri Spivak. Chapters five and six examine a select group of native women's writings in Canada which specifically address questions of political and literary representation. Chapter five provides a critical reading of Jeannette Armstrong's novel Slash, while chapter six includes Maria Campbell's Halfbreed and Beatrice Culleton's In search of April Raintree. In conclusion, this thesis returns to a set of theoretical problematics involving the textual violence of ideological containment, its productive and debilitating effects on native women's writings and the constitution and effacement of native women's subjectivity. The work of Gayatri Spivak and Teresa de Lauretis provide a point of departure for this discussion which involves a double movement of investigation into the 'decolonization' of feminism, a critique of its colonialist assumptions, and the feminism of decolonization at work in native women's writing. Ennis-McMillan, Michael C. (198) "Drinking water politics in rural Mexico: Negotiating power, justice, and social suffering." Ph.D. Dissertation, Michigan State University. 373 pp. This dissertation analyzes political aspects of managing a drinking water system in a rural mestizo community located in the Valley of Mexico. The study draws from political economy perspectives in medical anthropology to analyze how stratified social relations influence the suffering associated with inadequate drinking water supplies. Based on 21 months of fieldwork (1993-96), the analysis examines how differing groups compete for authority over managing scarce drinking water resources in a semiarid environment. The research methods included participant observation, archival analysis, and interviews with local authorities. Community residents with ties to agriculture (i.e., campesinos or peasants) draw on an extensive history of communal management of surface water for irrigation, and have applied similar practices for managing groundwater for household consumption. All households have rights to drinking water, provided members abide by customary monetary and nonmonetary obligations (e.g., civil and religious cargo service, festival sponsorship involving mayordomias, and obligatory corvee labour or faenas). Recent in-migration from urban areas and social stratification have challenged local efforts to provide a just distribution of drinking water. Local authorities deploy their organizational power and resist market-based water management practices that favour wealthier households. The study examines conflicts and negotiations among residents regarding: rights and duties associated with drinking water as a communal resource; centralization of water authority among residents with ties to agriculture (i.e., irrigation users and ejidatarios); women in cargo service; and withdrawing drinking water as a sanction to those who refuse to fulfil customary obligations. During water shortages, residents said they were 'suffering from water,' a local idiom that referred to bodily distress that did not correspond to biomedical categories of disease used by public health programs. The study analyzes this distress as a form of social suffering that reflected the inequalities people faced in a socially and ecologically marginal setting. The study examines how differing interests based on socioeconomic stratification, migration, and gender shaped local views of water-related suffering. The dissertation discusses implications of conceptualizes drinking water as a crucial but contested and unequally distributed resource for human health in a changing ecology. Erickson, Sandra L. (1999) "Probability profiling with urban American Indian youth: Determining priorities for suicide prevention." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Minnesota. 231 pp. Urban American Indian youth are among the highest risk for suicide in the US, with overall rates as high as 1 in 4 having attempted prior to age 18. It is the second leading cause of death for this population. The purpose of this analysis was to develop probability profiles of risk and protective factors associated with

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suicidal involvement in a population of early and middle adolescents to determine priorities for suicide prevention in clinical and programmatic settings. Between 1995 and 1998, 569 urban American Indian youths ages 9-15 were assessed using the Urban Indian Youth Health Survey, a confidential, self-report survey examining health-compromising behaviours, protective factors, social, contextual, and demographic information. Responses of youths reporting a past suicidal attempt were compared to those without a history. Probability profiles were created based on odds ratios derived from logistic regressions. These profiles predict the likelihood of a past suicide attempt given risk and protective factor combinations. In this urban sample, a history of attempting suicide was reported by 21.7% of females and 8.4% of males. Past suicide attempts were significantly associated with substance use and violence perpetration. Positive affect, family connections, and positive perceived self-image were protective against a past suicide attempt. Using logistic models, the probabilities of a history of a suicide attempt increased dramatically as exposure to risk factors increased, i.e., up to a six-fold increase with both risk factors present. More importantly, the risk factors were more than offset by the cumulative effect of protective factors. Given that the most accurate prediction of future suicide attempts is a past attempt, probability profiling dramatically improves the assessment of at-risk young people. Moreover, it identifies a set of risk and protective factors for suicidality in urban American Indian youth which are amenable to intervention at individual and population levels. Though it is yet to become the norm in clinical practice, this analysis highlights the merits of including protective factors in comprehensive assessments, particularly with highly vulnerable populations such as urban American Indian youth. From a programmatic perspective, probability profiling can provide a guide for prioritizing interventions most likely to succeed. Escárcega, Sylvia. (2003) "Internationalization of the politics of indigenousness: A case study of Mexican indigenous intellectuals and activists at the United Nations." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California, Davis. 359 pp. This dissertation documents the politics of indigenousness in the international struggle for human and indigenous rights. Two different processes are used as case studies in which to reflect about the construction of indigeneity, apart from the dynamics at the United Nations Working Group on Indigenous Populations. One is the internationalization of the indigenous movement from Mexico since 1997 and the other one, parallel to the first one, is the empowerment of indigenous women. Lobbying and organizing at the international arena promotes particular ways in which the meanings and attributes of indigeneity are negotiated. The discourses on indigeneity forged in international dynamics are important to understand because today many indigenous struggles for rights, even the most local ones, appeal to international legal instruments to exert pressure on governments and to validate claims for peoplehood. The premise in this dissertation is that indigenous intellectuals and activists can challenge and transform hegemonic practices and discourses, even international law, using their own perspectives. The definition of 'indigenous peoples' is a delicate issue because claims to peoplehood are dependent on it. Indigenous Peoples have argued for the right to self-identification and self-definition to define their own boundaries of 'indigeneity,' and, yet, there are certain cultural images mobilized around the international idea of indigeneity -- closeness to nature, historicity, collectivity, distinctiveness, self-determination, and so forth. Thus, 'authenticity,' 'legitimacy,' 'representativeness,' and 'rootedness' are factors that arise to determine who is indigenous (politics of containment). The apparently essentialized cultural images of indigeneity are measured against such factors, yet, in the process, they are also negotiated and changed (politics of flexibility). I argue that despite anthropological critiques of essentialism, the use of specific criteria for the identification of indigenous rights-bearers is crucial for all international actors. At the same time, flexibility to accept alternative ideas is another necessary strategy used in the international arena. In this context, self-defined cultural authenticity, legitimacy, representativity, and rootedness, more than being retrograde strategies for identifying rightsbearers, effectively localize and particularize human rights struggles in resistance to neo-liberal and assimilationist practices of states and other global agents, creating a moral and powerful arena for debate. Eshkakogan, Nicole A. (2004) "The double estrangement of aboriginal elders in Canada: The case of Sagamok Anishnawbek First Nation." M.A. Thesis, University of Alberta. 151 pp. This thesis presents the double estrangement of aboriginal elders in Sagamok Anishnawbek First Nation. It identifies how the estrangement of aboriginal elders from mainstream Canadian society and from their own community stems from an on-going program of enforced cultural colonization. This study has a twofold objective: (1) to present the extent of aboriginal elders estrangement from Canadian society and within their own communities; and, (2) to identify how aboriginal elders have become external and at a tangent within their own community. I present the issues of colonization and how it has caused the estrangement of elders,

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and has affected the development of intergenerational relationships. Based on the words of the Anishnawbek, I articulate and present: (1) the ways in which elders and their younger community members interact with one another; (2) the defined social, cultural and traditional roles (or lack there of) of elders in the community; and, (3) how formal education, tribal nepotism and the loss of language contribute to elder estrangement. Eudaily, Sean P. (2002) "The present politics of the past: Indigenous legal activism and resistance to (neo)liberal governmentality." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Maryland College Park. 290 pp. Indigenous political movements that challenge liberal governmentality (Foucault 1991) have developed in a number of (post)colonial settler states. These events run directly counter to social science predictions about the decreasing salience of ethnic identity and the lessening of ethnic conflict in such 'advanced' western states (Gurr 2000; Heisler 1990). What are the implications of this development for the theory and practice of multicultural democracy? This dissertation applies Jacques Derrida's framework of 'spectropolitics' (1993) to (post)coloniality in order to investigate the emergence of indigenous peoples' movements, advances a poststructural approach to the analysis of liberal politics based upon the historical sociology of Michel Foucault, and critically engages the literatures on ethnic politics, critical legal studies, and Multicultural democracy. In addition, two historical case dossiers (the Mabo v. Queensland decision and its aftermath in Australia; and the diverse legal strategies of First Nations activism in Canada following the Delgamuukw v. BC decision) focus on the 'strategic space' in which new indigenous political identities are produced and performed. Evans, Susan E. (2001) "Looking for spirits in all the right places: An examination of native and non-native substance abuse recovery strategies in British Columbia." M.A. Thesis, University of Victoria. 151 pp. Canadian native peoples are taking back control of community social and health programs through the Federal Health Transfer process. Questions of program efficacy need to be addressed to assist in the planning and implementation of effective alcohol and substance abuse recovery strategies. Culturallyrelevant treatment is recommended for native peoples to reclaim their cultural/spiritual identity and to heal from the spiritual bankruptcy of addiction. Using content analysis and qualitative evaluation of documentation and ethnographic interviews, this study examines the values embedded in the symbolic healing strategies of native and non-native outpatient and residential treatment centres across British Columbia. Considerable difference in the value placed on spirituality is found between native and non-native healing philosophies. Regionally distinct, syncretic healing models are utilized in Native urban and reserve programs which combine local traditions with practices adopted from Plains peoples. These syncretic models are creating controversy in coastal reserve communities. Evtushenko, Melanie. (2004) "Recognizing Aboriginal voice in federal government exhibitions: A case study of 'Transitions: Contemporary Canadian Indian and Inuit Art'." M.A. Thesis, Carleton University. 107 pp. 'Transitions: Contemporary Canadian Indian and Inuit Art' is a government-organized internationally touring exhibition, which explores new forms of aboriginal art. The innovative approaches of the curators, the artists and the subject matter of the artworks challenge past stereotypical images of aboriginal art. This thesis examines the increasing presence of aboriginal voice in the presentation and curatorship of government-organized exhibitions, not only as a tool for empowering aboriginal peoples, but also as a means of increasing cultural exchanges between different aboriginal groups. The exhibition's collaborative approach to curatorship is one of its distinguishing features, rendering 'Transitions' a valuable contribution to the discourse on the display and organization of aboriginal art. The study demonstrates the changing role of the Canadian Government in the presentation of aboriginal art, as well as the effect displaying contemporary works has on identity formation. Faiman-Silva, Sandra L. (1984) "Choctaw at the crossroads: Native Americans and the multinationals in the Oklahoma timber region." Ph.D. Dissertation, Boston University. 512 pp. This thesis uses anthropological and historical methods to examine the Oklahoma Choctaw politicaleconomy vis-à-vis Weyerhaeuser Corporation, a multinational wood products company. Choctaw history is documented beginning with tribal life in Mississippi, through forced removal to Indian Territory, and eventual tribal land allotment. Loss of land resources undermined the traditional Choctaw subsistence base, transforming the Choctaw into part-time wage labourers for the timber industry. The history of the entry of Weyerhaeuser and its predecessor, Dierks Forests, Inc., into the Oklahoma timber region is documented. Rural Choctaw of today are analyzed as a class of exploited labourers in a situation of satellite dependent

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development. Social and economic conditions of 50 rural timber region Choctaw households are summarized from detailed interview data. Household budgets, land holdings, non-wage subsistence activities, residence patterns, kinship networks, and religious and tribal affiliations are examined. The Choctaw subsistence strategy, combining part-time wage labour supplemented by domestic subsistence activities and public assistance, is shown to be a response to domination of the tribe's means of subsistence by whites, most recently the multinational corporation, Weyerhaeuser. Weyerhaeuser's production strategy, nationally and locally, is examined. Corporate practices, such as vertical and horizontal corporate integration, scientific tree cultivation, and the use of part-time non-unionized labourers, give Weyerhaeuser access to capital resources, land, cheap and abundant labour, and technological expertise. Welfare and taxation systems, and Choctaw domestic subsistence activities, contribute to making Weyerhaeuser a highly profitable timberextraction enterprise. Similarities with other Third World instances of satellite dependent development are noted. Proposals are offered for alternative tribal development strategies using small-scale, labour-intensive methods and existing tribal resources, including tribal land, labour, and community-based tribal institutions, mainly the Choctaw church communities. Fairweather, Joan G. (1994) "Is this apartheid? Aboriginal reserves and self-government in Canada, 1960-82." M.A. Thesis, University of Ottawa. 149 pp. South Africa's notorious apartheid policy has become an easily identifiable analogy for countries where indigenous populations have been dispossessed of their land and their traditional social structures destroyed. The question 'Is this apartheid?' challenges the historical validity of parallels drawn between Canada's native policies and apartheid. The 'civilising' missions of European intruders on the shores of what were to become Canada and South Africa followed distinctive paths in their relationship with indigenous populations. While slavery and wars of conquest paved the way for racial conflict in Southern Africa, mutual cooperation epitomized aboriginal relations in colonial Canada. While reserves in Canada were designed to prepare indigenous people for assimilation into the dominant society, South African reserves became reservoirs of cheap African labour under the National Party's apartheid government which came to power in 1948. The years 1960-82 marked a critical period in the history of both Canada and South Africa. First Nations communities renewed assertions of aboriginal land rights and self-government. Unlike native Canadians, who asserted their aboriginal and treaty rights within the democratic and constitutional structures of Canada, African resistance repudiated the legitimacy of the apartheid government and fought for the fundamental right of all South Africans to democracy and for an integrated, non-racial state. Three core characteristics of apartheid (the lack of labour rights, the lack of democratic rights and the lack of freedom of association) provide the criteria in addressing the question 'Is this apartheid?' The conclusions are clear: while Canada's First Nations have been seriously disadvantaged by paternalism, assimilationist policies and injustice, they have not experienced apartheid. Government policies and aboriginal problems are not addressed by equating Canada with apartheid South Africa. They are Canadian problems with Canadian solutions. Faux, Catharinah. (2001) "The 'noble savage' in western thought: Re-constituting colonial stereotypes in sentencing aboriginal sex offenders." M.A. Thesis, Carleton University. 84 pp. This thesis will reveal how juridical efforts to address the failure of 'conventional' sentencing dispositions to adequately deal with sexual violence in aboriginal communities can be informed by the colonial ideological trope of 'noble savagism.' Through an analysis of the development of the 'noble savage' stereotype and the ideological effects of this perspective on aboriginality, this thesis will reveal how judicial attitudes as expressed in sentencing aboriginal sex offenders show an ambivalence that can be linked to historical understandings of aboriginality. The presence of 'noble savagism' in these juridical discourses suggests a need for greater judicial attentiveness to the assumptions that are guiding the way they relate to the aboriginal peoples that appear before them. By examining how the ambivalence of 'noble savagism' can be reproduced in contemporary juridical discourses, this thesis will raise some important questions that suggest areas for future research, exploring some issues that arise in judicial attempts to take culture into account in the sentencing process. For while culture and the needs of aboriginal communities are being considered in sentencing dispositions, some judges seem to be unaware of the potential dangers in failing to exercise caution in interpreting the relevance of aboriginality to the sentencing process. Feit, Harvey A. (1978) "Waswanipi realities and adaptations: Resource management and cognitive structure." Ph.D. Dissertation, McGill University. 1,735 pp.

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Each of the two 'new' paradigms for ecological anthropology, ecosystems analysis and ethnoecology, explores only one pair of phenomena relevant to cultural ecology, environment and action, and environment and belief respectively. This study argues that ecological analysis is weakened by the exclusion of any one of those three orders of phenomena as objects of study. A detailed analysis of cognitive and behavioural data on the resource management of Waswanipi Cree hunters shows how religious beliefs incorporate both cultural logics and realistic models of environmental relationships; and, how action informed by those beliefs can effectively manage hunting, animal populations, human population distributions, and subsistence. Beliefs are formulated as recipes that apply to diverse situations so that actions informed by these are responsive to changing conditions. Decisions concerning alternative goals, situations and strategies are shown to be socially located with the men who are the 'owners' of hunting territories. Feldman, Alice E. (1998) "Othering knowledge and unknowing law: Colonialist legacies, indigenous pedagogies, and social transformation." Ph.D. Dissertation, Arizona State University. 265 pp. This study examined indigenous peoples' attempts to use law in a transformative fashion in three legal contexts: (1) litigation; (2) legislative hearings; and, (3) international human rights standard-setting. It followed the mobilization of the Apache Survival Coalition, a group of traditional San Carlos Apaches and their advocates, to protect a sacred religious site from desecration due to the development of an international observatory. It explored the Coalition's efforts, along with indigenous peoples across the country and around the world, to apply, change, and create new laws to protect their traditional cultures and ensure the survival of their peoples. Central to the Coalition's sociolegal strategies was the use of these contexts as opportunities to educate lawmakers and government representatives about their religious beliefs in order to gain access to the decisionmaking process and halt construction of the observatory. This constituted a formidable goal for indigenous peoples because the justifications for colonialism have historically relied upon their inferiorization and vilification to justify their conquest. The vast bodies of 'knowledge' and 'fact' produced by intellectual, administrative, and cultural institutions which support of this premise have ingrained this colonialist mythology within the social fabric and legal systems. In addition to distorting and narrowing legal principles to delegitimize indigenous peoples' claims, mainstream actors also demonstrated a profound unwillingness and, in many cases, inability to learn from native peoples on their own terms. These reactions attested to the need to police the boundaries of knowledge to maintain the logic and legitimacy of colonialist hegemony. Moreover, the anti-dialogic and adversarial structures of law prevented the transcendence of this resistance to encourage relationship-building and cooperative responses to common problems. It is argued that the incorporation of concepts of critical pedagogy within sociolegal scholarship and practice would engender crucial opportunities for the active engagement of the traditional beliefs and practices indigenous peoples are successfully mobilizing outside the contexts of formal, western law. Fenelon, James V. (1995) "Culturicide, resistance, survival: The cultural domination of Lakota Oyate." Ph.D. Dissertation, Northwestern University. 612 pp. The 'culturicide' thesis develops analytical frameworks for explaining cultural domination within the case study of 'Lakota Oyate' over a 200-year period. I argue that primary modes of domination by groups of people are through sublimation and elimination of societal integrity and cultural practices of the dominated group. Indigenous people experienced such domination by the United States during its conquest of the central plains Indians. I find the Culturicide process of selective extermination, inferiorization and coercive assimilation of the Lakota, identifies three broad phases: 'conquering' modes for socio-political domination, 'profiteering' modes for socioeconomic dominance, and 'culturicidal' modes for social systemic domination and maintenance of inequality. I review rationales for historical domination of indigenous nations in 'America', with ideological concepts of racial ethnicity as base justification for genocidal policies. Discussion of terminology and theoretical frames of cultural domination (Smelser, 1992), precedes specification of instruments for identifying Culturicide. Weber's (1956) domination through institutional legitimation develops Gramsci's (1929) hegemony, placed in Toynbee's (1953) historical analytical frames. Resistance is identified cross-culturally by Scott (1990) and Clifford (1988), politically by Deloria (1983) and Cornell (1988), with systemic analysis by Hall (1984) and Thornton (1987). Wolfs (1982) interdisciplinary perspectives confirm my observation of shifting dominance patterns over changing temporal and spatial conditions, with adapted resistance and limited cultural survival (Snipp, 1989). Seven case chapters use historical-comparative frames in four time periods: 'The Great Sioux Nation' (U.S. policy), 'The Lakota Ghost Dance' (1890 conflict), 'Dominating the Dakota' (20th century policy), 'Spirituality and Sovereignty'

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(1993); documenting cultural survival, Lakota resistance, and indigenous 'nations' struggles. Data sources employ historical texts, discussions, cultural representative interviews, existing archival records, oral tradition sources, participant observation, and Native scholar accounts. My conclusions review theoretical applications to Lakota Oyate case studies, elaborate on proven applications of Culturicide processes with analytical frames, extending discussion of cultural domination to contemporary struggles of indigenous 'nations' in maintaining cultural survival. I develop the Ethnic Conflict Frameworks for multi-modal analysis, finding further connections to pan-ethnicity domination over racial 'minorities' in the United States (Morris, 1992), the 'Americas' (Ortiz, 1984), and internationally. Fereira, Darlene A. (1990) "Need not greed: The Lubicon Lake Cree Band land claim in historical perspective." M.A. Thesis, University of Alberta. 195 pp. The Lubicon have become a household word in Canada, particularly in Alberta. Yet, after more than 50 years of negotiations with two levels of government, the band is still without a reserve and is facing a dire future. The historiography on land claims in Canada suggests that, with few exceptions, native peoples have not been treated fairly in dealings with government officials. This thesis looks at this historical trend and relates it to the Lubicon experience. It is argued that although the Lubicon have been active participants and skilful players in the on-going struggle, their story reveals a familiar pattern in the history of native-white relations, which can be characterized as an opposition of views and values, with those of the dominant society usually taking precedence. Ferguson, Lara G. (1997) "Deconstructing fetal alcohol syndrome: A critical inquiry into the discourse around alcohol, women, ethnicity, aboriginals and disease." M.A. Thesis, Carleton University. 254 pp. An inductive methodology, known as grounded theory, was utilized in an attempt to inform, and challenge current theory and practice governing contemporary prevention efforts specifically targeting pregnant native women. Various strands of the picture are filtered through a critical lens in an attempt to deconstruct the problematization of FAS within aboriginal communities. The three primary strands identified were the relationships of alcohol to women; alcohol to ethnicity; and alcohol to natives. The deconstruction of the problem of FAS yields implications on two levels: (1) epistemologically, the relationships between social control and language and discourse, and ideology, knowledge and power, are identified as being of concern, needing to be critically challenged and reconstructed; and, (2) on an applied level, it is argued that there is a need for a more comprehensive approach to prevention efforts, with clearly defined goals that are both culturally relevant and adopt a more holistic approach to prevention. Ferreira, Mariana K. L. (1996) "Sweet tears and bitter pills: The politics of health among the Yuroks of northern California." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California, Berkeley. 284 pp. 'Sweet tears and bitter pills' is a critical project on health and healing among the Yuroks of northern California. It considers the experiences of 16 Yurok families, traced back to the early 1800s, living in the midst of the fur trade, the gold rush, the American invasion, the relocation and termination periods. Oppressive life conditions have produced despair, substance abuse, delinquency and premature death. Yurok women point to incarceration on reservations and in boarding schools and mental homes, forced labour in fish canneries and logging camps, and to the introduction of alcohol, drugs and casinos, as spaces of the origin and distribution of illness. This dissertation indicates the ways in which specific health effects relate to macro-level politics and economics. It situates 'diabetes' within a broader debate that encompasses power relations in the delivery of health services. I argue that diabetes is a physiological response to adverse life experiences, rather than a disease in itself. It is now recognized that diabetes mellitus type II is prevalent in traumatized, migrating, modernizing and socioeconomically disadvantaged populations. The latest studies inform us that Native Americans are increasingly at risk. While current research focuses on obesity, nutrition, individual health behaviours and genetics, social issues are confined inside a medical world of individualized treatment and community distress is separated from the potentially disruptive political arena. Alternatively, the operation of United Indian Health Services (UIHS) by Yuroks and other northern California populations is a current attempt to exercise tribal sovereignty. The creation of UIHS is an instance where solidarity among different medical systems informs a comprehensive interpretation of social wellbeing. Fisher, Andrew H. (2003) "People of the river: A history of the Columbia River Indians, 1855-1945." Ph.D.

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Dissertation, Arizona State University. 307 pp. Due to state weakness and native determination, many American Indians along the Middle Columbia River never moved to reservations or remained there only temporarily. This dissertation uses archival and ethnographic evidence to explore the history of off-reservation communities in the region and describe how their experiences shaped a distinct ethnic consciousness among so-called Columbia River Indians. Generally defined in opposition to recognized tribal categories, this identity gradually coalesced around a shared heritage of aboriginal connection to the river, resistance to the reservation system, adherence to cultural traditions, and relative detachment from the institutions of federal control and tribal governance. Although most 'River People' eventually enrolled in recognized tribes and moved to reservations, their largely untold story highlights the persistence of native people in off-reservation settings and challenges ahistorical concepts of tribal identity. Moreover, by focusing on interactions within and between Indian communities, this study transcends the usual emphasis on Indian-white relations and underscores the importance of native social networks to the construction of new ethnic categories. Fiske, Jo-Anne. (1981) "And then we prayed again: Carrier women, colonialism and mission schools." M.A. Thesis, University of British Columbia (The). ———. (1989) "Gender and politics in a Carrier Indian community." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of British Columbia (The). This thesis presents an analysis of the political processes of a Carrier Indian community in British Columbia. Its primary goal is to account for women's central role in public decision making. It argues that women's public presence results from three tightly interwomen factors: women's economic autonomy, the prevailing ideology of respect for older women's knowledge and wisdom, and the socioeconomic structure, in which public and private are essentially undifferentiated. These factors coalesce to provide economic and cultural foundations for women's unique political strategy: the formation of voluntary associations that interact successfully with the formal political structure to influence public decisions and to advance family and community interests. Women's voluntary associations compete successfully with the elected council in obtaining limited economic and political resources and provide a special forum in which women retain and advance family honour and political fortunes. The findings support the view that in conditions of politicaleconomic marginality a domestic sector of production exists along side capitalist production. The domestic sector protects and even enhances, women's personal autonomy and social influence. Fitch, Diane C. (2002) "Analysis of common risk factors for violent behaviour in Native American adolescents referred for residential treatment." Ed.D. Dissertation, Texas Southern University. 107 pp. The literature does not adequately address issues of aggression and violence in Native American adolescents, and there are no known studies of relationships of specific risk factors for violent behaviour in Native American youth. The purpose of this study was to measure the absence or presence of three specific groups of identified risk factors for violent adolescent behaviour (Historical, Social/Contextual, and Individual/Clinical), derived from the existing literature, and set forth in the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY) (Bartel, Borum and Forth, 1999), in a group of 82 Native American adolescents, ages 12-17, already identified with behavioural problems and referred for residential treatment, and to analyze the relationships of these groups of risk factors to violence already committed by these youth. Bivariate and multiple linear regression were used to analyze the relationship(s) of each of the referenced groups of risk factors and six 'protective factors' to violence already committed by members of this group of Native American adolescents. A significant positive linear relationship was found between total SAVRY scores, and each of the three groups of identified risk factors for violent adolescent behaviour as set forth in the SAVRY, and violence already committed by members of this group of Native American youth. Ancillary findings demonstrated that the inverse relationship of protective factors to violence committed by this group of Native American youth was stronger than any of the positive relationships of SAVRY risk factor groups (or combinations of risk factor groups) to violence committed by members of this group of adolescents. Female participants scored higher than their male counterparts in all of the SAVRY risk factor groups, and on total SAVRY scores. Consequently, female SAVRY scores on the referenced risk factor groups were more highly correlated with violence committed than were the male SAVRY scores in this sample of Native American youth. Female participants also scored 62.5% higher in protective factors than the males, but lower in Violence Committed. For both male and female participants, higher scores on protective factors correlated with lower scores on Violence Committed. Recommendations for further study and implications for Native American communities, counsellors, and agencies were discussed.

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Fitton, Lori J. (1999) "Is acculturation healthy? Biological, cultural, and environmental change among the Cofán of Ecuador." Ph.D. Dissertation, Ohio State University (The). 223 pp. Economic development of tropical rainforests affects the health of indigenous populations. Environmental and cultural change can deplete natural resources, undermine traditional subsistence, increase population densities, and disrupt social systems, thereby modifying health and disease patterns of native populations. Although acculturation can bring increased opportunities for health education and access to western medicines, it can cause the estrangement of indigenous groups, resulting in lifestyle deterioration and an overall reduction in health. This research examines cultural and biological variation among the Cofán, an indigenous Amazonian group of northeastern Ecuador. Two closely related Cofán villages, Dureno and Zabalo, undergoing varying rates of acculturation and environmental pressures were chosen. As a transitional population, the Cofán present an opportunity to examine intrinsic and extrinsic factors related to acculturation. This study combines cultural and biomedical data to examine how these domains interact and change in response to acculturation and environmental degradation. Anthropometric measures, blood pressure, fecal samples, dental exams and blood samples determined physiological variability. Social assessments included lifestyle, health, and nutrition questionnaires designed to determine participation in non-Cofán lifeways, general health knowledge and lifestyle stress, unusual health conditions, and dietary diversity. Results show that environmental degradation and culture change in and around the village of Dureno are contributing to a decline in health, as seen with higher parasite loads and blood pressure. Residents of Zabalo escaped environmental degradation by moving further into the rainforest however, they too are affected by culture change. Zabalo residents selectively incorporate elements of the dominant society into their lifeways and supplement their indigenous lifestyle with an ecotourism business. Although not as environmentally destructive, ecotourism may have sociocultural and health costs for this population, such as higher levels of lifestyle stress. These results demonstrate the complex interplay between environment, culture, and health. The extent to which progressive acculturation will alter the health and disease status of this population, and specific causative elements, are conjectural at this time. However, by reaffirming their cultural identity and regaining control over their lives, the Zabalo Cofán may be reducing the psychological stress of change, thus reducing their risks of developing chronic conditions such as hypertension. Fitzpatrick, Darleen A. (1986) "We are Cowlitz: Traditional and emergent ethnicity." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Washington. 417 pp. Cowlitz are a Coast Salish group of southwestern Washington who are defined by where they are from, their line of descent and, at one time, their level of prestige vis-à-vis other groups along the Coast and in the Interior. The general problem for this dissertation is to probe the interconnection between the culture of an ethnic group and the boundaries which surround it. In other words, culture is a problematic feature of ethnicity. I suggested Coast Salish ideology, which centres upon a class/prestige system and a code of ethics links social structure with culture. These features initiate Cowlitz ethnic boundaries and the development of related cultural signs which both transmit and communicate Cowlitz collective ethnic identity as well as salience of ethnicity. Secondly, a modest semiotic analysis of culture distinguishes the cultural signs Cowlitz express, some of which are not attached to the ideology, and help us to understand their meaning: culture is not solely a matter of symbolic content, it isn't always systematic but it is meaningful and experiential. Cowlitz institutionalized a gathering, the Meeting, in 1915 which occurs today on a biannual basis. At the Meeting, held in the aboriginal area, Cowlitz principally discuss the land rights suit and distribution of the Indian Claims Commission award, related issues, and federal acknowledgement as an American Indian tribe. The Meeting proper is an event involving social structural and cultural content alluded to above. The class system is operative. And, the Meeting has generated emergent Cowlitz ethnicity. However, Cowlitz ethnic identity is forged on an anvil of their own creation with one another as against tradition. Fixico, Donald L. (1980) "Termination and relocation: Federal Indian policy in the 1950s." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Oklahoma (The). 328 pp. This study of federal Indian policy from World War II through the John F. Kennedy administration is concerned with the serious repercussions of this critical period of federal-Indian relations. During 1945-63, the United States Congress initiated legislative action abrogating federal recognition of Indian groups and responsibilities to Native Americans. Concurrently Congress funded the Bureau of Indian Affairs to establish the Relocation Program, which assisted and supervised those Indians willing to remove from rural communities and reservations to metropolitan areas for economic development.

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The zenith of termination and relocation in federal-Indian relations occurred during the 1950s. More specifically, between 1954 and 1960, over 61 tribes, groups, communities, rancherias and allotments were terminated, and relocation effected one-half of the current total Indian population living in urban areas. Certainly termination and relocation were not new concepts in federal-Indian relations, but they were interpreted ambiguously; having positive and negative effects. Termination was emphasized more in this study because of its greater degree of complexity and controversy. Termination has been interpreted as being good and bad for Native Americans, but in retrospect the latter has been identified more. This policy represented liquidation of reservations and dissolution of treaties. Negation of Indian rights, withdrawal of federal responsibilities to the native population and reduction of the Bureau of Indian Affairs have also been depicted as forms of termination for the purposes of mainstreaming Indians. Finally, termination has been defined as extinction of Native American cultures as the ultimate move towards transforming the Red Man into a white American. Critics argued that termination was Indian genocide. In contrast to the negative views of termination, the federal government and Anglo-American viewpoints have suggested that the Indian way of life was no longer viable -- especially in the 20th century. Essentially termination would liberate Native Americans from their trust status as 'second class' citizens to enjoy equal opportunities and privileges that other Americans were guaranteed by the Constitution. In order for Amerindians to survive in a modernized society after World War II, Indian cultural methods of livelihood had to be altered. Emphasis on education, acculturating materialistic items of white American culture, and competing with other Americans for jobs and positions in society were viewed as Americanization of Indians. Unfortunately, too often literature about American Indians has been written from the non-Indian viewpoint with disregard for the viewpoint of the people who are the subject. In studies of federal-Indian relations, the perspective of the federal government has tended to neglect the responses and views of Native Americans. To provide the best comprehensive study of federal-Indian relations during this critical period, the viewpoints of the federal government, public opinion of non-Indians, and the Indian point of view were provided to yield an overall balanced perspective. This was essential for understanding the problems of American Indians in this recent past as they prepare for the future. Flanagan, Tara D. (2002) "Pathways to resilience in First Nations youth from a remote community: A case for the ameliorative effects of intelligence and social perspective coordination." M.A. Thesis, McGill University. 57 pp. Variables that promote resilience, adaptive functioning despite adversity, were examined in 37 First Nations adolescents from a remote region in Northern-Québec. Intelligence, and social perspective coordination, the ability to negotiate the self's and other's points of view in social situations, were offered as moderators of the effect of stress on competence. Competence was defined as developmentally-appropriate functioning in academic, behavioural, and social domains, and stress was operationalized as a combination of negative life events and demographic stressors. Better intellectual functioning and perspective coordination abilities were commensurate with elevated levels of academic performance and positive classroom behaviours. Additionally, intelligence served a protective function in the relationship between stress and fighting behaviour. In the context of high stress, students with high levels of intelligence were involved in significantly fewer physical fights than their less intelligent peers. These results highlight the potential for adaptation in First Nations youths, and suggest a direction for future research that accentuates adaptation instead of pathology. Fleury, Anthony G. (1998 ) "Violence and public as antitheses: The rhetorical structure of Once were warriors." Ph.D. Dissertation, Pennsylvania State University (The). 204 pp. Once were warriors is a Communicado film, released in New Zealand in 1994 and internationally in 1995. Lee Tamahori directed, and Robin Scholes produced, Riwia Brown's adaptation of Alan Duff's 1990 novel of the same title. The rhetorical criticism of the film presented in this thesis is a close reading of the form of the film. The meaning of the film is found in the viewer's experience of the form of the text as a whole, in the process of apprehension of the unfolding narrative. Viewer experience of Once were warriors is an enactment of a public sensibility -- in the course of the film the audience comes to feel conditions of publicness. The enactment of public sensibility is evoked in a rhetoric of narration that implicates viewers in the main character's commitments. As viewers, we feel Beth Heke's investment in a community in her re-emergence into a traditional Mäori culture. The significance of her commitment to that community is demonstrated in the connection of her personal past to the past of the community, and in the contextualizing of her hopes for her family into the future of that community. The

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rhetoric of narration of Once were warriors develops audience experience of this Mäori culture as dynamic and processual, folding past and future into the present. We feel Beth's investment in that rhetoric of dynamism. We also experience her investment in the way Mäori culture is contrasted with the culture of violence in which she had been living. Viewers of Once were warriors are invited to participate in Beth's (1) emotional investments in her family; (2) recognition of her situation of domestic violence as a social experience; and, (3) emergence from that situation through public articulation and reinvestment in a dynamic cultural tradition. The film implicates us in the commitments of time, voice, and relationship that are constituents of a public sensibility; as it positions us to doubt the antithetical commitments that are central to violence. The film refashions a conventional understanding of public and private as opposites, to develop public and violence as opposites. Fogarty, Jane C. (1998) "Towards an Australian republic: Constitutionalising indigenous land rights." LL.M. Thesis, University of Toronto. 156 pp. Australia's Indigenous people have been dispossessed of their ancestral lands since colonization began in 1788. Most Australians were unprepared for the High Court's decision in the 1992 Mabo case that established native title in Australia, despite the fact that such title had been recognized much earlier in other common law jurisdictions. However, the more that spiritual connection to the land is asserted by Aboriginal claimants, and requirements for the land's protection and ownership, the less the legal system will acknowledge it, as illustrated in the ridiculing of 'secret women's business' in the Hindmarsh (Kumarangk) Island matter. As Australia is contemplating becoming a republic, it is timely to consider whether a new constitution would better protect Indigenous land rights. If we consider Aboriginal rights in Canada's constitution, the protection of individual rights in the United States constitution and developments of Indigenous peoples' rights at the international level we may understand more clearly whether constitutional entrenchment would be a suitable solution for Australia. Forand, Nancy A. (2001) "Mayas in the age of apocalypse: Folk evangelicals and Catholics in Quintana Roo." Ph.D. Dissertation, State University of New York at Albany. 459 pp. Since the introduction of Christianity in the 16th century, rural communities in Mexico have practiced distinctive forms of religion that have grown out of the interaction between European and indigenous belief systems. This work is the outgrowth of a two-year comparative study of folk religions among the Yucatec Maya of Quintana Roo, including new forms that have emerged in the wake of 20th century Protestant evangelization. Poor farmers in the villages of Saban and Huaymax experience modernization in terms of a degrading ecology, land shortages, and poverty. The farm community is economically dependent on the tourist industry in Cancun, where farmers work seasonal wage-labour jobs in the construction industry. In a general state of economic crisis, Saban and Huaymax are also locked in a bitter struggle over political autonomy and the control of land. Conversion to Presbyterianism and Pentecostalism has introduced additional layers of social complexity and conflict. This study uses a community of practice approach to explore new identities, practices, and ways of speaking. It investigates the uneasy relations among the religious groups in terms of complex interactions between competing ideologies that contribute to an apocalyptic worldview. Pivoting around a corpus of polyvocalic discourses in the Yucatec Maya language (which includes prayer, testimony, song, gossip, life history, and social commentary), the analysis pinpoints the kinds of stresses and strains that religious pluralism has introduced. The research reveals that two factions of Catholicism (traditionalism and the Legion of Mary) are becoming increasingly polarized, while Presbyterianism and Pentecostalism have developed a symbiotic relationship. On the whole, relations between Evangelicals and Catholics are tense, in part because ancestral authority has been directly challenged by belief in the literal truth of the Bible. Evangelicals charge that traditional practice is “idolatrous,” while traditionalists worry about breaching the divine contract of their ancestors. Generally heightened tensions within the community, in turn, are believed to herald the prophesied global destruction. A battleground of ideological and moral combat, the community emerges as a microcosm of a world plagued by conflict. Forbes-Boyte, Kari L. (1997) "Indigenous people, land and space: The effects of law on sacred places, the Bear Butte example." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Nebraska -- Lincoln (The). 248 pp. Conflicts over access to and utilization of Native American sacred sites is an ongoing dilemma. Although the

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American Indian Religious Freedom Act (AIRFA) was passed by the United States Congress in 1978 in recognition of Indian rights to religious freedom, this Act has done little to actually protect sacred sites. AIRFA can be described as a cooptation technique. Cooptation occurs in a power system when the power holder intentionally extends some form of political participation to those considered a threat to the existing state. But, this political participation never leads to the empowering of the people considered threatening. In fact, Indian oppression continues today through due process and federal and state statutes. This study addresses the 'politicized' nature of AIRFA. Bear Butte, a Lakota holy ground was chosen to illustrate AIRFA as a cooptation tool. Bear Butte is at the forefront of contested realities of space between the Lakota Sioux and South Dakota Game, Fish and Parks. The Lakota contend that they have legal sovereign rights to the Butte and feel that any activity, other than religious, desecrates the site. The battle over control of this sacred place has occurred at the judicial level, with the case Fools Crow vs. Gullett. It continues, after Lakota lost their case, at the administrative level, with the Lakota questioning multiple-use policies that equate tourism and the construction of a water pipeline with their religious freedom. Through a critique of litigation and mitigation strategies surrounding Bear Butte, this study demonstrates that society and society's laws are not consensual and justice is not always the end result. The study concludes that without adequate Congressional, judicial, and administrative protection, Indian people will continue to be victims of cultural genocide and remain a marginalized minority within the United States. Ford, David A. (1996) "Sustaining colonialism: Canadian print media and the representation of the Mohawk nation." M.A. Thesis, Carleton University. 144 pp. This thesis explores the role of print media in helping to sustain the inequalities in cultural, economic, and political power faced by indigenous Peoples in Canada. Using a discourse analysis, the thesis examines coverage in Le Devoir, The Globe and Mail, The Gazette, and La Presse of the 1994 tobacco tax rollback issue involving the Mohawk nation. The discourse analysis model facilitates a qualitative assessment of the tone and nature of the coverage, the juxtapositions of different themes and ideas, and the contextual embeddedness of news facts. The qualitative data suggests that all four newspapers actively participated in the production of hegemonic discourse which placed the majority of blame for the cigarette trade on Mohawk individuals, stigmatised the entire Mohawk Nation, and trivialised that nation's political position of sovereignty. The manner in which these mainstream newspapers represent the Mohawk nation suggests continued adherence to colonial ideas and assumptions about indigenous peoples. Fortier, Yvonne T. (1999 ) "Steps to community wellness: Creating a therapeutic environment for Native American children of alcoholics." M.A. Thesis, Prescott College. 50 pp. Native American children of alcoholics (NACOAs) experience a number of risk factors for healthy physical and psychological development. While Western approaches to treatment may be helpful to women and children living in a residential setting, the complexities of problems facing contemporary Native American cultures may benefit from the addition of traditional elements to effect a culturally relevant, therapeutic environment. Native American children can receive a comprehensive system of care within a facility focused on the primary treatment of the alcoholic mother. This research study emphasizes the problems and patterns of intergenerational substance abuse and the effects on infants and children. Realistic goals for a children's therapeutic program are drawn from needs that are identified within this population. Historical, cultural and theoretical implications of substance abuse in Native American communities are examined in relation to the effects on pregnant and parenting women. This study explores the adverse effects of alcoholism of a family member on a child, and proposes a program to implement culturally appropriate services for NACOAs in a residential treatment facility. Fouberg, Erin K. (1997) "Tribal territory and tribal sovereignty: A study of the Cheyenne River and Lake Traverse Indian reservations." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Nebraska -- Lincoln (The). 306 pp. Tribes in the United States no longer hold the distinction of being sovereign states in the world system of states. Instead, the federal government has deemed them 'domestic dependent' sovereigns. This study questions the meaning of 'domestic dependent' sovereignty. A new conceptualization of sovereignty is offered which helps explain the erosion of tribal sovereignty. Three types of sovereignty, territorial, membership, and issue are distinguished. Studies of the Cheyenne River and Sisseton-Wahpeton Sioux Tribes in South Dakota, are used to demonstrate how tribal sovereignty has eroded over time. This analysis is set in the context of world systems theory. The erosion of all three types of tribal sovereignty began with the erosion of tribal land bases. The establishment of reservations, the allotment of those reservations, the opening of those reservations, and for

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the Sisseton-Wahpeton Sioux Tribe, the diminishment of their reservation directly affected tribal territorial sovereignty. The United States Supreme Court has continually recognized tribal membership sovereignty; however, federal law has worked to erode tribal membership sovereignty slowly. As territorial and membership sovereignty have eroded, maintenance of tribal sovereignty over specific issues has become more important. Several recent decisions by the United States Supreme Court have set a precedent for the further erosion of tribal issue sovereignty. Despite the erosion of all three types of tribal sovereignty, tribes remain sovereign entities. Tribal governments have the authority to govern as they do because they are sovereign. Sovereignty is a legal status that sets tribes apart from other entities, and it needs to be recognized. The Cheyenne River and SissetonWahpeton Sioux Tribes demonstrate that the ability of a tribal government to govern is not dependent upon having complete sovereignty. Whether tribes can act upon their eroded sovereignty depends on their ability. Future challenges to tribal territorial, membership, and issue sovereignty will stem from continued demands on tribal lands and resources, as well as an increasing reluctance by non-Indians on reservations to live within the jurisdiction of tribal governments. In order for the tribes to meet these challenges, it is essential that they first regain lost tribal lands and then re-establish the Indian character of those lands to maintain and reclaim tribal territorial, membership, and issue sovereignty. Fox, Gretchen E. (2006) "Going back in the water: Renegotiating what it means to be a Mi'kmaq fisherman after the Marshall Decision." M.A. Thesis, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (The). 68 pp. After centuries of struggle with the Canadian state over access to natural resources, Mi'kmaq First Nations recently won a significant legal victory. In a 1999 ruling, the Supreme Court of Canada upheld 18th century treaties guaranteeing Mi'kmaq and their descendents the right to fish for profit in their traditional territories. This landmark ruling fundamentally reconfigured the landscapes where conflicts over Native rights and nature are waged. As a result, Mi'kmaq communities today are experiencing shifts in personal and collective constructions of meaning, practice and identity in the context of fisheries. Some community members advocate communally-based fisheries where profits are re-invested in the community, while others are approaching commercial fisheries in more individualistic ways. This paper explores the local and supralocal conditions under which Mi'kmaq people are relating to changes in the fisheries, drawing on social practice theory to consider how fishermen's identities are being reshaped through contentious practices and meaningmaking. Foxen, Patricia. (2002) "K'iche' Maya in a re-imagined world: Transnational perspectives on identity." Ph.D. Dissertation, McGill University. 400 pp. Over the past two decades, large-scale transnational migrations between Central America and the United States have had a significant impact upon both home and host societies. In Guatemala, cross-border movement was spawned by the brutal civil war that devastated many indigenous communities in the early 1980s. Over time, this flow resulted in the formation of complex transnational networks and identities that span home and host locations. This thesis examines the manners in which a community of K'iche' Indians straddled between the highlands of El Quiché, Guatemala and an industrial New England city have responded to the deterritorialization caused by the confluence of violence and displacement. It describes, on the one hand, the context of post-war reconstruction in El Quiché, which is shaped by a fragile institutional peace process and an emerging ethnopolitical movement that emphasizes a pan-Maya identity. On the other hand, it depicts an inner-city space in the US where K'iche' labour migrants lead hidden, marginal lives, seeking to obscure any overt form of collective organization or identity. By examining the flows of people, money, commodities and symbols between these contrasting environments, the thesis shows how K'iche's in both communities maintain concrete and imaginary connections with each other despite the many ruptures caused by violence and dislocation. The thesis also teases out the manners in which today's cross-border movements, which involve ever larger distances, absences, and cash inflows, are both inscribed in, and differ from, previous local strategies of, and discourses on, internal movement and migration within Guatemala, which have long formed part of K'iche' culture. Specifically, it shows how K'iche's draw on their 'mobile' past in order to maintain a sense of continuity in the present and elaborate viable identities and strategies for the future. Overall, the thesis argues that the multiplicity of strategies and discourses developed by K'iche's to cope with the uncertainty and liminality engendered by transnationalism is rooted in a longer history of hybridity that has enabled communities, families and individuals to anchor their identities at home, and yet move fluidly beyond the boundaries of community, thereby elaborating flexible identities that both incorporate and resist outside change.

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Francisconi, Michael J. (1995) "Economic trends and everyday life on the Navajo Nation, 1868 to 1995: The history of the informal economy of the Diné." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Oregon. 337 pp. Since 1868 three major revolutions have integrated the Diné into the world capitalist system. First, the establishment of military peace and the political control by the US Government allowed entry of mercantile capital through the establishment of trading posts. Second, the stock reduction of the 1930s, which destroyed herding as the economic foundation of Diné society, resulted in money from government assistance or wage labour becoming central to economic life, increasing Diné dependence on the outside economy, and, third, the importation of highly capital intensive extractive industries onto the Navajo Reservation after World War II. A qualitative methodological approach is used utilizing oral interviews with Diné subjects between the ages of 18 and 80 in the Tsaile-Wheatfields area of the Navajo Nation. A neo-Marxist theoretical approach is employed, beginning with a careful rereading of the classic works of Marx, Lenin, Luxemburg and Frank. The three revolutions have resulted in underdevelopment and high unemployment among the Diné. The Diné have developed a multi-strategy economy in order to survive. Both the formal economy and the informal are covered; the latter is of special importance and is a direct result of the interaction between the capitalist system and the everyday effects of underdevelopment. The results of this research indicate that the tension created is between the needs of the larger economy and the survival of a people whose society and culture is continually battered by international capitalism. The non-capitalist modes of production, i.e. kinship and informal production, are now recreated by the capitalist system itself. The informal modes of production both strengthen capitalist penetration and offer people a resistance to that penetration. The corresponding ideologies are both espoused by a Dine' elite who benefit from capitalism, and the poor Diné who are victimized by capitalism. Diné ideology is a complex contradiction, that can be and is used both for justifying the increasing capitalist penetration which benefits Diné economic and political elites as well as the unionized labour in the extractive industries, and as a tool of resistance for the majority of poor Diné including the petty traders. Franco, Jere. (1990) "Patriotism on trial: Native Americans in World War II." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Arizona (The). 258 pp. The Indian New Deal of the 1930s changed official policy from assimilationist attitudes to acculturation on the reservation and an emphasis on tribal culture. John Collier's program included self-determination in tribal matters and advancements in health, education, and the economy. Despite improvements in these areas, many critics charged that Collier's administration increased bureaucracy and hampered Indian attempts at decision making. The American Indian Federation, one of Collier's most relentless critics and a group with extreme right-wing, Fascist connections, succeeded in publicizing the Indian Bureau's deficiencies but failed to gain many followers among Indians. Native Americans appeared oblivious, puzzled, or overtly hostile to this group which undermined its own efforts with its blatant racism, anti-Semitism, and un-American attitudes which struck at the very heart of American Indian patriotism. This deep-seated patriotism, manifested in World War II by a n99% registration for the draft, accompanied a resurgence of tribal sovereignty as Indians demanded the right to refuse to enlist. Based on government violation of treaty rights, this refusal emerged as a philosophical argument, because Native Americans enlisted in numbers comparable to their white peers. Politicians critical of the Indian New Deal exploited the Indian war effort to push their own agenda of reversing the Indian Reorganization Act. The enormous wartime sacrifices and contributions offered by civilian Indians further convinced the public and politicians that Native Americans no longer needed supervision. In postwar America Indians who had willingly given labour, resources, and finances found that their role in America's war would be all too easily forgotten. The Indian veteran and his civilian counterparts soon realized that their fight for freedom did not end in Europe or in the Pacific. When they returned to their homes and encountered injustices which had always existed, Native Americans refused to passively accept these situations. In the 1940s American Indians asserted their rights and began the fight for equality which would continue for the next three decades. Fraser, Sarah J. (2002) "Negotiating for the future: Joint ventures and the economic participation of First Nations in Canada." M.D.E. Thesis, Dalhousie University. 55 pp. Like other Aboriginal communities in Canada, the Membertou First Nation in Nova Scotia has a history of dependence on federal transfers. To address various socio-economic ills, including very high unemployment and a $1.4 million debt the band had accrued by 1984, the band council has begun to improve its administration and has focused its development efforts. The Membertou Development Corporation, the business arm of the band, was created to orchestrate and publicize the changes in the business philosophy of the band and build relationships with private business interests. This strategy has led to recent agreements

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with Sodexho-Marriott, SNC-Lavalin, and Clearwater Fine Foods (Membertou, 2001). Membertou has chosen to include joint venture agreements in its economic development efforts. Joint ventures are promoted as a good way to bring First Nations into the wider economy and are used by many First Nations to foster economic growth and employment of people living on reserves. Although the metropolis/hinterland theory predicts that closer ties to the mainstream economy will further retard the development of a peripheral economy, under certain circumstances joint ventures may be an appropriate mechanism for the economic development of First Nation communities. This thesis examines the potential of joint venture agreements made by the Membertou First Nation as a development tool. Freed, Craig D. (1997) "Increasing local control of Canadian and American native education systems: Empowerment of an emerging generation?" Ph.D. Dissertation, Arizona State University. 178 pp. The purpose of this study was to determine if allowing more local educational control on Native reservations/reserves in the United States and Canada results in increasing empowerment for students. Using four elements of an educational program design, the basis of which is found in articles by Dr. James Cummins, the research attempted to determine their effect on academic achievement and the dropout rate. The research also attempted to determine if these elements of empowerment are actually being practiced in native controlled districts. These four elements are: (1) Cultural and language inclusion in the curriculum; (2) Parent and community participation in the schools is encouraged; (3) Look for ways to improve the school structure to be more responsive to student needs; and, (4) Teach the use of language to generate more knowledge by students. This research adjusted the last element to be an examination of analytical thinking skills, as they are taught or not taught, to native students. Besides Cummins' examination of these four elements' existence within the school organization, there was also an inquiry into dynamic societal power relationships and the affect the changing focal point of control on native education decision makers has on the empowerment of students. The research into these relationships was explored using multiple-case examination of school sites in Canada and the United States by a survey instrument and by a case study done in the southwest United States. These research methods were employed in the fall of 1996 and the spring of 1997. Findings of the research have given no indication of an existence of a relationship between increasing local autonomy in native schools and increased empowerment of students through the indicators of academic achievement and changes in the dropout rate. The case study indicated that there was no consensus in the community what the educational system needed to teach young people in the American Indian community. This lack of consensus may have had a direct relationship on the inability of the school system to impact student lives in a positive manner. Recommendations for improving the performance of working toward the goal of student empowerment include a recognition that peoples arising from a long history of subjugation are ill equipped to administer and develop entire school systems in a very short period of time. A consensus must be developed in the community to determine what it is that the educational system should be doing to educate young people. There is also a critical need to encourage more innovation in teaching strategies on reservations/reserves. Working with the community to empower young people, should be a high priority for school systems on reservations and reserves. Freed-Rowland, Gretchen W. M. (1993) "North American indigenous women of the First Nations: Our own voices, our own songs, our own landscapes." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Oregon. 315 pp. This document contains the oral narratives of six North American indigenous women who engaged in dialogue over the major questions and challenges they faced in their daily lives as university students, professional women, and as Native American Indian women having to transit the landscapes of two or more cultures simultaneously. Through the use of multiple, qualitative research methodologies data were gathered over a four-year period. Participant observation, interviews, field notes, and the collection of written artefacts were the techniques employed. Emerging from these narratives were 28 categories such as: personal stories, education, tribal identity, community, parenting, family, spiritual understanding and practice, issues of power, self esteem, gender, cross-cultural interactions, which were interpreted through the Relation Model for critical thinking. These categories were successfully collapsed under more global categories of culture: (a) identity and self; (b) family and extended family; (c) community/internal and external; and, (d) education/within and without. Emerging from these narratives are themes that have long held cultures, tribal groups and families together. Their voices speak to dynamic movement, interaction, and interdependence grounded in reciprocal relationship. Ultimately, responsibility to oneself, ones family and one's relatives and culture are intricate

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webs of reciprocity tying together all facets of one's life. Continuity of 'the people' becomes a theme these women self identify as of major importance. For these women curriculum and instruction, theory and praxis are not separate from their daily lives. Instead these are experienced as a web of meanings to be interpreted, negotiated and acted upon as a way of living. This collaborative effort presents a different model for applying ethnographic participatory research. It offers insights into the lives of contemporary 'urban' Native American Indian women through their eyes, their words, and their landscapes. Finally, it serves as a model for breaking down Eurocentric-male dominated process that fails to allow for the emergence of women's voices and women's ways of knowing and doing into the text and canon. Freeman, Melissa L. (2006) "Urban dreaming." M.Arch. Thesis, Dalhousie University. This thesis focuses on the architectural implications involved in blurring the boundaries which isolate centre and margin. Within the context of the city, the social segregation of Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians in Sydney is seen amplified at the scale of the suburb in Redfern. By studying the disparate existence of a residential block owned by the Aboriginal Housing Company (AHC) in relation to the gentrifying surrounding community, the continuing Aboriginal struggle for emancipation and cultural presence is made transparent. The area of study included in this thesis involves in-depth research into Indigenous Australian building traditions and a sensitivity to the Aboriginal belief in the Dreamtime. Recognising the greater dysfunction between the Block and the surrounding suburb, the research approaches community development from a perspective that celebrates a healthy Indigenous identity, and a sensitive transition between the physical boundaries which segregate two cultures. (Abstract shortened by UMI.) French, Jan H. (2003) "The rewards of resistance: Legalizing identity among descendants of indios and fugitive slaves in northeastern Brazil." Ph.D. Dissertation, Duke University. 459 pp. This dissertation explores how law can inspire ethnic and racial identity formation and how these transformations, in turn, can shape the meanings of the law itself. It examines the relationship between law and identity among mixed-race rural workers engaged in land struggles made possible by new legal provisions. The crux of these struggles has been the collaborative revision of racial and ethnic selfidentification by two neighbouring groups in the process of receiving government recognition -- one as an indigenous tribe and the other as a community of descendants of fugitive slaves. This dissertation addresses issues of law, racial and ethnic identity, and culture by considering the ways in which these two communities have positioned themselves in relation to one another and to new legal categories and processes of recognition. This dissertation uses the methodological tools of ethnographic, historical, and legal research to examine how laws are used by political movements to make cultural differences organizationally relevant in new ways. The juxtaposition in space and time of these two struggles in the Brazilian context, where racial and ethnic identity is often mutable even if sometimes expressed in essentialized terms, is ideal for thinking about how such developments operate on the ground and in the discursive and cultural practices of the people assuming these new identities. This dissertation argues that through the process of legalizing identity law operates as a powerful social force, not only by imposing categories and ordering social relations, but also through the provision of structures for self-identification and mobilization. By examining two local examples, as they are constituted through law, social movements, and anthropology, this dissertation assesses the fit between the values and interests of a political regime, as concretized in a constitution, administrative practices, and laws and policies that are enunciated through legislative enactment. As such, it contributes to the ongoing debate about how to conceptualize the meanings of 'rights,' 'difference,' and 'multiculturalism' in a democratizing polity, and shows that rights are not just what the law provides, but are created through the process of governmentality as well as in the process of their pursuit. Frias, Jose. (2001) "Understanding indigenous rights (the case of indigenous peoples in Venezuela)." LL.M. Thesis, McGill University. 106 pp. On December 15, 1999, the people of Venezuela approved a new Constitution, which is the first Venezuelan constitution to entrench the rights of indigenous peoples. The purpose of this thesis is to analyze the different theoretical issues raised by the problem of rights for indigenous peoples. It is argued that indigenous rights are collective rights based on the value of cultural membership. This implies both an investigation of the value of cultural membership and of the criticisms that the multicultural perspective has offered against that point of view.

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Indigenous peoples have the moral right to preserve their cultures and traditions. It is submitted that indigenous peoples have a double moral standing to claim differential treatment based on cultural membership, because they constitute cultural minorities and they were conquered and did not lend their free acceptance to the new regime imposed upon them. Therefore, they constitute a national minority, with moral standing to claim self-government and cultural rights. Fryberg, Stephanie A. (2003) "Really? You don't look like an American Indian: Social representations and social group identities." Ph.D. Dissertation, Stanford University. 90 pp. Social representations provide the images and the language for answering the questions, "Who am I," "Who are we," and "Who are they?" (Moscovici, 1988). Five studies examined the psychological costs and benefits of social representations on minority groups, in this case American Indians, when the widely shared representations are limited in scope. The following questions were addressed: (1) What are the currently prevalent social representations of American Indians? (2) What are the consequences of explicitly priming these social representations for American Indians' self-esteem, collective self-efficacy, and achievementrelated possible selves? (3) Does ethnic identification mediate this relationship? and (4) What are the consequences of explicitly priming prevalent representations of American Indians for European Americans' self-esteem? Study 1 content analyzed articles from major newspapers and Hollywood movies and revealed that almost all representations of American Indians could be categorized into one of three major categories: the romanticized Indian, the broken Indian, and the Progressive Indian. In Studies 2 and 3, American Indian high school students were primed with a prevalent social representation of their group (i.e., Pocahontas, Chief Wahoo, or Negative Stereotypes) and then completed state self-esteem or collective self-efficacy measures. In both studies, American Indian students primed with social representations showed depressed self-esteem and collective self-efficacy when compared to American Indian students in the control (no social representation) condition. In study 4, American Indians attending a predominantly American Indian university with an American Indian mascot were also shown a social representation of American Indians (either Chief Wahoo, Chief Illiniwek, the Haskell Indian, or an American Indian College Fund advertisement). Participants in the mascot conditions reported fewer achievement-related possible selves than did American Indians in no-prime control condition or the advertisement. Finally, in Study 5, European Americans were explicitly primed with social representations of American Indians (i.e., Pocahontas, Chief Wahoo, or Negative Stereotypes). They reported heightened self-esteem when compared to European Americans in the no-prime control condition. This boost in self-esteem for European Americans suggests that the dominant social representations of minority groups have significant implications for the psychological functioning of both minority and majority group members. Fuchs, Denise. (2000) "Native sons of Rupert's Land 1760 to the 1860s." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Manitoba (The). 257 pp. In the period from 1760 to the 1860s, native sons of the fur trade of Rupert's Land were distinctly shaped by the disparate traditions of both their European fathers and aboriginal mothers. The success of the fur trade depended on the economic interdependence and mutual cooperation of these two sets of strangers. Their progeny, like their fathers and mothers, aided the British-oriented companies in whose employ they served. The examination of the attitudes which informed the manner in which native sons were depicted in the records and their educational achievements and careers within the fur trade revealed that cultural and racial biases affected their lives, in both subtle and direct ways. These cultural and racial biases became more obvious from 1820 onward. Social, economic and political changes and the concomitant shifts in attitudes toward the native sons shed light on the particular circumstances which characterized their lives. From the 1790s onwards, native sons began to contribute their labour to the economy of the posts in significant ways. Fathers became more cognizant of the need to prepare their sons for larger roles in the fur trade and began acculturating them further to the European side of their heritage. A British-based education was sought for them. Towards the end of the 18th century and in the first two decades of the 19th century, some native sons could obtain clerkships and become managers of small posts. The attention to race and class, heightened by the arrival of white women in the 1820s, resulted in the imposition of social barriers dependent on rank and education that excluded some of the native sons and their aboriginal or mixed-descent relatives from circles that had formerly included them Additionally, the newly amalgamated company's adoption of a more rigid hierarchy and the increased emphasis on upward mobility posed difficulties and challenges for the native sons in the three decades following the 1821 merger of the Hudson's Bay Company and the North West Company, when limits were imposed on their movement within the company. In the 1850s and 60s a shift in attitude occurred and restrictions began to be eased

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allowing some native sons to advance in the company. Fujikane, Candace L. (1996) "Archipelagos of resistance: Narrating nation in Asian-American, Native Hawai'ian, and Hawai'i's local literatures." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California, Berkeley. 252 pp. This dissertation, 'Archipelagos of resistance: Narrating nation in Asian American, Native Hawai'ian, and Hawai'i's local literatures,' examines the narrative structure of nationalisms. Because nationalist movements often formulate their own 'official' narratives of national struggles along a linear, developmental emplotment of history, I use a model of archipelagic configurations of nations to resurrect counternarratives that articulate national struggles in different ways. I ground this theoretical model in the specificities of the crisis occurring in Hawai'i as competing nationalisms there erupt at the borders of what can be imagined as an 'Asian Pacific American' nation. While Asian Americans increasingly use the term 'Asian Pacific American' to broaden their bases of coalitions with peoples from the Pacific Basin, the term elides and even reinscribes the particular colonial histories of peoples in Hawai'i. Native Hawai'ian nationalists and Hawai'i's local cultural nationalists contest being easily named with continental American identities, even as they often find themselves in conflict over competing claims to Hawai'i as homeland. This peculiar crisis between the native and the local in Hawai'i affords us the opportunity to analyze the ways in which anticolonial nations negotiate their relations with each other, extending postcolonial theories that focus solely on a binary relationship between imperial nation and anticolonial nationalism. Since cultural nationalism and its claim to the 'realm' of the aesthetic are rendered by nationalists asymmetrical to nationalism and its reclaiming of an occupied homeland, Asian American and local cultural nationalists produce highly ambivalent narratives. The instability of nationalist narratives is crucial to political movements since it prevents the homogenizing of constituencies by mobilizing peoples around archipelagic formations of multiple loci of resistance from which Asian American, native Hawai'ian and local writers contest American imperialism. Analyzing the narratives of Asian American writers David Hsin-Fu Wand, Maxine Hong Kingston, Jessica Hagedorn, Hawai'i's local writers Darrell Lum, Eric Chock, Gary Pak and Lois-Ann Yamanaka, and native Hawai'ian writers Leialoha Apo Perkins, Haunani-Kay Trask, Mililani Trask and Charles Ka'ai'ai, the dissertation sketches out articulations of national identity that allow for more complex anticolonial alliances against imperial nations. Fuller-Tarbox, Elizabeth. (2001) "A new look at Louis Riel through his visionary experiences." M.A. Thesis, Carleton University. 110 pp. Louis Riel is an integral part of Canada's identity and its heritage. As the leader of the Metis people, he led two rebellions against the Canadian government over their language, religious, and land claims rights. Since his execution for treason in 1885, Louis Riel has been given various labels ranging from traitor and madman to a Father of Confederation and yet there is still much mystery and controversy surrounding this man. In December of 1875, Riel claimed to have begun experiencing a series of 'visionary experiences' that he believed were direct communications from his God. Shortly thereafter he declared himself a 'Prophet of the New World.' These experiences became the determining factor in this man's actions for the remainder of his life. What this thesis will explore is the possibility that components of these experiences clearly showed that Riel was engaged in prophetic behaviour. It will also seek evidence that the same visionary experiences might well have been park of a revitalization movement much in the same manner as Handsome Lake and the Iroquois. The purpose is to give further insight into Louis Riel and the events surrounding his life. Funk-Unrau, Cornelius. (2001) "If the Lubicon lose we all lose: A case study of interchurch advocacy and intervention in an aboriginal land rights conflict." Ph.D. Dissertation, Syracuse University. 231 pp. This dissertation is a qualitative study of an attempt to develop and maintain a particular type of aboriginal rights advocacy relationship, namely the effort of the a regional interchurch coalition, based in Edmonton Alberta, to develop a solidarity relationship with the Lubicon Cree of northern Alberta and to advocate for the resolution of the Lubicon land rights struggle. Ethnographic research methods included participantobservation of the Edmonton Interfaith Coalition on Aboriginal Rights (EICAR) from 1997 to 1999, analysis of media and interchurch documentation on the Lubicon struggle and semi-structured interviews with 31 interviewees. After a brief history of the Lubicon conflict, the study examines the convergence of several political discourses which provided the political space for the creation of a new advocacy network and a new type of relationship with specific aboriginal societies such as the Lubicon. This particular solidarity relationship conveyed a commitment to act on behalf of the Lubicon and the moral justification for doing so, but also confronted non-aboriginal supporters with the tensions between standing with Lubicon while simultaneously acknowledging the many factors that separated them from each other. The study analyzes two

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specific collective actions -- a blockade of Lubicon territory in 1988 and the establishment of a nongovernmental commission of inquiry in 1992 -- as attempts to enact this solidarity relationship. The blockade is a collective action which was developed and implemented by the Lubicon who then invited interchurch and other supporters to stand with them in solidarity. The commission exemplifies an attempt to set up an intermediary structure with overlapping advocacy and mediating roles. The study then examines the impact of both actions on the power and cultural differentials separating the Lubicon from their nonaboriginal supporters and concludes that the maintenance of a strong advocacy and solidarity relationship requires not only the willingness to empower the Lubicon in various collective actions but also a sensitivity to the cultural boundaries between the two parties and the willingness and opportunity to sustain ongoing supportive relationships across cultures. Furniss, Elizabeth M. (1997) "In the spirit of the pioneers: Historical consciousness, cultural colonialism and Indian/white relations in rural British Columbia." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of British Columbia (The). 337 pp. This dissertation is an ethnography of the cultural politics of Indian/white relations in a small, interior British Columbia resource city at the height of land claims conflict and tensions. Drawing on the theoretical approaches of Nicholas Thomas (1994) and Raymond Williams (1977, 1980), I show how the power that reinforces the subordination of aboriginal peoples in Canada is exercised by 'ordinary' rural EuroCanadians whose cultural attitudes and activities are forces in an ongoing, contemporary system of colonial domination. In approaching these issues through in-depth ethnographic research with both the native and Euro-Canadian populations and in exploring the dynamics of cultural domination and resistance at the level of a local, rural community, this dissertation stands as a unique contribution to the ethnographic study of colonialism and native/non-native relations in Canada. The dominant Euro-Canadian culture of the region is defined by a complex of understandings about history, society and identity that is thematically integrated through the idea of the frontier. At its heart, the frontier complex consists of an historical epistemology -- a Canadian version of the American frontier myth (Slotkin 1992) -- that celebrates the processes through which European explorers 'discovered' and 'conquered' North America and its aboriginal inhabitants. Central to this complex is the Indian/white dichotomy, a founding archetype in Euro-Canadians' symbolic ordering of regional social relations and in their private and public constructions of collective identity. Also central is the Euro-Canadians' self-image of benevolent paternalism, an identity that appears repeatedly in discourses of national history and native/non-native relations. Facets of the frontier complex are expressed in diverse settings: casual conversations among EuroCanadians, popular histories, museum displays, political discourse, public debates about aboriginal land claims, and the town's annual summer festival. In each setting, these practices contribute to the perpetuation of relations of inequality between Euro-Canadians and area Shuswap, Tsilhqot'in and Carrier peoples, and in each setting area natives are engaging in diverse forms of resistance. The plurality of these strategies of resistance, rooted in different cultural identities, biographical experiences and political philosophies, reflects the creativity in which new forms of resistance are forged and tested in public contexts of native/EuroCanadian interaction. Gagne, Natacha. (2004) "Mäori identities and visions: Politics of everyday life in Auckland, New Zealand." Ph.D. Dissertation, McGill University. 405 pp. Indigenous peoples around the world have been involved, especially since the 1970s, in nationalist or sovereigntist movements, as well as in struggles for decolonization, self-determination, and recognition of their rights. Mäori of Aotearoa/New Zealand are engaged in just such processes and, particularly since the 1960s and 1970s, as part of the Mäori "cultural renaissance". Since about 70% of Mäori live in urban areas, cities -- Auckland in particular -- have become important sites of affirmation and struggle. This study, which falls within the field of urban anthropology, is an investigation of what being Mäori today means and how it is experienced, in particular in the city. The sense of place of Mäori living in Auckland and the appropriation of space in the urban context are important dimensions of this study. It explores the complexity of Mäori relationships to the urban milieu, which is often perceived as an alien and colonized site; the ways they create places and spaces for themselves; and the ongoing struggles to (re)affirm Mäori identities and cultural aspects considered important elements of these identities. The focus of this research is on everyday life and "ordinary" Mäori (in contrast to elites). It reveals the significance and importance to Mäori affirmation and resistance of the extended family and certain types of "city houses" which are based on "traditional" marae (Mäori traditional meeting places) principles. In contrast to many studies that have stressed the assimilation pressures of the urban milieu and global forces on indigenous societies, this research underlines processes of

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(re)affirmation. It shows how indigenous visions, and ways of being are maintained and even strengthened through changes and openness to the larger society. Coming to understand these processes also led to the exploration of Mäori realms of interpretation or figured worlds, the heteroglossic and complex ways people engage in or relate to these figured worlds, and to figured worlds of the larger society. This study is, thus, at the very core of today's debates concerning decolonization, political autonomy for indigenous peoples, and the study of nationalist movements or movements for self-determination. Galindo, Marcus E. (2003 ) "The journey of education: Characteristics of Shoshone-Bannock High School and community members on the Fort Hall Indian Reservation." Ph.D. Dissertation, Utah State University. 137 pp. This dissertation examined personal, cultural, school, and family factors that contribute to the decision of Native American students to remain in school until graduation or to drop out. 181 participants who had either graduated or dropped out of school completed a 140-item questionnaire. Participants lived on the Shoshone-Bannock Indian Reservation located at Fort Hall, Idaho. Factors examined in the survey instrument included substance abuse by self or family members, peer pressure, trouble with the law, selfesteem, teen pregnancy, family structure, socioeconomic status, parents education, academic achievement, teacher attitudes and expectations, school attendance, tribal self-identity and pride, and bilingualism. This research was based on the assumption that issues and processes in Native American education must be addressed by Native people themselves in order for positive change to occur. In addition, the research looked for factors that seem to keep Native Americans in school. The analysis suggested that respondents who were at a higher risk of dropping out of school had a negative self-attitude, frequently skipped school, and had negative attitudes about their teachers' expectations. These results differed significantly from those of Native Americans who had positive self-attitudes, positive attitudes about their teachers' expectations, and positive family influences. Themes of poverty, self-esteem, and teacher attitudes repeatedly surfaced. Graduates frequently reported that positive family expectations (including teachers) kept them in school. This dissertation provides important information for those involved in Native American education. In addition, this dissertation brings together the views of the Native American, specifically the Shoshone-Bannock people, in the journey of education. Together, the review of literature and data collected on the Shoshone-Bannock Indian reservation provide a valuable resource for teachers, parents, and community members now involved, or soon to be involved, in Native American education. Garrity, John F. (1998) "The ethos of power: Navajo religious healing of alcohol and substance abuse." Ph.D. Dissertation, Case Western Reserve University. 255 pp. Three distinct religious healing traditions coexist within the contemporary Navajo health care system. This study investigates the differential therapeutic engagement of alcohol and substance abuse within the three religious healing traditions as to the kinds of power, social networks, and personal meaning they offer to Navajo people who suffer. Ethnographic research indicates that, among these three, Native American Church and Pentecostal Christian healing are more actively involved in the treatment of alcohol and substance abuse than is traditional Navajo healing. These two more recent healing traditions are explored as a religious response to the contemporary Navajo crisis of alcohol and substance abuse. Analysis situates them in the context of the vast socioeconomic changes taking place in Navajo society today as it continues its transition from pastoralism towards wage labour subsistence. These changes, together with the prevalence of alcohol abuse itself, profoundly disrupt traditional kinship networks and diminish the opportunity for many Navajos to participate in traditional religious life. Part of the therapeutic efficacy of Native American Church and Christian healing lies in their synthesizing elements of traditional meaning with those of the contemporary Navajo sociocultural milieu. The new kinds of power, social networks, and personal meaning proffered by these traditions facilitates an ethnopsychological transformation of self, a revitalized sense of community, and a new vision of the possibilities of the future for Navajo people who suffer. It is further demonstrated that the dominant theoretical emphasis on harmony and beauty in anthropological research is inadequate for understanding contemporary Navajo culture and religion. Instead, the essence of Navajo culture and healing can be more accurately comprehended in terms of the ethos of power. This power is conceptualized and experienced as a power of the sacred. This power is not inherently good or evil, rather, power becomes dangerous only if it is uncontrolled. Navajo patients frequently experience distress in terms of feeling out of control, or controlled by something, such as a spirit or alcohol. Conversely, the therapeutic efficacy of all three religious healing traditions lies within restoring the proper control of sacred power. In this sense, it is the ethos of power which sustains and unifies Navajo culture. Garwood, Nicki. (1995) ""Why do you want to help me? I've never even been to your home...": A journey in cross-

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cultural social work with aboriginal people." M.S.W. Thesis, McGill University. 191 pp. The following thesis describes the experiences of a non-native, female, social worker as a participantobserver among First Nations people. The setting was that of an Intensive Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention Program for male aboriginal ex-offenders, held over a period of four months in 1993. The environment was a secluded camp site, situated to the northeast of Montréal. The material describes, in narrative form, the interactions between non-native and Mohawk workers, and between non-native worker and native clients of various cultural backgrounds. Also considered are general issues which affect First Nations peoples, such as alcohol and drug abuse, grief and loss, sexual abuse and the resurgence of traditional native spiritual practices. Implications of the work reflect on effective cross-cultural communication, and the importance of facilitating appropriate healing processes for First Nations peoples. Geddes, Russell D. (1984 ) "The pursuit of aboriginal rights: The negotiation of comprehensive claims in Canada." M.A. Thesis, Carleton University. 149 pp. In the past 15 years, comprehensive claims have become a highly politicized issue in the Canadian north. This thesis examines the legal basis of comprehensive claims and the dual objectives of preservation and integration sought by native groups through settlements of these claims. It also outlines the evolution of the federal claims policy, beginning with a treaty-making process and culminating in a negotiation process to resolve comprehensive claims. While Ottawa has adhered to the negotiation process, the government has been inconsistent in settling these native claims. However, it has not been a lack of government willingness to respond to comprehensive claims, but rather the negotiations have been tempered by the particular political and economic climates in which each claim arises. The claims negotiation process of James Bay, the Mackenzie Valley and the Yukon were chosen to test this hypothesis. The paper outlines the development of each of these claims and identifies the determining factors involved in each negotiation process. In concluding, the timing of the claims, the problem of overlapping boundaries, and the interface of territorial claims with political development have been particularly influential in explaining the divergences in the negotiation of comprehensive claims. Geier, James A. (1986) "The legacy of colonialism: A comparative historical analysis of internal colonialism in the United States and South Africa." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California, Riverside. 220 pp. This dissertation examines the applicability of the internal colonial model, as developed by Robert Blauner and others, to the societies of the United States and the Republic of South Africa. It utilizes an historical comparative mode of analysis to examine the mechanisms of subordination of racial and ethnic minorities on behalf of dominant group interests from the 17th through the 20th century. The major focus is on the racial and class interests of dominant group members relative to land and labour issues. Formal legislation is used as an indicator of these interests and its impact on minority group statuses and structural locations is assessed. Land and labour are discussed in terms of their contribution to the growth of capitalism and their use as mechanisms of social control in the two countries. The major conclusion reached is that a combination of internal colonial and class analyses offers the most powerful explanation for the persistence of racial and ethnic inequality in modern industrial societies. This method of assessing the independent and interactive effects of race and class offers a severe challenge to traditional assimilationist explanations. Genka, Yoko. (2004) "Imag(in)ing Okinawa: Representations from within and without." Ph.D. Dissertation, George Mason University. 215 pp. This dissertation delineates the problem of representation of an Asian island group, caught between conceptions and preconceptions imposed from without on the one hand, and a dialectics of identity politics from within on the other hand. Special emphasis is placed on the distortion in the representation of the Others that results from the already established framework of representation and from the prevailing discourse that legitimizes the framework itself. Such distortion seems to be a problem of identity for those who are forced to play the role of Others to a Western Self, and who thus feel forced to correct such distorted images within the prevailing discourse. Through her own theoretical interest in representation, the author came to think of her birthplace, Okinawa, today a Japanese prefecture in the Ryukyu archipelago, as an excellent locale for analysis. 20th century Okinawa offered the perfect setting for examining the interplay and dynamics of representation, since both Japan and the United States have repeatedly and insistently intervened in the representation of Okinawan culture so as to legitimize their respective claims on the island chain. The analysis of cultural images and representations there reveals what kinds of framework are selected for a particular discourse to prevail. Presumably, such an analysis made by an Okinawan who also studied within the framework of a Western

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discipline might somehow shed light upon current and disturbing issues of representation, and particularly upon the process though which the Others are necessarily caught within a specific discourse of representation. Ghere, David L. (1988) "Abenaki factionalism, emigration and social continuity: Indian society in northern New England, 1725 to 1765." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Maine. 332 pp. The Abenaki tribes experienced an important political transition during the period from 1725 to 1765. Tribal structures, already disrupted by epidemic diseases and trade dependence, experienced escalating AngloFrench diplomatic pressure and English settlement expansion at a time of Abenaki military weakness. While Euroamerican actions and policies certainly shaped the Indians' diplomatic situation and influenced their internal tribal politics, tribal leaders responded with both independence and ingenuity to control events in a manner that they perceived to be in the best interests of their respective tribes. The relative consistency of Abenaki spokesmen at conferences fostered the perception of the tribes as structured political units and obscured the tremendous dissension and factionalism within each tribe. The nature of consensus politics and the fluidity of Abenaki band membership controlled the divisive forces for a time, but eventually all of the tribes splintered into separate political entities or gradually disintegrated into family bands, some of which merged into other tribes. The Penobscot tribe reunited after the French and Indian War and, ultimately, absorbed many of the remnants of the other tribes. Other Abenaki family bands and lineages continued their separate residence in northern New England for many decades. Abenaki factionalism resulted primarily from the internal political disputes over the most effective policy for diplomatic relations with the English. Some Abenakis believed peaceful co-existence and increased economic interaction were the best means of maintaining their land and lifestyle. They pursued their goal with a variety of diplomatic tactics and adaptive strategies, always seeking neutrality during Anglo-French disputes. Other Abenakis believed that only constant resistance to English settlements and English policies would preserve their land and way of life. Their diplomatic tactics and adaptive strategies were designed to further these goals and they perceived Anglo-French conflicts as opportunities to secure French assistance. Proximity to English settlements and limited subsistence options accentuated the divisive effects of factionalism and, within each tribe, young warriors tended to support the confrontational faction while older men were more conciliatory. Abenaki political dissension and tribal disintegration obscures an underlying social continuity. All Abenaki decisions, whether they concerned subsistence, emigration, trade, treaty commitments, initiating warfare or concluding peace, were determined at the family band or lineage level. The fluid nature of Abenaki social organization allowed individuals and families to change political factions or even village residence without greatly disturbing social relationships. Social continuity enabled the Abenakis to survive this period of factionalism, migration and military defeat. Gibson, Virginia V. (1996) "Resources, conflict, and culture: The sour gas plant dispute between Unocal Canada and the Lubicon Cree nation." M.A. Thesis, University of Alberta. 184 pp. A dispute between Unocal Canada, an oil and gas company, and the Lubicon Cree nation, an aboriginal band, over a sour gas plant was adjudicated by the Energy Utilities Board (EUB) of the Province of Alberta in 1994. Qualitative social science methods are used in this study to explore the perspectives of all parties to this dispute. It is established that current risk communication and management strategies have not adequately identified or resolved the issues arising from the cross-cultural differences underlying the dispute. A case study approach is used to explore themes such as: differences between Unocal, the Lubicon and the EUB that hinder effective cross-cultural communication, methods of designing cross-cultural communication to accommodate these differences, the performance of EUB dispute resolution processes in cross-cultural contexts, and the potential for other risk management and dispute resolution processes that accommodate cultural differences. A cross-cultural model of communication and conflict resolution is used to outline the differences between participants and the cultural contexts of the parties to the dispute. The results of this study show that successful cross-cultural communication and conflict resolution must address and accommodate cultural differences. Giesler, Patric V. (1998 ) "Conceptualizing religion in highly syncretistic fields: An analog ethnography of the Candomblés of Bahia, Brazil." Ph.D. Dissertation, Brandeis University. 1,163 pp. One of the outstanding problems in the study of religion is its very often tremendous internal variability, variability within what is conceived of as one, same, 'religion.' Accordingly, the question that the dissertation addresses is how to conceptualize, study, and describe a particular religion in the context of such internal

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variation? And it responds through a comprehensive ethnography of a case exemplifying the problem, the African-derived spirit possession religion, Candombleé, of Bahia, Brazil. Candomblé is embedded in a context of highly syncretistic religious variability, shaped by InterAfrican, Amerindian, and Popular Catholic influences. Typically, the problem is approached, 'digitally,' as in a 'digital ethnography,' where the religious variability is collapsed into a discrete unit, and the 'religion' is defined by a single and presumably uniformly shared set of beliefs, rituals, religious experiences, and social organization. But it is argued here on the basis of extensive field research on the Candomblés (1971-74, 1976-77, 1980-81, 1990-94), entailing surveys and comparisons of a large number of case studies of the most diverse variants, participant observation in more than 300 rituals, and the intensive interviewing of more than 100 leaders and 100 adepts in 141 Candomblé centres, that in the case of the Candomblé, such a 'religion' does not exist. Such a Candomblé (singular) does not exist. What exists is a field of variants, 'Candomblés' (plural), that resemble one another to varying degrees. They share a family resemblance in Wittgenstein's sense, not a single defining set of distinctive features. Thus, the solution to the problem executed here is to address religious variability directly, and conceptualize the Candomblé religion as a field of variants, study the field's internal variability, its structure, history, character, and dynamics, and describe it analogically, an 'analog ethnography,' through a comparison of the beliefs, rituals, religious experiences, and social organization of its variants. The dissertation reveals, for instance, that the field is modelled on the most conservatively African exemplars, such that the other Candomblés vary syncretically in relation to them. The same applies to the rich transmutations of Candomblé ethnopsychology across the field, which is a major focus of the ethnography. It is concluded that if religious variability is not taken into account, the character of religious organization, its expression, and cultural history, in general, will be misrepresented, and our attempts to discover associations and correlations with other social, cultural, historical, and psychological phenomena will suggest connections when there are none, or none when there are. Gilats, Andrea S. (1997) "American Indian lives, lands, and cultures: The story of an intercultural educational travel program." Ph.D. Dissertation, Union Institute (The). 174 pp. This is a true story about the issues, challenges, problems, and processes associated with conceiving, constructing, delivering, and sustaining an educational program of study tours in Indian America aimed at adult lifelong learners. It is a story of engagement, collaboration, exchange, trial, error, and reflection as told by a non-Indian educator working within a large public university. It recounts a search for approaches and working methods in which (1) partnership and dialogue with tribal communities shape program content, presentation, and faculty selection; (2) power and control are shared in order to preserve cultural integrity and dismantle stereotypes both in tribal communities and the academy; (3) tribal communities and their members take authority for deciding which aspects of their cultures are shared with outsiders and how and where that sharing takes place; and, (4) the resulting programs further these communities' economic, cultural, and political goals for tourism. This story is written with the intention that the research, thought, and feeling that inform it will improve and enrich the educational program that is its subject, and that it will be useful to tribal communities and educational institutions that wish to develop similar educational and cultural programs. There is an artefact associated with this story. This artefact is American Indian Lives, Lands, and Cultures (AILLC), a program of study tours "owned" and operated by the University of Minnesota. The goal of this program is to broaden and deepen knowledge about continuity and change in American Indian cultures by providing a variety of tourist-students access to historical Indian lands and contemporary tribal communities, and opportunities to learn from living American Indian educators, scholars, artists, and elders. This story is complemented, countered, and contextualized with quotations from American Indian writers, artists, and philosophers, and with excerpts from the author's visual and written travel journals. Gilby, Stuart C. (1996) "Variations on a theme: Environmental racism and the adverse effects of natural racism extraction on the aboriginal peoples of Canada." Ph.D. Dissertation, Dalhousie University. This study examines the manner in which Canada has taken land from indigenous peoples to exploit the country's natural resources. The process has benefited the larger, European derived society at the terrible expense of the numerous indigenous nations of what is now Canada. The author compares this process to the practice of environmental racism in the United States, and the intersection of issues of race and resource allocation in the international sphere. In all three situations the rights and values of minorities are sacrificed to increase the wealth of a larger, more powerful race or ethnic group. The history of the clash between European and indigenous cultures in Canada is sketched. The role of government and the courts in assisting

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with the subjugation of native peoples is examined. Specific cases are discussed which clearly illustrate the enormity of the adverse impacts of resource development visited on various First Nations. The most extensive examination is of the difficulties faced by the Crees of James Bay in their ongoing struggle against hydroelectric projects and forestry. Particular emphasis is placed on the words and experience of individual natives who have suffered the direct and immediate effects of policies and practices that are rooted in racism. The study finds some hope for change to our history of the dispossession of aboriginal peoples, the destruction of their economies and the severe damage done to their cultural and spiritual values. The hope is tentative, but the perseverance of natives and the change in direction taken by some governments do offer a chance for an equitable sharing of the wealth of the land. Gill, Nicholas J. (2000) "Outback or at home? Environment, social change and pastoralism in Central Australia." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of New South Wales. This thesis examines the responses of non-indigenous pastoralists in Central Australian rangelands to two social movements that profoundly challenge their occupancy, use and management of land. Contemporary environmentalism and Aboriginal land rights have both challenged the status of pastoralists as valued primary producers and bearers of a worthy pioneer heritage. Instead, pastoralists have become associated with land degradation, biodiversity loss, and Aboriginal dispossession. Such pressure has intensified in the 1990s in the wake of the Native Title debate, and various conservation campaigns in the arid and semi-arid rangelands. The pressures on pastoralists occur in the context of wider reassessments of the social and economic values of rangelands in which pastoralism is seen as having declined in value compared to 'postproduction' land uses. Reassessments of rangelands in turn are part of global changes in the status of rural areas, and of the growing flexibility in the very meaning of 'rural.' Through ethnographic fieldwork among largely non-indigenous pastoralists in Central Australia, this thesis investigates the nature and foundations of pastoralists' responses to these changes and critiques. Through memory, history, labour and experience of land, non-indigenous pastoralists construct a narrative of land, themselves and others in which the presence of pastoralism in Central Australia is naturalised, and Central Australia is narrated as an inherently pastoral landscape. Particular types of environmental knowledge and experience, based in actual environmental events and processes form the foundation for a discourse of pastoral property rights. Pastoralists accommodate environmental concerns, through advocating environmental stewardship. They do this in such a way that Central Australia is maintained as a singularly pastoral landscape, and one in which a European, or 'white', frame of reference continues to dominate. In this way the domesticated pastoral landscapes of colonialism and nationalism are reproduced. The thesis also examines Aboriginal pastoralism as a distinctive form of pastoralism, which fulfils distinctly Aboriginal land use and cultural aspirations, and undermines the conventional meaning of 'pastoralism' itself. The thesis ends by suggesting that improved dialogue over rangelands futures depends on greater understanding of the details and complexities of local relationships between groups of people, and between people and land. Gill, Sheila D. (1999) "Who can be a citizen? Decoding the 'law of the land' in contemporary Manitoba politics." M.A. Thesis, University of Toronto. 177 pp. This thesis decodes key aspects of the 'law of the land' operating in contemporary Manitoban society. Focusing on 'white' elite political performances of the official national story, I contend that (a gendered, classed, heterosexed) racism underwrites the shifting and disparate instances of what and who a Canadian citizen can be, both in the letter of the law, and in the diverse lived realities of the 1990s. Combining discourse analysis with tools of critical geography, my work speaks back to the decreed unspeakability of racism in Manitoba's Legislature. I contend that the 1995 prohibition on the use of the word 'racist' in the House is consistent with the amnesic context of (post)colonial Canadian society and its celebrated 'antiracist' nationalism. In response to the extremity of systemic violence experienced by First Nations peoples in the Canadian past and present, my analysis gives priority to the ordering of aboriginal/non-aboriginal relations in Manitoba. Gillon, Kirstin E. (1997 ) "The practical utility of international law in the negotiation and implementation of aboriginal self-government agreements." LL.M. Thesis, McGill University. 143 pp. The aim of this thesis is to evaluate the practical utility of international norms to indigenous peoples. In recent decades, indigenous peoples have looked increasingly to international fora to secure what they see as their rights. It becomes important, then, to evaluate the potential utility of these efforts. Two conclusions dominate my assessment of the role of international law. Firstly, the lack of enforceability of the norms means that international law is unlikely to achieve change in the face of state resistance. Secondly, the

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vagueness of the norms, coupled with the complexity of self-government regimes, severely limit the principles' ability in achieving specific change. Instead, the utility of international law is seen to lie in changing attitudes amongst the general public and governments, by establishing common standards of treatment to which all indigenous peoples are entitled, creating new channels of communication and broadening the context of indigenous disputes. Gilman, Deborah A. (1998 ) "Culturally relevant aboriginal child welfare: Principles, practice, and policy." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Manitoba (The). 281 pp. Aboriginal workers appear to bring a holistic approach to their practice of child welfare. The theory of reasoned action (Ajzen and Fishbein, 1980) predicts a relationship between individuals' characteristics such as ethnicity and their beliefs, attitudes, behavioural intentions, and behaviours. Based on this theory, the study compared the intended interventions of 26 aboriginal workers from aboriginal child welfare agencies and 32 non-aboriginal workers from agencies serving rural and remote areas. Workers responded to questionnaires consisting of rating scales and open-ended questions requiring written responses. Results indicated that aboriginal workers rated a set of mainstream social work practice principles as less frequently relevant to their practice. A repeated-measures multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) indicated that aboriginal and non-aboriginal workers would respond differently to four aboriginal child welfare vignettes. Specifically, aboriginal workers indicated that they would be more likely than non-aboriginal workers to employ less intrusive interventions. They were also more likely to favour some short- and long-term interventions. Workers did not differ in their intentions to employ within-family interventions. Given that nonaboriginal workers reported completing significantly higher levels of education than aboriginal workers, analyses of covariance were conducted with education as the covariate. For the practice principles, a MANCOVA indicated no difference between the two groups with respect to relevance ratings. However, a repeated-measures MANCOVA indicated that aboriginal and non-aboriginal workers still differed with respect to their intended interventions. Also, a MANCOVA indicated that aboriginal and non-aboriginal workers differed with respect to their intentions to intervene at varying levels of intrusiveness. Five aboriginal workers were interviewed to provide a context for the findings. The results suggest that education influences a worker's assessment of the relevance of practice principles. However, the application of these principles is more complex and appears to be influenced by a worker's ethnicity. With respect to culturally relevant aboriginal child welfare policy, recommendations were made to alter time constraints imposed on aboriginal child welfare cases and to support interventions that aim to strengthen aboriginal families. Giroux, Sharon S. (1997) "The experiences that contributed to the attrition decisions of Lac du Flambeau high school students." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Minnesota. 430 pp. Chippewa elders and tribal council members at Lac du Flambeau, Wisconsin were concerned that the economic prosperity and future cultural longevity of their tribe could be in jeopardy as a result of the very high attrition phenomena among their high school youth. According to Valliere (1990), the high school attrition rate among younger members of the Lac du Flambeau Band of Lake Superior Indians varied between 53% and 73% over the past decade. The purpose of this study was to help others understand the lived experiences of Chippewa high school students as they left the reservation (a majority learning environment) to attend public high school off the reservation (a minority learning environment) and also what events transpired that contributed to their attrition decisions. As part of this qualitative study, interview sessions with six Chippewa youths (three males and three females between the ages of 16 and 20) along with their parents or guardians were conducted on the Lac du Flambeau reservation in the fall of 1993. Other secondary resources and documents were examined for purposes of corroborating the testimonies of those individuals who had terminated their secondary education. In analyzing the content of the testimonies, ten primary patterns and themes emerged. These included the effects of racism, fear, severe punishment, political and spiritual issues and peer pressure. A dichotomy existed between lighter and darker-skinned Indians. While most Chippewa families were profoundly committed to education, labelling, tracking, and sorting devices contributed to their sense of shame and an erosion of their cultural identity. Domestic issues and family concerns burdened young Chippewa students. Internal strife among members of the Chippewa community itself served to further alienate young people from their educational or career pursuits. Though alternative education programs on the reservation contributed significantly to the graduation accomplishments of Chippewa youths, these were discontinued due to a lack of funding. Though many Indian

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families prefer to have their children integrate academically and socially into the predominantly all-white high school off the reservation, others have called for the construction of an Indian high school on the reservation. Giuliano, Pearl E. (1995 ) "Anishnawbe women and the meaning of food: A qualitative study." M.Sc. Thesis, University of Guelph. 155 pp. This thesis is an investigation of the meaning of food for nine Anishnawbe women in Pic River, Ontario. The women's experiences and perspectives are the focus in this feminist, participatory action research process. Unstructured and semi-structured interviews, group story writing and discussions encouraged the women to reflect on, and analyze, food and eating. Learning needs were identified and an action plan initiated. The main findings discuss the impact of acculturation on food consumption; the high prevalence of obesity, and the women's knowledge of food and nutrition; the high prevalence of overeating and emotional eating; the healing and empowerment of the women; and the impact of ethnostress. Conclusions drawn include the importance of understanding history; overeating and emotional eating are symptoms of underlying problems; and a qualitative approach encouraged the women to voice their experiences, promoting critical thinking and identification of learning needs. Ten implications for health care providers are also presented. Givens, David T. (2000) "Guam: An analysis of an American colony with particular emphasis on the integration of the pre-contact class system into the modern society." Ph.D. Dissertation, Michigan State University. 642 pp. Guam is one of the United States' few remaining territories. While the people of Guam are Americans in every sense of the word, Guam hosts several subcultures. The dominant one is the Chamorro-Guamanian. Interestingly, the Chamorro-Guamanians seem to have maintained several important parts of their prehistoric culture to this day. This paper has, essentially, two purposes. The first is an exploration of the history of Guam from its earliest human habitation to the present with particular emphasis on its evolution as one of the United States' few colonies. The second is to explore the hypothesis that the prehistoric social structure of the island is still in effect in many ways. Some aspects of it seem continuous throughout all of Guam's history but at the very least the pre-contact social structure is a useful tool in analyzing Guam's current society. To serve these two purposes there is a comprehensive history of Guam. The first chapter is about the prehistoric colonization of the island by man. Human habitation of the island of Guam may have begun as early as 6,000 years ago with the Prelatte culture. Evidence of the Latte culture begins about 1,800 years ago. It was probably the result of forced immigration or conquest. It became a fully developed Oceanic culture and is discussed in some detail. Particular emphasis is placed on the social stratification of the culture and the likelihood that the lowest class of the Latte culture were the remnants of the Prelatte. The second, third and fourth chapters are the history of the Spanish discovery and colonization of Micronesia. It followed the tradition of Spanish colonization but did not really become a mature Spanish colony. It was a backwater of the empire. With minor adaptations, it maintained its pre-contact social structure. The fifth chapter is the story of the acquisition of the island of Guam by the United States at the end of the Spanish American War and the first American period. Guam went through a period of Americanization during which time the Chamorro-Guamanians became integrated into the American culture. For the most part this was voluntary. But still, they kept much of their pre-contact social structure. The sixth chapter is the story of Guam's conquest by Japan during World War II and the American invasion and reconquest near the end of that war. It continues through reconstruction up to the signing of the Organic Act of Guam in 1950. This act began Guam's development into a largely self-governing unincorporated territory of the United States. The seventh chapter is the history of Guam under the Organic Act. It brings the history up to the end of 1998. 'Discussion' discusses Guam's various colonial experiences and the preservation of the pre-contact system of social stratification. It illustrates modern social stratification with the discussion of the current government and economy. It also discusses two of Guam's thorniest problems -- land tenure and future political status in the light of Guam's history. 'Conclusions' reviews the scope and conclusions of the work. Glazier, Edward W. Jr. (2002) "A sociological analysis of fishing Hawai'ian-style." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Hawai'i. 355 pp. Small boat fishing in Hawai'i is a macro-social phenomenon, with some 10,000 vessel captains and many

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more crew participating directly, and thousands of ohana members involved secondarily. Hundreds of thousands of people enjoy eating the fish. This analysis examines recreational, various levels of commercial, and subsistence-customary small boat fishing as enacted in the Islands. Native Hawai'ian and local fishing customs, operational opportunism and fluidity, and unique marketing options underlay extensive overlap of categories, befitting an overarching paradigm I term Hawai'ian-Style fishing. Involvement in each sub-type incurs implications and consequences, both enabling and constraining. Recreational fishing tends to be subjugated by avid participation in mainstream land-based work but is an important outlet for responding to stresses of modern life, and for Native Hawai'ians a means for practicing fishing traditions. Persons engaged in avid commercial fishing deal with difficult market conditions but persist largely for the many social and personal benefits of self-employment on the ocean. As the oldest and most encompassing form of fishing in Hawai'i, subsistence-customary fishing can be seen as an important and meaningful adaptive response to post-contact social disruption and modern economic challenges, with ideological linkages to a deeper history. Structuration theory as advanced by Willis (1977) is used to conceptually guide empirically-based description and explanation of how and why Native Hawai'ians so avidly persist in small boat fishing, especially subsistence-customary fishing, and why that participation must be seen as constraining in the long-term under conditions of modern capitalist society. Godfrey, Anthony. (1985) "Congressional-Indian politics: Senate survey of conditions among the Indians of the United States." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Utah (The). 451 pp. Historians of federal Indian policy have maintained that the sources of federal authority over American Indians rest in the Constitutional provisions which vest Congress with 'plenary' power over all Indian tribes, their governments, their members, and their property. Yet, historians have ignored congressional-Indian relations in their writings. To redress this problem, a study which analyzes congressional-Indian politics to determine how Congress uses its plenary power over America's native peoples is warranted. Whether Congress acts in behalf of political interest, special interest, regional interest, national interest, or in the interest of Indians is a consideration of equal importance. This study, then, focuses on the history of an important Senate investigation into Indian conditions known as the Senate Survey of Conditions Among the Indians of the United States. During its life span from 1928 to 1945, the Senate Survey investigation was chaired by three senators: Lynn J. Frazier (R-North Dakota), Burton K. Wheeler (D-Montana), and Elmer Thomas (D-Oklahoma). They visited Indian reservations in 23 states and the territory of Alaska, amassing 23,000 pages of testimony, probing various elements of Indian policy. They actively participated in the decision process, ultimately influencing the decisions behind the three major shifts in Indian policy in the 20th century, namely, the demise of allotment policy instituted by the Dawes Severalty Act of 1887, the rise and fall of the concept of cultural pluralism embodied in the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934, and finally the emergence of termination policy with the waning of the Indian New Deal. In addition, the Senate Survey inquiry explored other such substantive national policy problems as health and education needs on reservations, reimbursable debts, reservation resource development, devastating Depression conditions, tribal land claims against the federal government, and other critical policy issues. Finally, a study of the Senate Survey illuminates the interplay and tension between Congressional committees and other policymakers, such as the Indian Bureau, Indian tribes, and private advocates for Indians. Indeed, this study demonstrates that in the Age of Roosevelt congressional-Indian policy involved a complex interplay of ideology, personality, bureaucracy, and politics. Godfrey, Kathleen. (1998 ) "Visions and re/visions of the Native American." Ph.D. Dissertation, Arizona State University. 192 pp. The 1800s saw the burgeoning of women authors in the United States, many of whom wrote within the genre of the sentimental novel. Recent theorists Jane Tompkins and Cathy Davidson have argued that sentimental novels, rather than reinforcing the status quo, re/vision in radical and revolutionary ways contemporary US culture. Although critiques of US culture were varied, one area of women's criticism is the focus of this study, the question of Native Americans' status and treatment by the federal government and by US Anglo-American culture in general. While 'feminine' qualities like nurturance allowed women to sympathize with and defend the ethnic Other, women were not innocent in the rhetoric and practices of domination and colonization. Women's use of sentimental novels and gender inscriptions did not escape inflicting the domination which many of these women deplored in Anglo society. This study traces the interplay of the sentimental novel and social reform in three novelists: Helen Hunt Jackson in Ramona, Willa Cather in The song of the lark and Death comes for the Archbishop, and Barbara Kingsolver in Pigs in heaven. The purpose of this study is to explore the variety of authorial positions in white women's portrayals of Native Americans and the range of

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female complicity in the perpetuation of the dominant culture's racist perspectives. Through the critical lens of postcolonial theorists Edward Said and David Spurr, the inherent instability and tension between social reform and inherited constructs of race that undercut the sentimental novel's reformist project emerge. Gold, Mitzi. (1995) "Selected risk factors associated with suicidality among adolescents in Hawai'i." Ph.D. Dissertation, Saybrook Institute. 203 pp. This study identified select psychological and behavioural factors that significantly contribute to suicidality of public high school students on Oahu in Hawai'i. The data of this study were collected by the Hawai'i State Department of Health in 1990 using the computerized Teen Health Advisor (THA) survey. The THA survey was completed by 1,335 male and female 10th grade students. A secondary data analysis compared 870 students of four major ethnic groups: part-Hawai'ian, Filipino, Japanese, and Caucasian. The risk factors considered were gender, ethnicity, consumption of alcohol, depression, and the experience of sexual abuse. The criteria variables were suicide attempt and the recency as well as frequency of suicidal thought. Chi-Square analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis were used to ascertain the extent to which the risk factors are associated with and predict suicidality. In general, the findings indicated that gender, ethnicity (for all four ethnic groups), depression, use of alcohol, and experience of sexual abuse were all significantly associated with suicidality. Logistic regression analysis showed that three of the five predictor variables, namely alcohol use, depression, and sexual abuse can predict suicidality among part-Hawai'ian and Caucasian female respondents. In contrast, there is statistical evidence to support a significant association between depression and suicide attempt among males, specifically part-Hawai'ian males. Therefore, there is a stronger foundation of results for part-Hawai'ian and Caucasian respondents compared to Japanese and Filipino respondents. Hence, other risk factors are involved in suicide attempts for these two ethnic groups. In sum, the study suggests that professionals and programs dealing with adolescents should more carefully consider suicide risks associated with not only gender but also ethnic group affiliation, depression, alcohol use, and the possible experience of sexual abuse of the adolescent. Gomme, Graham E. (1990) "Interest group/government intermediation in the Yukon Indian Land Claim." M.A. Thesis, University of Victoria. 173 pp. This study gives some insight into political development in the Yukon by analyzing how four interest groups relate or associate with the various parties negotiating the Land Claim Settlement. The interest groups of choice are the Yukon Outfitters Association, and Association of Yukon Communities, the Yukon Fish and Game Association and the Yukon Chamber of Mines. The governing parties involved in territory-wide negotiations are the Council for Yukon Indians, the Yukon Territorial Government and the Federal Government. This study utilizes four models of interest group intermediation to assess what type of relationship each group maintains with the various governing bodies. Societal corporatism seems to be the model that best describes each of the four relationships and the land claim process in general. Unlike pluralism and consociationalism, societal corporatism displays more pro-active government involvement with interest groups. As well, this type of interaction promotes formal institutions and agreements which bring government and interest groups together. Gone, Joseph P. (2001) "Affect and its disorders in a Northern Plains Indian community: Issues in cross-cultural discourse and diagnosis." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. 171 pp. Situated within an NIMH-sponsored study of psychiatric epidemiology in an American Indian community on the Northern Plains, this study examined the cultural patterning of reported experience in the context of standardized diagnostic interviewing. More specifically, analytic attention to the discursive construction of self among Indian respondents promised insight into the unusually low rates of statistical concordance between diagnoses obtained by community members employing the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) and a non-resident clinician employing the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM (SCID). Interviews with 75 tribal members from a single reservation revealed that respondents diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) when interviewed by a community member using the CIDI were much more likely to be diagnosed instead with a depressive disorder when interviewed by an outside clinician using the SCID. It is argued here that the 'lay' interviewers found higher rates of PTSD and lower rates of depressive disorder because they invoked (and could not circumvent) the local cultural discourse linking trauma and fortitude. As a result, CIDI responses were channelled into culturally appropriate selfrepresentations that primarily associated personal distress in terms of the traumatic social disruptions that

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respondents had experienced as opposed to the more direct acknowledgment of relatively decontextualized and internalised mood states that the community emphasis upon fortitude precludes in such discursive encounters. In contrast, as a non-tribal interviewer and a trained clinician, I disrupted this local cultural discourse by actively contesting and reorganizing the respondents' own constructions of their distress into established psychiatric categories, thereby facilitating a displacement of CIDI PTSD diagnoses among this sample by the substantial increase in SCID depression diagnoses. Insofar as sustained attention to the sociolinguistic practices of a cultural community may illuminate perplexing epidemiological findings, including the difficult challenges posed by incommensurate ontologies of distress, the implications of this kind of analysis for cross-cultural psychiatric epidemiology are discussed. Gonzales, Loretta L. (2002) "Suicide factors among ethnic minority youth." M.S.W. Thesis, California State University, Long Beach. 119 pp. This thesis explores the literature on normal and abnormal youth development. It further explores the behaviour of youth in crisis, specifically suicide. The special circumstances and stressors of ethnic minority youth are particularly examined through the extant literature. Implications of research and social work practice are discussed. The literature indicated that Native Americans/American Indian/Alaskan Native youth have the highest rate of youth suicide, among the ethnic groups researched. Chicano/Latino/Hispanic youth were the next highest group, followed by Asians. African American youth had the lowest rate of youth suicide. Good, Catharine L. (1993 ) "Work and exchange in Nahuatl society: Local values and the dynamics of an indigenous economy." Ph.D. Dissertation, Johns Hopkins University (The). 538 pp. This dissertation analyzes the successful development of Indian-controlled commerce in crafts for tourists. Nahuatl-speaking villagers from the Balsas River Valley (Guerrero State, Mexico) have long been merchants. Since the early 1960s they began making bark cloth paintings (amate) and selling them as itinerant vendors. They have become successful entrepreneurs, operating in diverse markets throughout Mexico and handling substantial cash income. This study focuses on the social organization of their commerce and the cultural assumptions underlying how the merchants reinvest their wealth. Contrary to much of the ethnographic literature on peasants, modernization, ethnicity and nationalism in Latin America, it argues that Nahuas have not assimilated into Mexico's post-Revolutionary national culture. The merchants have invested some of their wealth in housing, livestock, farmland and commerce to secure their economic base. They invest major portions of it in exchange relations which strengthen social relationships and reciprocity networks throughout the region. This has enabled them to maintain and reproduce their collective identity as a Nahuatl people. The analysis traces how Nahua theories of work, exchange and history enable them to interact with tourists in urban areas while reformulating their own cultural identity. The dissertation explores the following aspects of life in this Nahuatl region: domestic organization, milpa agriculture, artistic production, commercial strategies, community government, house construction and mortuary practices. It documents how money obtained through trade with international tourism stimulates expanding local-level gift exchange in the Balsas River Valley. The dissertation includes a critique of the conceptual stereotypes about Indians prevalent in much of the scholarship in Mesoamerica. It draws on comparative ethnography from Melanesia and the Andean region and argues for reformulating the theoretical approaches used in Mesoamerica to study economy, culture, and processes of culture change. The data presented will be useful for comparative research on indigenous peoples, informal sector activities, micro-enterprises, arts and crafts production, tourism, the social organization of work, the effects of money and commodities on native economies, and gift exchange systems. Goodluck, Charlotte T. (1998) "Understanding Navajo ethnic identity: Weaving the meaning through the voices of young girls." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Denver. 288 pp. The purpose of this dissertation is to explore the meaning of ethnic identity of Navajo girls from a qualitative phenomenological approach. The sample consisted of 20 Navajo girls, between the ages of 9 and 15 years old. The average age of the girls was 13. 16 lived in Flagstaff, Arizona, and four resided on the Navajo Nation. The method of data collection included in-depth interviewing, participant observation, and prolonged engagement. A demographic and grand tour questionnaire were completed. The data was analyzed using NUDIST, a qualitative computer software package. The method of analyze consisted of categorizing the raw data into codes, categories, sub-categories, and themes then clustered them into common textural descriptions of the meaning of ethnic identity into higher levels of abstraction capturing the essence of the phenomenon. Implications for social work theory indicate that the Orthogonal Cultural Identification Theory matches some of the experiences. Stage theory is not a good match, as it is linear in format. Implications for

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social work practice, assessment, intervention, and education are discussed. 'Four Worlds of the Navajo Female Ethnic Identity' included: (a) personal identity (appearance, growing up in many worlds, living with differences, feeling unique, and name calling); (b) ethnic identity (ethnic ambiguity, stereotypes, racist experiences, confusion, and duality); (c) tribal identity (family, language, and religion); and, (d) moving between worlds (geographic relocation, changing girl, and visits to grandmother). Metaphors included weaving (integration), pottery (development), dance (collective identity), and corn pollen journey (tribal and spiritual) to express their feelings about the meaning of culture and ethnicity. Beauty, humour, balance, and being human are key elements of their stories. The 'Hozho System for Navajo Girls' Ethnic Identity Model' was generated from the data and is discussed as a new theory for Navajo female identity. This model is based on a circle organizational structure reflecting the values and beliefs of Native American culture. The meaning of ethnic identity is multidimensional and is considered a dynamic and on-going process. Goodman, Gail D. (2003) "Elements of culture pertaining to schooling in the O'odham-Piipaash Indian community." Ed.D. Dissertation, Arizona State University. 534 pp. This ethnographic study involving fifteen members of the O'odham-Piipaash Tribe living in the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community of Scottsdale, Arizona, investigated the research question: What do community members mean when they say we want our culture in our schools. The study found that there was consensus that the language and history of the Tribe should be taught in all community schools, but that school was seen predominantly as a place where students learn skills that they will need in the job market and not a place where students learn to be Indian. There was also consensus that older students be given the option to choose whether or not to study Native American subject matter. Major portions of the transcribed interviews conducted in this study are contained in Appendix C. The study findings are organized around the major headings of: Culture with a capital C; History; Community; and Schools. Some topics discussed include the concept of land as sacred space, culture as a system, culture change and the impact of capitalist modernity, personal choice and respect as aspects of traditional culture, traditional versus modern identity construction, and the idea of Tribe versus the idea of pan-Indianism, and suggests that some of the findings of past research on Indian societies be re-examined. Several languageissues are examined including the notion of language as a cultural repository rather than a communication system. The necessity for well prepared language teachers is also discussed. Coping with a history of genocide using the models of post-traumatic stress disorder and learned helplessness, the lingering effects of colonization, psychologically and legally; issues of sovereignty in the courts; stratified social systems and caste-like minority status and how these impact school performance are all explored. The concept that Native Americans are visual learners/thinkers is unpacked separating out the components. Piagetian concrete operational thinking is distinguished from visual-global/holistic, visual-metophorical, and visual-spiritual learning and thinking. It is critical for educators to understand the multidimensional nature of traditional Native American learning environments, which this study discusses in depth. Goodtrack, Terry L. (1997) "Accountability of First Nation governments' 'four dimensions'." M.A. Thesis, Carleton University. 212 pp. The research question examined was: 'What are the influencing factors which could assist a First Nation to put an adequate accountability framework in place?' A model was developed which included four dimensions to accountability: public service; fiscal; performance and professional. Four First Nation Governments considered to be accountable were selected and assessed against this model. Each First Nation had a strong accountability framework despite their geographic location and population size. It was found that First Nation Governments can establish an adequate system of accountability without mirroring each other. Secondly, a number of factors are important to put an effective accountability system in place: political will; training and experience of individuals in key positions; stability in key government positions; codification of laws and regulations and the education level of community members. Thirdly, there are factors worthy of further examination; culture as it relates to government elections and institutions; the existence of government businesses; and the community's belief that it is self-governing. Gordon, Colin L. (2003) "Portrait of a Native American charter school." Ed.D. Dissertation, Brigham Young University. 213 pp. After many of years participating in an educational system designed and supervised by the dominant white majority, Native Americans in many states have the opportunity to design and direct their own schools, as a result of charter school legislation. Charter schools are public schools that are designed to meet a specific

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need and, in the case of Native American charter schools, the goal is not only to educate students to succeed in American society, but also to help them understand their Native American heritage and culture. A Native American charter school is thought by some to be a better educational entity than the traditional public school. This research examines one Native American charter school located on the Salt River Reservation adjacent to Scottsdale, Arizona. This study identified 15 needs of the students attending the charter school. These needs were further divided into three categories: academic improvement, social skills development, and coping with and overcoming serious social problems. The study further identified what the school was doing to meet those needs and the level of success the school was achieving. This study found that students at the school are beginning to improve academically, although progress is slow. The study also found that these students are more likely to develop social skills at this school because it provides an atmosphere where they feel more comfortable and accepted. The potential for social skills development is further increased by the opportunities Native American students have to participate in a wide range of school activities, some of which relate to the students unique culture and some that are enjoyed by many students in traditional public schools. Lastly, this study found that school and tribal leaders are trying to address the serious social problems that have become part of reservation life. These include alcohol and drug abuse, teenage pregnancies, gang and gang related violence, suicide, and health problems. However, the study could not determine if these programs were successful. A study of much longer duration would be required to determine if the school was successful in helping the students overcome these problems. Gordon, Gary L. (1996) "A qualitative study of the meaning of work and workplace experiences among Native Americans in upstate New York." Ph.D. Dissertation, Syracuse University. 224 pp. Despite the generally poor economic conditions they experience, little research has attempted to examine Native Americans in the workplace. Native Americans in the northeastern United States have been particularly ignored. This study attempts to rectify these deficiencies. In-depth interviews were conducted with ten Native Americans in upstate New York in an effort to more fully understand the meanings they attach to work and to workplace experiences. A qualitative research approach was used. The primary theoretical orientation of the study is symbolic interaction: the participants interpret their experiences on the basis of their interactions with others and act on those interpretations. Understanding what those interpretations are and how they are developed is important to this study. Data analysis followed a grounded theory approach. Four important findings emerge within this study. The first of these findings is the identification of a work ethic that is based upon a sense of personal ethics. The participants possess a strong work ethic in which work effort reflects a perceived responsibility to the employer. The second finding emphasizes the importance of money to the participants and the multiple roles money plays. The third finding focuses on the factors which influence the perceptions of co-workers and superiors (owners/managers) in the workplace. The last finding identifies a generalized lack of perceived discrimination in the workplace. Those participants who perceive discrimination become more sensitive to its cues. The most important variables influencing the meanings assigned by the participants are first, a set of values that are considered common among Native Americans and, second, the participants' early experiences with economic deprivation. Gosek, Gwendolyn M. (2002) "Towards an understanding of suicide among aboriginal people." M.S.W. Thesis, University of Manitoba (The). 235 pp. Suicide rates among the aboriginal people of North America have increased at an alarming rate over the past three decades. While not all aboriginal communities reflect the increasing rates, the overall increase, especially among the 15-24 year-old group, is a grave concern at the societal, community, family and individual levels. While the concerns related to suicide in aboriginal communities are documented in the literature, the information is generally researched and presented from a mainstream perspective or approach. The objectives of this study were to develop an overview of suicide in aboriginal communities from an aboriginal perspective and to explore the use of the Medicine Wheel as a culturally appropriate approach to understanding and working with suicide with aboriginal people. The process included a literature review of Durkheim's theory on suicide. The literature review also includes an overview of aboriginal and mainstream society's world views, an overview of the occurrence of suicide in the aboriginal communities and of the Medicine Wheel concept. The purposes of the literature review were: (1) to provide a basis for determining

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the incidence and factors associated with aboriginal suicide; (2) to compare the world views of mainstream society and aboriginal people; (3) to develop an understanding of Durkheim's theory as it is applied to aboriginal suicide; and, (4) begin to conceptualize the Medicine Wheel in relation to an aboriginal world view. An important aspect of this study included interviews with traditional elders and aboriginal community leaders in order to develop a deeper understanding of the aboriginal view of suicide in the community and of the Medicine Wheel concept. Although the interview responses were supportive of the literature review of suicide among aboriginal people in many respects, there were differences in the emphasis placed on contributing factors. The research available on aboriginal world view indicates a contrast between the world views of mainstream society and aboriginal people. These differences in world views present a challenge to applying a Durkheimian approach to suicide in the aboriginal context. The challenges of applying Durkheim's concept of anomie and the possibility of incorporating the Medicine Wheel concept are discussed in terms of implications in the field of social work. Gould, Roxanne J. (2004) "Creating an indigenous educational movement: Listening to the voices of Mäori leaders." Ed.D. Dissertation, University of Minnesota. 218 pp. This qualitative case study examines Indigenous education that has been successful in reversing the negative effects of colonization. The Mâori educational movement in New Zealand is viewed as the movement to emulate by Indigenous communities throughout the world. This study will explore how this movement was created, how it has been sustained, and the cross-cultural implications for Indigenous education in the United States. A chronology will be provided to outline the history of Mâori education, from the creation of the first Mâori mission school in 1816 to the present. Policies of assimilation, biculturalism, and multiculturalism, and the impact of Mâori education will also be discussed. Questions answered in this study are: (1) What is the history of the Mâori educational movement? (2) What was the impact of the Mâori educational movement? (3) What strategies did the Mâori educational leaders use to create change? (4) What can Indigenous nations within the United States learn from the Mâori educational movement? The assumptions are that differences exist in the colonizing process and governments of New Zealand and the United States, but the negative effects of early education on the Indigenous populations of both countries are similar. Therefore, transferability from the Indigenous educational movement in New Zealand to Indigenous communities in the United States has possibilities. Gourneau, Jessica L. (2002) "Development of the American Indian Biculturalism Inventory -- Northern Plains." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of North Dakota (The). 104 pp. American Indians' 'place' in the context of the Majority Culture has never been clear to either them or their non-Indian counterparts. Many authors of cross-cultural literature suggest the experience of 'living with one foot in two canoes' is stressful, confusing, and can even lead to reduced life success and increased psychopathology. This study attempted to develop a factor-analytically devised inventory intended to aid in identification of bicultural identification in hopes it may contribute to greater understanding between cultural orientation and healthy or maladaptive American Indians' functioning. 198 American Indian and Caucasian students and community members from four year, non-tribal institutions of higher learning and tribal colleges in North and South Dakota provided data for the refining of the American Indian Biculturalism Inventory-Northern Plains (AIBI-NP). The AIBI-NP was designed to measure participants perceived level of cultural identification within both American Indian and Majority Culture perspectives. Results of Factor and Item Analyses produced a 25-item scale that suggested a two-factor solution. The nature of these factors were interpreted to represent an American Indian Cultural Identification Factor or subscale 1, and an European American Cultural Identification Factor or subscale 2. Suggestions for interpretation of subscale scores, study limitations, future research directions, as well as the potential applicability for scales such as the AIBI-NP are discussed within. Gouveia, Grace M. (1994) ""Uncle Sam's priceless daughters": American Indian women during the great depression, World War Two, and the post-war era." Ph.D. Dissertation, Purdue University. 231 pp. This project traces Indian women's roles in reservation and off-reservation communities from 1930-1960. The topics include: women's entrance into the reservation's wage economy and tribal politics; their service in the armed forces and war-related employment during World War II; increased participation in tribal politics as district representatives and tribal chairwomen in the 1940s and 1950s; and their movement to urban areas and subsequent involvement in establishing Indian organizations and community centres. The project fills a

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gap in the literature on both American women's and American Indian history, not only by analyzing women's changing roles within their traditional environment but by comparing Indian women's experiences with those of other minority and white women during the same three decades. Graben, Sari M. (2004) "The Nisga'a Final Agreement: Legitimizing the state's authority to govern the Nisga'a Nation." L.L.M. Thesis, Queen's University at Kingston. 162 pp. By virtue of their status as distinct nations, aboriginal peoples should have been recognized as constituent parties to constitution building in Canada. Nevertheless, First Nations did not participate in negotiations to join Canada or the adoption of the terms of the Constitution Act, 1867, the legal event in which the state codified its jurisdiction to govern aboriginal peoples. Consequently, the enforcement of this jurisdiction on aboriginal peoples such as the Nisga'a Nation, which had and continues to assert the right to selfgovernment, brings into question the moral legitimacy of the state's legal authority. This thesis proposes that state illegitimacy is rectified by consensually incorporating First Nations as constituent entities into a legal relationship with the state through a process of constitution building by treaty. It examines the Nisga'a Final Agreement and argues that it creates legitimacy for state governance by linking the status of the Nisga'a as a nation with the political authority necessary for the Nisga'a to consent to the application of state governance. Through an analysis of the treaty's terms and the relationship it creates between the parties, we see how the authority of the state to govern the Nisga'a Nation is legitimated through treaty-making. By recognizing Nisga'a political authority and rejecting its past relationship with the state, the treaty subverts the traditional colonial authority used to effect state governance. Moreover, by imposing a new political relationship founded on the institutions and principles of federalism, the treaty creates the central document for Nisga'a consent. The effect of the new relationship is to require a new reading of s. 35(1) of the Constitution Act, 1982 and s. 91(24) of the Constitution Act, 1867 in a manner which permits modern treaties to be incorporated into the Canadian constitutional canon and in a manner which limits the scope of the state's authority in accordance with the agreed terms of the Nisga'a Final Agreement. Graham, Barbara L. (2001 ) "Resilience among American Indian youth: First Nations' youth resilience study." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Minnesota. 68 pp. The current work begins the empirical study of spirituality as a protective process that promotes resilience among American Indian youth, especially under adverse life conditions. The role of spirituality was investigated in a school sample of 54 high-risk American Indian adolescents and focused on school-based competence. Relationships between spirituality, enculturation, well-being and adversity were also examined. Results indicated that spirituality reported by adolescent students was related to competence in the school context as reported by teachers and peer social competence as reported by the students. Spirituality was strongly related to enculturation, consistent with the widely held theoretical assertion that spiritual beliefs are an integral part of American Indian culture. Gender differences indicated that girls had higher academic competence than boys and also higher enculturation scores. Enculturation differences for gender suggest that embracing traditional values and beliefs may be easier for girls than boys in this sample. The rate of negative, independent life events experienced by students and/or their families within the past year was high for all participants and competence did not vary substantially by recent life events. Students identified by the principal as 'resilient' were more competent at school according to teachers. This study was limited by the small sample size, though there was a high participation rate. Results were encouraging in indicating that most of the measures had good psychometric properties within this high-risk sample of Indian youth, and that spirituality was associated with competence and enculturation. Larger studies of adolescents followed over time are needed to further examine the possible role of culturally-related spirituality in the academic success of American Indian students. Such students often have high risk for academic failure and school drop-out. Further study of culturally-grounded protective factors may provide new ideas for culturally sensitive and specific intervention strategies to promote academic success and positive connections to schools that could reduce drop-out. Gralewicz, Renee M. (1997) "Federal policies and their effects on Indian health: A southern Alberta plains case study." Ph.D. Dissertation, Washington State University. 2003 pp. This dissertation uses critical medical anthropology to assess the impact of the nation state on American Indian health in both Canada and the United States, using the Tsuu T'ina as a case study. The Tsuu T'ina Nation of southern Alberta, Canada lived among the Blackfoot Confederacy for hundreds of years. These people, the Beaver People, currently own and occupy lands near Calgary and are one of five tribes who signed Treaty 7 in 1877.

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Like other Treaty 7 tribes, the Tsuu T'ina have one health clinic, unimproved roads, and mass communication. Unlike other tribes, they have close proximity to a major city which offers mass transit and numerous health care facilities. Notwithstanding, the Tsuu T'ina have an infant mortality rate of 24.7, which is higher than all the other tribes and four times greater than the All Albertans' rate of 6.4 infant deaths per 1000 live births. Causes for high infant mortality rates are many and usually linked to socioeconomic status which itself is linked to oppression and discrimination. These linkages stem from the historical and contemporary relationship between the Tsuu T'ina Nation and the Dominion. Differing world views and differing interpretations of treaties characterize the Aboriginal-Dominion and Native American-US relationships. This dissertation assesses the historical relationship and its contemporary influences on Tsuu T'ina Nation health. By focusing on the Tsuu T'ina, I add to the limited literature of this nation. Their relationship with their neighbours, the Blackfoot Confederacy and the Nakoda (Stoney), directly influenced their reserve location and continues to affect their political lives within the region. Grandin, Greg J. (1999) "The blood of Guatemala: The making of race and nation, 1750-1954." Ph.D. Dissertation, Yale University. 491 pp. This dissertation traces the cultural, political, and economic formation of the K'iche'-Maya population of the highland city of Quetzaltenango from 1750 to 1954. It examines how Maya elites contributed to the formation of the liberal state through their development of an alternative indigenous nationalism that linked the 'progress of the nation' to the 'regeneration of the race.' Unlike non-indigenous political elites, who viewed national and Indian identity as mutually exclusive -- with the progress of the nation depending on the suppression of the Indian -- Maya elites viewed these identities as mutually dependent; one could not go forward without the other. The final chapter treats Guatemala's celebrated 1952 agrarian reform and describes how the alternative nationalism of the K'iche's collapsed under the weight of dependent capitalism and class struggle, which divided the K'iche' community along economic lines. The dissertation's title has a double meaning. It first refers to the contestation which took place throughout Guatemala as to what constituted national identity. Paradoxically in the late 19th century, as latinos increasingly stressed the cultural content of race, urban hispanicized Quetzalteco K'iche' artisans and merchants insisted on defining race by blood. But this contestation over national identity failed to be resolved in a country rent by class and cultural divisions, and herein ties the title's second meaning. In 1954, the most serious effort by latinos to create an integrated nation collapsed under the combined weight of political division, class struggle, and foreign intervention. For the next four decades Guatemalan blood flowed as the most repressive state in the hemisphere slaughtered over 100,000 of its citizens. Rather than viewing modern pan-Maya movement as an entirely new occurrence emerging from the ruins of a failed national project, my research places the movement's origins and development within the social processes of 19th century state formation -- the very processes that spawned the project that the movement now seeks to displace. Graves, William H. (1982 ) "The evolution of American Indian policy: From colonial times to the Florida Treaty (1989)." Ph.D. Dissertation, Florida State University (The). 253 pp. The study analyzes the evolution of American Indian policy. It surveys the European background then focuses on North America, examining the colonial Indian policies of Spain, England, France, Holland, Sweden, and Russia, which set the stage for American policy. In a series of wars to control eastern North America, England triumphed. British Imperial Indian policy became the basis for American policy. During the Revolution most Indians supported England, thwarting American desires to use or neutralize them. After the war America considered the Indians defeated powers, dictating terms to them. This proved unfeasible and the United States adopted the pre-revolutionary British policy. In the 1790s, problems developed including state resistance to federal authority in Indian affairs, Indian refusal to be slowly dispossessed, British intrigues in the Northwest, Spanish machinations in the Southwest, and in establishing means to regulate Indian affairs. Acts were passed to provide regulation. The factory system was created and trade and intercourse acts were adopted to regulate Indian affairs. Early expeditions to defeat the Indians were unsuccessful. State versus federal problems remained unsolved as did English and Spanish concerns. The turning point was the War of 1812. England was defeated. The Indians east of the Mississippi River were militarily broken. Between 181013 America seized Spanish West Florida neutralizing that area. Two problems remained: the jurisdictional question and Spanish-Black-Indian troubles in East Florida. America purchased East Florida from Spain in 1819 ending colonial concerns there. The jurisdictional problem would only be solved by dispossessing the Indians in the troublesome states. By the 1820s, American Indian policy had entered a new phase. All

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colonial concerns were ended and America was free for the first time to adopt its own Indian policy. Graybill, Andrew R. (2003) "Instruments of incorporation: Rangers, Mounties, and the North American frontier, 1875-1910." Ph.D. Dissertation, Princeton University. 302 pp. During the last third of the 19th century, Texas and western Canada experienced parallel social and economic transformations, characterized by the massive expansion of railroads and the rapid increase of white settlements. To smooth the advent of industrial modernization in these resource-rich hinterlands and to pull the regions more tightly into the political orbits of Austin and Ottawa, officials in each capital turned to rural police for assistance, at virtually the same moment in the early 1870s. This dissertation uses these famed constabularies -- the Texas Rangers and the North-West Mounted Police -- as a frame through which the consider the complex process of incorporating North American frontiers and its consequences for rural people. The Mounties and the Rangers performed four central duties in establishing state sovereignty and promoting economic development at the edges of the Great Plains. First, the police subjugated indigenous groups by denying Indian access to the bison and forcing natives to accept confinement on reservations. The constabularies then facilitated the commodification of frontier resources by breaking the hold of Mexicans and Métis on natural assets such as land, cattle, and minerals, in the process creating a mixed-blood proletariat. In the 1880s the two forces sped the rise of bonanza ranching by defeating the challenge of homesteaders to range lands coveted by cattlemen and ranching syndicates. Finally, the police broke turn-ofthe century strikes at the largest coal mines in Texas and Alberta, ensuring a steady supply of fuel for smelters and locomotives. In shifting the focus of incorporation from the core to the periphery, this dissertation casts new light on the process of frontier absorption and its implications for people living on the margins. However, in situating the insurgencies of such groups in historical context this thesis resists the temptation to romanticize them as noble victims trapped in a losing struggle against the expansion of capital. Moreover, the comparative perspective allows for the telling of a more common North American history while serving also to challenge the narratives of historical exceptionalism that characterize the scholarship on Texas, the Canadian prairies, and the West in general. Green, Adam J. (1999) "Humanitarian, MD: Dr. Peter H. Bryce's contributions to Canadian federal native and immigration policy, 1904-21." M.A. Thesis, Queen's University at Kingston. 129 pp. The purpose of this thesis is to examine the prominent role Dr. Peter H. Bryce, who served as the Chief Medical Officer for the Federal Departments of Native Affairs and Immigration from 1904 to 192 1, played in two specific areas during his 17-year federal career. While holding this position, Dr. Bryce amassed large quantities of statistical data concerning the health and welfare of both Canada's natives and Canada's incoming immigrants. These findings led him to publish a number of both governmental and private reports which outlined detailed and progressive programs for change to Canada's health system. Peter Bryce, who had begun his career after having been raised in a good home which stressed education, and had received medical training in Paris, ended it having secured many rights for the Canadian health officer. By the early twenties, Bryce had placed federal health standards on a road which improved the life of new immigrants, decreased incidences of communicable disease, and which would ultimately recognize the medical needs of Canadian natives. Green, Joyce A. (1997) "Exploring identity and citizenship: Aboriginal women, Bill C-31 and the Sawridge case." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Alberta. 270 pp. This dissertation examines the problem of contemporary citizenship as the way in which people understand themselves to be citizens, not simply as autonomous rights-bearing individuals in relation to the modern state but also, and perhaps especially, as members of communities, of societies. I begin by locating aboriginal nations in the colonial state and investigating the assumptions that are encoded in law, politics and culture. Next, I review the development of the Indian Acts and especially their impact on women. I turn to the particular arguments about the constitutionality of the Indian Act advanced in the Sawridge case. Then, I review the liberal democratic picture of universal citizenship and examine how citizenship is differentially constructed and experienced. I consider the claims of indigenous nations to control citizenship in a context of decolonization, while continuing to endure the superordinate structure of the state. I interrogate questions of racism and sexism on the part of both colonial and aboriginal governments, and consider the legitimacy of rights discourse and its applicability across cultures and in opposition to traditions. Finally I examine in detail the problems facing a segment of the Canadian population whose citizenship has been constrained;

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Indian women who have, by colonial history, colonial legislation, and by both colonial and indigenous patriarchy, been involuntarily exited from their communities of origin, and how this reality and their resistance to it raises questions about what citizenship is relative to Indian government in Canada, and relative to indigenous people as Canadians. Gregg, David W. (2000) "Technology, culture change, and the introduction of firearms to northwest Alaska, 17911930." Ph.D. Dissertation, Brown University. 245 pp. To better understand the interrelations between technological and cultural change, this research asks why, after a thousand years of successful adaptation in their Arctic environment did the Iñupiaq people of Northwest Alaska in less than a century discard effective, aboriginal weapons -- spear and lance, harpoon, bow and arrow -- in favour of what were at first unreliable, inaccurate, and expensive firearms? Drawing upon all available data -- archaeological, historical, and ethnographic -- this empirical study examines the material, social, and symbolic associations of firearms at 12 specific places and times in the Iñupiaq cultural area. Based on the data, the adoption of firearms is described as having taken place in three, roughly chronological phases -- the First Gun, Accommodation, and Traditional Phases. In the first phase, the initial acceptance of firearms by the Iñupiat was predicated on local social and symbolic meanings and circumstances of contact. In the second phase, a period of experimentation followed the initial exposure, through which the Iñupiat arrived at new uses, meanings, and associations for firearms. Eventually, improved firearms technology and changing local economic, social, and environmental circumstances made firearms-use for subsistence easier and more reliable, and firearms became ubiquitous subsistence tools. In the study area today, firearms-use and skill is valued as a traditional part of Iñupiaq culture. This study demonstrates that even wide-spread technological change take place at the level of individual decisionmakers. As the experience and perceptions of individuals change, their motives and the meanings of new technology can change as well, even over a relatively short time frame. The origins of Iñupiaq firearms-use in the mid 19th century lie in local Iñupiaq culture and the details of contact, not in western understandings of functionality based on comparison to aboriginal tools, or on the close, present-day association of firearms with 'traditional' Iñupiaq hunting. Grenier, Guylaine. (2001 ) "Le droit des peuples autochtones à l'autonomie gouvernementale dans le contexte de l'accession du Québec à la souveraineté." LL.M. Thesis, McGill University. 125 pp. ['The rights of aboriginal peoples to governmental autonomy within the context of Québec's accession to sovereignty'] To date, the debate concerning the aboriginal and treaty rights of the aboriginal peoples of Québec has focused primarily on the assertion of the territorial integrity of Québec on the one hand, and the assertion that those rights can prevent secession or force partition, on the other. Understanding the historical and contemporary relationship between aboriginal peoples and the governments of Canada and Québec is necessary if a rapprochement between these adversarial positions is to be achieved. This paper explores the legal and historical basis of aboriginal rights, focussing on self-government and the fiduciary relationship between aboriginal peoples and the Crown. It discusses international law principles under which Québec will seek recognition as an independent state and the relevance of aboriginal rights to that recognition. Finally, it urges that the current debate provides an opportunity to establish a new partnership between Québec and aboriginal peoples, to their mutual benefit. Greymorning, Stephen. (1992) "Indigenous North Americans and the ethnocentrism of the courts: A cross analysis of American culture and law with Canadian culture and law." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Oklahoma (The). 229 pp. Historically, the exercise of Anglo-European dominion in North America has been rooted upon cultural supremacy, and ideology which has shaped law and politics regarding indigenous peoples in North America for more than two centuries. The purpose of this study was to compare the decisions of the United States Supreme Court, from the Cherokee cases of 1823 and the 1830s, with the decisions of the Canadian Supreme Court from the Calder and Paulette cases during the 1970s. These decisions have represented strong statements on federal policy regarding the rights of aboriginal peoples, and in both countries these statements have been coloured by the values of Anglo-European culture to the point of showing little to no sensitivity for the culture and values of indigenous peoples. While aboriginal rights was recognized within American politics and law more than 150 years ago, the existence of aboriginal rights within Canadian law was not established until the 1970s. Rather than interpret Canada's tardiness as a hindrance, it was hypothesized that this could ultimately be beneficial for indigenous

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Canadians in ways not realized by indigenous Americans. One way this is being demonstrated is the impact that Indigenous people are having in Canada's constitutional efforts. That notwithstanding, if any political gains realized by indigenous North Americans are to have lasting significance, then North America's political leadership must do more than just acknowledge the long history of ethnocentrism that has dominated courts and governments and controlled the affairs of indigenous North Americans; they must also work to effect lasting change. To this end the present study hopes to contribute to an understanding of the role that ethnocentrism has played in maintaining a colonial control over North America's indigenous peoples. Grobe, Patricia. (2001) "Attachment and delinquency among First Nations adolescents from a remote geographic location." M.A. Thesis, McGill University. 36 pp. Attachment theories emphasize the importance of a secure attachment at all stages in life. In secure attachment relationships, individuals are confident that during times of real or perceived distress they can rely on the attachment figure to provide desired security. Conversely, individuals with insecure attachments feel they cannot rely on their attachment figures and thus will not be comforted in times of need. Lack of secure attachments can lead to psychological and behavioural difficulties. In the present study, maternal and peer attachments were investigated and related to levels of self-reported delinquency among 84 First Nations adolescent students, ages 11 to 17 from a reserve in a remote geographic location. The results from the present study appear to be congruent with the literature which reports that insecure attachments in youths lead to higher rates of delinquent behaviours. High levels of secure attachments in the participants resulted in low levels of reported delinquency, however the relationship between attachment and delinquency in adolescent participants was found to be dependent on the grade in school and gender interaction. Groom-Hall, Mary. (2003) "Indigenous language revitalization in Montana: Perspectives from four nations." Ed.D. Dissertation, University of Montana. 194 pp. This qualitative case study examines the experiences of 19 Native American people who are involved with indigenous language revitalization in the state of Montana. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with both teachers of the languages and professionals who were responsible for initiating and directing language preservation programs. Data was collected from one-on-one interviews, from participant-observation at various cultural sites, and from conversations held with community members adjacent to study sites. Four of Montana's six reservations were visited; teachers and professionals from six language groups participated in the study. Questions focused on individual stories and the meanings inherent in the language. Participants discussed the ways in which cultural and moral teachings were imparted to them as children through their Native languages; some later language learners spoke of regaining their identities as American Indian people through adult acquisition of their languages. The significance of their involvement with language revitalization through teaching, program development, or both, was expressed by many participants. The importance of language was found to permeate all aspects of personal, spiritual, community, and cultural life for the participants. Data revealed three emergent categories of language and its meaning to the participants: language and (a) its meaning to the self; (b) its meaning to the culture and community; and, (c) its specific meanings among teachers and language preservationists. These three themes emerged from first, participants' responses about their own language-learning experiences and how language had affected their personal identities. Second, the role of language that participants observed or hoped for in their communities amplified the culture and community aspects of the data, and finally, since most participants interviewed were involved in the language education process in some way, specific concerns of educators emerged as the third important theme. Given the need for public education to respond more fully to laws requiring integration of Native American curriculum into the education system, sensitivity to and support for indigenous language teaching is an implication of the study. Recommendations for further study include the role of indigenous languages in empowerment and resilience, gendered communication and generational differences, and indigenous rhetorical structure. Gulig, Anthony G. (1997) "In whose interest? Government-Indian relations in northern Saskatchewan and Wisconsin, 1900-40." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Saskatchewan (The). 298 pp. American and Canadian Indian policy in the late 19th and early 20th centuries generally focused on 'civilizing' Indian peoples. In other words, the government wanted a more sedentary, less dispersed Indian population who would likewise require less land for traditional hunting and gathering activities and might be more easily assimilated when time and circumstance required. Such policy, however, was best suited to agricultural regions. In forested regions or other areas which were not suitable for commercial cultivation, conflict arose as aboriginal groups tried to maintain their traditional practices while other interest groups

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sought to access the same resources. Increasing use of these non-agricultural areas by sport hunters, commercial fishing industries, logging enterprises, tourists, and in some cases prospectors and land speculators, grew in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. These interests not only competed for the same resources from which the Indian population secured its subsistence, but they also influenced the governments of the United States, Canada, Wisconsin, and Saskatchewan to regulate traditional Indian hunting and gathering activity. Conservation commissions in both the United States and Canada went about the business of re-shaping the public perception of the acceptable use of fish and game. Traditional subsistence activity had little, if any place in these new fish and game management strategies. This was the case even though Indians in both northern Saskatchewan and Wisconsin negotiated treaties which they believed upheld their access to vital resources. The conflict over resources became acute in the early 20th century when governments in both places actively interfered with traditional activities. Such interference had the most dire consequences for the Indian people in both areas. The case studies presented here illustrate the historical antecedents of conflicts which still exist today. The Indian concern for continued access to natural resources has rarely been heard in its historical context. This study places the historic confrontation between Indian subsistence resource users and government resourcemanaging agencies in the context of the early 20th century conservation movement. The two areas studied here have striking similarities. The governments refused to uphold treaty promises and rarely listened to the Indians' demands for continued access to natural resources. This study explains how governments managed resources in their own interest and relates not only the struggle for access to resources, but also how Indians responded to government interference in their way of life. It is important to move beyond a comparative analysis of two similar tribal populations in a cross-border analysis. By examining two disparate tribal groups who negotiated similar treaties in two different eras but in distant geographic locations, a better understanding of governmental conservation motives and actions, as well as the impact of such governmental activity on Indian people, may be achieved. This study is a unique look at the impact of the early conservation movement on the subsistence needs of Indian peoples in North American non-agricultural regions. Gullickson, David P. M. (1990) "Uranium mining, the state, and public policy in Saskatchewan, 1971-1982: The limits of the social democratic imagination." M.A. Thesis, University of Regina (The). 219 pp. The purpose of this thesis is two-fold: first, to document and analyze the rationale for, and elements of, this uranium development strategy; and second, to examine the social composition of the supporters and opponents, beneficiaries and casualties, of this social democratic province-building initiative. This thesis adopts a post-Marxist approach to the study of the liberal democratic state in a dominion capitalist society such as Canada. The province's strategy was comprised of five elements: the pursuit of nuclear capital to locate uraniumrelated processing facilities in the province; the erection of a profit-sensitive uranium royalty structure; the creation of a provincially-owned uranium exploration and mining corporation; the appointment of two quasijudicial boards of inquiry; and the implementation of comprehensive surface lease agreements with mine developers. Furthermore, the thesis advances the view that this strategy was implemented in pursuit of 3 overarching objectives: to strengthen the provincial government's capacity to plan, pace, participate in and benefit from the uranium industry's expansion; to maximize the investment and employment opportunities available to Saskatchewan businesses and workers as a consequence of this process; and, from within a narrow "environmental management perspective," to ensure that this expansion proceeded without undue harm to worker health and safety or the environment. Gunther, Vanessa A. (2001) "Ambiguous justice: Native Americans and the legal system in southern California, 184890." Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Riverside. 208 pp. Since the inception of the United States, law has been a pervasive force in the development of the nation. However, while law helped to shape American culture, it was also used to attempt to destroy the cultures of native peoples. In southern California this destruction was acute because of the close proximity between native people and the whites that invaded their lands. Prior to the American annexation of the state in 1848, California had already established a pattern of disenfranchisement and dispossession. The mission fathers exploited the labour of the Indians, and in return had stolen native lands for their own use, all under the guise of Spanish law. The first California legislature continued this pattern of abuse with the passage of laws in the 1850s that compelled Native Americans to provide labour and access to their resources, while denying Indians any standing within the government of the new state. The result was the creation of a sub-class of people living within the state. The debased position of Indians within the new society was exacerbated by the

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prejudices of the white men who sat on the bench of the local and state courts. In many instances these individuals used the law to harass Indians within their jurisdictions, compel native people to labour for the communities the justices served, or forced them to leave their traditional homes. This upset traditional subsistence patterns of survival and prevented native people from being able to survive within their own lands. In addition to being attacked in the courts, Native Americans fell victim to European diseases and developed addiction to alcohol provided by whites. Combined, these factors tore at the fabric of traditional native life and upset the balance that had existed between men and women. The number of crimes in which native women suffered at the hands of their brethren increased over time. Despite the supposition that native people had no understanding of the white courts and were unable to comprehend the nuances of the white legal system, as the century progressed, many Indians used white courts to assert their rights. Gurr, Barbara A. (2004) "Win oye ya: An examination of American Indian women's responses of resistance to colonization." M.A. Thesis, Southern Connecticut State University. 111 pp. Despite the concerted and deliberate efforts of the United States government and culture, American Indian nations survive today as distinct cultures. In many ways, and on many fronts, American Indian women are responsible for this continued survival and burgeoning renaissance. Women such as Anna Mae Aquash, Janet McCloud, Winona LaDuke and organizations such as Women of All Red Nations (WARN) and the Indigenous Women's Network act as both the agents of change and the keepers of tradition in Indian Country as they resist the continuing colonization of their peoples. Quite often American Indian women's activism comes from a motherist stance similar to that described by Patricia Hill Collins as "motherwork" and stemming in part from the historical denial of their motherhood opportunities and responsibilities through boarding schools, coerced sterilization, and continuing removal of children from their natal families. Relying on traditional understandings of women's power and influence among their people, American Indian women's resistance to genocide and ethnocide can be found in art, music, and political and community activism from Pine Ridge Reservation to the 1995 United Nations Conference for Women. Gutiérrez, Gabriel. (1997) "Bell towers, crucifixes, and cańones violentos: State and identity formation in preindustrial Alta California." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California, Santa Barbara. 470 pp. This dissertation examines ethnic identity formation and state development in Alta California during the late Spanish colonial and early Mexican national periods. The extant historiographies of California Indians, Chicano/a ethnic identity formation, and Spanish Mexican nation building have produced conventional notions of Indian population decimation upon European contact, the rise of a Chicano/a population in the post Euro-American conquest era through downward social mobility (proletarianization and barrioization), and a presumed failure of Spanish Mexican frontera institutions. This study builds on recent studies and poses new questions regarding Alta California Indian population decline, the origins of Chicano/a identity formation, and the roles of Spanish Mexican institutions and elites in preindustrial Alta California. By utilizing court documents, government papers, personal letters, diaries, and other archival documents in the Santa Barbara Mission Archives Library, Santa Barbara, California and The Huntington Library, San Marino, California, this study concludes that Census records and other documents used to record ethnic and racial identity formation and transformation in Mexican and preindustrial California must be complemented with archival documents that demonstrate Indian Mexican human agency. In short, archival documents and secondary sources need to be re-examined and critically assessed. Finally, Alta California Indians Mexicanized themselves by responding to Spanish Mexican pressure to acculturate or assimilate into mainstream society. Spanish Mexican attempts to construct social, political, and ideological parameters and to convert Indians were tied to an attempt to reconstruct an Indian world view, make republicans of them, establish a working consumer class and establish social order through ideological conversion. An examination of Indian Mexican involvement and contributions to the military, as workers, and as consumers contributes to our understanding of the origins of Chicano/a history and identity in the present day American Southwest. Gutwein, Geraldine M. (2003) "Native American women and literacy: Looking through and beyond a thematic view of the landscape of literacy in six Lakota women's lives." Ph.D. Dissertation, Indiana University of Pennsylvania. 207 pp. This qualitative study explores literacy narratives of six Lakota women of the Cheyenne River Sioux Reservation in South Dakota. The four research questions focus on the emergent themes, the value of literacy, the role of literacy and the political and cultural implications of literacy in their lives. The themes of family and familial support, communication, and internalised oppression are dominant themes that reveal the

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complex issue of literacy in six Lakota women's lives. The value they place on literacy and the role it has in their everyday lives expands on the political and cultural implications of literacy. The close analysis of the audio-taped interviews reveals several things about the women's literacy development. First, the women attribute much of their literacy development and success in school to family and family support. Second, the women's concerns about written communication in the workplace are closely connected to a fear of being misunderstood, or creating responses that negatively affect the recipient of the transaction. Third, the consequences of internalised oppression create negative feelings; however, these negative feelings have not hindered them from achieving their goals in literacy and education. The women place an important value on literacy for themselves and their children and grandchildren. The value they place on literacy has much to do with their sense of self-worth and their ability to achieve academically in environments that did not always honour their cultural background. Becoming educated women is a political act; it is an act they believe works to breakdown negative stereotypes and preconceived notions of Native Americans. While each woman's story is different, the women who participated in this study are very much aware of the struggles people from underrepresented groups encounter when they are further marginalized through an inability to function in a society that values written literacy. Haig-Brown, Celia. (1991 ) "Taking control: Power and contradiction in First Nations adult education." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of British Columbia (The). 379 pp. This dissertation is an ethnography. It explores the ways that people within a First Nations adult education centre make sense of taking control of education. Michel Foucault's open-textured analysis of power frames the research. He argues power not only represses but also "forms knowledge and produces discourse." Control and power as used by the "new" sociologists of education, and the National Indian Brotherhood in its policy statement Indian Control of Indian Education further locate the study. Extensive use of the participants' words allows a consideration of meanings inscribed in discourse. The study is based on a year of fieldwork including interviews, observations and the researcher's direct participation as a teacher in the centre. It places expressions of people's understandings of control within a series of contextualizations. The centre exists in contemporary Canadian society. Documentary evidence of British Columbia's First Nations efforts to control formal education and re-presentation of the centre's twenty years of growth and development illuminate an historical context. The study examines the current significance of the building where students find "a safe place to learn." Biographies, furnishing additional context for people's words, situate the study in relation to life history. Their engagement in a variety of the centre's programs provides the immediate context. Students and teachers explore what it is to be First Nations people seeking knowledge which will enable them to make choices about employment and education in First Nations or mainstream locations. References to the document Indian Control of Indian Education reveal its continuing significance for those people who are taking control. Study participants identify as crucial many of the issues raised within the document such as Native values, curriculum, First Nations and non-Native teachers, jurisdiction and facilities. At the same time, their discourse reveals the complex process of refining the original statements as policy translates to practice and people ponder the implications. A final chapter, something of an epilogue, argues that the dialectical contradiction is a useful analytical tool for examining the dissonances which arise in attempts to meet First Nations needs and desires within a predominantly non-Native society. Hales, Brent D. (2000) "Looking across the generations: An intergenerational examination of problem behaviours among American Indian adolescents." Ph.D. Dissertation, Iowa State University. 117 pp. The purpose of this study is to examine the intergenerational transmission of problem behaviour among American Indian youth in a family context. The models used in the study replicate in part, intergenerational models of Caspi and Elder (1988), Elder, Caspi, and Downey (1986) and Whitbeck et al. (1992b). The effects of intergenerational parenting, parental antisocial behaviour, the presence of a male paternal figure, both mother's and target's age, and target's gender on the target's problem behaviour are examined. Support is observed for the intergenerational transmission of parenting practices and problem behaviours. Having and male paternal figure present in the household, mother's age, and target's age are also found to impact the target's problem behaviours. Halkow, Yvonne L. (1996) "Personal impact of residential school experiences on First Nations people." M.Sc. Thesis, University of Alberta. 212 pp. This is a qualitative, interpretive study that explored the memories of residential school experiences provided by 11 First Nations participants. Personal interviews were conducted, transcribed and analyzed for common

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themes. Narratives were written from each participant's interview transcript and related stories about residential school experiences using their own words for the most part. Discussion of the findings was organized around the interpretive framework of the symbolic interactionist perspective. Three common themes emerged: (a) having no choice: exemplified by participants reports about the institutional nature of residential schools and the maltreatment participants experienced; (b) emotional pain: expressed by participants related to their experiences; and, (c) survival skills: employed by participants to deal with residential school life. Incongruencies inherent in the differences between First Nations culture and EuroCanadian culture appear to have resulted in the formation of incoherent, confused self-definitions by First Nations people who attended residential schools. Quotations from participant narratives highlighted these themes. Participants' memories of their residential school experiences were found to be similar to other accounts of residential school experiences related by First Nations people, providing validation to the findings of this study. Hall, Anthony J. Tony. (1984) "The Red Man's burden: Land, law, and the Lord in the Indian Affairs of Upper Canada, 1791-1858." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Toronto. This work relates the history of Indian affairs in the Upper Canada area between 1791 and 1858. These years, which began with the creation of Upper Canada as a distinct jurisdiction within the British empire and ended with the passing of legislation designed to remove from some native people legal recognition of their aboriginal status, saw the emergence of an Indian 'civilizing' policy. Civil and ecclesiastical authorities sought to settle native people on reserves where they would be instructed in farming and Christianity. It is the analysis of efforts both to articulate and to implement this course that constitutes the major subject of the thesis. Such a study is fruitful in several respects. It illuminates the origins of an Indian policy that was later to be extended throughout the dominion of Canada and applied for more than a century. Furthermore, the record of the formulation of this approach to Indian affairs describes models that some of the province's most ambitious social architects were attempting to impose not only on native people, but on the colonial population as well. Finally, the energies directed at transforming the lives of native people were often extended into other spheres of activity in the colony. This process is particularly apparent among the Methodists, whose involvement with aboriginal people became significant in their advancement of more general educational policies and their promotion of the goal of Canadian expansionism. A chapter is devoted specifically to native people. Attention is focused on the ethnic diversity of aboriginal groups in the province, the frequency of their many moves throughout the Upper Canadian vicinity, and their reaction to all the 'civilizing' endeavours directed at them. Another subject developed throughout the work is the interrelationship of Indian affairs in Upper Canada with developments elsewhere in North America and in Britain. It is argued that important roots of Upper Canadian Indian policy lay in Britain's earlier colonial experience in the Thirteen Colonies. And in the first half of the 19th century the trans-Atlantic world of evangelical Protestantism provided the larger theatre in which missionary enterprise among the Indians of Upper Canada found much applause and support. Indian affairs touched the life of Upper Canadian colonial society and its relationship with the outside world at a number of vital points. Hall, Robert A. (1987) "The relationship between Aborigines, islanders and the armed forces in the Second World War." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of New South Wales. During the Second World War, the Services faced a dilemma concerning the enlistment of Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders: would they conform to the Commonwealth government's assimilationist policy and permit the enlistment of Aborigines who met enlistment criteria, or would they maintain their conservative ethos, arguing that Aborigines should not be admitted to military service? Aborigines and Islanders had much to gain from admission. Military service offered employment, overseas travel, trade training and other benefits. But most importantly, it offered a persuasive argument for the extension to Aborigines of 'citizens' rights'. While Aborigines and Islanders sought enlistment, the Services struggled with their dilemma. The absence of an Aboriginal representation within the digger myth suggests that Aborigines were generally unsuccessful in making a contribution to the war effort and that the Services resolved their dilemma by excluding Aborigines from service. To investigate this issue, the development of Service policies in regard to the enlistment of non-Europeans was examined and the extent of Aboriginal and Islander enlistment was assessed. The formation of other relationships between the Services and Aborigines was also examined. Aborigines and Islanders made a significant contribution to the war effort, but the moral value of this contribution as a means of securing improvements in conditions for Aborigines was not able to be translated into political pressure because of lack of publicity given to the Aboriginal contribution. Throughout the war,

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the Services remained undecided about the question of the admission of Aborigines. They resolved their dilemma by maintaining the fiction of opposition to Aboriginal enlistment in their official policies while at the same time enlisting Aborigines, forming segregated Islander units, employing Aborigines in de facto military roles and employing Aborigines as civilian labourers. Although formal Service policies denied Aborigines the right to enlist, many did so. Once enlisted, relations between black and white servicemen were marked by an egalitarianism seldom seen in pre-war race relations. Throughout the war, Service policy makers in senior Headquarters saw Aborigines as generally unsuitable for enlistment on the grounds that white Australians would not tolerate service with them. ———. (1987) "The relationship between Aborigines, islanders and the armed forces in World War II." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of New South Wales. During World War II, the Services faced a dilemma concerning the enlistment of Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders: would they conform to the Commonwealth government's assimilationist policy and permit the enlistment of Aborigines who met enlistment criteria, or would they maintain their conservative ethos, arguing that Aborigines should not be admitted to military service? Aborigines and Islanders had much to gain from admission. Military service offered employment, overseas travel, trade training and other benefits. But most importantly, it offered a persuasive argument for the extension to Aborigines of 'citizens' rights.' While Aborigines and Islanders sought enlistment, the Services struggled with their dilemma. The absence of an Aboriginal representation within the digger myth suggests that Aborigines were generally unsuccessful in making a contribution to the war effort and that the Services resolved their dilemma by excluding Aborigines from service. To investigate this issue, the development of Service policies in regard to the enlistment of nonEuropeans was examined and the extent of Aboriginal and Islander enlistment was assessed. The formation of other relationships between the Services and Aborigines was also examined. Aborigines and Islanders made a significant contribution to the war effort, but the moral value of this contribution as a means of securing improvements in conditions for Aborigines was not able to be translated into political pressure because of lack of publicity given to the Aboriginal contribution. Throughout the war, the Services remained undecided about the question of the admission of Aborigines. They resolved their dilemma by maintaining the fiction of opposition to Aboriginal enlistment in their official policies while at the same time enlisting Aborigines, forming segregated Islander units, employing Aborigines in de facto military roles and employing Aborigines as civilian labourers. Although formal Service policies denied Aborigines the right to enlist, many did so. Once enlisted, relations between black and white servicemen were marked by an egalitarianism seldom seen in pre-war race relations. Throughout the war, Service policy makers in senior Headquarters saw Aborigines as generally unsuitable for enlistment on the grounds that white Australians would not tolerate service with them. Hamilton, Jennifer A. (2004) "Indigeneity in the courtroom: Law, culture, and the production of difference in North American courts." Ph.D. Dissertation, Rice University. 205 pp. This dissertation considers how culturalist arguments are being deployed and interpreted in legal cases involving indigenous peoples in both Canada and the United States. Focusing specifically on three court cases, it asks how a certain kind of difference, indigeneity, is produced in both legal and extra-legal spheres. Rather than having a specific referent that is indigenous cultural practice and epistemology, indigeneity references the idea that indigenous difference is produced in particular contexts, in response to a variety of sociopolitical forces. The dissertation closely examines these three recent cases involving indigenous peoples, one from the U.S. and two from Canada. In each of these cases, the courts deploy the idiom of indigenous difference, indigeneity, in purportedly novel and unexpected ways. The dissertation argues that despite their superficial novelty, these cases are not especially anomalous; they are, in fact, part of continuing processes which rely on reductive multiculturalist discourses of indigeneity to continue to manage and even deny the existence of a colonial past and a postcolonial present. Hammond, Wayne A. (2000) "Canadian native adolescent solvent abuse and attachment theory." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Calgary. 245 pp. The purpose of the present study was to examine the perceived patterns of attachment of three naturally occurring groups of Native adolescents -- 56 solvent users, 80 poly-substance users, and 88 non-substance users -- and their attachment relationships to their parents and peers as well as to explore their perception of well-being and social adaptation based on early experiences with attachment figures. Attachment characteristics were assessed using the Adolescent Attachment Questionnaire (AAQ) and the Inventory of

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Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA). Perception of well-being and social adaptation characteristics were assessed using an ad hoc Solvent Abuse/Attachment Questionnaire, the Family Environment Scale (FES), the Culture-Free Self-Esteem Inventory (CFSEI-2), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II), the Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory -- Form Y (STAI), and the Personality Inventory for Youth (PIY). The results of the study supported the hypotheses that Native adolescents who abuse solvents would demonstrate the greatest degree of an insecure attachment pattern, show an insecure attachment towards both parents and peers, and exhibit greater degrees of maladaptive cognitive and affective difficulties, deficits in interpersonal and social skills, and higher levels of dysfunctional family characteristics and antisocial behaviour. Native adolescents who started to abuse solvents before age six were at the greatest risk of severe solvent use in their teenage years and reflecting a disorganized attachment pattern. However, as the age of onset for solvent use increased, the solvent users presented with a similar type of insecure attachment (preoccupied as opposed to disorganized) reported by the poly-substance users and lower levels of negative perceptions of well-being and social adaptation than those who started before age six. Results are discussed in relation to previous studies of attachment and developmental processes thought to characterize high-risk adolescents and theoretical explanations are offered for the differences in the degree and type of insecure attachment patterns and perception of well-being and adaptation in the three groups. Finally, the implications for practice, theory, and future research are outlined. Hannibal-Paci, Christopher J. (2000) ""His knowledge and my knowledge": Cree and Ojibwe traditional environmental knowledge and sturgeon co-management in Manitoba." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Manitoba (The). 364 pp. 'Cree and Ojibwe traditional environmental knowledge and sturgeon co-management in Manitoba' takes an interdisciplinary approach to synthesis of Indigenous sturgeon knowledge, history, and social and scientific knowledge. To some degree this research has been driven by information needs for a specific purpose: the viability of sturgeon is threatened, domestic harvest information is lacking, and the knowledge of the sturgeon and Aboriginal relationships is incomplete. The methodology bridging these gaps generates new knowledge for sturgeon conservation efforts, a significant contribution; however, the object of the thesis was more concerned with creating a space from which to consider Indigenous knowledge in sturgeon research. The thesis concludes that to better manage the fishery now and in the future requires a greater appreciation of the marginalized knowledge of fishers and an appreciation for the environmental history of the sturgeon problem. What distinguishes this approach from others is a concern for solving a natural resource problem by including history and culture into what has mostly been a scientific discussion. While integrating TEK into co-management may resolve the sturgeon problem in Manitoba, in practice such integration and its outcome remain tentative. Successful sturgeon co-management has yet to be undertaken. There is a struggle over management options for remnant sturgeon populations in Manitoba. Sturgeon populations are so severely impacted they require interim special protection. Meanwhile, federal and provincial governments are recognizing the inherent rights of First Nations to natural resources. Governments are obliged to manage fisheries with First Nations' interests in mind. The argument is made in the thesis for the necessity of sturgeon co-management both as a means of overcoming previous failures and as a way to decolonize the fisheries. The theory and methodologies used in the thesis are applicable to other environmental studies. Hanson, Randel D. (1998) "From environmental bads to economic goods: Marketing nuclear waste to American Indians." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Minnesota. 270 pp. Advancing scholarship on the Cold War's environmental and social legacy and Indian-White relations in the late 20th century, this dissertation argues that we are entering a new phase in Indian-White relations. New approaches to nuclear waste storage in our broader post-liberal governmental context include marketing them to Indian peoples as a means of economic development due to the unique legal status of reservations as sovereign nations. Whereas the colonizing, primarily agricultural period was based on an expanding dispossession of Native lands, industrialization witnessed a concerted re-focusing of attention on Native lands for the extraction of natural resources. In our present post-industrial era, neither land nor resources as such are being sought (although aspects of both continue); rather, it is the 'permission' to store nuclear and toxic wastes on Native lands. Chapter One explores how nuclear materials are usefully conceived as possessing a social life (social biography). The marketing of nuclear waste to American Indians is framed as one instance in the broader social life of nuclear materials. Chapters Two and Three establish the historical context for US-Indian relations. Chapter Two explores the

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period of initial contact by Europeans with American Indians in North America through World War II, tracing changes from how Indian nations were treated as political sovereigns by various European nations to the gradual nationalization of American Indian lands and American Indians by the US. Chapter Three explores expanded American Indian sovereignty in the wake of World War II in relation to internationalization processes, decolonization, and civil rights movements. Chapter Four investigates Reagan's 'New Federalism' and the privatization of federal governmental responsibilities surrounding nuclear waste, proceeding to show how this policy shift translated into marketing it to American Indians. Chapter Five explores the history of US-Indian relations in relation to nuclear technologies, tracks the changing nature of the US environmental movement, and examines these changes in Indian Country. Chapter Six examines the cultural and political conflicts surrounding the consideration of the storage of nuclear waste on the Mescalero Apache Reservation. Hapke, Holly M. (1996) "Fish mongers, markets, and mechanization: Gender and the economic transformation of an Indian fishery." Ph.D. Dissertation, Syracuse University. 232 pp. This dissertation examines the impact of global economic processes such as the emergence of an export economy and industrialization of production, on local fishing communities in Kerala, India. The approach I have taken has been to analyze the marketing and distribution of fish locally in Kerala and to assess the impact of mechanization-driven development on small-scale traders. Following Barbara Harriss, Clifford Geertz, and Florence Babb, I argue that an analysis of marketing processes is central to an understanding of development and economic transition and that State policies for fisheries development in this region have been inadequate, in part due to their failure to envision production and distribution as a single process and in their utter neglect of women's roles in the fish economy. My analysis of market processes in Kerala draws on work in both economic anthropology and economic geography and combines analysis of spatial factors such as location, structure and periodicity with sociological inquiry through the conceptual framework of 'place.' To this end, analysis of factors such as gender, caste-religion, and native place has been crucial to understanding the social relationships that constitute marketplace transactions in this region and the central role they play in mediating economic change and its the impact on particular groups of fish traders. The framework I construct for analyzing the impact of economic transition on small-scale traders is further grounded in an analysis of the household as the primary unit for production and provision of subsistence needs and, as such, as an important institution through which individuals are linked to the larger economy. An examination of gender and the manner in which it shapes how petty trading households are linked to market networks figures prominently in this research. My principal conclusion is that mechanization has changed the geography of fish production in Kerala toward greater centralization of landings in particular places. This, combined with an ecological crisis associated with overfishing, has transformed distribution systems in such a way that women fish traders' relationship to the market has undergone a qualitative change from household-based production and distribution to commercialized exchange. This change, I argue, has worked to marginalize women within distribution at the same time their labour in this activity has become increasingly important for household survival. This experience of women fish traders, in turn, requires a rethinking of development initiatives such that the needs of the household are privileged over the so-called needs of the state. Hare, Jan. (2001) "Aboriginal literacy: Making meaning across three generations in an Anishinaabe community." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of British Columbia (The). 157 pp. The changing functions, uses, and value of literacy in the lives of three successive biological generations of Anishinaabe residing in the same community form the basis of this study. Aboriginal people need and value western notions of literacy for participation in mainstream society. They are, at the same time, aware that western literacy has been imposed upon them, damaging their own forms of literacy which are closely rooted in their cultural traditions. The study describes three prevailing ideas about literacy among these seven sets of Anishinaabe families. The cultural traditions rooted in their relationships with land and family represent the understandings of aboriginal literacy for the first generation of Anishinaabe, the oldest of this study. These aboriginal women and men have constructed broader meanings for literacy that include print traditions and dominant languages, but also respect aboriginal ways of knowing and incorporate cultural practices that give meaning to how people live and make sense of their world. A shift in cultural traditions and language is apparent as members of the second generation discuss their understandings of literacy within the contexts of family, school, and society. Formal schooling attempted to supplant aboriginal literacy with the traditions of print in official languages that characterize western literacy. Western literacy becomes

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the means by which members of the second generation have re-asserted their rights to self-determination. The third generation, the youngest of this study, experience a greater orientation towards western literacy. The features that distinguish aboriginal literacy are in decline. At the same time, their hold on western literacy allows them to assert their identities and prepare for a future beyond their community. The thesis is intended to challenge western notions of literacy, which privilege the written word and English/French languages, arguing for broader conceptions of literacy which include languages, narrative traditions, and rich symbolic and meaning-making systems of aboriginal culture. Harris, Heather A. (2003 ) "Remembering 12,000 years of history: Oral history, indigenous knowledge and ways of knowing in north-western North America." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Alberta. 446 pp. Western academia has a long history of ignoring or denying indigenous methods of creating knowledge. Anthropology, in particular, has claimed the authority to represent indigenous people and their knowledge implying the invalidity of indigenous exegesis. In this thesis I attempt to reassert an indigenous voice by challenging western epistemological traditions which often deny the systems of theory employed in indigenous ways of creating knowledge. I utilize late Pleistocene-early Holocene oral histories of the Gitxsan and related peoples to illustrate my contentions. Many western scholars have presented these narratives as 'myths.' I contest that representation, contending that the Gitxsan and related peoples have their own methods for validating oral histories. I also present corroborating western archaeological and paleoenvironmental evidence which reinforces my contentions. I conclude that the Gitxsan and related peoples have been able to maintain an oral historical record that reaches back through 12,000 years. In this dissertation I argue that the position of the indigenous scholar within the western academy is paradoxical. Working within divergent western and indigenous worldviews, and the theories, methods and ethics which derive therefrom, makes the position of the indigenous scholar problematic. I present the idea that, within the range of indigenous and western worldviews, each has general principles which can be contrasted. Indigenous perspectives and approaches to knowledge creation are generally holistic, subjective and experiential while western ones include the principles of reductionism, objectivism and positivism with associated dualistic and evolutionary concepts. These principles have contributed to a situation in which the West has come to dominate much of the indigenous world politically and ideologically. In recent years, indigenous scholars have contested the representation of indigenous people and their knowledge by western scholars and have embarked upon a process of decolonization. That decolonization process has resulted in the development of indigenous scholarship based upon indigenous research agendas. Such research agendas call for new approaches to ethics, theory and method and new relationships with non-indigenous scholars studying indigenous topics. This dissertation concludes with discussions of: the possibility of establishing the study of culture from an indigenous perspective; advancement of indigenous theory and method; the development of new approaches to the ethics of research in indigenous communities by both indigenous and non-indigenous scholars; and how indigenous scholars must negotiate a space in the western academy and the indigenous community. Harrop, Alan R. (2000) "Native Indian Status as a risk factor for injury-related mortality in Alberta children." M.Sc. Thesis, University of Calgary. 109 pp. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine Indian status as a risk factor for mortality from injury among Alberta children, aged 0-19 years. STUDY DESIGN: This was an observational population-based epidemiologic study of injury mortality in Alberta children over a 10-year period from 1985-94. Mortality data obtained from Alberta. Vital statistics (pertaining to all Alberta children) were linked to Alberta First Nations Mortality Database data (pertaining to Indian children) to create Indian and non-Indian comparison groups. Mortality rates and relative risks were calculated for all injuries combined as well as for various subtypes (by intent and mechanism of injury). Patterns over time were also examined. RESULTS: After stratifying for age and gender, the relative risk for injury mortality for Indian versus nonIndian children was found to be 4.6 (95% CI: 4.1-5.2). Indian children were also found to be at increased for death from all intent of injury subtypes: unintentional (RR: 4.0, 95% CI: 3.5-4.6), suicide (RR: 6.6, 95% CI: 5.2-8.5), homicide (RR: 5.1, 95% CI: 3.0-8.5) and intent unknown (RR: 8.3, 95% CI: 4.9-14.0). Injury mortality rates appeared to decrease over the study period in both Indians and non-Indians. CONCLUSION: While death from injury is in decline among Alberta children, Indian children are at significantly increased risk for death from unintentional and intentional injury. Hart-Wasekeesikaw, Fjola. (1996) "First Nations peoples and experiences with cancer." M.N. Thesis, University of

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Manitoba (The). 317 pp. The purpose of this descriptive, ethnographic study was to explore the experiences of First Nations people diagnosed with cancer and elders' perceptions of cancer. The medicine wheel was the conceptual guide for this study. 46 informants living in four Anishinaabe communities were interviewed using semi-structured interview schedules. Content analysis of First Nations experiences with cancer occurred at various levels using three data sets: the individual with cancer, her/his family and community. The cancer experience was metaphorically characterized by 'the stranger.' Some examples of the themes are presented. In 'The presence of a stranger: The elders speak', the elders provided a historical perspective of the development and prevention of cancer in First Nations communities. 'Becoming aware: The stranger in the body' describes the informants' experiences when they sensed they had cancer. In the theme 'Making the stranger known: The healing journey', the informants identified traditional Indian medicine as one way to manage cancer in their communities. Some of the findings revealed that cancer is thought to be a new disease affecting Anishinaabe. Food is considered to be the primary cause of cancer and the loss of traditional values is at the core of cancer in First Nations communities. A range of metaphors reflected First Nations peoples' understanding about cancer. The most common metaphor used by the Anishinaabe in this study was 'manitoch' which, in the Ojibwa language, Saulteaux, means cancer-as-worm. Informants suggested that Western medicine is limited in its ability to cure cancer. First Nations people with cancer consulted one or more Indian medicine healers before, during, or after obtaining medical cancer treatment. Spiritual visions and dreams were important to First Nations people. Hattori, Anne P. (1999) "Colonial dis-ease: United States Navy health policies and the Chamorros of Guam, 18981941." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Hawai'i. 376 pp. Studies of early 20th century Guam history frequently hail the introduction of western health projects as a prominent example of the blessings of U.S. naval colonialism on the island. This colonialist interpretation has privileged stories of native disease, tropical health hazards, colonial benevolence, and military medical heroics. This research project re-examines the histories of medicine and health care experienced by both Chamorros and Americans on Guam in the context of colonialism. In an analysis of cases involving leprosy, midwifery, hospitals, and hookworm treatment programs, this study illustrates that the navy's introduction of western medicine and scientific technologies concomitantly influenced Chamorro cultural values, gender relationships, class delineations, political struggles, and economic expectations. Episodes marked by tension, uncertainty, conflict, and dissension, as well as displays of indigenous acceptance, rejection, appropriation, syncretism, and ambivalence should inform our understanding of the spectrum of naval health policies on Guam. Colonial dis-ease informed the relationships between Chamorros and Americans, as well as between navy officers and enlisted men, American men and Chamorro women, elite and non-elite Chamorro people, children and adults, and other cross-sections of society on Guam. Haughney, Diane. (2001) "Neoliberal restructuring, democratic transition, and indigenous peoples in Chile: The Mapuche movement in the 1990s." Ph.D. Dissertation, City University of New York. 462 pp. Sustained economic growth and a decade of stable, elected government make Chile a frequently cited example of effective neoliberal reform and successful transition from authoritarian rule. This dissertation analyzes the political consequences of neoliberal economic restructuring for processes of democratization by focusing on the conflict between Mapuche organizations and the Concertación government, which has supported industrial and infrastructure projects on indigenous lands. The military dictatorship (1973-90) carried out a profound structural transformation of economy and state, sharply reducing the state's entrepreneurial, redistributive, and regulatory functions and enlarging the role of the market in the provision of social services and the distribution of goods. This neoliberal restructuring broke with a 40 year pattern of import substitution industrialization and a strong welfare state. In the name of free market principles and national security, the military regime also imposed individual private property on indigenous communities and denied the existence of indigenous peoples in Chile. In the early 1980s, key opposition figures had criticized the social and economic consequences of neoliberal restructuring. By 1990, when the Concertación, the centre-Left party coalition that included many of those very critics, became the first democratically elected government in 17 years, party leaders chose to keep the main principles and policies of the neoliberal economic model, accepting it as the only viable path to development and modernization. The new democratic government pledged to reform indigenous policy by making a clear break with the military dictatorship's denial of ethnic diversity and its effort to open indigenous lands to non-indigenous owners. The 1993 indigenous law recognized indigenous cultures, established the protection of indigenous

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lands, and created a state agency for indigenous development. The law did not, however, provide for a comprehensive restitution of lands usurped from indigenous communities, nor did the Chilean Congress pass a constitutional amendment that would have granted official recognition to indigenous peoples. This dissertation's detailed case studies of the controversies involving the Biobio River hydroelectric projects and logging companies show that the Concertación government supported national and transnational corporations rather than upholding the 1993 law's protection of indigenous lands and cultures. The Concertación government tried to channel indigenous demands into economic and social assistance programs, while remaining closed to demands for collective rights that conflicted with the interests of large corporate capital and notions of national security based upon national homogeneity. This dissertation shows how, in response, sectors of the Mapuche movement have raised demands, not only for the recognition and protection of their lands, but also for collective rights as indigenous peoples, challenging the liberal conception of participation, representation, and equality as political rights exercised by atomized individual citizens. These sectors assert that the collective rights of indigenous peoples should be part of the conception of a democratic society, and that democratic society should allow diverse approaches to development. Hauswald, Lizabeth G. (1984) "The Navajo way: Continuity and discontinuity in contemporary society." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California, Berkeley. 373 pp. This dissertation is a study of social change on the Navajo Reservation. Open-ended interviews on childrearing, personal network, marital relationships, and the impact of separation and divorce on families were conducted with 92 adult informants, including 85 women and 7 men. A structured questionnaire was administered to 282 adolescents enrolled in the Window Rock, Arizona public schools. Information on urban and rural household and residence patterns, cultural knowledge, and religious participation was used to analyze the impact of change on Navajo families. Navajo informants' perceptions of separation and divorce, family violence, and generational misunderstandings reflect anxiety about cultural discontinuity and change in contemporary society. I analyze from a psychocultural perspective how individuals negotiate the stress and choices available on the Navajo Reservation today. Epidemiological evidence of maladjustment appears in statistics on morbidity and mortality, alcohol abuse, and homicide and suicide. Historical change in subsistence, residence, education, and religion has led to variation in the organization of Navajo domestic groups. In some instances, this change has resulted in a break in affiliation and interaction between family members and kinsmen. In problem families, subsequent impacts on childrearing and socialization lead to generational conflicts and irresolution in both adults and children as to appropriate roles and behaviours. Families that have successfully adapted to social and cultural change may exhibit either traditional or modern attitudes, or may integrate them in a bicultural orientation. Data on kinship, marriage and childrearing help determine which factors lead to successful adaptation in contemporary society. Continuity in kinship affiliation and religious participation are of particular importance in providing a stable childbearing environment. Parental confidence in childrearing and the teaching of clear values and goals provides children with the ability to flexibly adapt to a variety of social environments. Hawker, Ronald W. (1998) "Accumulated labours: First Nations art in British Columbia, 1922-61." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of British Columbia (The). 425 pp. In this dissertation I chart the conflicting and shifting assertions of meaning for Northwest Coast objects in Canada through a series of representational projects implemented between 1922 and 1961, beginning in January 1922, with the prosecution by the Department of Indian Affairs of participants in the Cranmer potlatch. The intersection between the concept of the 'fatal impact' or death of First Nations societies under European modernization, federal assimilationist policies, the government's exercise of disciplinary control, and the expansion of public museum collections was explicitly illustrated when the Lekwiltok, Mamalillikulla, and the Nimpkish peoples surrendered over 17 cases of ceremonial objects in exchange for suspended sentences for violating the potlatch ban. The dissertation concludes by examining the Gitanyow agreement, engineered between 1958 and 1961, in which Gitanyow laws, histories and territories would be published by the government of British Columbia in exchange for the removal and replication of four crest poles. The raising of the poles' replicas in 1961 coincided with Canadian parliament's approval of the enfranchisement of First Nations people, the theoretical end to the era of assimilation in Canada. These events bookend a period in which representation continued to be entwined with political and social conditions created by the Indian Act that depended on promulgating views that First Nations lifeways were

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vanishing. However, production of Northwest Coast objects retained significance throughout this period, such objects playing complex and multifaceted roles. Because of the symbolic and financial value many EuroCanadians attached to First Nations objects, 'art' proved an avenue for communicating First Nations-related social, political and economic issues. The objects produced or displayed between 1922 and 1961 operated through the projects I describe in the intertwined transformative processes of identity construction and boundary marking among individual First Nations groups and within Canadian national identity. Through these projects, important steps were taken in formulating two major characteristics of the post-1960 period: (1) a burgeoning market in Northwest Coast objects constructed as 'traditional'; and, (2) First Nations activism for land claims and self-determination using 'tradition' and 'art' as a platform in activism for land claims and self-determination. Hawkes, Susan L. E. (1995) "Co-management and protected areas in Canada: The case of Gwaii Haanas." M.R.M. Thesis, Simon Fraser University. 136 pp. The notion of co-management springs from recent critiques of conventional approaches to common property resource management. These state-level approaches have long been aimed at avoiding the 'Tragedy of the Commons.' However, a growing number of critics are questioning both their effectiveness and the fundamental assumptions on which they are based. At the same time, traditional, community based approaches to the management of common property resources are being 'rediscovered.' Over the past two decades, several co-management agreements have been negotiated with First Nations for fish and wildlife, particularly in the North. More recently, four such agreement have been negotiated for protected areas. One of these is the 1993 Canada-Haida (Gwaii Haanas) Agreement, reached between the Government of Canada and the Council of the Haida Nation after six years of complex negotiations. In terms of shared decisionmaking power, it is the most far-reaching co-management in Canada to date. Evaluative criteria against which to measure the Canada-Haida Agreement were developed from a literature review on common property resource management. A case study approach is used to describe the Agreement in its political, cultural and biophysical context. This case study is based on a series of multiple, semi-structured interviews, augmented with literature when necessary. Based on ten criteria, or principles of success, it is determined that the Agreement is likely to be successful (to achieve its goals) in the long term. However, the criteria concerning the Agreement's enforcement and decision-making provisions and the representation of third parties, are not clearly met. Hawkins, Carol A. (1997) "Urban circle training centre: An English language program." M.Ed. Thesis, University of Manitoba (The). 67 pp. This practicum experience is a study of an English language program developed at Urban Circle Training Centre, a program designed to employ Aboriginal women in banking, business and retail sectors. A problem arose when the materials to teach a 12 week English language program to this group of women was inappropriate and ineffective. The 14 women studied between the ages of 18-55 years were all on social assistance living in Winnipeg. The students were attending Urban Circle Training Centre to improve their skills and find employment. The major objective of the English language program was to develop both written and oral language skills in a program which integrated Aboriginal perspectives so that the students were better prepared for employment in the retail, business, and banking sectors of our community. Needs assessment questionnaires, evaluations and a review of literature were the primary sources of data collection. The results indicated (a) the topics were relevant; (b) Students oral and written communication skills improved; (c) Workplace employers found the students were prepared to meet the demands of the workplace; and, (d) Students found the format was interesting. From this practicum, I learned (a) the importance of relevancy in program planning; (b) the importance of critical reflection in learning; (c) the need for effective oral and written communication skills in the workplace; (d) that a meaningful experience can be created by developing an interesting program; (e) students move towards a greater degree of self direction in learning; (f) the artistry of education; (g) how to design, implement, and evaluate an English language program; (h) more about Aboriginal culture; and, (i) to be prepared to change the direction of the course to meet the changing needs of the learners. Hayes, Howard J. (1997) "Indian women, domesticity, and liberal state formation: The gendered dimension of Indian policy reform during the assimilation and allotment eras." M.A. Thesis, University of Arizona (The). 89 pp. The question this thesis asks is: How have non-Indian conceptions of masculinity and femininity shaped federal Indian policy during the late 19th century? The answer to this question lies, I will argue, in the

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process of liberal state formation itself; a process which necessarily involves the continued reproduction of gender hierarchies and systems of male power that privilege men and masculinity over women and femininity. This public/private dichotomy, and the system of gender relations it supports, restricts women's social role to within a highly circumscribed private sphere separate and distinct from the public sphere of economy and state occupied by men. Therefore, as a reflection of the overall process of liberal state formation, the process of incorporating Indian peoples into the American social, economic, and political mainstream undertaken during the assimilation and allotment eras, necessarily entailed the reproduction of Euro-American gender hierarchies within Indian societies. Haynal, Patrick M. (1994 ) "From termination through restoration and beyond: Modern Klamath cultural identity." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Oregon. 426 pp. The Klamath Tribes of Oregon were terminated from federal status in August of 1961. Earlier work documented the adverse social, economic, and cultural affects termination produced. This dissertation seeks to document what strategies the Klamath employed to achieve the reaffirmation of their subsistence treatyrights and the restoration of their federal status and if these two political victories have improved tribal social conditions and stimulated a cultural revival. The data used to answer the research questions posed were gathered by using the historical and participant-observer methods and by conducting interviews with tribal members. In order to employ the historical method, pertinent published and unpublished documents from tribal and other sources were examined. The participant-observer method involved the researcher's attendance at various tribal government meetings, General Council sessions, and cultural events. The collected data were then interpreted within the framework of a model labelled as reformative adaptation. This model makes use of the acculturation and cultural renascence processes in a way which demonstrates that both processes are simultaneously shaping modern Klamath culture change. The data collected reveal that the Klamath used political activism, a primary component of the cultural renascence process, to secure the reaffirmation of treaty-rights in federal court and the restoration of their federal status by an act of Congress. Specifically, the Klamath used transcultural techniques which involve acculturating to the dominant society's political system and using strategies whose origins lay within the dominant society -- such as lobbying local, state, and federal politicians, bringing suit in federal court, letter writing campaigns, and the use of the mass media -- in order to obtain their political victories. Further analysis of the data demonstrates that the Klamath have been able to use the federal funds and programs, which restoration provides access to, to begin improving tribal social conditions. Finally, the data reflect that the Klamath political victories have strengthened Klamath cultural identity, which in turn has stimulated the emergence of a 'neotraditional culture.' A neotraditional culture being a mosaic of indigenous, pan-Indian, and western cultural patterns along with contemporary innovations. Haynes, Jeanette. (1997) "An oral history of the social construction of Cherokee identity." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of New Mexico (The). 283 pp. Ethnic identity issues were investigated within a small community of mixed-blood Cherokee in northeastern Oklahoma utilizing the qualitative method of oral history interviewing. The study was conducted to investigate how individuals make meaning of their identity and what influenced their ethnic identity formation. The 17 participants were between the ages of 58 and 83; eight women and nine men. They were selected on the basis of having attended school in the community and having Cherokee (blood) ancestry. Blood quantum ranged from 7/8ths to one 64th Cherokee: two participants were not enrolled with the Cherokee Nation. Two interviews were conducted with each participant and a third interview was conducted with eight. To conduct a holistic study, the environment or external factors that influenced the individual were investigated as well as the elements of time and history. Four areas were studied: national attitudes and policies toward Native Americans, socialization and attitudes in the home, cultural issues in the school, and attitudes toward Native Americans in the community. Analysis was done by employing the constant comparative method from Glaser and Strauss (1967). Using a theoretical framework of Identity Politics and Spring's (1996) theory of Ideological Management, the data revealed that the participants' present identities were affected by historical issues and constructs of assimilation, low native population, patriarchy, loss of the Cherokee language, Christianity, silencing, shame and pride, social acceptance, social class and social status, information, curriculum, and media images, physical appearance and stereotypes, and identity and definitions. Hazlehurst, Kayleen M. (1990) "Political expression and ethnicity: The state of the art in the Mäori world." Ph.D.

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Dissertation, University of Toronto. 535 pp. This thesis explores ethno-politics and the indigenous experience in contemporary New Zealand, against a background of tradition Mäori social organization and the history of Mäori and Pakeha (Euro-New Zealand) relations from the mid 19th century until the early 1980s. Rapid population growth and urbanization of the Mäori created new contexts for inter-tribal leadership and new domains of activity in the national political arena. Radical demands were articulated and sustained through the 1970s for a more equitable share of power and resources. Involvement of the Mäori in the country's parliamentary and party political system provided the training ground and spring board for modern Mäori politicians. Mäori MPs moved easily in the two worlds of Mäori and Pakeha politics, and several styles of Mäori political leadership may be discerned in the complex of political structures and networks. In 1980 a long serving MP, Matiu Rata, broke with the Labour Party to form the first Mäori political party, Mana Motuhake. The thesis examines the formation of this party, its first by-election campaign and a subsequent quest for parliamentary seats in the 1981 general election. Mana Motuhake's political strategies, goals, rhetoric, operational modes, and structures are analysed, with particular emphasis on the nature and limits of its appeal to the Mäori electorate. The reaction of the other parties to the formation of Mana Motuhake, and the perceived meaning of these developments for future power sharing between Mäori and Pakeha are documented. The emergence of Mana Motuhake is presented as a case study in political ethnicity. It is also viewed comparatively as a fledgling party attempting to redefine political agendas and generate new allegiances within a stable democratic system. Heaman, Maureen I. (2001 ) "Risk factors for spontaneous preterm birth among aboriginal and non-aboriginal women in Manitoba." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Manitoba (The). 284 pp. In the province of Manitoba, the incidence of preterm birth (PTB) has been increasing and is about 17% higher among aboriginal than non-aboriginal women. The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors for spontaneous PTB in Manitoba women, and to compare risk factors among aboriginal and non-aboriginal women. A case-control study was conducted at two tertiary care hospitals in Winnipeg, Manitoba. Cases were women who delivered a live singleton infant at less than 37 weeks gestation following spontaneous labour, while controls delivered between 37 and 42 weeks gestation. A ratio of two controls per every case was used, and stratified sampling by race was employed. An interview was conducted with each subject on the postpartum unit and information was collected from the health record. Data were analyzed using SPSS and SAS. There were 226 cases (36% aboriginal) and 458 controls (38% aboriginal). Using stratified analyses, adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Significant risk factors for PTB across both strata, after controlling for race, included: previous PTB, two or more previous spontaneous abortions, hospitalization during pregnancy, gestational hypertension, vaginal bleeding after 12 weeks gestation, smoking in the month prior to pregnancy, short stature, low total weight gain during pregnancy (less than 20 pounds), and inadequate prenatal care. Risk factors for non-aboriginal women included abuse during pregnancy, low support from others, low self-esteem, rupture of membranes (ROM) before labour, and moving two or more times in the last year. Risk factors for aboriginal women included ROM before labour, high perceived stress, and anemia, while age less than 19 years and single marital status were protective factors. After adjusting for other factors in a multiple logistic regression model, significant modifiable risk factors included smoking prior to pregnancy (AOR 1.69), low weight gain (AOR 3.41), and inadequate prenatal care (AOR 3.36). The population attributable risk was 24.5% for smoking prior to pregnancy, 22.3% for low weight gain, and 15.9% for inadequate prenatal care. This study identified some modifiable risk factors for PTB which can be targeted for public health interventions, and contributed to our understanding of differences in risk factors among aboriginal and non-aboriginal women. Heber, Robert W. (1989) "Chipewyan ethno-adaptations: Identity expression for Chipewyan Indians of northern Saskatchewan." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Manitoba (The). Chipewyan Indians of northern Saskatchewan, Canada are experiencing rapid social and cultural change. One area of change is in social identity expression as ethnicity. This study makes use of an ethnohistorical approach to trace continuities and change in expressions of ethnicity for Chipewyan Indians from prehistoric to contemporary times. Comparisons are made in ethnohistorical processes and ethno-ecological adaptations between sub-populations of Chipewyan to determine similarities and differences in ethno-adaptation by regional groups within the Chipewyan collective. Research was carried out for this study using historical information supported by ethnographic observations of two regional Chipewyan populations, the Buffalo

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River people of the Upper Churchill River and Caribou-Eater Chipewyan of the Athabasca Basin. The research demonstrates that while Chipewyan Indians share common features of ethnicity, sub-populations express distinct identity features that can be traced to different adaptive processes over space and time. Heckler, Serena L. (2001 ) "The ethnobotany of the Piaroa: Analysis of an Amazonian people in transition." Ph.D. Dissertation, Cornell University. 356 pp. This work is a comparative study of the ethnobotany of three Piaroa communities situated in the Manapiare Valley region of Estado Amazonas, Venezuela. In order to navigate a successful transition from a subsistence economy to one based upon cash, indigenous Amazonians must adjust their social workings in many profound ways. This work examines Piaroa use of botanical resources as a measure of such intense social adjustments. The three communities are compared with respect to how several aspects of acculturation, including sedentarization, involvement in a market economy and women's roles affect Piaroa Traditional Ethnobotanical Knowledge (TEK). The study found that TEK and use of wild plant resources is decreasing dramatically in response to social changes. Agriculture, however, is increasing in importance due to a focus on cash agriculture as a means of entering the market economy. Despite increased importance, the plant diversity of the average garden decreases in cash gardens, subsistence gardens and home gardens. This is partly due to labour constraints on the part of men, who focus their attention on market agriculture and manual labour. It is also due to women's tendency to no longer view the garden as their main creative act and the means by which their success as women is measured. The prominence of home gardens as loci of innovation greatly increases. Even though the overall emphasis on agriculture decreasing in diversity certain women remain 'hobbyists' and maintain complex and diverse agricultural systems. This practice was more common before intensive contact with Venezuelan national culture. Contrary to conventional wisdom, the traditional swidden/fallow agriculture is more than a subsistence system limited by ecological constraints. Traditional agriculture is far more elaborate than necessary for basic subsistence, providing additional benefits such as aesthetics, status and personal pleasure to the Piaroa. Throughout the course of the work, it is questioned whether or not TEK is of significant value in helping the Piaroa enter the market economy. Rather it is suggested that TEK is a fundamental part of Piaroa culture and that to separate it from the cultural framework is to deprive it of meaning. Herman, A. Douglas K. (1995) "Kalai'aina: Carving the land: Geography, desire and possession in the Hawai'ian islands." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Hawai'i. 587 pp. Kalai'aina (lit. 'carving the land'), the Hawai'ian word for 'politics,' reflects the pre-western tradition of dividing the control of land in the Islands. This linguistic link between land and power is extended to include geographic representation, the discursive 'carving the land.' Reflecting these three readings of 'kalai'aina,' the colonization of the Islands is then analysed in terms of the land in ways that enable the dispossession of the Hawai'ian people. Colonialism is considered as the re-constitution of society and space as found in language, religion, scientific epistemologies, geographic thought, sacred spaces and symbolic landscapes. The discussion is framed within a consideration of geography the discipline and geography the practice, seen as re-writing the earth into a hegemonic and culturally specific world view. The first part then looks at the encompassing of the islands into western geographic discourse and texts, resulting in desire for the 'underutilized' land and the 'strategic' location. The feminising aspect of this desire is strongly evoked. The second part then approaches the representations of bodies -- of native Hawai'ians, and later of imported labourers. The interplay of geography with racial science, the depopulation of the indigenous people from introduced diseases, and the emergence of a socio-ethnic hierarchy with a white elite are elucidated. The interplay between science, religion, and geography, and the way these three are intertwined results in the Western definition of 'knowledge' and the constitution of the world. Indigenous knowledge is cast as superstition and ignorance. Hawai'ian language itself is re-formed to fit western needs. A study of Hawai'ian place names continues on this theme, looking more closely at language and land. Finally, colonization is read in terms of a change in the 'law,' from the kapu system of old to the government of the United States. Language, history, and landscape are re-read to show that, despite two centuries of discourse to the contrary, the management of power, of control of land, and of sacred space has not substantially changed in structure, despite the shift in sovereignity. Hermes, Suzanne S. (2001 ) "A cosmological and psychological portrayal: An integration of psyche, culture, and creativity." Ph.D. Dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute. 280 pp. Carl Jung was one of the first therapists to propose that the symbolism produced by his patients and symbolism found in varying world cosmologies had commonalties. These universal symbolic elements have

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been shown to correspond to the cosmic archetypes found throughout worldwide cultures and are often demonstrated through ritual, imagery, and the creative arts. This dissertation is a phenomenologically based discourse using a hermeneutic method to explore the impressions of the culturally relevant creative arts with Native American Indians who demonstrate significant at-risk behaviour. Past programs that focused on pathology and symptomatology have not been effective in ameliorating the tragic legacy of the American Indian. Despite what appears to be much investment of money, time, personnel, and programs, Native American Indians still suffer from some of the highest rates of at-risk behaviour, to include suicide, domestic violence, accidents, ill-health, and poverty in our country. The focus has for too long not served the needs or worldviews of Native Americans. This author believes that risky behaviour, which has been part of the Native legacy, is a mask that has been used in attempt to cover and at times to soothe the incredible soul wound that has been oozing for generations. The medicine for such a wound has been sought through the ways of Western medicine. This, however, is not the only source of healing. There is within the ancient psyche of Native America an extremely strong cultural heritage. By integrating this heritage within an application of the analytical psychology of Carl Jung, a powerful collaboration can transpire. A culturally relevant creative arts program is one means to illustrate the symbolism, imagery, cosmology, poetry, art, and music of a civilization that has thrived on the symbolic languages of the soul. Tribes have within their own structures a wealth of resources that need only to be revived in order for their power to be realized. Besides culturally relevant arts, sweat lodges and talking circles were also implemented, as a means of accessing the wounded psyche and empowering those at risk through culturally relevant experiences. Utilizing a hermeneutic methodology that cultivates a cross-fertilization of cross-cultural ideologies, authentic visions based on the strengths and not the pathologies of American Indians were established. Culturally specific integration of cross-cultural relationships allowed for empowerment of individual and community resources. The analytical psychology of Carl Jung opened wide the doors of inquiry, as each culture draws on the symbolic life of their own roots. To Walk In Beauty for the contemporary Native American is to be able to walk not only in two worlds, but also in the all inclusive millennium moccasins. This study has given us a base to work with Native Americans, as well as other cultures that are experiencing transformation, in order to resonate with their more authentic self. Hertzler, Douglas C. (2002) "Agrarian cultures of solidarity: Campesino unions and the struggle for land and community development in Santa Cruz, Bolivia." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Iowa (The). 444 pp. Recent social movements theory has led researchers away from an emphasis on class as the basis for understanding of collective actors and brought into focus the far greater diversity of social categories around which people mobilize in order to reach group goals and shape social change. Some theorists, however, have moved beyond the critique of class reductionism to assert that conceptualizations to contemporary social movements and their participants. The main finding of this dissertation is that class solidarity remains relevant to rural social movements in Bolivia, even during a period of growing consciousness of the history of colonialism, racism, and their collective experience as dominated aboriginal cultures. This dissertation analyzes the efforts of Andean and native lowland peasant settlers, who speak primarily Quechua and Spanish, to build and maintain organizations that democratize their own communities while challenging a profoundly unjust distribution of power, land, and other resources. It presents evidence that rural people are readily able to organize themselves across divisions of ethnicity/race/culture, on the basis of perceived similar material position in a system of inequality. It also examines how contemporary concepts of class, ethnicity, 'race,' and nation have been shaped through their shifting use in the course of Bolivia history, and how these social categories constructed by elites are sometimes contested or transformed in the discourse of non-elite actors in the local context. Dominant constructions of gender limit women's political participation, but these gender constructions are contested as women form their own organizations and struggle for a greater role within the settlers' unions. Through an approach centred on local and regional history of movement organization, this dissertation aims to provide a basis for understanding the large-scale rural protests that have occurred in Bolivia in recent years. In keeping with anthropological approaches to political economy, it contextualizes social relations in the tropical lowland region by tracing concrete international economic and political linkages and demonstrating their embeddedness in historical struggles for land and power from the colonial era to the present.

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Hess, Elizabeth A. (1985 ) "Native employment in northern Canadian resource towns: The case of the Naskapi in Schefferville." M.A. Thesis, McGill University. This thesis examines the employment experience of the Naskapi Indians in the 25 years following their relocation to Schefferville, Québec, in 1956. To examine the underlying causes of the concentration of unemployment and underemployment among the native segment of the labour force, the thesis develops a 'conjunctural approach' which views the employment situation of the Naskapis as a historical and geographical conjuncture of two dynamics: multinational resource capital and the native subsistence ecology, which interact at the point of the labour process. Within this context, the thesis focuses on two principal factors in the Naskapi's marginal participation in wage labour. The first is the conditions of profitability which necessitate capitalobility and the consequent instability of employment in northern resource industries. The second is the hierarchical and segmented nature of the labour process, which shaped the marginal position of the Naskapi within the labour force. Hess, Franke S. (1990) "Explaining international movements: A study of global activism among the world's indigenous peoples." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Maryland College Park. 456 pp. The estimated 300 million indigenous people of the world are, according to indigenous representatives to a 1974 world conference, distinct ethno-cultural groups descended from aboriginal, pre-colonial inhabitants of an area who do not now control their own political destiny. The movement to internationalize concern for their survival draws attention to a broader pattern of dominance by western political and economic institutional actors and the marginalization of non-western peoples and cultures. As 'conquered' peoples, indigenous groups are among the most vulnerable. This pattern of dominance is not only physically destructive, but also frustrates basic human needs for recognition, positive group identity, and self-esteem, leading to profound social-psychological alienation and a host of attendant social problems. The questions raised by these developments centre fundamentally on the relationship between subjugated peoples and the state on a global scale. Part of the problem, I conclude, is that the boundaries of ethnic identity have served to define a core moral community, which, when channelled into state-building activity, produces institutionalized patterns of dominance and subjection parallel to the boundaries of ethnic identity. Dominant ethnic groups will regard members of their own group with moral preference, leaving non-dominant groups vulnerable to the destructive force of moral exclusion at worst, and second-class political and economic status at best. In order to rectify this situation, the state, and the community of states must redefine the basis of moral community by expanding its boundaries through the promotion of legal protections, including cultural, social, economic and political rights given the force of national and international legal recognition. Through a series of international conferences, and by appealing directly to international institutions, indigenous activists are cultivating increasing support for such a program of legal protection. I analyze these developments from the perspective of an international movement directed toward the normative basis of an international political community. To account for normative global movements, which might also include the anti-slavery activism of the 19th century, or recent efforts by environmental and peace groups, I develop a 'world society' model of international politics. Hicks, Bentley G. (1995) "Interests and the public interest in law and public policy: A case study in aboriginal policy in Canada." M.A. Thesis, Carleton University. 178 pp. This thesis is an examination of the current state of federal aboriginal policy within Canada. It assesses the degree to which current aboriginal policy initiatives take cognizance of broader non-aboriginal concerns, and the extent to which these concerns might be considered expressions of a 'public interest.' The thesis analyzes aboriginal self-government and comprehensive land claims policy in order to determine where and to what extent they make provision for the consideration of other interests that might bear on the implementation and application of these policies at the broader social level. The thesis considers the crisis of legitimacy that is affecting all aboriginal policy initiatives that relate to selfdetermination. Recent attempts by the federal government to reconcile underlying aboriginal sentiments for self-determination with non-aboriginal concerns regarding the political integrity of the established Canadian order have had, at best, modest success. New methods both of identifying and reconciling aboriginal and non-aboriginal interests must be found, if future aboriginal policies are to ward off increased social and cultural isolation. Hildebrand, Denise. (2003) "Staff perspectives of the Aboriginal residential school experience: A study of four Presbyterian schools, 1888-1923 ." M.A. Thesis, University of Manitoba (The). 353 pp. Despite the growing body of literature regarding residential schools, few studies have focused on the men

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and women who staffed the schools. This study is a detailed examination of the staff members of four Presbyterian-run boarding schools and their experiences from 1888 to the early 1920s. By using Presbyterian Church and Department of Indian Affairs documents, this study has reconstructed the staff perspective of the early decades of residential schooling. The findings reveal that residential school employment, regardless of position, was very stressful. All positions, and particularly that of the principal, entailed a diversity of duties and responsibilities. Too often staff members were unprepared for at least some of the tasks expected of them. The findings also reveal the inhospitable working conditions that existed, which were due largely to the lack of financial support. In some cases, parental opposition contributed to the pressure, as did strained staff relations. Not surprisingly, the majority cited illness as the reason for resigning. It is suggested that more congenial working conditions would have resulted in better management and possibly, less physical abuse of students. It is also argued that staff experiences varied greatly depending on the school at which one was employed. Hill, Dawn J. (1995) "Lubicon Lake nation: Spirit of resistance." Ph.D. Dissertation, McMaster University. 209 pp. There are four objectives of this dissertation. The first is addressing the native perspective and how that influences both the methodology and theoretical context. The second is developing a context that is both relevant to the Lubicon and myself, as well as the social sciences. The third is describing the field research in Little Buffalo, Alberta over a five-year period, and how spirituality and culture shapes not only perceptions but human behaviour which is identified as resistance to dominant ideology and oppression. The fourth is providing the Lubicon Cree men and women with an opportunity to tell their story from their own voice. The conclusion brings together the spiritual-theoretical collective voice to address issues of representation and more importantly the very real experience of 'genocide.' Hills, Amber L. (2003) "Assessment, treatment, and recidivism of aboriginal and non-aboriginal offenders: A comparison of intra-familial and extra-familial male sexual offenders in Saskatchewan." M.A. Thesis, University of Regina (The). 144 pp. The sexual abuse of children is a serious social concern. It is commonly reported that one in four women and one in seven men are sexually molested before the age of 18. Men who have sexually offended against children outside of their families (extra-familial sexual offenders) are believed to be more likely to re-offend than are those who have offended against children within their families (intra-familial sexual offenders). If recidivism rates are indeed higher for extra-familial offenders it follows that the assessment and treatment protocols should be reflective of such. In the current study, 46 intra-familial offenders were compared to 52 extra-familial offenders with respect to three specific domains: recidivism rate and type information; the assessment procedures utilized by Saskatchewan correctional staff, and the treatment that offenders received. The noted comparisons were completed on a total sample of 98 male, intra-familial and extra-familial sexual offenders to determine whether or not there were differences between these two groups in the noted areas. Further, these comparisons were made between the non-aboriginal (n = 47) and aboriginal (n = 46) intrafamilial and extra-familial sexual offenders in response to the need for information about aboriginal sexual offenders. Overall, intra- and extra-familial offenders presented similarly in terms of their demographics; however, aboriginal and non-aboriginal offenders differed on several demographic variables. There were no associations between the groups and their rates or types of recidivism. There also were no significant associations between the assessment and treatment received, and the intra-familial and extra-familial aboriginal and non-aboriginal offender groups. Hindery, Derrick L. (2003) "Multinational oil corporations in a neoliberal era: Enron, Shell, and the political ecology of conflict over the Cuiabá pipeline in Bolivia's Chiquitanía." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles. 388 pp. With the spectacular financial collapse of Enron in 2001, Enron and Shell's Cuiabá gas pipeline gained international notoriety for degrading the last, most intact, dry tropical forest in the world, the Chiquitano Forest. This dissertation identifies and analyzes those specific actions undertaken by various stakeholders that were effective in preventing or mitigating negative social and environmental impacts of the pipeline. It uses this case, among others, to explore how Bolivia's neoliberal economic 'reforms' affected indigenous and environmental groups' efforts to mobilize against hydrocarbons projects brought by such policies. The dissertation concludes that these policies, which resulted in partial privatization of the state oil company, and expanded control over natural resources by multinational corporations, were responsible for a series of negative social and environmental impacts in the country. The analysis is based on an action-oriented political ecology approach, which examines the interaction between political interests, social institutions,

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and human-environment relations, with the aim of actively aiding vulnerable populations under study, namely the Chiquitano and Ayoreo indigenous communities affected by the Cuiabá pipeline. The dissertation begins with a historical geography of the region known as the Chiquitanía, highlighting struggles between indigenous peoples and external actors over natural resources, livelihood, and identity. Hindley, Jane. (1997) "Indigenous mobilization, political reform and development in Mexico: The struggle of the Nahua people of the Upper Balsas, Guerrero." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Essex. The last 25 years have witnessed the emergence of a global movement of indigenous peoples linking a multiplicity of organizations on common grounds of struggle against discrimination, ethnocide and dispossession and for general recognition of their specific economic, political and sociocultural rights. This reassertion of indigenous identities confounds predictions that 'modernization' and 'development' would reduce sociocultural difference and indigenous peoples would disappear, which guided the assimilationist indigenist policies prevailing during the post-war period in Latin America. Recent indigenous mobilizations together with political reforms conferring indigenous rights are leading to a reconfiguration of relations between governments and indigenous peoples across Latin America. This thesis addresses how shifts in the relations between government and indigenous peoples in Mexico, together with changes in the national political environment have created opportunities for indigenous mobilization at the micro-political level. In turn, grassroots action transforms ethnic political consciousness and establishes new forms of representation and mediation with respect to government. Such mobilizations alter the exercise of power in the countryside and open up possibilities for transforming local government. I explore these processes analyzing the successful resistance of the Nahua People of the Upper Balsas, Guerrero, to a federal development project -the Tetelcingo dam. In this mobilization, the newly-established legitimacy of indigenous interests, identities and representation provided strategic grounds for constructing a collective regional interest and identity; forging horizontal political alliances; and challenging the prerogatives of municipal, state and federal government. Hipwell, William T. L. (1997) ""They've got no stake in where they're at": Radical ecology, the fourth world and local identity in the Bella Coola region." M.A. Thesis, Carleton University. 251 pp. The Forest Action Network, a radical environmental group, began in 1995 a co-operative relationship with 'the House of Smayusta', a faction of the Nuxalk First Nation, geared toward ending industrial forestry on the Northwest Coast of Turtle Island (North America). The region has been exploited by trans-state (transnational) corporations for several decades, resulting in a badly degraded environment and a weakened local economy. The relationship between these groups resulted in logging road blockades and other actions involving civil disobedience. Discourses invoked by the environmentalists had the effect of silencing large portions of the local population, and involved problematic representations of the Nuxalk Nation. This thesis evaluates the relationship between the Forest Action Network and the Nuxalk in context of other co-operative efforts between indigenous peoples and non-Native environmentalists, and in light of ideas underlying Fourth World and radical ecology theory, and discussions of community identity. Hoang, Quyen. (2003) "First Nations people mining the museum: A case study of change at the Glenbow Museum." M.A. Thesis, Concordia University. 115 pp. This thesis is an examination of the representation of First Nations cultures at the Glenbow Museum in Calgary, Canada. Focusing on public display, I look at four in-house exhibitions that illustrate some of the decolonizing strategies Glenbow has employed following the controversial exhibition in 1988, The spirit sings: Artistic traditions of Canada's First Peoples and the subsequent Task Force Report, Turning the page: Forging new partnerships between museums and First Peoples, released in 1992. I engage the concept of museumism as a strategy used in all four exhibitions, an approach that uses the museum as a format to reclaim and revise history and shifts museological practices that once negated Aboriginal knowledge and protocol. Aboriginal participation in exhibition development has reclassified the museum from interpreter and preserver to facilitator and collaborator. The Museum is transformed into a space for dialogue where issues of representation, consultation, access and self-determination can be played out and anticipates a future of mutual goals and shared histories. Hochtritt, James G. Jr. (2001) "Rural Cherokees, Chickasaws, Choctaws, Creeks, and Seminoles in Oklahoma during the Great Depression." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Oklahoma (The). 439 pp. This dissertation analyzes rural Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and Seminole communities in Oklahoma during the Great Depression. It examines the impact of Indian New Deal policies in the areas of

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economic, education, health, and political reform. Moreover, it refutes the commonly held belief that the rural Indians of the Five Civilized Tribes were a largely landless people, starving and spiritually bankrupt by the 1930s. In fact, this study argues that those Indians who continued to live in the small, rural communities of the Five Civilized Tribes region relied upon time proven kin and clan networks to maintain their social and cultural traditions. This better enabled them to endure the economic hardships caused by the Great Depression. The devotion they showed to their communities and traditions also allowed them to assimilate or resist assimilation on their own terms as opposed to the terms set down by whites, more assimilated tribal members, or the federal government. In that sense, it is, more than anything else, very much a study of Indian cultural and social perseverance. Hogeveen, Bryan R. (1998 ) "An intrusive and corrective government: Political rationalities and the governance of the plains aboriginals, 1870-90." M.A. Thesis, University of Manitoba (The). 188 pp. In this work I have applied post-colonial theory and Foucault's ideas on government to analyze colonial governmentality and its impact on the aboriginals of the Canadian prairies. Most often, historians who have undertaken work in the field of aboriginal/government relations have attempted to unravel the ideological representations which constructed the aboriginals as other, along with highlighting how state policy marginalized Canada's indigenous people. My research has endeavoured to move the analysis of aboriginal governance beyond ideology and centralized state power by considering how the indigenous peoples were defined, divided out, and excluded from Euro-Canadian society. More specifically, I have tried to reveal how the traditional modes of aboriginal life were structured in diverse ways by both the political rationality of the Hudson's Bay Company and the 19th century Canadian liberal rationality of government. In so doing, I endeavoured to discern how law and practices of government, such as, techniques to govern consumption and agricultural programmes, intruded into the lives of the aboriginal peoples. By interrogating the practices and programmes by which the rationality of 19th century liberal government structured the modes of plains aboriginals life I have attempted to come to a unique understanding of aboriginal/government relations. Holden, Annette M. (1994 ) "Fourth world economic development: The establishment of capitalism in three Aboriginal communities in Cape York Peninsula, Queensland." Ph.D. Dissertation, Griffith University. 331 pp. Aboriginal economic development in Australia is examined through case studies of three communities in Cape York Peninsula in Queensland. For the purpose of analysis, Cape York is treated as an Aboriginal domain and the communities are treated as individual colonies. The central question of the thesis is "Is capitalism being established as the dominant mode of production?" It is not presumed that capitalism is or will be established in the Aboriginal colonies and so the ways in which the capitalist and Aboriginal modes of production frustrate, reinforce and transform one another in the process of articulation are examined. Thus the following questions are asked: (1) How exactly is the dominance of capitalism being established?; (2) What footholds for this dominance are to be found in the old relations of production?; and, (3) In what sense did the latter become transformed so as to fit in with the specific requirements of capitalist interests? And their reverse: (4) In what ways, if at all, is the Aboriginal mode of production remaining as the dominant mode?; (5) In what ways, if at all, does capitalism lend itself to the maintenance of the dominance of the Aboriginal mode of production?; and, (6) How is the capitalist mode of production itself modified as a result of colonialism? The state plays a key role in Aboriginal economic development. Government economic development policies are explained in the broader context of the role of the state in the colonisation process, which itself must be understood with attention to the structure of government. Aboriginal policies and also the policy-making process in Aboriginal affairs is examined and it is argued that there is conflict between the federal and Queensland governments. This is because the federal government has entered the era of post-colonial rationalisation while the Queensland government is still pursuing ongoing colonisation. The thesis demonstrates that Aboriginal policies are determined most importantly by the level of development of the forces of production under the jurisdiction of the respective federal and state governments and secondarily by the exigencies of their respective legitimation and fiscal responsibilities. Party politics is almost irrelevant in determining policy. The history of the colonisation process of Cape York is examined and found to conform to the first two stages of Petras' three-stage model of colonisation, borrowed from Third World economic development theory. Fourth World colonisation begins in the same way as Third World does but then Fourth World economic development takes its own direction. It does this because the articulation process, while initially determined by the logic of the capitalist mode of production, is increasingly consistent with the logic of a contemporary

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Aboriginal mode of production, which is defined and described in the thesis. Ongoing access to the traditional means of production, the small scale of the Aboriginal colonies, Aborigine's status as citizens within the nation of their colonisers, and the maintenance of traditional Aboriginal values, attitudes and beliefs are amongst the key reasons for why the directions of Third and Fourth World economic development finally diverge. This has implications for the relevance of Marxist theory to Fourth World economic development theory. In addition to assessing class formation in the Aboriginal colonies, state formation is also considered. Again it is not presumed that the state inevitably will support the formation of capitalist relations of production. The performance of the endogenous state as a bulwark to capitalism and its possible role in fostering alternative forms of Aboriginal economic development are examined. Holkup, Patricia A. (2003) "Native American elder mistreatment: A community concern." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Iowa (The). 279 pp. Using traditional ethnographic methods for data collection and analysis, this dissertation addressed two specific aims. The first was related to the issue of elder mistreatment among Native American people living on a reservation in Montana. Data from a community-based participatory pilot research project were analyzed to explore how elder mistreatment is perceived on the reservation, its contributing factors and ramifications, the current means of addressing elder mistreatment, and whether a proposed family conference intervention aimed at preventing and/or mitigating elder mistreatment would be acceptable to the people living on the reservation. The second aim was related to the research methodology. Data generated during the conduction of business for the cross-cultural research team that implemented the research project were analyzed to explore relevant scientific, ethical, and interpersonal team dynamics. Results related to the first aim indicated that elder mistreatment does exist on the reservation in the forms of exploitation, neglect, social service neglect, and emotional abuse. Contributing factors include historic trauma, depressed socioeconomic conditions, the impact of social change on traditional values, and the influence of family values held by elders. Punitive means of managing elder mistreatment fragmented families causing family discord. Prevention was seen as a desirable way to address elder mistreatment with positive support indicated for the family conference intervention. Community strengths that could contribute to the success of the family conference intervention were identified. Results related to the methodology aim indicated that the research team experienced four developmental stages during its work on the project: team formation, team expansion, team crisis, and team consolidation. Depending on the developmental stage, salient issues included experiencing distrust and trust, addressing bureaucratic barriers, coping with credibility stress, remaining flexible, learning culturally grounded means of intercultural communication, protecting the data, guarding against cultural misinterpretation of the data, managing multiple roles, maintaining a consensus model for making decisions, and nurturing team cohesiveness. Holland, Alison L. (1999 ) "'Saving the Aborigines': The white woman's crusade. A study of gender, race and the Australian frontier, 1920s-1960s." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of New South Wales. From the late 1920s until the 1960s a generation of white women reformers joined a campaign to 'save the Aborigines.' They were concerned to 'rescue' them from extinction, a fate which had previously been considered inevitable, and improve their condition and status within the nation. In this way, they were hoping to solve what was widely coined the 'Aboriginal Problem.' This 40 year campaign was part of a broader humanitarian, feminist and imperial reform agenda which, under the influence of new international ethics on the 'race question', sought the reform of Aboriginal policy in Australia. Influential to the white woman's response was the work of Aboriginal rights crusader, Mary Bennett, who waged a battle against the direction of Aboriginal policy in Australia in these years. Her critique was linked to a British anti-slavery crusade which had identified the frontiers of settlement to the north as the 'slave zones' of 'modern Australia.' In recovering a white woman's contribution to a 20th century humanitarian movement, this thesis is concerned to locate it within the contemporary feminist discourse around questions of gender, 'race' and imperialism. In recovering a lost female tradition, a white woman's defence of Aborigines, it assesses the feminist historiographical view, post Women's Liberation, that Australian women were blind to questions of 'race.' In tracing how the 'Aboriginal problem' fared in a white women's reform programme from the late 1920s to the 1960s it analyses the nature of feminist commitment, considering the ways in which a frontier politics influenced, or was influenced by, their input. Concentrating on the distinctive campaigns of Mary Bennett and other key women reformers such as Constance Cooke, Ada Bromham, Phyllis Duguid and Jessie Street, and moving beyond the inter-war years, it expands and qualifies earlier analyses. It demonstrates

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continuities and change in a white woman's campaign between the inter-war and post-war periods. Most importantly, it charts the demise of a gendered approach to solving the 'problem' by the eve of World War II. It demonstrates the way in which feminist engagement with a politics of 'race' after the war exposed significant differences in the nature of feminist mobilization, and traces Mary Bennett's contribution to this shift. Holton, Tara L. (1999) "The cultural construction of suicide as revealed in discursive patterns among aboriginal and non-aboriginal caregivers." M.Sc. Thesis, University of Calgary. 184 pp. According to current research, the aboriginal suicide rate is three to six times that of the rest of Canada's population (Kirmayer, 1994; Sinclair, 1998). The ethnocentric, non-Canadian focus of current research suggests the need for alternative approaches in order to elucidate the cultural and linguistic embeddedness of social phenomena like suicide. A discourse analytic approach was used to analyze nine hours of group interviews involving aboriginal and non-aboriginal participants discussing suicide and suicide prevention. The analysis focused on the identification of the manner in which aboriginal and non-aboriginal participants constructed suicide amongst aboriginal people. Findings revealed several hegemonic devices supporting the general construction of aboriginal people as “deficient” and of suicide as a symptom of this deficiency. This thesis concludes with an exploration of how this construction may be understood through the lens of post colonial theory, most specifically, Edward Said's Orientalism (1978). Hornell, Mark E. (1988) "Comprehensive native land claims in British Columbia." M.A. Thesis, University of Waterloo. Hosmer, Brian C. (1993) "Experiments in capitalism: Market economics, wage labour, and social change among the Menominees and Metlakahtlans, 1860-1920." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Texas at Austin (The). 649 pp. This dissertation results from my desire to challenge prevailing assumptions regarding the nature of Native American adaptations to European culture. While some scholars have begun to dismantle what has been a rather static picture of what was once called 'acculturation,' many works still assume that most native peoples had just two choices when confronted with change: resist and be defeated; or capitulate and forfeit one's distinctive 'identity.' In addressing this question, I chose to compare two instances where natives attempted to adapt to the capitalistic 'market system,' and in that process, found creative ways to balance the demands of a new economic order with more traditional ways. These two areas are the Menominee Reservation, where a tribally-owned and operated lumber mill constituted the centre of a vibrant reservation economy; and Metlakahtla, where, under the direction of the lay missionary William Duncan, a colony of refugee Tsimshians created a varied and nearly self-sufficient economy based on the exploitation of the resources of sea and forest. In both cases, natives laboured to exploit abundant natural resources to provide a degree of economic stability. Yet while whites encouraged these efforts, it is important to emphasize that natives, in both places, supported the introduction of resource-based industries and understood them to have social as well as economic benefits. This was neither acculturation nor assimilation but an effort to preserve cultural integrity through a type of economic modernization that did not sacrifice ties with the past. In the end, this dissertation challenges the notion that confinement to diminishing parcels of land always led to cultural degeneration or economic chaos. Blessed with abundant natural resources, Menominees and Metlakahtlans combined new with old and came to grips with change by adopting a strategy of purposeful modernization. Their efforts resulted in a measure of independence not realized by most Indian societies. Houle, Caroline. (1999) "Gestion coutumière autochtone face aux enjeux du nationalisme maritime: Les Mäori de Nouvelle-Zélande." M.A. Thesis, Université Laval. 124 pp. ['Aboriginal customary management in relation to maritime nationalist issues: The New Zealand Mäori’] This research was part of a much larger departmental project dealing with the identity centres of Mäori nationalism. More particularly, they aim to identity, from a structural and ethnographic point of view, the way in which the current issues in the halieutic sector reflect the strategies recently developed by the Mäori to consolidate their economic and political position with the Pakeha, a non-Mäori population. Based on recent work in social and maritime anthropology, the research will focus on the resurgence of aboriginal customary law in state-nation contexts strongly influenced by privatization. The subject of a growing body of literature pertaining to the territorial claims of several indigenous groups, it is eminently pertinent in the case of New Zealand. Not only is it a country considered representative of new capitalism

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strategies, it also has a significant halieutic sector in which the formal for individual quotas is the basis for management. In the Whangaroa region, the issues revolving around the adherence of the Ngati Kahu and Nga Puhi to legal compromises generate many conflicts that are representative of the transition situation in which several Mäori communities find themselves. Howard, Bradley R. (1999 ) "Indigenous peoples and the state: An anthropological analysis of an evolving political relationship." Ph.D. Dissertation, Indiana University. 369 pp. Indigenous peoples such as the Iroquois and the Mäori assert their rights as human beings and as unique, independent, self-determining peoples, insist on their collective rights as peoples, as proper subjects of international law, resort to the international community and international law for the protection and promotion of indigenous rights, and articulate their conception of what constitutes those rights. They are determined in their efforts to demonstrate the violation of their right to self-determination through various acts of colonialism and genocide. A vocal segment of indigenous representatives demand the re-institution of the treaty process as the form of negotiation and agreement between states and indigenous peoples. Neither national laws nor international law have been receptive to the demands of indigenous peoples until recent times. This dissertation addresses the following series of questions: Where do anthropologists and their theoretical perspectives stand on these issues? What impact have anthropologists had on the creation of national and international laws in the past, and what kind of actions are currently being taken with respect to the international movement for the rights of indigenous peoples? What perceptions of indigenous political entities, of indigenous sovereignty and self-determination, and of indigenous political history have anthropologists fostered? How have anthropologists contributed to the colonialist destruction of indigenous peoples in the past, and how might they appropriately promote the liberation of indigenous peoples now and in the future? Indigenous peoples have much to say on these issues, unmasking and denouncing fundamental misconceptions. A number of anthropologists critically characterize their profession historically as the progeny of imperialism, examine its links with colonialism in the continuing transformation of indigenous cultures and assimilation of indigenous peoples; despite links with colonialism, anthropologists, recognizing the existence and operation of indigenous political, legal and religious systems and evolving intellectually through close contact with indigenous peoples, have contributed to the progressive transformation of national and international law, and question the necessity and logic of the destruction of indigenous cultures and their natural habitats. At present, in the process of a possibly enduring metamorphosis in international law, a process that exposes the interrelatedness and interpenetration of anthropology and indigenous cultures with law, indigenous peoples profoundly contribute to the continuing transformation of anthropology, and promote an anthropology of human rights, of indigenous liberation. Howard, Cheryl A. (1991) "Navajo tribal demography, 1983-86, in comparative and historical perspective." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of New Mexico (The). 306 pp. Demographic and epidemiologic transition theories have offered descriptions of generalized changes in demographic patterns accompanying modernization. But, they have not sharpened our understanding of population dynamics within highly differentiated societies. Vital rates of American Indians have, for many years, resembled those of developing countries. The Navajo are the largest, most encapsulated American Indian tribe in the United States. They are a matrifocal society with an artificial (subsidized) economy and an imported health care system -- the Indian Health Service. Using 1983-86 vital statistics for the Navajo and other ethnographic, historical and comparative data, this investigation attempts to place the population dynamics of this society in cultural and temporal perspective. Despite the well-documented socioeconomic disadvantage of this group, female life expectancy and infant mortality rates were almost identical to rates for US whites. Navajo fertility, on the other hand, was more than double that of US whites, and the rate of natural increase was almost five times greater. At current levels of fertility and mortality, the population will double in less than 30 years. Navajo male mortality, however, is almost double that of females. Injury is the leading cause of death in both sexes, a reflection of the environment and a pattern of risk-taking behaviour in males. Mortality from these external causes is not easily amenable to medical intervention, as was mortality from tuberculosis in the early part of this century. The findings of this investigation suggest that the social structure of the Navajo offers women some protection from the deleterious effects of poverty, and provides a climate in which high fertility is not costly. Males are not similarly protected.

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Howard, Rosalyn. (1999) "The Promised isLand: Reconstructing history and identity among the Black Seminoles of Andros Island, Bahamas." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Florida. 181 pp. The Seminole Indians of Florida have been the focus of a substantial amount of anthropological and historical research that acknowledges the presence of Africans among the Seminoles in Florida, and in Oklahoma and Texas where both peoples were forced to migrate during the Indian Removal. None of them, however, makes more than cursory reference to those who fled to the Bahamas, the Black Seminoles. Africans escaping enslavement on the plantations of Georgia and the Carolinas began seeking sanctuary in Florida among the Seminole Indians in the early 18th century. They became allies against land-grabbing European Americans and slave catchers -- both European and Native American. Their harmonious coexistence led the Africans to adopt the name 'Black Seminoles.' Although the Africans had escaped the plantations, they could not avoid the persistent harassment of European Americans who threatened their return to enslavement. A small number of them ultimately escaped once again, sailing for the “Promised isLand" of Andros in The Bahamas. This ethnohistorical study provides insight into both the historical and the contemporary culture and identity of the unique community of Black Seminole descendants on Andros Island, Bahamas, and closes a void in the anthropological and historical records. The potential long-range benefit to the field of anthropology is that it will stimulate investigations of the dynamic cultural interaction of Native Americans and Africans in the African Diaspora, a subject which has been sorely neglected. Native Americans and Africans suffered similar fates at the hands of colonizing Europeans throughout the Americas and the Caribbean. Discovering the nature and scope of contacts between Native Americans and Africans in the African Diaspora, and how these affected the configuration and formation of cultural identity, is critical to an understanding of oppressed peoples of the world and to the analysis of cultural adaptation and social change. Howard, S. M. (1993) "Ethnicity, autonomy, land and development: The Miskitu of Nicaragua's Northern Atlantic coast." D.Phil. Dissertation, Oxford University. In 1987, after a prolonged armed struggle against an indigenous resistance movement spearheaded by the Miskitu, Nicaragua's revolutionary Sandinista government ratified the Autonomy Statute, recognizing indigenous land and cultural rights and granting rights of self-government to the Atlantic Coast under two Autonomous Regional Councils. The first Autonomous Regional Councils were elected in 1990. This thesis investigates the process of establishing regional self-government and the relationship between autonomy, ethnicity, land rights and development in the Regió Autóoma Atlático Norte (North Atlantic Autonomous Region, RAAN), with particular reference to the Miskitu. The research assesses the potential for achieving long-term economic development of the agricultural and forestry sectors, by and for the people of the region, in an environmentally harmonious manner and in accordance with local cultural practices. The study explores the concepts of autonomy and land rights held by different ethnic and political groups in Nicaragua and investigates struggles over control of the land and natural resources of the RAAN. Cultural practices of land and forest use in the indigenous communities and the development strategies of governmental and non-governmental organizations are considered. Theoretical approaches to dependency, internal colonialism, ethnic nationalism, Fourth Worldism, the moral economy, and sustainable development are drawn upon. The thesis discusses the structural constraints to autonomy at international, national and regional levels and evaluates the influence of specific Nicaraguan political parties and Miskitu leaders on the autonomy process. Huitema, Marijke E. (2001) ""Land of which the savages stood in no particular need": Dispossessing the Algonquins of southeastern Ontario of their lands, 1760-1930." M.A. Thesis, Queen's University at Kingston. 225 pp. Contemporary thought and current literature have established links between unethical colonial appropriation of native lands and the seemingly unproblematic dispossession of native people from those lands. The principles of justification utilized by the colonizing powers were condoned by the belief that they were commanded by God to subdue the earth and had a mandate to conquer the wilderness. The assumption that 'savages' were on the lower scale of humanity and must first be taught to use the land productively before they could claim rights to ownership further enabled the alienation of their land. The myth that native culture would not survive the onslaught of civilization and would die out over time provided a rationale for EuroCanadian settlement of native lands. Dispossession of native lands was frequently accomplished through discriminatory legislation and policies often intentionally designed to achieve assimilation and marginalization of Indian people. This legislation dealt almost exclusively with 'status' Indians or with the assumption that all Indians would eventually migrate to a reserve area set aside for them by government. Indians who chose to remain on land that was their

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traditional territory, but not specifically designated for their use by government were alienated through subtle application of discriminatory laws and indifference to their existence as occupants of the land. The Algonquins of southeastern Ontario negotiated unsuccessfully with government officials for over two centuries without resolution of their land claims and petitions for protection. By the late 1800s the Algonquin people had been forced to 'abandon their wandering ways,' and some relocated to the Golden Lake reserve in Algona Township. Many other 'bands' or groups of families remained dispersed throughout the Ottawa Valley and attempted to maintain a subsistence based on hunting and trapping. These natives were not registered with the Indian Department and remained non-status. With the depletion of land and resources, they eventually integrated with the settler population, yet managed to retain a connection with their cultural identity. The story of the Joseph Whiteduck Jr. nuclear and extended family in Ardoch, Ontario, portrays the circumstances surrounding the eventual dispossession of the family's traditional territory and their marginalization to the fringes of society. Hunt, Dale. (2005) ""We are all different, still living under the same culture": A Kwakwaka'wakw perspective on dispute resolution and relationship building." M.A. Thesis, University of Victoria. 98 pp. This research was developed as a result of all the family and community conflicts that I have witnessed within Kwakwaka'wakw societies. From growing up in a Kwakwaka'wakw community, I get the message that one family against another, internal family feuds, conflict of interest, bands separating, drug and alcohol abuse, etc. are all starting to play a role in the Kwakwaka'wakw way of life. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine whether there are traditional approaches for resolving conflicts that can help in the present day situation. Through an Indigenous based methodology and interviews with Elders, I identified six Traditional Dispute Resolution Approaches (TDRA), which are lecturing/teaching, storytelling, shaming, humour, digitah (cleansing rituals) and the Potlatch. Through a complete analysis of all ten interviews, I outlined 5 short little steps that can be taken to return to those traditional approaches. These little steps are: acknowledging and recognizing anger; respect; identity, collectiveness; and communication and the Potlatch. The message I received from the Elders was that it is our legacy as Kwakwaka'wakw people to continue incorporating these TDRA's and little steps into today's societies. Through these, relationships, peace, balance and harmony may be maintained in all areas of life. A deep understanding and respect for who you are and where you come from, and sharing and showing appreciation towards your family and community can be some of the answers to all the complications and complexities that are part of the Kwakwaka'wakw Nation today. Hynds, Susan J. (1996) ""In a circle everybody is equal": Aboriginal women and self-government in Canada, 18691995." M.A. Thesis, Trent University. 219 pp. This thesis explores the evolving role of aboriginal women within the self-government movement in Canada. By studying the history of the aboriginal women's movement, the effect of women's participation in the selfgovernment debate can be analyzed. Research involves the analysis of government and legal documents relating to amendments to section 12(1) (b) of the Indian Act, archival material from the Native Women's Association of Canada, and personal interviews with aboriginal women. The results of this research show that there is a well-defined aboriginal women's movement that focuses on the question of equal rights within self-government. However, although this women's movement contains elements of modern western/European feminism, there is a strong connection with pre-colonial indigenous traditions. The importance of cultural identity and the traditional role of women in aboriginal self-governance has served to redefine the debate over collective versus individual rights. The question now becomes how to include the individual within the collective. Ingles, Palma J. (2000) "Dancing for dollars: Producing food and entertaining tourists in the Peruvian Amazon." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Florida. 254 pp. This study focuses on four indigenous villages which hosts tourists in the northeastern Amazon region of Peru. Included in the study are three communities located on the Ampiyacu River, those of the Boras, Witotos, and Yagua peoples. The fourth village is another Yagua community located on the Yanamono tributary. The goal of this study was to understand the nature of daily life at the close of the 20th century for the families in these villages who derive some income from tourism. Research was conducted from June 1998 to September 1999. Surveys were carried out with families in each of the communities. Oral histories were collected regarding subsistence practices, lifestyles, life during the rubber boom, and interaction with tourism.

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The people in these communities continue to live at the periphery of development. They make their livelihood growing crops, hunting, fishing, and working with tourism. They produce what they need to provide food security for their families and they sell the surplus at the local markets. Families in this study participate in tourism for the income it brings in, although tourism does not provide enough family income to be the only source of income or replace other market activities. Limited tourism to these villages also offers members of these communities an opportunity to participate in ritual dance and ceremonies with others in the community, teach their children their traditions, and preserve elements of their traditional culture. If tourism to the area were to stop, families said they would need to increase the amount of crops grown for the market, adding to deforestation in the area by increasing the amount of slash and burn agriculture. All of these communities are undergoing cultural, environmental, and economic change as they become more involved with a market economy and state-sponsored education, work with tourism, and increase their contact with religious groups and other outsiders. Tourism may not be the answer to long-term employment and income stability, but for now, it can help families increase household income, preserve some of their cultural traditions, and protect the forest around them. Irvine, Kathryn E. (2002 ) "Aboriginal women and categorization: Themes in feminist theory." M.S.W. Thesis, University of Manitoba (The). 96 pp. The topic of this essay concerns the categorization of aboriginal women understood in the context of feminist social theory. The initial phase of analysis is an identification and elucidation of a theoretical issue in current feminist debate. Specific analysis is offered of the gender/difference debate in terms of its conceptual tensions and plausible resolutions. The outcome identifies the need for a methodology which justifies both general concepts (e.g., 'women,' 'gender') as well as those particular conceptualizations applicable to differences. The next phase of the analysis connects these theoretical concerns to an important social problem by an elucidation of the way in which the issues implicit in the gender/difference debate are applicable to feminist criminology, notably those concerns surrounding the category 'incarcerated aboriginal women.' The third phase of explanatory support for this thesis appeals to a contemporary writer's interpretation of Max Weber's view of 'ideal types' as a way to elucidate the meaning and justification of categories used by feminist social theorists. This view is found applicable to the feminist categories implicit in the gender/difference debate and specifically in the manner in which it illuminates the category of 'incarcerated aboriginal women.' In the final phase, a summation is provided of the use of Weber's ideal type in enhancing feminine discourse and revealing the misrepresentation involved in the category, 'incarcerated aboriginal women.' The category has functioned in a misleading way to characterize aboriginal women as different, marked and inferior; a misrepresentation which is ineffective in promoting meaningful social practice and policy initiatives. Irving, Linda D. (1998) "Rereading Marx: The left and the aboriginal question." M.A. Thesis, University of New Brunswick (The). 150 pp. The purpose of this thesis is threefold. First, it documents the positions of five left-wing organizations and four intellectuals regarding the aboriginal question. Second, it analyzes these positions to determine how the Left interprets Marx. Third, it offers a critique of the left's reading of Marx and provides an alternative understanding which focuses primarily around alienation. This thesis argues that the left's response to the aboriginal question reveals their theoretical interpretation of Marx. Their conception of aboriginal peoples and the oppression they face in contemporary society is derived from a reading of Marx which concentrates mainly on progress or the advance of the technical means of production. The left's reading of Marx does not take into account the robust dialectics that characterized Marx's critique of capitalism. By concentrating mainly on progress, the left's reading of Marx is one-sided. It cannot result in equitable solutions to the aboriginal question. This thesis suggests an alternative interpretation of Marx which focuses primarily on alienation. Isfeld, Harpa K. (1997) "Who and what is a Canadian Indian? The impact of Bill C-31 upon demographic and epidemiologic measures of the registered Indian population of Manitoba." M.A. Thesis, University of Manitoba (The). 203 pp. Adopting the premise that 'Indian' is a socially and politically constructed mutable concept, this thesis examines the implications of amendments to the legislative definition of Indian for the quality of registered Indian vital statistics. In 1985, Bill C-31 introduced significant changes to the registration provisions of the Indian Act. The implications of population growth and compositional changes resulting from Bill C-31 for

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demographic and epidemiologic rates have not been addressed in the literature. This study compares 1980 through 1991 registered Indian data for a sample of six Manitoba bands to distinguish differentials in compositional variables over time and across residence divisions and model these effects upon demographic and epidemiologic rates. The principle methodologies employed include direct standardization of mortality rates, life table analysis of mortality, and deterministic analysis of fertility and reproduction. These analyses reveal an increased proportionate contribution of the off-reserve population to the total band population over time, substantial decreases in standardized mortality rates, increases in life expectancy, particularly for offreserve females, and decreases in off-reserve measures of fertility and reproductive success. The observed trends and differentials are attributed mainly to increases in population without commensurate increases in mortality and fertility during the study period. The results of these analyses demonstrate off-reserve and total band data to be significantly flawed for the 1985 to 1991 period. Ishiyama, Noriko. (2002) "Environmental justice and American-Indian sovereignty: Political, economic, and ethnic struggles regarding the storage of radioactive waste." Ph.D. Dissertation, Rutgers The State University of New Jersey -- New Brunswick. 255 pp. This dissertation employs a case study method that examines the intricate political and ecological implications of siting a temporary storage of high-level radioactive waste facility on the Skull Valley Band of Goshute Indian Reservation in Tooele County, Utah. The goals of this dissertation project are: (1) to clarify the theory and practice of environmental justice by incorporating the notion of local autonomy in analysis of locational conflicts; (2) to bridge the scholarly gap between ideas of environmental justice and political ecology; and, (3) to examine tribal identity politics and struggles to retain sovereignty in the process of environmental decision-making at and across different geographical and political scales. Four premises underlie the theoretical framework for this dissertation project: (1) The existing discourse of environmental racism oversimplifies the complexity of the political economy of environmental justice; (2) The theory of distributive justice has dominated the scholarship of environmental justice; academics need to utilize and develop a theory of procedural justice; (3) The theoretical discussion of environmental justice has to incorporate the notion of local autonomy, in relation to the politics of tribal sovereignty and identities; (4) Political ecology enhances the theoretical foundation of the study of environmental justice. This dissertation takes an interdisciplinary case study approach to explore the question of environmental justice in relation to American Indian tribal sovereignty and self-determination. I have used archival research and interviews as the two major methods for this study. In conclusion, the contested Skull Valley geographies, which implicate assertions of localities at and across different spatial, political, and temporal scales, indicate that the scholarship of environmental justice has to specify the structural processes of capitalist political economy as well as communities' agency in pursuing self-determination. Given various political, economic, and historical issues regarding environmental justice, there exists no easy answer for resolving the Skull Valley conflict concerning the siting of high-level radioactive waste. Environmental justice scholars are encouraged to reframe their research questions to articulate the truly complex practices of political economy and historical colonialism over communities' struggles for self-determination. Ivanitz, Michele. (1996) "Co-management of resources between Whitefish Lake First Nation and the Province of Alberta: Social forestry and local-global articulations." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Alberta. 401 pp. Co-management of renewable resources between First Nations and the Province of Alberta is in its infancy. In 1994, a significant step was taken in making co-management a reality. This was accomplished through the signing of the Memorandum of Agreement and Memorandum of Understanding between Whitefish Lake First Nation and the government of the Province of Alberta, providing for a deciduous timber permit to Whitefish Lake First Nation and an agreement on a process to consult and cooperate on matters of mutual interest in the co-operative management of forests, wildlife, and fisheries. This research is a study of process through applied/development anthropology, social forestry, and change. The specific focus was to develop an 'Implementation Plan' to facilitate the implementation of the Memoranda. The development of the Implementation Plan represents a process of dispute resolution -- a process which is critical to the success of cross-cultural resource management structures. Unless parties to potential agreement are brought together and accommodations and reconciliations made, there is no possible hope of successful partnerships or resource sharing. In the case of Whitefish Lake First Nation and the Province of Alberta, what is crucial is that in the interest of reaching agreement on a workable and practical resource management Implementation Plan, the stakeholders have come together, putting rhetoric and differences aside and are operating on principles of equality, equity and fairness. The Implementation Plan reflects realistic co-operative

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management, as through the planning process, scientific, bureaucratic, and traditional ecological epistemologies are reconciled. This thesis also contains the components of a human theory of development. It is applied theoretical development based on reality as opposed to rhetoric, considerations of power and knowledge, the realities of economic participation and environmental conservation, issues of tenure, and the critical importance of culture in the implementation of decision-making dispute resolution, the acceptance of responsibility, and the perceptual basis of power equity. Iyall Smith, Keri E. (2003) "Transformations: The state and indigenous movements." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (The). 205 pp. Indigenous claims provide a new contrast and call into question the state's form and role. This project looks at the experience of indigenous peoples, specifically the native Hawai'ians, showing how a nation can express culture and citizenship while seeking ways to attain greater sovereignty over territory, culture, and politics. I explore one central research question: what are opportunities for indigenous groups to attain greater rights? Chapters are theoretical or employ case study material. Five chapters make up the body of the dissertation. 'Research design' includes four sections: meta-theory, comparative-historical methodology, data gathering explained, and an analysis of native Hawai'ians as a case of an indigenous group. In 'On indigenousness,' I present the many definitions of indigenous and propose a new definition, contrasting the old and new definitions. I then problematize indigenous, and discuss it as a relational concept, focusing on how it is a distinction between the colonizer and the colonized. A chapter called 'The Hawai'ians' presents a brief history of Hawai'i since James Cook's arrival, with an emphasis on the present day context and sovereignty movement organizations. In the next chapter, 'Global, local, and/or hybrid identities' I describe the context of indigenous peoples: internal colonialism and globalization. I define and present examples of local, global, and hybrid identities, drawing on examples from the native Hawai'ians. In 'New applications of human rights' I look at how indigenous nations are inserting themselves into global realm of rights and autonomy. The claims of indigenous nations are counterhegemonic, bringing to the fore community and demanding a transformation of human rights. Finally, Chapter Seven reviews the project, presenting the central problem, findings, and the contribution to the literature. Jackson, Deborah D. (1998) ""Our elders lived it": American Indian identity and community in a deindustrializing city." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Michigan. 332 pp. Issues of 'ethnic identity' have gained increasing importance in the United States (and elsewhere) as disenfranchised 'minority groups' seek to improve their circumstances and promote positive images of themselves. These 'identity politics' in contemporary society have been paralleled by a corresponding literature in the social sciences on the nature of 'identity' as a social construct or process, in which a choice is often made between 'subjective' vs. 'objective' approaches that are ultimately rooted in Cartesian dualism. This dissertation takes a different approach to the analysis of ethnic identity -- one that is rooted in the philosophy of C. S. Peirce, which transcends Cartesian dualism by offering a semeiotic notion of the self. The particular ethnic group considered is the 'urban Indian' community of Flint, Michigan. The politicaleconomic history of Flint as a deindustrializing Midwestern city has shaped its demographics such that the contemporary American Indian population there falls into three main categories: (1) those who grew up on reservations or in other non-urban Indian home communities; (2) those who grew up in households where the parents grew up in such a community; and, (3) those who now, as adults, choose to identify themselves as Native American, but who grew up in households where the parents had no connection to an Indian home community. The dissertation argues that Native home communities constitute key sites for the formation of an American Indian identity which is then reinforced as those who grew up in such communities continue to interact with one another. Looking at both the official and informal institutions of Flint's urban Indian community, and at the Indian home communities from which some people came, the dissertation considers various kinds of 'Indianness.' Emphasis is given to the most subtle manifestations -- the values, habits, and practices that characterize the daily interactions of those who grew up in non-urban Indian home communities. A semeiotic notion of the self is utilized to clarify and illuminate these highly significant, yet often overlooked, aspects of American Indian identity. An essential connection is therefore shown between identity and community. Jackson, Edward T. (1981 ) "Adult education for community participation in water supply and sanitation improvement in rural communities of northern Ghana and northern Canada: A comparative study of the role of the Canadian state." Ed.D. Dissertation, University of Toronto.

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The International Drinking Water and Sanitation Decade (1981-90) calls for massive mobilization on the part of the member countries of the United Nations to stimulate adult education for community participation in rural water and waste improvements. However, Marxist theoretical analysis suggests that the capitalist state will promote community participation only to the extent that it corresponds to the interests of national and international ruling classes and will act to control or undermine such participation if it challenges the prevailing social order. The purpose of the present study was to compare, from a critical perspective, the role of the Canadian state in relation to two detailed case studies in adult education for community participation in rural water and sanitation improvements. The first case study involved an environmental assessment to solve water and waste problems in a remote Cree community in northern Ontario, Canada, where the major state agency was the federal Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development. The second case study involved a water utilization project sponsored by the Canadian International Development Agency in a rural area of Upper Region, Ghana in West Africa. The data under comparison covered the five-year period 1976 through 1980. Data were collected during on-site field visits in 1978, 1979 and 1980. The primary source of data was project documentation, including project correspondence, memoranda, reports, minutes, financial accounts, field studies and policy papers. To check and supplement the primary source, data were also gathered through key-person interviews and small-group interviews. Additional data were collected through participant observation involving extensive field notes and daily journals. Analysis of the data indicated similarities in the way in which the Canadian state assists private enterprise to accumulate capital in Canada and abroad. Canadian suppliers and engineering firms benefit cumulatively from the capital-intensive technology bias of the state as well as from close, professional linkages between the private and public sectors. There was substantial evidence of the legitimation function of the Canadian state as well. Community participation was viewed by most state officials as a means of reconciling the interests of village residents with the interests of the state and was controlled frequently through the manipulation of government funding. The data indicated as well that the new middle class (professionals, administrators, technocrats) was overwhelmingly represented in the daily operations of the two projects. Women were subordinated across all classes in both cases. It was found that those workers who retained considerable control over their own work processes, such as the 'bottom managers' within the state, adult educators in the field, and village leaders, were most likely to act in the class interests of the broadest population of villagers. The mediating process of displacement, where village grievances are restricted to water and waste issues only, isolated from village to village, and the channels for these grievances are regulated and institutionalized, was especially evident in both case studies. The study concludes with 15 recommendations designed to advance the interests of rural residents in water and waste improvements sponsored by the Canadian state. Directed at state officials, development planners and the adult education profession at large, these recommendations relate to the development and implementation of water and sanitation projects, the role of the adult educator, and further studies in comparative adult education. Jacobs, Kahá wi J. (2000) "Mental health issues in an urban aboriginal population: Focus on substance abuse." M.Sc. Thesis, McGill University. 64 pp. The aims of the study were to examine substance abuse and physical and mental health in an urban aboriginal population. Data was collected through structured interviews (n = 202) with Aboriginals in the greater Montréal area. The majority were single, unemployed, and lived in the urban area for a long time (mean of 9.96 .76 years). One third reported having a current substance abuse problem. Results indicated high levels of psychological distress augmented by substance abuse. Substance abusers were also more likely to have been the victims of abuse. Ethnographic interviews with urban aboriginals and community workers were also conducted (n = 30). One third were victims of abuse and 6 reported having a current substance abuse problem. Psychological and biological understructures were used in defining addiction and explaining substance use among aboriginal peoples. Cultural traditions were viewed as integral components of substance abuse treatment and the need for outpatient treatment facilities and aftercare programs were indicated. Jakab, Cheryl A. (1979) "The issue of Indian land claims: Alberta since 1969." M.A. Thesis, University of Calgary. James, Catherine A. (1992) "Continuity and change: A cultural analysis of teenage pregnancy in a Cree community." M.A. Thesis, McGill University. 124 pp. This thesis presents a cultural analysis of teenage pregnancy in a Cree community. In the last 50 years, social and material change, prompted by residential schooling and the growth of settlement life, have catalyzed a shift in teenage perceptions of parental authority and norms of social relations. Today the peer

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group is a pre-eminent agent of socialization, generating pressure to drink and be sexually active. The peer group also, in part, sustains the valuation of motherhood, and some indigenous norms of interpersonal communication and socially appropriate behaviour. In this contemporary context, the meanings of teenage childbearing are multiple, and different for each individual. Although a biological fact, teenage pregnancy may also be seen as a product of how differentials in power between teenagers, their peers and people of different age and social groupings are played out. The construction of a category of adolescence and the centrality of fertility and reproduction are keys to understanding the social and symbolic significance of teenage pregnancy. This analysis emphasizes the interactive relationship between historical change, ideological beliefs and individual perceptions in shaping the meaning of teenage pregnancy in a Cree community. Jamieson, Wanda. (1987) "Aboriginal male violence against aboriginal women in Canada." M.A. Thesis, University of Ottawa. Janda, Sarah E. (2002) "The intersection of feminism and Indianness in the activism of LaDonna Harris and Wilma Mankiller." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Oklahoma (The). 241 pp. My work offers a comparative examination of the use of feminism and Indian identity in the careers of LaDonna Harris and Wilma Mankiller. While they took different paths to political activism, Harris as the wife of a United States senator and Mankiller as the first female chief of the Cherokee Nation, they share a number of similarities. A study of these women, who were the two most prominent Native American women in the 20th century, offers a useful vehicle through which to understand larger issues in federal Indian policy, the role of Native American women in politics, and the use of identity politics. Both received recognition as humanitarians and advocates of women's rights as well. A comparative study of Harris and Mankiller, therefore, has ramifications at a national level and in a wide variety of areas, including civil rights and the environment. The way each came to national prominence, how they projected their images and identities, and how they have been depicted by the media are issues that are explored throughout. The format consists of an introduction followed by two chapters that focus on LaDonna Harris, two chapters that deal with Wilma Mankiller and two in which they are compared as Native American leaders and as women in politics. The introduction sets up the significance of the work and situates it within the existing historiography. Chapter One deals with how LaDonna Harris became involved in politics as a congressional wife, her work with Oklahomans for Indian Opportunity, which she founded in 1965, and the public relationship of her and her husband, Senator Fred Harris. Chapter Two examines how she evolved into an activist in her own right, the founding of Americans for Indian Opportunity, and how her national reputation took on an identity separate from that of her husband. Chapter Three examines Mankiller's early life and then moves into an analysis of Mankiller's election to deputy chief of the Cherokee Nation in 1983, her ascension to principal chief in 1985 when Chief Ross Swimmer left to work for the Bureau of Indian Affairs, and her election to principal chief in 1987. Allegations of sexism in elections and gender-opposition to her leadership are explored as well. Chapter Four deals with Mankiller's tenure as chief from 1985-95. A discussion of her accomplishments, leadership, and symbolism to Indians and non-Indians during a period of renewed interest in Indianness is discussed. Chapters Five and Six deal with both Harris and Mankiller. Chapter five examines how each is a product of the shift from termination to self-determination and their roles in federal Indian politics. Their use of community development and their prominence in the national arena is evaluated here as well. Chapter Six focuses on their role in politics as women, including the influence of feminism and their shared belief that no sexism existed among Indians prior to contact. This chapter concludes by placing them in the larger context of the changing nature of the role of women in politics. Jennett, Christine. (1996) "Black Power as an anti-colonial discourse." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of New South Wales. In this thesis the significance of the Black Power phase of political struggle by indigenous peoples in Australia has been examined. Black Power's role as a discursive strategy which enabled new voices to achieve legitimacy in Aboriginal affairs and new organizations to be set up which fostered practices of Aboriginal control are investigated. The study was done using the methods of action research, literature survey and media analysis. It is established that a paternal internal colonial racial order existed in Australia in the period 1901-68. It is argued that a new plural internal colonial racial order came into being from 1972 onwards largely as a result of the efforts of the Aboriginal advancement movement which fortuitously coincided with the election to national office of the Whitlam government on a platform of extensive social change. Elements within the Aboriginal advancement movement were articulating its identity in terms of a

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discourse of Black Power in the period 1969-72. The Black Power phase coincided with an historic moment when indigenous peoples in Australia were able to temporarily seize the initiative in redefining the racial order as it concerned them. The result was a shift in the terms on which national integration in Australia takes place. Jerome, Manuel. (1997) "All my relations: A native treatment approach for children of sexual abuse." M.S.W. Thesis, University of Manitoba (The). 135 pp. The practicum describes one application of an Aboriginal Treatment approach to working with native children who have been sexually abused. Through a combination of non-directive play therapy and extensive parental involvement in an aboriginal setting, six children in five separate families participated in this practicum. Native social work practice was outlined in a broad manner, and modifications of these practises were utilized with the families over a six month treatment span. The highlights and outcomes of the practicum are discussed along with some recommendations for further work on this area. Jhappan, C. Radha. (1990 ) "The language of empowerment: Symbolic politics and Indian political discourse in Canada." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of British Columbia (The). 389 pp. The question of how subordinated groups in democratic states set about shifting their political relationship with their encompassing societies has received little attention among political scientists in Canada. Groups which lack significant political, legal, and economic resources, and which are stigmatized by an inferior status (reinforced by law and policy) do not enjoy the level playing field predicted by pluralist interest group theory. Yet they are sometimes able to overcome these obstacles and to renegotiate their political and legal status. The question is how some groups are able to do this, and what strategies are available to or obligatory for groups wishing to initiate political bargaining. According to the theory of symbolic politics developed here, disadvantaged minorities seeking political benefits from the state will typically conduct politics at the symbolic level. That is, they tend to invoke a range of political symbols and myths: first, to build in-group solidarity by presenting an analysis of a common past and present, as well as a vision of the future society, and thereby legitimate their political aspirations. In the first stage of minority politicization, such groups must: (a) build a sense of community of interests and goals which can be said to represent the reference group as a whole; (b) reverse the stigmatic identity ascribed to them by the dominant society; and, (c) find ways of competing with the dominant society, not on the latter's terms, but on alternative ideological grounds. In the second stage of politicization, minorities must: (a) create appropriate demands; (b) learn to use the mechanisms, methods and institutions of the mainstream political process; and, (c) eventually routinize conflict by negotiating stable norms to guide on-going relations with government. Subordinated groups do not normally seek purely material benefits. They usually seek symbolic benefits in the form of rights, and a redefined status within society. Thus, much of their politicking is conducted in public, and is largely devoted to capturing public sympathy which can be used as a resource against government. The political myths and symbols employed are characteristically emotive and imprecise. Political goals are presented in symbolic terms, and are advanced at the level of principle rather than substance. When applied to the case of native Indian politics in the Canadian context, the evidence confirms the accuracy of these hypotheses. Indians have pursued the symbolic strategies predicted by the model: the essence of their political aspirations has been captured in the symbols of aboriginal title/aboriginal rights, land claims, and ultimately, self-government; at the macro level, they have sought predominantly symbolic benefits, as represented by legislative and constitutional recognition of certain rights and privileges; and they have attempted to win public support to use as a bargaining chip vis-à-vis government. However, they have not been entirely successful in their use of the symbolic strategies outlined, and the evidence suggests that they have reached a public opinion impasse. Despite their efforts, public opinion on native and native issues has remained remarkably stable over the last 20 years, so that further effort in this area is likely to bring diminishing returns. In the end, symbolic politics, while necessary for subordinated groups in their fledgling stages of politicization, must eventually give way to more conventional political methodologies as groups become institutionalized in the mainstream political process. Jimenez-Zamora, Elizabeth. (1999) "Labour market segmentation and migrant labour: A case study of indigenous and mestizo migrants in Bolivia." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Notre Dame. 267 pp. This dissertation contributes to a better understanding of the labour market segmentation process in developing economies and the concentration of indigenous labour across low-paid, unstable and unprotected jobs. Specifically, it examines why indigenous migrant workers largely fail to make successful transitions into wage employment and instead remain straddled between subsistence agriculture and precarious jobs. It does

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so by examining and analyzing three issues: (1) how segmented labour markets work; (2) how the rural village community facilitates the "survival" of disadvantaged indigenous migrants; and, (3) how standard labour theories and econometric testing alone fail to fully explain the process of labour market segmentation and marginalization of indigenous labour. Standard analysis of migration and employment shows that individual productivity related endowments and work preferences determine job allocation and occupational mobility. From this perspective, not only does indigenous labour lack essential skills needed to get good jobs but also indirectly "chooses" not to succeed in the labour market by prioritizing subsistence agriculture and their kinship obligations over their need to equip themselves and become fully committed workers. Through a detailed case study of job allocation, migration strategies and economic behaviour among a sample of 203 indigenous and mestizo migrant workers in Bolivia, this dissertation shows, by contrast, that indigenous migrants are unable to make successful transitions to paid employment because they are trapped in lower occupational rings of a segmented labour market. They are so effectively trapped in these jobs by their lack of socially recognized skills and credentials, by the priority they are obliged to give to responsibilities in their distant home communities and by the various forms of institutionalized discrimination. This analysis makes two principal contributions to the literature of labour markets in developing economies. First, it confirms that integration of rural labour into paid employment does not follow a "job-graduation" process as disadvantaged workers are largely confined to the lowest rings of the labour markets. Second, it shows that in a segmented labour market, village communities become critical institutions to the survival of disadvantaged workers. The overall research strategy combines qualitative ethnographic fieldwork, quantitative data collection and econometric data analysis. Johnson, Jay T. (2003) "Biculturalism, resource management and indigenous self-determination." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Hawai'i. 290 pp. Indigenous self-determination is primarily a question of control over our own bodies, communities, resources and land. Most indigenous peoples in North and South America as well as the South Pacific today find themselves dominated by nation-states which are governed by the descendants of settlers: removed from traditional lands, resources and cultural patrimony. Often this domination has brought indigenous peoples into political and even armed conflict with settler controlled nation-states. This domination of indigenous populations and separation from their resources and lands has severed Indigenous self-determination, disrupting their autonomy over their customary lands and its resources. Biculturalism has been one answer proposed to reverse the trend of dispossession faced by indigenous communities. In Aotearoa/New Zealand, biculturalism has become government policy, incorporated into legislation in an effort to substantiate the partnership between Mäori and the Crown first proposed by the Treaty of Waitangi in 1840. This dissertation's primary focus is on evaluating biculturalism as a model for Indigenous self-determination. One component of biculturalism in Aotearoa/New Zealand is the inclusion of Mäori conceptual regulators within the legislative acts of the nation. This pluralistic turn within New Zealand law is transforming not only the legal, but also the physical and cultural landscapes of the nation. The comprehensive Resource Management Act of 1991 (RMA) is one example of the incorporation of the government's bicultural discourse within the legal framework of New Zealand. The inclusion of Mäori concepts such as kaitiakitanga has altered the framework within which resource management is practiced and adjudicated in New Zealand. In an effort to explore how the inclusion of Mäori concepts within the RMA has furthered or hindered Mäori self-determination this work focuses on telling the stories of several Mäori who act as kaitiaki within their own communities. The exercise of self-determination by Mäori, or any other Indigenous people, does not happen against an inert backdrop but is grounded in the local politics and history of the place. These stories provide evidence of the successes and failures of the RMA in furthering biculturalism and providing Mäori with a full sharing in the processes of government and the exercising of power. Johnson, Pamela E. (1996 ) "Native voices on native science: Mohawk perspectives on the concept, practice, and meaning of a knowledge production system rooted in traditional native thought." M.A. Thesis, Wilfrid Laurier University. 166 pp. Community psychology is strongly committed to the value of cultural relativity and diversity. Acquiring knowledge regarding cultural differences is essential if community psychology is to realize this value. This paper provides a culture specific perspective on the form and meaning of a knowledge system rooted in traditional Mohawk thought. The academic literature regarding research on native people reveals an ethnocentric description of native reality. My premise is that research in native communities has been

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ideologically biased by virtue of the interpretation of native reality from the perspective of mainstream western scientific assumptions. The ability to obtain culturally relevant knowledge hinges on our ability to understand and come to knowledge in a culturally relevant way. Thus, there is a need for a knowledge production system that is rooted in traditional native thought. Utilizing a qualitative and collaborative approach I obtain the perspectives of five people, who are members of the Mohawk Nation who reside in the Six Nation of the Grand River Community, on the concept of a native science and a knowledge system rooted in traditional Mohawk thought. The results of the study indicated that there is a high degree of congruity between the generalized native scientific concepts and practices with Mohawk specific traditional beliefs and practices. The study illuminates Mohawk specific teachings and how these teachings shape the meaning and practice of a knowledge system rooted in traditional Mohawk thought. Johnston, Darlene M. (2003) "Litigating identity: The challenge of aboriginality." LL.M. Thesis, University of Toronto. 109 pp. In aboriginal rights litigation in Canada, claimants must demonstrate continuity with 'pre-contact' peoples and practices. This is a daunting task for communities, such as mine, whose encounter with Europeans commenced nearly four centuries ago. As a child, my grandmother told me that hers was the Otter clan. When my great-great-grandfather signed treaties in the 19th century, he signed by drawing an Otter, his totem. It is my thesis that totemic identity is the crucial link in the Anishinabek chain of continuity. In Anishinabek culture, people reckon their kinship from a other-than-human progenitor traced patrilineally. In seeking to understand totemic identity, I have traced a path from clans, to marks, to souls; from geography to a sacred landscape; from genealogy to Anishinabek cosmology. It remains to be seen whether this totemic system, with its implications for territorial claims, can be made intelligible to the Canadian legal imagination. Jolly, Joseph. (2000) "Give Christ the freedom to build His native church." D.Min. Dissertation, Providence College and Seminary. 134 pp. 'Give Christ the freedom to build His native church' is a review of cross-cultural principles which examines the strategies and methodologies of planting indigenous churches. This dissertation is written, first of all, to provide a resource book for Native leaders, incumbent missionaries, and missionary candidates who are or will be working among the Native Indian people of Canada. It is also written to provide information to anyone who is interested in knowing more about Aboriginal people and their cultural values. The main emphasis in the dissertation focuses on the strategy and principles of indigenization and contextualization in church planting. Chapter One deals with the origin and beginning of Aboriginal Peoples. It seeks to inform the reader of the three distinct groups of Aboriginal People in Canada and their unique cultural differences. Chapter Two gives a historical review of the Indian people's first encounter with European explorers and Christianity. It shows the approach taken by early Indian missions and their failure to establish indigenous churches. It draws attention to the mistakes by missions in regards to the policy of assimilation, paternalism and colonialism. Chapter Three describes the birth of the national native church and its function in missions. It uses the Native Evangelical Fellowship of Canada, Inc. (NEFC) as a model for the national native church in Canada in mission/church relations. In Chapter Four, attention is given to the definition of the indigenous church principles, also known as the three self principles. The basic assumption is that these indigenous principles are biblical and follow the Pauline pattern of establishing independent churches. Chapter Five covers the fourth self or self-theologizing principle. It defines theology proper and human theologies to avoid any misunderstandings and confusion in contextualizing theology. It explains contextualization and the steps in developing a Native theology. In Chapter Six, the focus is on cross-cultural communication principles. It emphasizes that language, culture, worldview, concrete relational thinking and contextualization are indispensable elements in cross-cultural ministry. Chapter Seven explains the need for a strategy and defines evangelism. It gives some recommendation in Mission/Church relations and the qualifications of the church planter. It also covers some essentials in church planting. Chapter Eight gives some concluding remarks on the importance of cross-cultural communication problems. It shows why this is the most productive era in Indian missions. Jonassen, Jon T. M. (1996) "Disappearing islands? Management of microstate foreign affairs and the potential impact of alternative general futures: The case of Cook Islands." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Hawai'i. 292 pp. Rapid environmental, societal and technological changes at an increasing pace, often highlight the feasibility of microstates continuing to exist as self governing political entities. This study is an effort to understand the Cook Islands Free Association political status relationship with New Zealand. It investigates foreign affairs

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management and the perceived "driving" influence of four issue areas: (1) military-security; (2) politicaldiplomatic; (3) economic developmental; and, (4) cultural-status. There is a probe into Cook Islanders' perceptions of government preparedness. It also looks at selected future trends and the support for maximal New Zealand involvement in the management of Cook Islands Foreign Affairs. The study reviews potential political status changes that the country possibly faces. This discourse is a practical approach to what may be a fundamental need for associated microstate governments to review their preparedness, effectiveness and quest for continued "buoyancy." Buoyancy is a common thread throughout the study. It links with foreign affairs management and Free Association. In microstates such as the Cook Islands, the development of foreign affairs management capabilities, underline political status and economic developments. This is due primarily to expectations that direct international assistance approaches achieve the best appropriate economic development for the country. Most Cook Islanders perceive a move toward independence. They also anticipate, that economic-development issues are primary influences in such a trend. For the same reason, Cook Islanders expect NZ to remain in the future (2020) as the most important country. While most Cook Islanders expect a variety of major changes to take place, they observe that government is generally unprepared for the future. Although such a political future may seem difficult to project with some certainty, the current perceptions of most Cook Islanders, portray a reality in existing trends. These underline some dangers facing disappearing or emerging microstates. Jones, Carwyn H. (2003) "Tino rangatiratanga and sustainable development: Principles for developing a just and effective resource management regime in Aotearoa/New Zealand." M.A. Thesis, York University. 179 pp. The Mäori peoples of Aotearoa/New Zealand, like many other indigenous peoples in the world, assert that they have never surrendered their traditional stewardship of the natural environment to colonial legal systems. Environmental stewardship is an inherent component of Mäori self-determination, or tino rangatiratanga, as guaranteed by the Crown in the Treaty of Waitangi (1840). Giving just effect to the guarantees in the Treaty of Waitangi requires the development of legal structures relating to environmental stewardship which recognize Mäori authority. There are fundamental differences between the conceptualization of authority within the holistic Mäori legal system, based on relationships (whanaungatanga), and the conceptualization of authority within the prevailing New Zealand legal system, with its strong Diceyan traditions and Dwokinian conceptions of individual rights. If legal structures relating to environmental stewardship, which effectively encourage sustainable development in Aotearoa/New Zealand, are to be developed, then they must allow both indigenous and nonindigenous understandings of authority to operate. Principles from tikanga Mäori (Mäori customary law), sustainable development policies, and the Treaty of Waitangi settlement process could be used to construct appropriate guidelines for the development of legal structures relating to Mäori environmental stewardship. The application of these guidelines requires interaction between indigenous and non-indigenous legal systems. A combination of legal pluralism, Aboriginal title, and a model of 'bicultural jurisprudence' is suggested to affect the necessary interaction. Developing legal structures relating to environmental stewardship in accordance with these suggested principles using a variety of models of legal interaction would provide both just recognition of Mäori authority under the Treaty of Waitangi, and an effective framework for sustainable development among Mäori communities. Jones, Diana M. (1998) "First Nations and the Canadian state: Autonomy and accountability in the building of selfgovernment." M.A. Thesis, Carleton University. 116 pp. The thesis provides a historiography of the development of liberal democratic institutions governing First Nations in Canada. Cultural and political assimilation are present throughout the history of First Nations' relations with the Canadian State, and currently, the political agenda of the Canadian government is one that emphasizes political assimilation. The idea that First Nations' political and administrative relations with the Canadian government have been characterized as a relationship of tutelage and an unequal relationship of power has implications for issues surrounding self-government. Specifically, the hierarchical decisionmaking structure of the political institutions governing First Nations, which has been effective for implementing assimilation policies, now poses problems for local communities exercising self-government in terms of securing accountability from their leadership. Current federal self-government policy does not affirm the claim that First Nations are historically distinct peoples with unique political and legal rights. On the contrary, self-government policy can potentially diminish the special status of First Nations and suggests

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a strong unwillingness of the federal government to recognize peoples rights of Aboriginal peoples. Jones, Judith A. (1995) ""Women never used to war dance": Gender and music in Nez Perce culture change." Ph.D. Dissertation, Washington State University. 263 pp. The history of the Nimipu, an indigenous people of the Columbia Plateau region of north-western North America commonly known as the Nez Perces, is a dramatic and moving account of both adaptation and resistance to change. This dissertation explores the processes of Nez Perce cultural change and examines their effects on both music and women's roles. The following questions are addressed: (1) How did Nez Perce women traditionally participate in music, and how did their musical roles relate to their social roles? (2) How are the effects of historically-observed, externally-imposed forces for cultural transformation (e.g., missionization, settlement on the reservation, formal education, and technological modernization) reflected and expressed in Nez Perce music? and (3) In what ways does the history of Nez Perce women's musical roles reflect processes of persistence and change in Nez Perce society? These questions are explored by first presenting a synopsis of the traditional Nez Perce lifeway and Nez Perce culture change through the 19th century, and then focusing on the relationships between Nez Perce music and the traditional lifeway, and between musical practices and social change until around 1900. Next an overview of the ways in which Nez Perce music and women's roles reflect and express both persistence and change in the 20th century is presented. Finally, the musical experiences of one Nez Perce woman who has lived from 1931 to the present puts the historical processes in personal and contemporary perspective and further illuminates the meanings of music, gender, and change to the Nez Perce people. Elements of persistence are seen in 'war dance' practice, and in women's integral roles in the culture, despite extensive cultural transformation. Jones-Saumty, Deborah. (1994) "American Indian family functioning: Relationship to substance abuse." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Oklahoma (The). 92 pp. In view of the dearth of data on family functioning and family treatment approaches for American Indian families, this study has investigated patterns of family functioning relevant to the influence of substance abuse within the American Indian family through the use of Olson's Circumplex Model and accompanying instrument: FACES-III. Results indicate that, contrary to predictions, American Indian families function about the same whether they have substance abusing members or not, but they tend to function more in the mid-range, rather than in the extreme ranges as predicted. Further, American Indian families seem to function more within the balanced range (on the adaptability dimension) when compared with non-Indian samples with similar demographic characteristics. These data may suggest some significant cross-cultural factors for treating American Indian families in a clinical setting. Jordon, James B. (1992) "Stressful life events of the Yakima Indians: An epidemiological investigation of social support systems and traditionality." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Denver. 173 pp. The social support systems and the traditionality (acculturation) of the Yakima Indians of Washington state was investigated in an epidemiological format. Stressful life events were assessed in relationship to psychological, physiological, and total symptoms. The role of (marital) social support and traditionality, as possible moderating influences to stress, was explored by looking at symptom outcome. The results indicated the relationship between stress and physiological and total symptoms is negligible. A modest relationship was found between stress and psychological symptoms. There were significant positive correlations between stress and the psychological subscales for alcohol, depression, and psychosis symptoms and total psychological symptoms. Among relevant variables, the range of significant variance explained was between 3% and 18%. Social support, traditionality, and the combination of the two, all acting as a moderator of stress -- had a negligible to low influence -- when looking at symptom outcome. The hypotheses all proved to be relatively unsupported; social support, traditionality, and the combination of the two do not moderate stress. Social support and traditionality help predict personal stress when measured by psychological symptoms. There were hints that moderating variables do have a very modest influence with stress when looking at psychological symptoms. Juillet, Luc. (2000) "Aboriginal rights and the migratory birds convention: Domestic institutions, non-state actors and international environmental governance." Ph.D. Dissertation, Carleton University. 425 pp. The 1916 US-Canada Migratory Birds Convention constitutes the legal foundation of the continental regime making possible the management of migratory birds populations in North America. While considered a success in international environmental governance, the Convention failed to fully recognize the special needs and rights of aboriginal peoples who depend on the continuing harvest of waterfowl for their subsistence

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during the spring. In order to answer long-standing grievances, the national governments of Canada and the United States have attempted twice in the last 30 years to amend the Convention. A first attempt led to an agreement in 1979 but it failed to be ratified. It took a second agreement, signed in 1995, to finally succeed in amending the continental regime. How can we account for this difficult process of international regime change? What finally triggered the process of regime change after 60 years of injustice? Why did the 1995 agreement succeed while the 1979 agreement failed? This dissertation answers these questions by providing an in-depth examination of the politics of the case. We demonstrate that changes in the domestic political environment of both countries were important in triggering efforts to change the Convention and that the constitutional rules for treaty-making in both countries played an important role in structuring the politics of regime change. In the 1980s, the US Senate veto over treaty approval helped a transnational coalition of environmentalists, recreational hunters and state/provincial wildlife agencies defeat the 1979 agreement against the will and efforts of both national governments. In the 1990s, national governments successfully amended the Convention only after concessions to non-state opponents, a lobbying campaign by the Canadian government in the US and changes in Canadian constitutional law helped them overcome the threat of the American Senate's veto. Overall, the dissertation suggests that our understanding of international regime change could be advanced by better accounting for the role of transnational coalitions of non-state actors and domestic political factors, such as constitutional rules for treaty-making. Kalant, Amelia. (2002) "Boundaries, native belonging and myths of postcolonial nationhood: Making the Canadian crisis at Oka, 1990." Ph.D. Dissertation, Johns Hopkins University (The). 419 pp. In the summer of 1990, in Montréal, Quebéc, an armed standoff between Native protestors, and the Canadian and Quebéc governments, produced a crisis of Canadian national identity. While such conflicts often provoke studies about the protesters, this dissertation considers how the myths that Canadians hold about themselves provoked an identity crisis in reaction to the conflict. Through readings of literature, canonical history texts, studies of museum displays and media analysis, the dissertation explores the historical formation of myths of Canadian national identity, and then demonstrates how these myths were challenged (and affirmed) during the standoff. It draws upon History, Literary Criticism, Anthropology, studies in Nationalism and Ethnicity, and Post Colonial Theory. Starting from the premise that nations are socially constructed through dynamic relationships with multiple, intersecting 'others,' the study addresses how Canadian myths of nation were and are formed in reaction to three significant 'others': America, French-Canada/Quebéc, and Indians/Natives. These are all 'boundary' relationships, crucial to the development of a sense of territory, land, and the national body. Canada's imagining of itself is inextricable from anxieties about Americanization and a weak international boundary, an insecurity of body due to the existence of an internal nation (Quebéc), and a fear of being unable to know and name the land (not 'being native'). Canada, it is suggested, must be read as a nation in which these internal and inappropriate boundaries have become, ironically, the source of hegemonic myths about Canadian tolerance, peacefulness, fairness, and connection to wilderness/nativeness. These deeply held and intertwining myths that give meaning to Canadianness were cast into doubt during the crisis. Oka was not only 'about' Canada and its Native peoples, but involved claims about Canada and America, Canada and Quebéc, and who had the 'right' to be considered 'native.' The crisis demonstrated how a nation's myths might render it vulnerable to claims by internally colonized 'others' and, how ideas of self are inseparable from and shape the 'material' world of political action. Kalesnik, Frank L. (1992 ) "Caged tigers: Native American prisoners in Florida, 1875-88." Ph.D. Dissertation, Florida State University (The). 312 pp. Two groups of Western Indians were incarcerated in Florida. The first included 74 Southern Plains Indians (Cheyenne, Comanche, and Kiowa) from the Indian Territory. These were kept at Fort Marion in St. Augustine from 1875 to 1878. Some were guilty of crimes such as murder, but others selected arbitrarily by Army officers or their own tribal leaders were relatively innocent of any wrongdoing. The prisoners had extensive contact with the white population in Florida, and received basic instruction in reading, writing, and Christian religion. The officer in charge of the prisoners, Captain Richard Pratt, actively solicited support from philanthropists in this educational effort, which culminated in the foundation of the Carlisle Indian School in Pennsylvania. Between 1886 and 1888, approximately 500 Apaches from Arizona were held at both Fort Marion and Fort Pickens in Pensacola. While the Plains Indian group was almost exclusively composed of male warriors, the Apache prisoners included women, children, and scouts who fought with the Army against renegades. The

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controversy generated by the apparent injustice of this wholesale removal, and concern for the health of the prisoners, attracted national attention. The efforts of sympathetic Army officers and the Indian Rights Association led to the prisoners relocation at Mount Vernon Barracks in Alabama. The captivity of these Native Americans in Florida is significant in that, while overtly punitive in nature, it had some positive results. The prisoners showed an ability to adapt to white culture and conducted themselves with dignity under adverse circumstances. White society in turn began to see Native Americans as human beings deserving their sympathy and respect. Kalter, Susan M. (1999) "Keep these words until the stones melt: Language, ecology, war and the written land in 19th century United States-Indian relations." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California, San Diego. 584 pp. In this dissertation, I argue that savagism -- the belief that Indians would either become civilized or become extinct -- did not constitute an impervious master narrative. U.S. writers, Western linguistic theorists, and members of Indian nations relied on or borrowed from intellectual centres of thought that preceded and survived European presence on the continent. My research reveals narratives that ran counter to this dominant narrative -- what I term anti-savagism and ante-savagism -- and examines how all these narratives based themselves in the Indian word. James Fenimore Cooper constructs linguistic theories of hierarchy from Indian utterances. Placing him next to linguists Wilhelm von Humboldt and Peter Du Ponceau illuminates a period shift in concepts of language that arise from contact with American languages. Recoverable theories of language in Iroquois, Lenni Lenape, and Cherokee communities defend indigenous forms of writing and the inscriptive aspects of the oral. Herman Melville and David Cusick both refute savagist assumptions using the Indian word. However, Melville's techniques construct diverse national identities into a composite Indian identity while Cusick's text and context demand recognition of Iroquois identity, the heterogeneity of Indian thought, and the diversity of Iroquois subject positions. The emergence of haunted-home images in texts by Ambrose Bierce, Margaret Carrington, Sarah Orne Jewett, and Helen Hunt Jackson is related to the Indian wars of the late century and the coinciding interpenetration of private and public spheres. Like theirs, contemporary Daniel Brinton's texts contribute to the unheimlich aspect of the era -- the frightful apparitions of home -- by resurrecting Humboldt's theories. However, the song-texts of the Plains and Basin Ghost Dances show the regeneration of Native American tongues, and the strengthening national and strategic affiliations, while defying inclusion in the American unheimlich. Jack London's use of the Indian word and individuation of Indian characters ultimately opposes their land rights despite revealing his lack of intimacy with both land and people. While Franz Boas collectivized social units, his long-term metadiscursive authority supports indigenous land rights. The land claim argument of the Dene is meanwhile rooted in a poetics of topographic harmony. Kamper, David M. (2003) "The politics and poetics of organizing Navajo labourers." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles. 322 pp. This dissertation examines an historic campaign by the Laborer's International Union of North America (LIUNA) to organize Navajo healthcare workers during the Navajo Nation's bid to achieve economic development and self-determination through a takeover of federal Indian Health Services (IHS). Investigating face-to-face interactions between Euro-American organizers and Navajo labourers as well as the political relationship between LIUNA and the Navajo Nation, my dissertation combines the theories and methods of sociocultural and linguistic anthropology, American Indian studies, and labour studies. This dissertation examines how Euro-American union organizers and Navajo workers bridge cultural differences through communicative interaction and how the process of unionization (re)constructs the class identity of American Indians as wage-labourers. These issues are increasingly relevant to both the US labour movement and American Indian communities as tribal governments develop large-scale economic enterprises and as labour unions seek to develop membership in competitive economic environments created by globalization's market liberalization. My study aims to improve inter-cultural union organizing success and to promote cooperation between labour unions and tribal governments necessary to the establishment of equitable labour codes on Indian reservations. It does so by examining complex interactions between Euro-American organizers and American Indian labourers through participation-observation and analysis of pragmatic and metapragmatic discourses LIUNA organizers employ while mobilizing the Navajo Area IHS workforce. My data identifies three strategies crucial to LIUNA organizing success: (1) organizers persuade workers to support union representation by strategically engaging workers' frustration with the tribal government and its proposed health care takeover; (2) they develop conversational tactics based on metalinguistic theories about how to communicate credibility to Navajo workers; and, (3) they generate positive social relationships through

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gifting and by mobilizing existing social networks. Finally, I propose directions for future research to better understand motivations for Navajo workers' participation in LIUNA and its union recognition campaign. Kaplan-Myrth, Nili. (2003) "Hard Yakka: A study of the community-government relations that shape Australian Aboriginal health policy and politics." Ph.D. Dissertation, Yale University. 341 pp. Australia is one of the healthiest countries in the world, with one of the most dramatic examples of social inequalities in health. In this dissertation, I examine the processes and institutional structures that affect relations between the Victorian Aboriginal (Koori) community-controlled health sector and government in the development, implementation and evaluation of health policy. I map the key community and government stakeholders in the Australian Aboriginal health sector, while analyzing tensions between the concepts of community control and of partnership in public health. In the process, I look to the complex challenges of Aboriginal representation and self-determination in the context of contemporary, urban Australian society. On a program level, I use Australian blindness prevention policy as a case study for the translation of policy into practice. Finally, I reflect upon the roles of anthropologists and the academy in public policy and community advocacy. Kariya, Paul H. (1987) "The Indian reserve as a negotiated reality: The social worlds of Indian leaders and Department of Indian Affairs officials in the northwest district of British Columbia." Ph.D. Dissertation, Clark University. 535 pp. This dissertation examines the socioeconomic development problems of Canadian Indians as exemplified by the case of 15 Indian bands in north-western British Columbia. Often characterized as a landscape of despair, the Indian reserve is treated as the manifestation of a relationship between the social worlds of the Indian leader and Department of Indian Affairs administrator. Employing the notion of two social worlds and the concept of insider and outsider meanings, the objective of the thesis is to explore and understand the themes which emerge from each world and at the interface between them. Primary data collection was effected through a participant observation methodology during three and one-half years of fieldwork. Taking on the role of an employee within a district office of the Department of Indian Affairs, I maintained a journal focusing upon actors, actions, activities and accounts. A key finding of the study is that, despite poor level of living statistics, the aboriginal societies of north-western British Columbia have never totally collapsed. Outlets for power, status and self expression exist. More importantly, hereditary leadership structures have survived and continue to be an important institution in the communities. Similarly, the social world of the Department of Indian Affairs administrator is textured with the desire by individuals for self expression. A bureaucratic ethos only masks the cliques, quest for office space and uncertainty about job duties. Numerous socioeconomic development policies designed by government have failed because they have not been sensitive to the context and taken-for-granted reality of both the client and public service deliverer. Where effective examples of policy development and program implementation exist, they tend to be locally negotiated as opposed to nationally developed. Progress in Indian reserve development appears to be predicated upon the emergence of key charismatic leaders in both social worlds who can understand the outside and inside meanings of the other's social world. Only in this manner can co-constructive approaches to changes be formulated and only with this formulation can the dependency based on internal colonialism be broken. Kasari, Patricia S. (1997) "What are they doing now? The occupational and social characteristics of American Indians after 400 years of occupational dislocation." Ph.D. Dissertation, Tulane University. 234 pp. Because the American population is amassed from many ethnic and racial origins, sociological investigation into our stratification system requires inclusion of information on all Americans, particularly when studying labour force activity which determines our life chances. Unfortunately, due to lack of data, American Indians are frequently left out of stratification research. This study seeks to broaden our sociological understanding of social stratification in the United States, then, by examining the labour force participation of American Indians at the close of the 20th century. Theoretically, the scope of investigation is expanded by drawing on the concept of institutional discrimination rather than using customary assimilation or internal colonial models. Methodologically, the investigation departs from previous research by employing Duncan's SEI scores to represent occupation. The study asks: (1) If the relationship between occupational prestige and selected predictor variables differ for Indians and non-Indians?; (2) Whether urban and reservation Indians demonstrate occupational differences?; and, (3) What part migration, which is closely associated with Indian labour market participation, currently plays in the lives of American Indians? Data used in this study are obtained from the 1980 and 1990 Census, most notably the 1980 Public Microdata Use 5% Sample, and the

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1980 American Indian Supplement. The results show the interpretational problems that can arise when using abstract concepts like institutions and discrimination. Major findings indicate that both urban and reservation Indians have lower occupational prestige than non-Indians, but that the causes of low occupational prestige differ. Low prestige is the result of low returns to education in cities, but is caused by low human capital on reservations. The reservation also shows evidence of a class system which favours married couples and men. Finally, in regard to migration, findings demonstrate that Indians are no more likely than whites to permanently migrate to cities, and that migrants who remain in cities have much different social characteristics (higher human capital) than those who do not. The suggestion is made that Indians who obtain jobs stay, while those who cannot find work return home. Finally, recommendations for changes in policy are offered. Kato, Hiroaki. (1986) "Group rights, democracy and the plural society: The case of Canada's aboriginal peoples." Ph.D. Dissertation, Carleton University. 370 pp. A theory of consociational democracy, which explains political stability of plural societies, has received scholarly concern by political scientists in the past. A number of studies indicate that Canada is regarded as one of the 'democratic plural societies' in the world. A major concern of the applicability of this model in Canada, however, remains as a study of the relationship between English Canada and French Canada. Other minorities or aboriginal peoples are not included in many cases. In other words, consociational democracy in Canada usually implies political accommodation between the two major linguistic communities or regional interests. This thesis intends to introduce a new perspective on the study of consociationalism by examining relationships between the aboriginal peoples and the majority of Canadians. In this context, the contribution of this thesis is twofold: first, this work identifies a theoretical framework for Canada's aboriginal issues and second, it analyzes this subject theoretically and comparatively. Chapter One examines aboriginal policies in advanced western nations and sets a comparative overview. Chapter Two introduces a two-dimensional model in order to establish our theoretical basis. As a result, four types of inter-group relationships are identified: the consociational, melting-pot, control and assimilatory models. By using the two-dimensional model, historical, administrative, political and constitutional aspects of the aboriginal-White relationships are discussed in Chapters 3 to 6 respectively. Chapter Three reviews the historical transformation of the relationships in North America, and it is clear that interactions between the aboriginals and Europeans were complex and diverse. Chapter Four identifies the administrative aspects of the relationships, and the complexity that exists in the process of program delivery. Political aspects of the relationships are discussed in Chapter Five and the strengths and weaknesses of the aboriginal peoples in the Canadian political process are pointed out. Chapter Six attempts to clarify meanings and political implications of aboriginal rights. Chapter Seven evaluates our model as a whole, and identifies the advantages and shortcomings of the twodimensional model. The issue of group rights for aboriginal peoples in liberal democracies such as Canada and the United States is also discussed. Katzmarzyk, Peter T. (1997) "A familial study of growth and health-related fitness among Canadians of aboriginal and European ancestry." Ph.D. Dissertation, Michigan State University. 314 pp. The purpose of this study was to compare Canadians of First Nation (FN) and European ancestry (EA) in terms of body size, physique, and indicators of health-related fitness, and to determine the familial resemblance in these variables. A total of 624 subjects, 130 FN, 494 EA from the northern Ontario communities of Temagami and Bear Island participated. The results indicated significant differences between FN and EA Canadians, and significant familial resemblance in body size, physique and health-related fitness. Generally, FN subjects were fatter and had a more central subcutaneous fat distribution than EA subjects. In both groups, males had less subcutaneous adiposity, but had a greater tendency to store proportionally more fat on the trunk than females. Few differences were evident for stature and skeletal dimensions between FN and EA subjects. The results also indicated that FN subjects were more endomorphic than EA subjects. The prevalence of obesity in FN was generally higher than in EA. Among males and females 5-19 years, the prevalence of obesity was 38.1% and 29.4% in FN males and females, respectively, and 21.3% and 16.9% in EA males and females, respectively. In FN adults 20-75 years, the prevalence of obesity was 51.4% in FN males, 58.8% in FN females, 39.0% in EA males, and 35.0% in EA females. Analyses of secular changes indicated a positive secular trend for stature of 1.0 cm/decade in EA males. Estimated secular changes in the other groups were not significant. Correlations between first degree relatives indicated significant familial resemblance in body size, physique, adiposity, relative fat distribution, grip strength and trunk flexibility.

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Spousal correlations showed little assortative mating in this sample. The results suggest that the increased prevalence of several metabolic diseases in FN Canadians may in part be explained by morphological characteristics which are associated with increased risk for disease, and that these differences are apparent in childhood. Kawamura, Hiroaki. (2002 ) "Symbolism and materialism in the ecological analysis of hunting, fishing, and gathering practices among the contemporary Nez Perce Indians." Ph.D. Dissertation, Ohio State University (The). 327 pp. This dissertation aims to develop a model for studying contemporary indigenous ecologies in industrialized societies based on the case of contemporary Nez Perce ecology. Study of contemporary indigenous ecologies requires a different framework and methodologies from conventional ecological anthropology because of the intensive and extensive interaction with outside agencies. This study adopted political ecology as the general theoretical framework. Within this framework, symbolic and materialistic aspects of Nez Perce hunting, fishing, and gathering practices were analyzed synthetically using the concepts of capital and 'practice' (Bourdieu 1997). Nez Perce ecology has been continuously evolving since time immemorial. Historical analysis reveals that patterns of engaging in the Nez Perce subsistence activities and their meanings have been continuously changing in response to the shifting power relationship with the larger society. Today, hunting, fishing, and gathering practices are no longer the primary means of subsistence for many Nez Perce households. However, these activities still play significant roles in Nez Perce economics and politics, to say nothing of their religion and culture through 'practice' and 'symbolic capital.' These functions are all interrelated with each other under the Nez Perce 'habitus.' This dissertation has several implications for the study of indigenous ecologies in industrialized societies. First, I propose that the barriers between symbolism and materialism need to be taken down. Significant functions of traditional subsistence activities within contemporary indigenous societies become evident only when symbolic and materialistic aspects of human ecological relationships are examined synthetically. Second, this study demonstrates that human-environmental relationship is a dynamic and dialectic interaction. Human 'practice' is a significant focus in ecological studies. Third, indigenous 'habitus' functions as a useful mechanism of resource preservation and conversation. The 'habitus' shapes and regulates individual patterns of resource use. Finally, this study reaffirms the significant roles of power relationships in human-environmental relationships. Indigenous subsistence activities are fundamentally political by nature. Keith, Lisa S. (1996) "An investigation of psychosis in Chamorro culture: Relating delusional thought to cultural context." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Windsor. 263 pp. The present study is an investigation of psychosis in Chamorro culture -- the indigenous people of the Marianas Islands. There were five primary goals of the study: (1) to present an in-depth description of the delusional thought structure and content in schizophrenic Chamorros; (2) to explore the potential connection between the Chamorro cultural and historical context, and the content of Chamorro delusional thought; (3) to discover the Chamorro schizophrenics' explanatory models of their mental health problems; (4) to investigate whether Chamorro schizophrenics reported the presence of factors associated with less industrialized cultures; and, (5) to evaluate the usefulness of employing a qualitative methodology in an investigation of psychotic thought processes. 20 Chamorros diagnosed as schizophrenic from mental health facilities in Saipan and Guam were interviewed. An interpretive cultural analysis was conducted to relate content categories to the cultural context. Results indicated that, with the exception of two culture-specific delusional themes (witchcraft and poisoning), there were no remarkable differences in delusional thought content between North American and Chamorro schizophrenics. The explanatory models described by the informants were also similar to those expected in North American mental health clients. Informants reported the strong presence of extended family; however, this influence was not always positive. The informants also described considerable stigmatization of mental health clients. In general, the findings indicate that there is an amalgamation of Western and Chamorro cultural content, an adoption of Western explanatory models, and few factors characteristic of less industrialized cultures. This likely reflects the Chamorro history of colonization and Westernization, and the current cultural context of American and Chamorro values and beliefs. Finally, a qualitative, cultural analysis proved to be a useful tool to understand the experience and world view of schizophrenic individuals. This methodology generated detailed data which allowed the informants the freedom to construct their own stories. Suggestions for cross-cultural, individual psychotherapeutic treatment with schizophrenic individuals are offered.

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Kelly, Jennifer G. (2000 ) ""Analyze if you wish, but listen": Aboriginal women's lifestorytelling in Canada and Australia and the politics of gender, nation, aboriginality, and anti-racism." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Calgary. 303 pp. This study examines how aboriginal women's lifestorytelling in Canada and Australia engages in the processes of decolonization and how its potential for transformation can be realized through anti-racist feminist criticism and pedagogy. Chapters One through Three locate Aboriginal women's lifestorytelling practices within the processes of white nation-building. I explore the marginalization of aboriginal women's lifestorytelling in postcolonial and Australian-Canadian literary studies as an effect of an unexamined investment in nationalism. I analyze how the operations of race and nation inflect upon the categories of 'aboriginality,' gender, class, and autobiography (particularly in terms of 'truth' and referentiality) and influence how Aboriginal women's lifestories are produced and enter visibility, in popular readerships and university practices. While Aboriginal women's lifestorytelling can productively be read as pedagogical in a politics of decolonization, it does not teach or transform material relations by itself. In Chapter Four I analyze how the operations of white nationalism are reproduced in the university classroom and, drawing on my experiences of teaching a university course in aboriginal literatures, I explore how an anti-racist pedagogy can transform the university classroom and whiteness. This is followed by detailed analyses of five aboriginal women's lifestories: Australian Monica Clare's Karobran: The story of an Aboriginal girl (1978), Mi'kmaq Rita Joe's Song of Rita Joe: Autobiography of a Mi'kmaq poet (1996), Lardil Elsie Roughsey's (Labumore's) An aboriginal mother tells of the old and the new (1984), Cree Emma Minde's kwayask ê-kî-pêkiskinowâpahtihicik: Their example showed me the way, a Cree woman's life shaped by two cultures, as told to Freda Ahenakew (1997), and Aboriginal Australian Rita Huggins's and daughter Jackie Huggins's collaborative Auntie Rita (1994). My readings highlight how these lifestories articulate the processes of white nationalism in producing a gendered, racialized, dispossessed labouring class and how, in mapping personal and collective histories, they theorize and imagine alternative discourses of history, place, nation, gender, and Aboriginality. And as these lifestorytellers imagine a different Canada and Australia, they also imagine a different white national subjectivity -- an invitation and a challenge to white feminist/postcolonial critics to re-examine and transform our own subjectivities, locations, and practices. Kelsey, Jane. (1990) "Rogernomics and the Treaty of Waitangi: The contradiction between the economic and treaty policies of the fourth Labour government, 1984-90, and the role of law in mediating that contradiction in the interests of the colonial capitalist state." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Auckland. 939 pp. Kempers, Margot B. (1986 ) "Contemporary dimensions of group rights: The Maine Indian land claim and JapaneseAmerican redress." Ph.D. Dissertation, Brandeis University. 255 pp. In this study of group entitlements and obligations in American law I explore the notion that there does in fact exist a basis for collective rights in contemporary legal practice. The groups are either legal subjects themselves, or individual person's rights and obligations are mediated by membership in them. The examination focuses primarily on two cases. The first is that of the curiously-knit community of American Indian tribes. I trace the deep structures of the legal status of American Indian tribes in order to better understand the extent to which these structures determine the surface phenomena of legal-political responses to Indian actions and claims. Against the backdrop of over 200 years of federal Indian policy decisions, the Maine Indian Land Claim -- resolved in 1980 after lengthy litigation -- is examined for information on perceptions of injustice and justice connected to group identity. A second, quite different case involving group identity and American law concerns the experiences of Japanese-Americans in this country as centred around the summary internment of some 120,000 members of this group during World War II. These two cases, while asymmetrical, clarify how the existence of legal obligations between a bounded community and the federal government can provide a basis, even if only indirectly, on which to vindicate collective rights. The overall findings indicate the degree to which groups rights do have an historical, conceptual foundation as well as a contemporary relevancy within the American legal system. However, the findings also support the notion that the legal system can and does identify groups as legal subjects at its convenience, for while such identification has precedent in American law, it is not compelled by cognizable rules. A history of discrimination appears to be an important factor in these two instance of 'legalized' group treatment, but discrimination alone does not ensure that a disadvantaged group will be treated as a legal subject. Furthermore, careful investigation of the membership of each group underscores the often ephemeral quality of such bounded collectivities, and this contrasts sharply with the legal system's apparently arbitrary treatment of groups. Finally, the two case studies elucidate an important characteristic of the law, that it is a

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social product at the same time as it exercises control over society. Kennedy, Thomas J. (1992 ) "The origins of Creek Indian nationalism: Contact, diplomacy, clans, and intermarriage during the colonial and early national periods." M.A. Thesis, University of Houston. 186 pp. From their earliest contacts, English settlers in North America attempted to establish close diplomatic relations with the Indians. In the 18th century, colonial South the English enjoyed some success when they employed Scots traders as diplomats. Since Scotsmen were from a clan-based society similar to that of the Indians, they quickly adapted to Indian life. Scots-Indian intermarriage created an English Métis community whose members were steeped both in British common law and custom, and in Indian matrilineal culture. After the Revolution, the Anglo-American tendency to treat Indians to the full rigor of the law and to assume that they were members of true nations, created a concept of Indian nationalism, which was most effectively projected by the adroit Creek Indian diplomat, Alexander McGillivray. McGillivray's extraordinary legal intelligence and diplomatic finesse created a genuine and viable nationalism among the Creek elites. Keway, Linda S. (1997) "Leadership roles of Native American women in education in the 1990s." Ed.D. Dissertation, Western Michigan University. 132 pp. This study of Native American women leaders in education had a twofold purpose. The first was the primary objective of the study: to develop a greater understanding of leadership as experienced by contemporary Native American women. The second was to add to the literature on experiences of Native American women leaders. The method selected for this study was a qualitative approach involving ethnographic studies of 12 selected Native American women in the field of education. Data were collected through interviews and journal recordings. Native American women interviewed were representative of various tribes across the United States. The study explored questions regarding the lives of these women leaders. Findings of this study included factors these Native American women perceived as contributing to their success and factors they perceived as barriers. The following categories emerged as contributing to the success of these women: leadership characteristics, support systems, education, and beliefs. The research found that the distortion of Native American women's roles, as a result of European beliefs about the role of women and Native Americans, led to racial and sexual discrimination. These were identified as barriers to success. Data also supported the finding that these women refused to allow barriers to impede their success. The study concludes that there has been misunderstanding about the traditional roles of Native American women, and this misunderstanding continues into the 1990s. Misperceptions have been introduced by nonIndian ethnographic and historical writers. Women governed in some tribes. In other tribes, current leadership positions are new roles for women. Little has been written about Native American women as leaders, past or present. This study adds to the understanding of these women's lived experiences. Barriers still exist, but many are overcoming those barriers. Continuing to ascribe to traditional ways, Native American women are obtaining leadership positions in areas such as education, which may or may not have been the norm in their tribal societies. Khoury, Peter. (1997) "Contested rationalities: Aboriginal organizations and the Australian state." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of New South Wales. This thesis analyses the history and development of Aboriginal organizations in the Redfern, inner-city area of Sydney. In particular, focus will be centred on those organizations such as the Aboriginal Medical Service and the Aboriginal Legal Service which were established by Aborigines themselves in the early 1970s. These organizations will be contrasted with white dominated, Aboriginal interest organizations of earlier decades. Central themes which emerge out of this analysis include Aboriginal resistance to assimilation policies and a rejection of the subordinate role expected of Aborigines in earlier organizations. Moreover it will be demonstrated that these Aboriginal initiated and controlled organizations are expressions of Aboriginal agency, an argument which contests many popular and academic notions of Aborigines as passive, apathetic victims of while oppression. Central to this analysis is a discussion of the Aboriginal presence in Redfern which, among other factors, can be perceived as a defiance of assimilation policies and the dominant society. Thus Aboriginal Redfern is conceived as a contested social space and a site of Aboriginal mobilization and struggle for self-determination. The formation of Aboriginal organizations in Redfern is explained against a backdrop of various government policies: assimilation, self-determination, self-management, and the recent spectre of managerialism. Since these organizations transcend conventional notions and practices of service delivery, they are subjected to considerable interference from government departments and funding bodies. It is argued that the state seeks to contain these organizations by diverting their claims through rigidly demarcated bureaucratic and administrative channels. Thus Aboriginal struggles for self-determination

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become embedded in and appropriated by state-controlled procedures and regulations. Kicksee, Richard R. (1996) "'Scaled down to size': Contested liberal commonsense and the negotiation of 'Indian participation' in the Canadian centennial celebrations and Expo '67, 1963-67." M.A. Thesis, Queen's University at Kingston. 285 pp. In 1967, millions of Canadians participated in events to celebrate the nation's centenary year. Extensive national commemorative programs were coordinated through the federal government's Centennial Commission, headed by John Wiggans Fisher. Public attention was also focused upon the 1967 World Exhibition, or Expo '67, the World's Fair in Montréal. These large commemorative projects were promoted as a means of inspiring nationalist pride and a sense of 'Canadian identity.' But one segment of Canada's population, native peoples, had historically fallen outside of the Euro-Canadian liberal conception of the Canadian nation. This thesis seeks answers to two basic and related questions: Why would native people have wanted to participate in such symbolically-charged celebrations of Canada as a national project as those of the Centennial? Why celebrate an entity identified with Euro-Canadian colonialism and the loss of ancestral lands? This thesis presents a history of the negotiation of Amerindian participation in Canadian centennial celebrations and the development of the 'Indians of Canada' Pavilion at Expo '67. In seeking both to empirically describe the many and varied voices and experiences of the 1960s, and to rationally reconstruct the conceptual preconditions of their appearance in history, this thesis proposes that the context which shaped the involvement of Amerindian people in the Centennial can best be understood in light of three uneasily coexisting, seemingly incommensurate liberal commonsenses, three definable points on a complex continuum of attitudes and practices through which 'Indian issues' were constructed. These commonsenses were 'paternalism', 'liberal benevolence', and 'native nationalism.' Kilmartin, Sandra J. (2000) "Building new relationships through consultation for treaty making in British Columbia." M.A. Thesis, Royal Roads University. 81 pp. Public involvement as a fundamental aspect of government decision-making today. Polarized political battles and protracted conflict resulting in decision becoming deadlocked in the court systems has a detrimental effect on the economy of British Columbia. Although the province's political system was set up as one of electoral representation, the government realized that on certain matters such as land and resource management, that if stakeholders are not involved, and in a meaningful way, in the decisions that affect them, implementation of the decision is likely to fail or result in conflict between the government and the public. When stakeholders are involved in decision making, more information becomes available with the consideration of different perspectives, better decisions are made and stakeholders become part of the solution rather than the problem. Treaty-making in British Columbia has a contentious history, replete with wide-spread conflicting social and political views and for this reason, public involvement has become a vital component of the overall treaty process. Without participation of those people and groups who will live with the negotiated agreement once it is signed, successful implementation of modern day treaties will be at risk. Public participation for treaty-making in British Columbia is done through what is called 'third party consultation' or the 'treaty consultation process.' Stakeholders are brought together to provide advice to negotiators about their interests in treaty-making and they endeavour to reconcile their interests with those of the governments and the First Nations. This treaty consultation process brings people together who would likely not have been brought together for any other purpose. These people represent various constituencies, municipal and local governments, and key social and economic sectors in the areas where the treaties are being negotiated. They have competing interests with First Nations, and sometimes with the governments and each other. They bring to the discussions different ideologies and varied cultural backgrounds. The treaty consultation process facilitates a sustained dialogue for the purpose of understanding and reconciling each other's interests and that leads to better understanding and the building of common ground. This project examines the potential for new relationships formed as a result of bringing people together for consultation on treaties being negotiated in British Columbia between the governments of British Columbia and Canada, and the First Nations. Although the government's primary purpose in treaty-making is to ascertain and clarify aboriginal rights in a written document, there are other benefits derived from the process itself, particularly new relationships being formed between aboriginal and non-aboriginal people and between First Nation communities and non-First Nation communities as a result of the individuals' participation in the process. These relationships have the potential to affect social change by having a positive impact on conflict between mainstream society and First Nations in British Columbia.

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The treaty consultation process in British Columbia has great potential for fostering new relationships between First Nation communities and non-First Nation communities. Kirkham, Della M. (1994) "The Reform Party of Canada: A discourse on race, ethnicity, and equality." M.A. Thesis, Carleton University. 242 pp. Long considered by both academics and established political parties as merely a vessel for regional discontent, the Reform Party's success in the 1993 federal election indicates the need to subject its platform and underlying ideology to a more rigorous analysis. This is especially true of the party's race and ethnicrelated policies which have garnered a significant amount of media attention. The racial-ethnic discourse of the Reform Party is discussed by examining its positions on: immigration; multiculturalism; Aboriginal issues; language rights and the Constitution; the family and women's issues. This examination is informed by the premise that we are witnessing the rise of new racial discourses and ideologies. In many instances, the meaning of race is being transformed or reinterpreted in a conservative direction. The link between the racial and ethnic discourse of the Reform Party, and the trend toward the new right rearticulation of racial ideologies is made throughout the thesis. Kleit, David H. (2003) ""We wanted the land": The Cherokee country during the era of removal and resettlement." Ph.D. Dissertation, Duke University. 394 pp. This dissertation explores the history of the Cherokee lands in the Southeast from the last generation prior to Cherokee Removal in 1838 via the 'Trail of Tears' through the first decades of white-dominated resettlement. Predominately in Appalachia, the 19th century Cherokee Country became north-western Georgia and smaller portions of Alabama, Tennessee, and North Carolina. While historians of the Cherokees usually end their studies with removal itself or follow the Cherokees west, historians of the antebellum South generally begin their studies only after Native Americans have left. Resettlement of the Cherokee Country, however, began well before removal. Furthermore, both Cherokees and non-Cherokees living in the Cherokee Country helped determine the broader course of events in the conflict over Cherokee Removal. Hoping to promote land cessions to the United States, President George Washington and his successors encouraged the Cherokees to live as white Americans did. But increasing Cherokee acculturation instead strengthened Cherokee resistance to territorial losses. The United States nonetheless insisted the Cherokees must cede their land. Georgia's unique land redistribution system, the land lottery, made Georgia the driving force behind Cherokee Removal. The long-anticipated lottery, as well as an unexpected gold rush, drew thousands of newcomers into the Cherokee Country years before removal. Against all odds the Cherokee Nation mounted a strong resistance to removal that pushed white Georgians in particular to ever more forceful efforts to dislodge the Cherokees. The outcome remained uncertain even as the removal army mobilized in the spring of 1838. A wide range of people with varied resources and plans came to the Cherokee Country hoping to exploit Cherokee dispossession, but many found only disappointment. The newcomers generally embraced the market possibilities available to them, most frequently by growing crops either for market sale or for feeding to livestock that were subsequently sold. Despite the Georgia land lottery, Cherokee land soon went to those able to pay the most for it; half or more of the new residents would not own any land. Most striking, whether rich or poor, the new people of the Cherokee Country seldom stayed long before moving on in search of something better. Klyne, Richard J. (2003) "Employment barriers and aboriginal working life: Towards a representative workplace in Saskatchewan." M.V.T.Ed. Thesis, University of Regina (The). 196 pp. The purpose of this study was twofold; first to describe and analyze the broad barriers to employment and retention experienced by a group of aboriginal employees who work for Saskatchewan government organizations; and second, to provide some recommendations for the reduction or elimination of those barriers to make the workplace more representative and inclusive of the aboriginal population of this province. A key issue in this study was the exploration of participants' understandings of the meaning of a Representative Workplace in relation to Employment Equity, Diversity, and the former Department of Intergovernmental and Aboriginal Affairs' Representative Workforce Strategy. Evidence exists to suggest social, economic, cultural, and racial oppression within the context of aboriginal people's ability to participate in today's workplace. The principal method for data collection for this study was semi-structured interviews involving the use of open-ended questionnaires. Kneen, Soha. (2002) ""Where have all the traplines gone?": The mercury contamination of the English-Wabigoon

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River System and its consequences on the Ojibway of Grassy Narrows." M.A. Thesis, Carleton University. 106 pp. This thesis evaluates whether or not the knowledge of the mercury contamination between the late 1960s and to 1973 has had an effect on the dietary habits and traditional subsistence practices of the Ojibway of Grassy Narrows. Of particular interest to this thesis is how the residents of Grassy Narrows have been made aware of dangers to their health as a result of the mercury contamination of the English-Wabigoon River System, and how they have responded to this information. The results of this thesis support the conclusion that knowledge of the mercury contamination of the late 1960s up to 1973 has had a severe effect on these Ojibway, which has resulted in a shift in their dietary habits and traditional subsistence practices. The mercury contamination of the English-Wabigoon River System was, however, not the sole cause for this change in diet and the resulting economic, social, cultural and health impacts. The relocation of this community, the subjection of its children to the residential school system, and the mercury contamination all contributed to the adverse effects that have been affecting this community for the past 32 years. Knoki, Rosemari. (1997) "A profile of American Indian leadership paradigms: Implications for educational leadership and national policy." Ed.D. Dissertation, Northern Arizona University. 118 pp. This qualitative study presents a profile of selected characteristics of American Indian leadership paradigms. The study identifies seven leadership paradigms embedded in the American Indian world view: stability, integration of knowledge, natural laws, common ground, complexity, long-term emphasis, and power. The primary questions asked were: (1) How do the selected leadership paradigms compare across tribal groups in the United States and Canada? (2) How have events in the period between 1887 and 1937 affected American Indian leadership and the embedded world view? (3) What affects, do the key elements of the American Indian world view have on educational leadership and national policy? Historical research is used to arrive at conclusions about causes, effects, or trends of past occurrences that allows explanation of present issues and anticipate future events. Complex relationships between social structures (such as Indian tribes) and human agencies (such as government and industry) are examined without resorting to mechanistic or reductionist analyses. The population refers to North American Indians who observe the universal laws that govern the behaviour, society, and natural world. Systematic sampling of the population from available sources of data includes 40 Indian tribes. Effective sampling of population units also included dyads, organizations, and other social units. The study adopts Berry and Gordon's (1993) theory that leadership is a 'circle of distinct but interrelated values and behaviour.' The research explores seven aspects of this circle or major leadership paradigms. These American Indian leadership themes also illustrate Berry and Gordon's (1993) observation that 'at its best, leadership is morally purposeful.' (p. 17) The first paradigm, stability, characterizes the world of living things. The world maintains its stability rather than to change perpetually in an undefined direction. Another paradigm, integration of knowledge, is the ideological concern for the interconnectedness of all natural living processes which is a way of life for North American Indians. The paradigm of natural laws presupposes relationships in the universe that include all life designed and placed in harmonious positions and various points in the universe orderly. The idea of common ground requires listening and speaking from both the heart and mind which is a powerful leadership tool. Common ground celebrates the mutual dependence between life forms in the universe. The paradigms of complexity and long-term emphasis establish that challenges from complex systems (such as the earth and Biosphere) require complex and longterm responses, as opposed to the more popular paradigms of economics and politics that opt for short-term gains. Finally power is not the ability to influence others as classically defined. Power is harmony with the cosmos from which we draw power and replenish it by reciprocity for the maintenance of its integrity. The American Indian world view addresses the Biosphere in kinship terms and sees the Biosphere as having real needs: biological, social, ecological, spiritual and cognitive. The Golden Rule is extended to the Biosphere. Benefits of this study to the federal system, universities and industries are unlimited in addressing today's policy and leadership issues. Kofinas, Gary P. (1998) "The costs of power sharing: Community involvement in Canadian Porcupine Caribou comanagement." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of British Columbia (The). 480 pp. Co-management arrangements are commonly framed with the theoretical assumption that community management systems function with a minimum of transaction costs and government-community power sharing lowers overall costs of management. This dissertation investigates the involvement of three northern indigenous communities in a wildlife co-management arrangement to delineate community costs of power sharing. The subject of the study is the internationally migratory Porcupine Caribou Herd, Canada's three

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primary Porcupine Caribou user communities (Old Crow, YT, Aklavik, NT, and Fort McPherson, NT), and the resource regime established by the Canadian Porcupine Caribou Management Agreement and the agreement between the Governments of Canada and the United States for the Conservation of Porcupine Caribou. Using multiple sources of evidence and drawing on the ethnographic method, the study documents emergent communication linkages between co-management boards and communities, analyzes locals' perceptions of caribou management information and scientific research activities, identifies patterns of interaction between researchers and hunters, and illustrates the constraints of choice available to hunters of the Canadian Porcupine Caribou co-management system. Presented is an account of the '1993 Caribou Crisis,' a critical co-management incident in which hunters confront caribou researchers and face the dilemma of violating cultural traditions in order to stop proposed hydrocarbon development. Fundamentally, the study examines the consequence of interfacing authority systems and power dynamics of a formal co-management arrangement. The study also points to the limitations of rational choice perspectives when conducting institutional analysis, and the need to consider group identity, perspectives on uncertainty, and styles of learning when delineating transaction costs. From a more applied perspective, delineating anticipated and incurred community transaction costs of power sharing brings attention to the impediments to local involvement, how community members invest their energies in a co-management process, and who and by what method they bear the costs of shared decision making. Porcupine Caribou user communities make sacrifices when seeking to exercise authority in shared decisionmaking. The transaction costs of co-management associated with community involvement come at the price of time commitments and imposed schedules, restructuring of former traditions of leadership, and engaging with government agencies in bureaucratic processes. Internalizing authority in caribou management means that community members and leaders must decipher new information, interact with a host of players, engage in lobbying, and become involved in conflicts which are at times turbulent and controversial, as well as divisive to community. In some cases, the costs of power sharing are perceived to violate customary and traditional institutions regarding human-human, and human-caribou relations and in turn, undermine the well-being of the caribou resource and the relationships of those who depend on it. Komori, Violet S. (1995) "Incorporating First Nations issues into land use planning: The Tahsish River case study." M.R.M. Thesis, Simon Fraser University. In this study I develop a First Nations Assessment Framework to incorporate native issues into current land use planning processes in British Columbia. Native participation is necessary for developing land use scenarios in these processes as well as evaluating the impacts of alternative land use scenarios on native goals. My framework provides a systematic method to determine and compare the economic, environmental and socio-cultural impacts of proposed land use scenarios on First Nations values. The results do not identify the best scenario but instead compares the trade-offs between scenarios. To provide an example of how First Nations interests can be meaningfully included in land use planning the First Nations Assessment Framework is applied to the Tahsish River case study area. The results of the study identify that Native ownership of the Tahsish River will satisfy most of the ecological and sociocultural goals of the local First Nation. However, the economic goals are best satisfied when ownership of the Tahsish remains with the Crown and stewardship is jointly managed by First Nations and the government. By incorporating First Nations issues into land use planning, decision makers can consider native issues when determining land use designations which may in turn reduce the impact of land claims on newly established land use plans in BC. Konkle, Maureen A. (1997 ) "Writing the Indian nation: United States colonialism, native intellectuals, and the struggle over Indian identity." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Minnesota. 273 pp. This project describes native resistance to colonialism in the emergence of native writing by historicizing the concept of the identity of Indians. Knowledge posited about Indians denies their historicity and political existence; the mechanism of that denial is the concept of the identity of all Indians, through which all Indians may be understood to possess the same, inherent characteristics. I argue that, because government legitimacy requires the concession of Indians' political autonomy, the denial of native political existence is imperative to maintaining colonial relations. An introductory chapter defines the terms of the study by examining contemporary native scholars' critique of the academy's fixation on Indian identity. Arguing that this conflict recurs throughout the history of US colonialism, in succeeding chapters I examine the emergence of native writing from the mid 18th to the mid 19th centuries. Chapter 2 establishes the treaty as a paradigmatic site of colonial relations, in which native negotiators reject identity to insist on the authority of their traditions, by which, they argue, Indian nations endure through time. Chapter 3 examines the role of the treaty in the

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formation of the US government; I argue that the sentimentalized Indian and the Supreme Court's doctrine of domestic dependent nations both attempt to resolve the contradiction on which government legitimacy rests by reasserting the inherent identity of Indians. Chapter 4 then traces in William Apess's works an emerging critique of colonialism in his analysis of the destructive power of identity, particularly in New England historiography and Supreme Court jurisprudence. Apess asserts the authority of the Indian nation instead, a position taken by both David Cusick and George Copway. In chapter 5, I argue that Cusick and Copway claim history and, in Copway's case, literature for native tradition, thereby establishing Indians' historical and political difference from Europeans, as well as the continuity of native intellectual traditions from preliterate to literate form. The works of these early native writers constitute a sustained critique of colonialism, demonstrating that the colonial struggle is epistemological as much as it is violent, and that the field of that struggle was and continues to be English. Koppang, Michael C. (1997) "Manitoba aboriginal treaties as vehicles for self-government: Sentiments and scepticism." LL.M. Thesis, University of Manitoba (The). 219 pp. The method likely chosen by the Assembly of Manitoba Chiefs and the federal government negotiators to implement aboriginal self-government in Manitoba is a framework agreement process. The objectives are to dismantle the Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, to develop and recognize aboriginal governments and to 'restore jurisdiction' to those governments. The original 'numbered' treaties and the rights derived from them theoretically form the basis of this process. One potential effect of using treaty rights for this change is constitutional entrenchment without formal amendment. This study explores the legal basis of the original numbered treaties and the legal nature of the treaty rights, for the purpose of examining whether executive agreements are the best way to implement aboriginal self-government in Manitoba. The historical and legal evidence suggests a royal prerogative source for aboriginal treaties. It is from this basis that questions concerning the mixing of the law of fiduciary obligations with the law surrounding Aboriginal treaties are raised. This leads to an examination of 'rights' and their suitability for anchoring a selfgovernment scheme. This study concludes by questioning the legal authority of using executive agreements based on treaty rights to alter fundamentally the Canadian constitution without a formal amendment process. Korber, Dianne. (1997) "Measuring forest dependence: Implications for aboriginal communities." M.Sc. Thesis, University of Alberta. 99 pp. Past studies of economic base measures of forest dependence have inadequately addressed the full nature of economic forest dependence in Aboriginal communities, by either ignoring the contribution of the subsistence economy or excluding Indian reserves. This thesis presents findings based on the recalculation of an economic base measure of forest industry dependence (using 1991 Census data, and including a transfer payment sector) which show that omitting aboriginal communities from forest industry dependence measures represents an omission in the number of forest industry dependent communities and population in the prairie provinces. The economic base measure of forest industry dependence is also evaluated for potential to include a subsistence economy-related sector. Analysis reveals that the economic base measure does not adequately capture the contribution of in-kind income from subsistence activities. If the subsistence sector is included in the forest industry dependence measure the relationships predicted by economic base theory do not hold, and the forestry industry dependence measure no longer provides a useful means to rank and compare forest industry dependent communities. In areas where there is reliance on income from forest industry related jobs, as and/or the subsistence economy, a more comprehensive account of forest dependence must be developed to fully understand the effects of changes in forest industry markets and forest policy on communities' economies where the subsistence economy is practiced. Kosasa, Karen K. (2002) "Critical sights/sites: Art pedagogy and settler colonialism in Hawai'i." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Rochester (The). 368 pp. This dissertation examines art pedagogy -- the teaching and learning of art -- within the context of settler colonialism in Hawai'i. Drawing from research in several disciplinary fields, including (post)colonial studies, education, anthropology, geography, art history, studio art pedagogy, and the study of indigenous/native peoples, the education of artists is linked to a history of colonialism and the cultural and visual practices that facilitated it. An important distinction is made between native peoples and settlerimmigrants who reside within the geo-political borders of the United States. A common trait of settlers is their refusal to acknowledge (or their desire to forget) the existence of colonialism in 'America.' The work of Hawai'ian scholar Haunani-Kay Trask importantly reveals a complex political landscape wherein 'settlers of colour' collude with the white community to share colonial power.

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Antonio Gramsci's notion of hegemony and Henri Lefebvre's formulation of the relationship between social relations and the 'production' of space are used to examine how seemingly innocent aesthetic practices, like the representation of non-Western peoples and territories, have contributed in unforeseen ways to the transformation of native places into sites of political subjugation. The art curriculum will be examined as a hegemonic, national structure that promotes a narrow definition of art, as well as likened to a national narrative that circulates a vision of the United States as a place of unlimited opportunity. Ironically, while individuality and uniqueness are valorized in the arts, teachers rarely speak to the specificity of student identity. Students are addressed as if they were 'universal citizens' unbounded by their race, gender, class, sexual orientation, or national affiliation. An important section of the dissertation describes a fieldwork project conducted at the University of Hawai'i at Manoa (1995-97) by the author, a Japanese-American born in Hawai'i, Interviews with students and teachers and descriptions of classroom activities provide crucial information on curricular efforts to include non-Western points of view and non-art material. The final chapter describes an important exhibition by Hawai'ian students which severely criticizes the Western orientation of the curriculum, and a compelling photographic series by a Hawai'ian artist which prohibits settlers from access to everything native. Krywy, Michael D. (1998) "Re-imagining 'Canada': Consensus, resistance, and the construction of a multicultural national discourse. A case study of North of 60." M.A. Thesis, Queen's University at Kingston. 105 pp. This thesis examines how native/non-native differences are represented through the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC) television program, North of 60. Using a theory and approach of textual analysis derived from Stuart Hall, I explore how North of 60 combines fictional representations of Canadian aboriginal peoples with traditional national signifiers such as the RCMP and federal government institutions to construct a more complex and inclusive way of imagining Canadian society. In a number of different realms - economic, political, and social -- old tensions are invoked and then resolved in a way which bridges previously coded differences in order to construct a more multicultural national discourse. Through its discussion of issues such as native self-government, land claim settlement, and symbolic recognition, North of 60 provides an imaginative context through which such problems can be expressed, without necessarily being 'resolved.' Many of these issues are left open and frequently recur because they tend to be systemic or structural and impossible to solve on a case by case basis. Thus, even as the problems emerge and are dealt with episodically, their recurrence throughout the series and over the course of several seasons is used to draw attention to enduring issues which have come to preoccupy the current government/aboriginal relations within Canadian society. Ku, Mary M. (2003) "Life stories of Aboriginal juvenile prostitutes in Taiwan." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. 346 pp. The Act of Prevention of Juveniles from Selling Sex in Taiwan created vocational centres (mid-way school) to protect and counsel juvenile prostitutes who are arrested by the police. This study explores the daily life experience of girls in a vocational centre and looks into how the policy is implemented. This study also explores the life process of ten aboriginal juvenile prostitutes and identifies risk factors for them to enter prostitution as well as protective factors for them to leave prostitution. Ethnography and life history research methods were employed during regular visits to the vocational centre in a total of seven months field work. Data were collected through participant observation and in-depth individual interviews. These data were indexed, sorted and coded to discover significant patterns and themes which reflect the participants' lived experience. Results were presented in narrative form. A description of the vocational centre, the program and the every day life experiences of girls framed ten Atyal juvenile prostitutes' life stories. The ethnographic results indicate that there are discrepancies in the belief of the girls versus the staff, which explain why many girls returned to prostitution after discharged from the centre. The results of life stories identified risk factors and protective factors for aboriginal girls entering and leaving prostitution. Risk factors are: poverty, parents' poor marital relationship, domestic violence, child maltreatment, culturally deviant moral reasoning ability, complicated relationship with friends, 'bad girl' concept, running away, early sexual experiences and promiscuity and having friends and relatives in the pornography industry. The findings suggest that the keystone risk factors could be problems in the family. Protective factors that influence girls' leaving prostitution are: a conventional moral reasoning ability, cutting ties with previous friends and boyfriend, a new value system toward sex, negative experiences in prostitution and a positive bond with a family member. The finding also concurs with western radical feminists' assertion that girls are socialized into prostitution. This study provides implications for policy, practice and research in the area of

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aboriginal juvenile prostitution as well as suggestions to feminists in Taiwan. Kymlicka, William Will. (1987) "Liberal equality and cultural community." Ph.D. Dissertation, North American Baptist Seminary. 295 pp. It is a standard criticism of liberalism, from both the right and the left, that it is insensitive to the virtues and importance of our communal existence. Liberals emphasize the individual to the neglect of the community and culture within which individuals develop and flourish. My goal is to defend liberalism against these criticisms. In the first half of the thesis, I present an interpretation of liberalism drawn mainly from the writings of Rawls and Dworkin, and defend it against recent communitarian and Marxist objections. Against communitarians, I argue that the liberal emphasis on freedom of choice does not require an untenable view about our ability to transcend our socialization, or to abstract ourselves from the social world. It only requires that the self is not 'embedded' in, or 'constituted' by, the roles and relationships it occupies at any particular point in time. Against Marxists, I argue that respect for justice and individual rights is not a remedial virtue which would detract from a 'fully human' community. Generally, I hope to show that the 'individualism' that underlies liberalism is not one that opposes or denies the importance of our social world. In the second half of the thesis, I apply these liberal principles to the question of the legitimacy of special rights for minority cultures, using Canada's aboriginal population as an example. Since World-War II, liberals have tended to oppose measures that provide special political rights or benefits to members of minority cultures, favouring instead the ideal of a 'colour-blind' constitution which does not differentiate between people on the basis of cultural membership. I argue that this is a misapplication of liberal principles (as pre-war liberals realized). In certain situations, like those of aboriginals in Canada, minority rights are needed to compensate for undeserved inequalities faced by members of minority cultures. I attempt to draw out the strengths and limits of this liberal defence of minority rights by contrasting it with the role minority rights play in other political theories. Labrador, Roderick N. (1997) "Constructing and deconstructing 'Kaigorotan': Examining attempts to formulate, articulate and legitimate panethnicity in the Cordillera." M.A. Thesis, University of Hawai'i. 96 pp. During the 1980s, in the Cordillera, in northern Luzon, Philippines, the Cordillera People's Alliance (or CPA) attempted to construct 'Kaigorotan' by transforming alliances forged during localized resistances against development projects (in the 1970s) into regional cooperation and solidarity. This thesis examines the CPA's attempts to construct 'Kaigorotan', viewing these attempts as efforts to create spaces from which to challenge Cordilleran subalternity and the unequal power relations between the state and the peoples of the Cordillera. However, the weakening of the regional autonomy movement demonstrated the contingency, complexity, and contestedness of identities and that higher-level collectivities, like the panethnic category of 'Kaigorotan', need not necessarily emerge from interactions between lower-level affiliations when responding to a common external threat. Simply put, the attempt to forge a panethnicity is characterized by nondeterminative relational alterities of internal and external discourses and is dependent on various sets of identifications and subject positions. Lackenbauer, P. Whitney. (2004) "Vanishing Indian, vanishing military: Military training and Aboriginal lands in 20th century Canada." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Calgary. 496 pp. In recent years, the closure or reduction of Canadian Forces facilities, the continued use of airspace for weapons testing and low-level flying, increased environmental awareness, and Aboriginal land claims have contributed to a growing interest in the acquisition, use and development of Aboriginal lands for military training. This dissertation explores how the military's interest in Aboriginal lands and concomitant relationships evolved through the 20th century, using a comparative case study approach that includes various Aboriginal groups, geographic regions, and time periods. Drawing upon untapped archival sources, interviews, primary reports, and secondary literature, the case studies critically examine the land selection and acquisition process, expressions of communal and individual agency, and a myriad of political, socioeconomic and environmental legacies stemming from military use. The final section explores the emergence of Native land claims in historical context and the consequent effects on relationships and memory. The results challenge prevailing depictions of the various participants, providing an important commentary on war and society in Canada that yields insight into conflict and cooperation in changing national and local historical contexts. Chapters one to five introduce relationships between the militia, the Department of Indian Affairs, and Indian bands from the turn of the century to 1939. In an era dominated by notions of the "vanishing Indian" and the idea that "surplus" reserve lands near growing cities represented an impediment to national and civic progress, local authorities overseeing the militia's expansion sometimes

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looked to nearby Indian reserves to meet training needs in an inexpensive and accessible way. The following two case studies deal with military training on Indian reserves during the Second World War, assessing the receptiveness of communities to military plans and the dynamics of federal decision-making in wartime. During the ensuing Cold War, operational requirements expanded and contracted in several cycles. Chapters eight to ten explore how competing interests in Indian reserves and traditional territories and shifting political priorities influenced new and pre-existing relationships between federal officials and Aboriginal communities. For a "vanishing military," the rise of Aboriginal activism brought new challenges, questions, and heightened pressures for change in the last three decades of the century. Ladner, Kiera L. (2001) "When buffalo speaks: Creating an alternative understanding of traditional Blackfoot governance." Ph.D. Dissertation, Carleton University. 333 pp. Does the exclusion of indigenous political traditions from the purview of political science mean that American Indians had no political traditions of their own prior to colonization? Were there no structures of government prior the occupation of the Americas? Is the development of indigenous governments intrinsically linked to colonization? If indigenous peoples had government and their own political traditions, should political science concern itself with indigenous political traditions or should political science simply be concerned with western-Eurocentric political traditions or state-based government? Recognizing that the 'exclusion' of indigenous political traditions from the disciplinary domain of political science is unjustified, this dissertation attempts to bring indigenous structures of governance and indigenous understandings of their own political traditions into political science. Identifying and depicting 'stateless' indigenous political traditions as a parallel to state-based western-Eurocentric political traditions, I attempt to destabilize and decolonize political science by introducing an alterNative and stateless 'way of knowing' governance. Acknowledging that the 'universal' excludes aboriginal political traditions, this thesis contends both that there is no universal, and that aboriginal peoples had their own political traditions prior to colonization; as such 'the Indian must be brought into political science.' Because there is no universal, my thesis contends that it is only by understanding indigenous political traditions from the vantage point of indigenist thought that we can come to a meaningful understanding of pre-colonial, non-state indigenous governance. In developing these ideas, I will demonstrate that Siiksikaawa governance was forged through a people's experiences with Creation or by observing, experiencing, understanding and listening when beings such as buffalo 'speak.' I will also illustrate that examining polities using Henderson's theory of ecological contexts is a useful approach for the study of Indigenous non-state political traditions. Lafontaine, Angela M. (2001) "Honouring our heart's call: Giving rise to our voice." M.A. Thesis, Royal Roads University. 94 pp. The Misiway Milopemahtesewin Community Health Centre, formally, the Misiway Eniniwuk Health Centre, located in Timmins, Ontario, courageously embarked on an enlightening journey to explore the historical and current events impacting the wellness and growth of the organization. Within the parameters of the study, the organizational culture and climate was examined and the recommendations for future strategic directions were documented. As servant leaders/stewards entrusted with the governance, management, and delivery of the priority health programs and services, accountability becomes a key priority for implementing and sustaining the desired changes. An open and honest dialogue between the research participants created the unprecedented opportunity for communicating the values, mission and vision of the centre as well as the necessary actions in order to live them. The underlying purpose of the research project is to identify the strengths, weaknesses, threats/challenges facing indigenous people in contemporary society and to identify the opportunities and strategies needed to address and achieve the desired outcomes. Lafontaine, Christopher. (1998) "Using the experience of a First Nation principal with student suicide in a First Nation school for structuring policy problems." M.Ed. Thesis, University of Regina (The). 168 pp. There is a lack of effective policy to deal with suicide in First Nation schools. Considering the very high rate of suicide among Indian youth, logically there should be a concern in First Nation controlled schools that should be reflected in clearly stated policy that deals with this problem. The purpose of this study was to investigate a First Nation principal's experience as he dealt with student suicide as a basis for policy making in First Nation Schools. The study used a modification of Roe's Narrative Policy Analysis and Stephen's Fault Tree Analysis to analyze the circumstance of a First Nation principal who had direct experience with three students suicides and the suicide of his son. The study was conducted in a remote Northern Canadian Cree community.

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Narrative and story telling was a natural methodology because of the researcher's Cree ancestry and because it is an integral part of First Nation culture. The study identified other perspectives that enhance or frustrate a principal's policy development effort in the school. The narrative method identified the subtleties of other perspectives, which influence policy development in different worldviews and culture. These perspectives need to be considered if effective policy is to be developed in a cross-cultural setting. The method developed through this study has the potential to assist principals develop and to assist in the implementation policy in communities where multiple perspectives exist. LaGrand, James B. (1997) "Indian metropolis: Native Americans in Chicago, 1945-65." Ph.D. Dissertation, Indiana University. 340 pp. Since 1940, no American ethnic or racial group has urbanized more quickly than American Indians. In 1940, roughly one in ten Indians lived in an urban area; by 1980, one in two did so. Migration by thousands of American Indians over many decades has resulted in the formation of several urban Indian communities during the 20th century. This dissertation examines Chicago's -- one of the first and most prominent of these Indian metropolises -- from 1945 to 1965. Scholarship on 20th century American Indian history has focused primarily on federal policy as implemented by the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). The few studies on urbanization have followed this trend, using government documents to assess the BIA's relocation program that encouraged Indian urbanization starting in 1952. In contrast, this study focuses on the social history of Indian people in mid 20th century Chicago, in the process drawing on a wide range of manuscript collections, newsletters and periodicals, oral histories, and census materials, as well as government documents. The study begins by examining the experiences of Indian people -- including land dispossession, wage labour, and World War II -- that contributed to thousands of them making the decision to migrate to Chicago. After examining forces that pulled Indian people there and tracing the various ways in which different groups arrived, this study explores many facets of their lives in Chicago. It examines experiences with employment, housing, education, religion, recreation, and politics. Through these and other experiences, this study suggests, Indian identity adjusted and became profoundly intertwined with urban life. A pan-Indian movement developed in which members of different tribes began to think of themselves as sharing a common Indian identity. In Chicago and other urban Indian communities, this trend would become even more prominent in the years to come with the rise of Indian political activism. Landau, Tammy C. (1994) "Policing and security in four remote aboriginal communities: A challenge to coercive models of police work." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Toronto. 185 pp. Most of the academic literature on the nature and function of the uniformed public police has emerged from a highly legalistic framework in which the essential nature of police work has been conceptualized in terms of the powers to use coercive force. There exists a small body of policing literature which identifies a social service role for the police. While this literature has been similarly limited by traditional frameworks which emphasize coercion and control, it suggests that people from poorer social classes rely more heavily on the police to provide a broader range of services than do socially more advantaged people. This includes 'primary' security -- the protection of one's physical well-being (from violence, accident, illness and death) in the immediate situation. The particular role played by the public police in such situations may be more a function of the network of social, security and other services accessible and available to a particular community. The current research places the public police within the broader context of a community's social service and security needs and the ability of the existing network of resources to meet those needs. The particular situation of Indian reserves, in which risk is high while accessibility to social services is low, provides the specific context. Structured and unstructured interviews with community members, community leaders and service providers in four remote aboriginal communities in northern Ontario reveal that alcohol is seen as the most serious social problem in three out of four of the communities, and is perceived to be at the root of most community problems, such as unemployment, child neglect and family violence. At the same time, the public police are seen as the social agency which is best at dealing with either social problems, or problems related to alcohol use. Most other social agencies in the community are viewed as limited in their ability to deal effectively with these kinds of problems. Police occurrence data indicate that the police in each community react to calls involving domestic and non-domestic disputes, problems of order, and requests for a broad range of services. The vast majority of situations to which the police in each community respond involve alcohol use. The police generally handle the situation on their own, without involvement of other social agencies. The particular position of the police in the broader network of social services questions

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conventional views about the extent to which their coercive powers define their social involvement, or whether it is more their ability to provide primary security that other social agencies cannot. The results have theoretical and policy implications for addressing the over-representation of aboriginal people in correctional institutions, the trend toward the 'indigenization' of policing services, and the development of community-based, or problem-oriented policing. Langfur, Harold L. (1999 ) "The forbidden lands: Frontier settlers, slaves, and Indians in Minas Gerais, Brazil, 17601830." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Texas at Austin (The). 351 pp. Between 1760 and 1830, local elites, impoverished settlers, slaves, and nomadic indigenous peoples engaged in a violent contest for land, labour, and resources, radiating outward from the urban nucleus of Minas Gerais, Brazil's declining inland mining district. This dissertation examines the primary instance of frontier migration in late-colonial Brazil, a demographic dispersion that resulted in the colonization of the unsettled lands ringing the central district. Focusing on the eastern forests where indigenous resistance peaked, the study demonstrates that a regional economic collapse fostered an era of frontier conquest, forging relations of domination based largely on racial divisions. The frontier is conceptualized as a zone of cultural contact and interracial conflict, with malleable borders, that formed on the periphery of a consolidating state and commercial economy. To gain access to this zone, the local political and economic elite challenged a crown policy that forbade settlement of the eastern forests. They mounted dozens of expeditions into the mountainous region in search of new sources of wealth and to rid the zone of its indigenous inhabitants. In a parallel move to the frontier, those who were poor but free, most of them the descendants of slaves, journeyed outward from the gold-mining nucleus into fertile lands, hoping to ensure their own subsistence. Denounced by authorities, these settlers resisted the repressive tactics of a state that sought to control their movement and labour. Slaves, too, participated in this frontier migration, whether accompanying their masters, serving alongside the fire poor on military expeditions, or suffering the attacks of Indians. Commonly excluded as subjects of historical research, numerous aboriginal groups, especially the nomadic Botocudo Indians, barred exploration and settlement in the eastern reaches of Minas Gerais. Some maintained peaceful, cooperative relations with settlers and soldiers. Where accommodation failed, however, natives fought with uncommon success against the invasion of their domain, frequently forcing settlers to retreat, and even abandon long-settled areas, while creating a refuge for themselves in increasingly remote forests. Finally, in 1808, Lusophone aggression intensified after the colonial restrictions on settlement in the zone finally collapsed. The Portuguese crown declared open war on the Botocudo, officially sanctioning their slaughter and enslavement. As the culmination of a half century of conflict caused by settler incursions into Indian territory, the war emerges as part of a broad, ongoing effort by the state to exert control over the frontier, its resources, and its inhabitants, be they smugglers, subsistence farmers, or nomadic natives. Langille, Lynn L. (1994) "Mi'kmaq women in politics and society: Women, nation, and tradition." M.A. Thesis, Dalhousie University. 147 pp. A content analysis of Micmac News, understood as a cultural account of the lives of the Mi'kmaq people in Nova Scotia, provides a unique framework for examining the relationships between women, nation, and tradition. Two samples of Micmac News are used to explore these relationships. First, Mi'kmaq women's political struggles to overcome sexual discrimination under the Indian Act provide the setting in which to explore notions of cultural belongingness and women's articulation of their place in the Mi'kmaq nation. Second, conceptions of Mi'kmaq traditions, with specific reference to women, are explored in social events and activities as they are depicted in Micmac News. The analysis reveals that Mi'kmaq women articulate their inclusion in the Mi'kmaq nation as conceived in the notion of 'traditional motherhood', particularly in terms of biological and cultural continuity and with reference to the imposition of the Indian Act. Tradition is largely absent in Mi'kmaq women's articulation of their place in the Mi'kmaq nation, but emerges as a central focus in the maintenance of the cultural boundaries between Mi'kmaq society and the larger society. Further, essential elements of Mi'kmaq tradition, which contribute to their cultural distinctiveness and the attainment of their political goals, are perpetuated largely through women. LaRocque, Emma. (1999) "Native writers resisting colonizing practices in Canadian historiography and literature." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Manitoba (The). 334 pp. This dissertation begins with the recognition that the Euro-Canadian colonization of aboriginal peoples is the ground upon which we, the colonizer-colonialist and the native colonized, have built our discourse. This

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dissertation examines the native writer's resistance response to the problem of gross misrepresentation of aboriginal peoples in Canadian historiography and literature, particularly, the problem of dehumanization inherent in the civilization-savagery construct which has provided the basis for the colonizer's treatment. A survey of the chronological development of native writing locates it as Resistance Literature within both indigenous and post-colonial intellectual and cultural contexts. My engaged research is situated within resistance discourse. The focus on selected historical and literary texts demonstrates how they are constructed to serve as techniques of mastery in the social, cultural and political life of the colonialist. The native counter-discourse is the last section. While there is a remarkable unity of fact, process and experience in the native writer's exposition of political and textual disempowerment, the writing is complicated by problems of internalization and notions of difference. These problems are also evident in white intellectual reading of native writing. I interrogate both native and white responses and call for an intellectual direction which moves beyond ethnological typologies and ideological paradigms which plague the study of native peoples. The conclusion is that native writers have indeed produced native resistance literature, a production that is based on and informed by contemporary indigenous ethos and epistemologies. While much is in the process of changing in white scholarly, critical and constitutional treatment of native peoples, much more work remains to be done. Aboriginal scholarship and creative writing is in a unique position of advancing this work; however, all scholars and other intellectuals are challenged to attend to decolonization in keeping with our respective legacies. Larsen, Joan N. (1994) "An analysis of the causes and determinants of Indian employment patterns and trends identifying strategies for achieving community-based economic development." M.A. Thesis, University of Manitoba (The). 206 pp. This thesis analyses the employment circumstances of the Canadian Status Indian population, focusing on current and estimated future employment trends on-reserve. It also identifies a strategy for achieving onreserve community economic and employment development. The point of departure is the changing demographic composition of the status Indian population over the period 1986-2011, and the related impacts on employment circumstances as the Indian population ages into its working aged years. On the basis of empirical evidence and a literature review covering possible individual, reserve based and external determinants of low Indian labour force participation and low employment rates, the contemporary patterns of Indian employment is examined. It is found that lack of employment and economic opportunities within onreserve Indian communities is partly to blame on a lack of federal commitment to the financial support of economic development initiatives. In light of the growing Indian working aged population, the Indian unemployment problem will worsen considerably without an immediate federal commitment to long-term support for Indian community economic development. The solution lies in a comprehensive community economic development strategy that entails long-term financial support with community control over the development process. Lavell, Dawn M. (2003) "The search for a new way forward: A study of the aboriginal experience in education." M.Ed. Thesis, Queen's University at Kingston. 210 pp. In an attempt to provide an alternative perspective on the dilemma of aboriginal student failure in the contemporary educational system, this thesis gives voice to the often silenced comments, concerns and opinions of the students themselves. Drawing upon the experiences of a particular group of Anishnabe (primarily Ojibway) secondary students in northern Ontario it is argued that the way in which education is currently structured, as evidenced by practice and policy, seems to be in direct conflict with aboriginal customs, beliefs and values. The author suggests that the structures of hierarchy, authority and control, being particularly offensive to aboriginal people in general and these students in particular, contribute to the development of a student culture of resistance and overall anti-school attitudes. The thesis concludes with suggestions for new pedagogical foundations that, being more congruent with Anishnabe beliefs and customs, would be more likely to produce an appropriate learning environment thereby alleviating resistance and hopefully increasing academic success. Lavigne, Lise-Anne. (1990) "Portrayals of oppression in Canadian literature." M.A. Thesis, University of Alberta. 136 pp. In Canadian literature, the consequences of oppression are often portrayed in the experiences of characters who belong to marginalized groups. Included in this study are accounts of people from various native tribes and the Métis. Peter Such's Riverrun and Rudy Wiebe's The temptations of Big Bear depict historical events where the Indigenes suffered social injustices. An Antane Kapesh retells the gradual loss of language,

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culture, spiritual beliefs and land in Qu'as-tu fait de mon pays? And in Tchipayuk ou le chemin du loup and in The diviners, Ronald Lavallee and Margaret Laurence recount ordeals of Métis life in Canada. The state of oppression is further illustrated in Timothy Findley's novel, Not wanted on the voyage, where a hateful patriarch seeks vengeance by destroying the world. The relationship between man and nature forms the basis of the conflicting ideologies. The Europeans believe that man is a superior being who should subjugate and control his physical environment while the aboriginal people see themselves as belonging to an organic environment which they respect and revere since they depend on the earth for their survival. Lawrence, Bonita E. (1999) "'Real' Indians and others: Mixed-race urban native people, the Indian Act, and the rebuilding of indigenous nations." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Toronto. 490 pp. Native identity, for urban mixed-race native people, is shaped on the one hand by colonial regulation under the Indian Act, and on the other by native heritage and connections to the land. This research engages with how the identities of the participants of this study (as well as the author herself) have been defined and molded by their families' lived experiences of cultural genocide, how the participants have, in resistance, actively explored their native heritage, and how hegemonic images and definitions of Indianness have influenced these processes. The research is based on interviews with 30 individuals of mixed native and non-native heritage living in the Toronto region, on the subject of urban native identity. The first part of the thesis engages with the methodological concerns which must be taken into consideration when native peoples' identities are the subjects of academic investigation, the highly distinct circumstances which are raised by the regulation of native identity in Canada under the Indian Act, and the images of Indianness which exist within the dominant culture, which every urban mixed-race native person must contend with in forming their own identity as a native person. The second part of the thesis engages directly with the participants' family histories, their opinions about native identity, and the roles which they are playing in creating and maintaining an urban native community. The common thread running through the narratives is the devastating affect which loss of community as a result of genocidal government policies has had on the participants' families. The research clearly demonstrates the extent to which government regulation of native identity, through racist and sexist restrictions within the Indian Act, has contributed to the alienation of individuals from their communities and has fragmented native peoples' identities, dividing them into categories such as 'status Indians', 'Metis', 'Bill C-31 Indians', 'reserve Indians' and 'urban Indians.' In a preliminary manner, it explores the forms of nationbuilding which might enable native people to overcome the divisive effects of a history of government regulation of identity. Lawrence, Elden. (1999) "Returning to traditional beliefs and practices: A solution for Indian alcoholism." Ph.D. Dissertation, South Dakota State University. 101 pp. Indian alcoholism has a history that goes back to first European contacts. The devastating effects it has had on Indian people equal and has outlasted any disease brought into this country. Like many other diseases, Indian people had no tolerance for alcohol-related abnormalities brought on by abusive use of alcohol. As if to quicken their end, they offered little resistance and were easily addicted. With the loss of their culture and identity, they never had the motivation to go beyond surviving. The First Nation people, usually last in socioeconomic developments find themselves first in something, alcoholism, and its consequences. Tribal people still maintain cultural traditions such as the extended family. That creates the situation where virtually everyone on the reservation is affected by alcoholism. Some efforts have been directed to the Indian alcohol problem, but most fail because a necessary cultural component is usually not contained in the program. This study is about how the some Dakota people are attempting to address their own social ills, including alcoholism. The key to understanding the problem is to first understand the native culture and lifestyle and how he makes sense out of his world. The Dakota people like many others are experiencing a resurgence of cultural traditions and heritage. This renewed interest was prompted by concerns about the social deterioration and hopelessness of the people. There developed a generalized belief that if the traditional values of the past could be brought back, the people would receive hope and a new way of life built on values and norms that were once the foundation of a traditional society. The return of traditional practices and ceremonies provided support for these beliefs and values. The most significant of these practices is the Sun Dance. Therefore an ethnographic field study was conducted to more closely examine this phenomenon. To enhance and guide the study, a theory on value-oriented movements provided a pattern and system of

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analysis. The ethnographic study provided an in-depth observation of the Sun Dance and other traditional ceremonies and the people who practice them. In order to provide a base for understanding, an extensive background is provided on the history and culture of the Dakota. There is also pertinent information on Indian alcoholism presented. The intent of the study was to provide a Dakota perspective along with the data and information. This was accomplished through interviews, observation and participant observation. The results of the study suggests there is a movement based on a generalized belief that returning to past traditions and values provide a solution for a significant number of Dakota people and the problem of alcoholism. Leader, Judith C. (1995) "An ethnohistory of the Passamaquoddy of Maine." Ph.D. Dissertation, Boston University. 356 pp. The study examines the historical processes affecting various elements of the Passamaquoddy cultural system from 1600 to the present. The effects on these traditions over time indicate the processes at work on the entire fabric of the social structure. Data were derived both from 12 months of field research among the Passamaquoddy at Indian Township and Pleasant Point Reservations, and from original archival documentation found principally at the State Archives of Maine and Massachusetts. Acculturative change, the cause and effect of such changes, and continuity in areas of the culture are chronologically viewed. A central theme is that politics and contestation, both external and internal, were key elements in both cultural change and cultural retention among the Passamaquoddy. Cultural retention within the Passamaquoddy community was determined primarily by the confluence of three factors: geographical separation, social separation, and the tribe's ability as active agents to accommodate to changing ecological, economic, and political circumstances. The Passamaquoddy showed tenacity in maintaining tribal identity through astute treaty making and persistent use of the dominant society's legal system available to them during their history. Most recently, the 1980 Land Claims case allowed them both reclamation of some of the aboriginal land base illegally alienated from them and restoration of their sovereignty. As social and geographical separation ended, a clash began to occur between forces internal and external to the Passamaquoddy community, causing the traditional mode of transmission of culture to decline. A result of this decline was discontinuity of key cultural elements such as transmission of the native language by parents and grandparents. Cultural discontinuity has been exacerbated since the Land Claims Settlement. Other traditional elements such as chief raising and kinship relationships have remained, although in modified form. Conflicts on the reservation between the traditional and modern occur regularly. Currently the Passamaquoddy community is attempting through nontraditional mechanisms, such as Indian Days celebrations, a bilingual-bicultural program at the reservation school, and 'modern traditionalism,' to retain those socio-cultural elements which remain, and to reintroduce elements that had been lost. Simultaneously, the Passamaquoddy community is moving into a type of self-government parallel to the non-Indian community's. Leake, David W. Jr. (2000) "Cultural models relevant to the problem of anger for youngsters perceived as troubled and troubling in a 'tough' community in Hawai'i." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Hawai'i. 449 pp. This dissertation is based on nearly five years of ethnographic fieldwork conducted through two federallyfunded projects to improve services for youngsters with, or at risk for, serious emotional disturbances in a semi-rural community in Hawai'i. A significant minority of residents, primarily members of the socioeconomic underclass, suffer the effects of what one informant termed 'a serious anger problem,' as reflected in high rates of domestic violence, child abuse, violent crime, and referrals of youngsters for mental health services due to recurring interpersonal conflict. The goal of this dissertation is to describe and compare common sets of understandings which underlie talk concerning: (1) why many youngsters become 'troubled and troubling' as evidenced by normatively excessive or inappropriate anger; and, (2) what should be done about this problem, at both individual and community levels. For analytic purposes, three primary groups are identified whose members tend to share similar understandings, presented in terms of cultural models, presumed cognitive structures which simplify and make manageable the individual's stream of cognitive-emotional interactions with the complex outside environment. These models were derived from analysis of 188 descriptions of situations of anger and of 50 descriptions of situations in which anger was prevented or ameliorated, with primary data sources including audiotaped interviews with more than 50 individuals, videotapes of two offerings of a course on cultural competence in serving Native Hawai'ians conducted by kupuna (respected elders), and extensive field notes. In line with the tenets of American individualism, service providers generally focus on poor social and parenting skills as well as low self-esteem and promote services aimed at imparting skills and boosting self-

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esteem. Native Hawai'ian traditionalists tend to attribute anger problems to cultural loss due to Western influences and therefore champion a return to traditional values and strengthening Native Hawai'ian identity. Members of the community mainstream are more likely to place moral blame on the generally underclass parents of youngsters perceived as troubled and troubling, with the basic solution being to give such youngsters the love and attention (which may need to include strict discipline) their parents are failing to give them. LeDressay, Carl A. (1997 ) "Some economic impacts of settling treaties with First Nations in British Columbia." Ph.D. Dissertation, Simon Fraser University. 297 pp. On September 22, 1992 representatives of First Nations in British Columbia, the Government of Canada and the Government of British Columbia made a commitment to clarifying land title in British Columbia through the negotiation of treaties. A treaty and to some extent, a lands claim settlement, can be divided into two economic components. Compensation is usually paid to First Nations so that they relinquish claims to property rights over specified lands. On those lands not thereby exchanged by First Nations, property rights are specified so as to facilitate, among other processes, a more efficient exchange economy. This dissertation utilizes data from detailed expenditure and income surveys from nine Shuswap communities in the Kamloops area, four treaty compensation simulations, Keynesian multiplier methods, two case studies from the Shuswap Nation and a model of public institutional dynamics to assess some economic impacts from settling treaties with First Nations in British Columbia. Due to the small, import-reliant nature of the economies under investigation, the Keynesian multipliers are very small in magnitude (never greater than 1.04) regardless of which treaty compensation simulation is applied. Tax multipliers for the Governments of British Columbia and Canada, however, are relatively high, yielding up to 25 cents in tax revenues for every dollar of treaty compensation spent off reserve in nearly all simulations. The property right clarification and subsequent institutional changes induced by treaty settlement will have mixed effects on First Nation economies. On the basis of this First Nation case study, it is suggested that First Nation public institutions may not be stable or credible enough to encourage significant investment and trade in the post treaty environment. First Nation public institutions, however, should be flexible and small enough to adapt to the emergence of new technologies, and could perhaps technologically 'leap frog' existing institutions. Lee, Lloyd L. (2004) "21st century Dine cultural identity: Defining and practicing Sa'ah Naaghai Bik'eh Hozhoon." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of New Mexico (The). 181 pp. This qualitative and indigenous study focuses on twenty-first century Diné cultural identity. The primary focus of the study is how contemporary Diné identify and connect with other Diné and how they distinguish themselves from other cultures and races. The reason why I choose to focus on the Diné is I am Diné myself and I am interested in how my generation, people born between 1965 and 1980, understand and define their Diné cultural identity. The Diné are a Native American nation located in the four-corners (Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona, and Utah) region of the United States. According to the 2000 U.S. Census, approximately 298,197 Navajos live in the United States. Many Diné born between 1965 and 1980 do not speak the language, sing Diné ceremonial songs, pray in the Diné language, know their clans' history, and many other cultural aspects of pre-European and EuroAmerican contact. Because such a large number of people claim Diné identity, I question how contemporary Diné identify and connect with other Diné and how they distinguish themselves from their Diné parents generation and grandparents generation. Diné identity is living and changing from decade to decade. How can Diné society ensure the continuity of its identity and society today? The study demonstrates that Diné college graduates and college students are in fact living a distinctly Diné way of life. The study makes sever