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A. Pre-natal period 1. Embryonic Stage: conception to 8 weeks 2. Fetal Stage: 8 weeks to birth - recognizably human - maintains an internal equilibrium that interacts continuously with the intrauterine environment - (+) damage → global impact - girls ↑ biological vigor than boys due to second X chromosome - (+) behaviors necessary for adaptation outside the womb Fetal Stage Developmental Landmarks 4-5 months - vigorous movements AOG - grasp reflex 16 to 20 - hears responds to loud weeks noises with muscle 17 weeks contractions, movements, 18 weeks and an increased heart rate 5-6 months - retinal structures can AOG detect bright light flashed 20 weeks on the abdominal wall 25 weeks causing - changes in fetal heart rate and position - Moro (startle reflex) 7 months - eyelids open AOG - smell and taste are also 28 weeks developed - sucking reflex 2.a. Development of the Nervous System - brain weight = 350 g at birth - 4x ↑ in neocortex due to growth in the number and branching of dendrites - uterine contractions cause the developing neural network to receive and transmit impulses 2.a.i. Pruning - programmed elimination of certain brain structures present at birth - occurs to rid of cells that have served their function - immature brain can be vulnerable → implications in child and adult neuropsychiatric disorders 2.b. Risk factors 2.b.i. Maternal Stress - correlates with ↑ levels of stress hormones that act directly on the fetal neuronal network - anxious mothers → hyperactive, irritable, and low BW infants 2.b.ii. Maternal Substance Use Alcohol leads to Fetal alcohol syndrome: growth retardation, minor anomalies, short palpebral fissures, midface hypoplasia, a smooth or short philtrum, and a thin upper lip; and CNS manifestations
Cocaine Antibiotics, anticonvulsa nts, lithium, warfarin Selective - neonatal behavioral syndrome Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) 2.b.iii. Radiation Exposure 2.b.iv. At 2 to 15 weeks AOG → gross deformities, stunted growth, abnormal brain function, or cancer B. Infancy : Birth to 18 months Infancy Newborn Developmental Landmarks Reflexes and Survival Systems • breathing sucking, swallowing, and circulatory and temperature homeostasis • sensory organs are incompletely developed • REM and non-REM sleep • crying, smiling • penile erection in males • can make noises - (+) can smell mother’s milk - distinguish mother’s voice
may be associated with ADHD leads to prematurity, low BW infants, Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDs) - prematurity, low BW infants, withdrawal symptoms - behavioral abnormalities - teratogenic effects
1 day old 3 days old
Language and Cognitive Development Age/Stage Mastery of Mastery of of Comprehen Expression Developme sion nt Birth to 6 startle (+) months response to vocalizations loud or other than sudden crying sounds (+) attempts differential to localize cries for sounds hunger, pain - appears to vocalizes listen, may to show respond pleasure with smile - plays at - recognizes making warning, sounds angry, and - babbles (a friendly repeated voices series of responds sounds) to own name 7 – 11 shows responds months listening to own Attending selectivity name with to language - listens to vocalizations
12 – 18 months SingleWord
music or singing - recognizes own name - looks at pictures being named for up to 1 minute - listens to speech without being distracted by other sounds shows gross discriminatio ns between dissimilar sounds understands basic body parts, names of common objects (+) understandi ng of some new words weekly identify simple objects understands up to 150 words by age 18 months
imitates the melody of utterances - uses jargon (+) gestures, exclamation plays language games (pata-cake, peekaboo)
Selfregulation of emotion grows - increased intensity of basic three
- Able to elicit more responsiven ess - Denies to cope with stress
1. Temperament (Chess andThomas) - innate psychophysiological characteristics - range of normal behavioral patterns - from the difficult child at one end of the spectrum to the easy child at the other end 2. Attachment - Bonding is the term used to describe the intense emotional and psychological relationship a mother develops for her baby. - Attachment is the relationship the baby develops with its caregivers. 3. Stranger Anxiety (at about 26 weeks to 32 weeks) - result from a baby's growing ability to distinguish caregivers from all other persons - ↑ in babies exposed to only one caregiver 4. Separation anxiety (between 10 and 18 months) - related to stranger anxiety but not identical to it. - As infants separate by moving away from mother, they constantly look back and return for reassurance 5. Parental Fit - how well the parents relates to the infant - takes into account temperamental characteristics of both parent and child - goodness of fit: harmonious and consonant interaction between a parent and a child - Poor fit — distorted development and maladaptive functioning C. Toddler: 18-30 months (2½ years old) Language and Cognitive Development Age/Stage Mastery of Mastery of of Comprehen Expression Developme sion nt 12-24 - Responds - Uses twomonths to simple word Two-Word directions utterances Messages - Responds Imitates to action environment commands al sounds in play Understands - Refers to pronouns self by (me, him, name, her, you) begins to - Begins to use understand pronouns complex - Echoes two sentences or more last words - uses threeword
- uses single words - talks to toys, self, or others using long patterns of jargon and occasional words - utterances are 25% intelligible - articulates vowels correctly with initial and final consonants often omitted
Emotional and Social Development Stages 1st Emotional Emotional seen Skills Behavior Birth to 2 Love Social mos evoked by smile and touching joy shown Fear responds evoked by to emotions loud noise of others Rage evoked by body restrictions Brain pathways for emotion forming 3-4 mos onward Selfregulation of emotions starts Brain pathways of emotion growing laughter possible and more control over smiles; anger shown
24-36 mos Grammar Formation
Understands small body parts (elbow, chin, eyebrow) Understands family name categories Understands size Understands most adjectives Understands functions
telegraphic utterances - Utterances 26% to 50% intelligible Uses language to ask for needs Uses real sentences with grammatical function word Usually announces intentions before acting Conversatio ns ﾝ with other children, usually just monologues - Jargon and echolalia gradually drop from speech - Increased vocabulary Speech 50% to 80% intelligible - P, b, m articulated correctly Speech may show rhythmic disturbances
expressing them Identifies with adult to cope
- Use your words to convey feeling Aggression becomes competition - By age 5, shows sensitivity to criticism and cares about feelings of others
1. Sexual Development - Children exhibit curiosity about anatomical sex → recognized as healthy and met with age-appropriate replies, they acquire a sense of the I wonder of life and are comfortable with their own roles. 1.a. Gender identity - conviction of being male or female - manifests at 18 months and fixed by 24 to 30 mos 1.b. Gender role - the behavior that society deems appropriate for one sex or another 2. Sphincter Control and S!eep - toilet training serves as a paradigm of the family's general training practices - control of daytime urination → 2½ years - control of nighttime urination → 4 years - generally sleep about 12 hours a day, including a 2-hour nap: takes 30 minutes to sleep 3. Parenting Issues - Parental task: firmness about the boundaries of acceptable behavior and encouragement of the child's progressive emancipation - Children will struggle for the exclusive affection and attention of their parents → rivalry - balance between punishment and permissiveness and set realistic limits D. Pre-school Language and Cognitive Development Age/Stage Mastery of Mastery of of Comprehen Expression Developme sion nt 36-54 Correct months Understands articulation Grammar prepositions of n, w, ng, developmen h, t, d, k, g t Understands Uses many words language to relate Understands incidents cause and from the effect past - Uses wide Understands range of
Emotional and Social Development Stages 1st Emotional Emotional seen Skills Behavior 1-2 yrs - Shame and empathy pride starting; appear; expressions envy, of feeling embarrassm Likes ent appear attention - Displaces and onto other approval children - enjoys play alone or next to peers 2-5 yrs to 3- Can Empathy 6 yrs understand increases causes of with many understandi emotions ng - Can begin More to find ways response for and less regulating reaction emotions selfand for regulation:
analogies (Food is to eat, milk is to________)
55 mos onward True Communicat ion
Understands concepts of number, speed, time, space Understands left and right Understands abstract terms - Is able to categorize items into classes
grammatical forms - Plays with language Speech 90% intelligible - Able to define words - Can repeat a 12-syllable sentence correctly Uses language to tell stories, share ideas, and discuss alternatives - Increasing use of varied grammar; spontaneous selfcorrection of grammatical errors - Stabilizing of articulation f, v, s, z, l, r, th, and consonant clusters Speech 100% intelligible
depends on child-rearing practice. Favoritism for I any reason commonly aggravates such rivalry - If not handled property, the displacement of the firstborn can be a traumatic event 2. Play 1. Parallel play (2½ and 3 years) alongside another child with no interaction between them. 2. Associative play (by 3 years) - plays with the same toys in pairs or in small groups, but still with no real interaction among them. 3. Cooperative play (by age 4) - real interactions and taking turns become possible. 3. Drawings - Helps trace the child's growth andexpress creativity: - representational and formal in early childhood - make use of perspective in middle childhood - become abstract and affect laden in adolescence - also reflect children's body image concepts and sexual and aggressive impulses 4. Imaginary Companions - in children with above-average intelligence and usually in the form of persons - may also be anthropomorphized toys - friendly, relieve loneliness, and ↓ anxiety - disappear by age 12, but they can occasionally persist into adulthood E. Middle Childhood Language and Cognitive Development - expresses complex ideas - logical exploration tends to dominate - increase interest in rules and orderliness - increase capacity for self-regulation - ability to concentrate by 9 - 10 years - (+) complex motor tasks and activities 1. Chum Period - an important phenomenon - by 10 years old — close same-sex relationship - absence of a chum during middle childhood is an early harbinger of schizophrenia (Sullivan) 2. School Refusal - generally due to separation anxiety - usually not an Isolated problem - typically avoid many other social situations Other Issues in Childhood 1. Dreams and Sleep - At 1 year old → experienced as if true - At 3 years old → shared by other children - At 4 years old → unique to each child - The dream content should be seen in connection with children's life experience, developmental stage, mechanisms used during dreaming, and sex
Emotional and Social Development Stages 1st Emotional Emotional seen Skills Behavior 2-5 yrs to 3- Can Empathy 6 yrs understand increases causes of with many understandi emotions ng - Can begin More to find ways response for and less regulating reaction emotions selfand for regulation: expressing - Use your them words to Identifies convey with adult to feeling cope Aggression becomes competition - By age 5, shows sensitivity to criticism and cares about feelings of others 1. Sibling Rivalry - birth of a sibling tests capacity of further cooperation and sharing
disturbing dreams peak at 3,6 and 10 years of age → want to keep their bedroom door open or to have a nightlight aggressive dreams rare in early childhood by age 7, children know that they create their dreams themselves often create rituals as protection Parasomnias (at stage 4 sleep) when dreaming is minimal → do not indicate psychopathology
- Run by a highly competent mom and her companion follows - Companion is a buddy ﾝ to the children, not to the parent - Birth of a stepsibling causes problems.
2. Birth Spacing - close spacing → increases prematurity or underweight births, and malnutrition - children from large families → increases conduct disorder and slightly decreased verbal intelligence - due to low parental interaction and discipline 3. Birth Order (Sulloway) - Firstborn → highly valued particular if male - ↑ IQ in firstborn → reflect parents' having more time to interact with the firstborn child - Firstborn children - more achievement oriented, most authoritarian; conservative and conformists - Second and third children have the advantage of their parents previous’ experience and can learn from their older siblings; usually receive the least attention - the youngest children may receive too much attention and be spoiled; tend to be rebellious → high proportion of prominent persons 4. Stepparents Types of Step Families Neo-Traditional Resembles Families traditional families - Absent biological parent is included at times. Discipline, boundaries and limits, and expectations are discussed openly. - Family coalitions and side-taking ﾝ are better avoided. Romantic Families - Expect to be a traditional family ﾝ immediately The absent biological parent is expected to disappear and is often criticized. Stepparent/stepchil d difficulties are common. Stress is unbearable. - Few open and frank discussions about problems
5. Adoption - the process by which a child is taken into a family by one or more adultswho are not the biological parents but are recognized by law as the child's parents - usually born out of wedlock → 40% born out of teenage mothers - disclosure at 2 - 4 years old → reduces feelings of betrayal by adoptive parents and abandonment by biological parents - the later the age of adoption, the higher the incidence and the more severe problems - may be preoccupied with fantasies of two sets of parents → good and bad parents - Strong desire to know their biological parents → the experience is generally positive when done during adolescence or adulthood. Family Factors in Child Development 1. Family Stability - separated- and single-parent families → low self-esteem, ↑ risk of child abuse ↑incidence of marital problems eventually, and ↑ incidence of mental disorders - boys are more affected than girls and older children are less vulnerable; inborn personality characteristics protective (Rutter) - death of a parent → adverse emotional effects 2. Day Care Centers - its role in child development is being studied - children placed in day care centers before 5 years old → less assertive and less effectively toilet trained - The quality of both the day care center and the homes from which children come must be taken into consideration. 3. Parenting Styles (Rutter) – 4 types 1. authoritarian 2. indulgent-permissive 3. Indulgent-neglectful 4. authoritative-reciprocal (best) - marked by firm rules and shared decisionmaking in a warm, loving environment → ↑self-reliance, ↑self-esteem, and ↑ sense of social responsibility 4. Development and Expression of Psychopathology - related to both age and developmental level
developmental and language disorders often diagnosed in preschool years Mild Mental Retardation or learning problems – diagnosed in early school-age years Disruptive Behavior Disorder - seen with peer interaction Attention Deficit Disorders - seen with ↑ demands for attention in school Other conditions (eg schizophrenia and bipolar disorder) are rare in preschool and school-aged children
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