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SMALL ANGLE STABILITY: L n itudin l St Longitudinal Stability bilit

In the previous section, we have calculated vertical and transverse weight shifts, weight additions, and weight removals In this section we will look at longitudinal weight removals. shifts, weight additions, and weight removals. Longitudinal problems are done in a different manner because we are usually not concerned with the final position of G, but the new trim condition of the ship. ship The consequence of longitudinal shifts, additions, and removals of weight is that the ship undergoes a change in the th forward f d and d after ft drafts. d ft When Wh the th forward f d and d after ft drafts have different magnitudes the ship is said to have trim. Trim is defined by the difference between the forward and after drafts. Trim T i = Taft - Tfwd

If a ship is "trimmed by the bow," then the forward draft is bigger than the after draft draft. A ship "trimmed by the stern" has an after draft bigger than the forward draft. Recall eca that a the e ship s p rotates o a es about abou the e ce center e of o flotation o a o (F) ( ) which is the centroid of the waterplane area. (It does not rotate about midships!) When the centroid of the waterplane area is aft of midships the forward draft will change g by y a larger g amount than the after draft. This is usually the case since a typical ship is wider aft of midships than forward of midships.


A ship floating at equal draught all along is said to be on an even keel, keel, or to have zero trim. trim. If the draughts are not the same from bow to stern, the ship is floting with a trim. trim.


Two waterlines (or waterplanes) are shown on the ship in Figure 1.0 1 0; a trimmed waterline (W1L1) and the even keel waterline (WL) corresponding to the same displacement. They are shown intersecting at the centre of flotation of the even keel waterplane. The quantities shown in the figure are defined as follows: follows: Centre of Flotation (F): Geometric center of the ship's waterline p plane. The ship p trims about this p point. May y be forward or aft of the midships depending on the ship's hull shape at the waterline. Longitudinal Centre of Flotation (LCF) : Distance from the centre of flotation (F) to the midships. Used to distribute changes of trim between the fwd and aft draughts.


Trim (t) : The difference between the forward and after draughts Parallel Rise/Sinkage (PR/PS): When weight is removed/added e o ed/added from/to o / o a ship s p at a LCF, C , the e forward o a d and a d aft a drafts will change by the same amount. Means, no trim occur. Change in Trim (CT): The sum total of the absolute values of the change in forward and after drafts. Trimming g Arm (d) ): The distance from the center of gravity of the weight to the LCF. If the weight is shifted, (d) is the distance shifted.


Trimming T i i Moment M (TM): (TM) Moment M about b the h LCF produced by weight additions, removals, or shifts (wd), where w is the amount of weight added, removed, or shifted. Moment to change Trim One cm (M (MCTC CTC): ): The moment necessary to produce a change in trim (CT) of one cm. Found using the hydrostatic curves. curves Tons Per cm Immersion (TPC (TPC): The number of tons added or removed necessary to produce a change in mean d ft (parallel draft ( ll l sinkage) i k ) of f one cm. Parallel P ll l sinkage i k i is when h the ship changes its forward and after drafts by the same amount so that no change in trim occurs.


TF : Draught D h forward f d TA : Draught aft TM : Mean draught at amidships. It is the average of TF and TA. TO : Draught at centre of floa floation, tion also called the corresponding even keel draught. TF : Change in draughts forward TA : Change in draughts after : trim t i angle l
Figure 2.0 shows more detail on hull geometry and sign conventions adopted in this notes

Figure 2.0

Trim r m due u to Movement Mo m nt of Weights W ghts


d w W1 W F L G1 B1 G B L1

Figure 1.0

Trim due to Movement of Weights C t Cont

Consider the ship as in Figure 1.0 above, if the weight w is moved a distance d meter, meter G will move to G G parallel to the direction of movement of w.

w d GG ' =
The shift in weight results in a trimming moment wd and the ship will trim until G and B are in line. LCF, the centre of floatation is the centre of area of the water plane. For small trim, p is assumed to be trimming g about LCF. The trimming g the ship moment causes change in trim and hence change in draughts at AP and FP.

Trim due to Movement of Weights C t Cont

Change in trim (CT),

trimming moment Change in trim (CT ) = MCTC

Changes in draught forward, TF and aft, TA can be obtained by y dividing g trim in proportion p p to the distance from LCF to the positions where the draughts are measured, normally AP and FP.

Trim due to Movement of Weights C t Cont

Amidship TA F TA TF

x Trim TF

Trim due to Movement of Weights C t Cont

Trim is defined as the difference in the draughts aft and forward.

t = TF TA = TF + TA
The angle of trim may be expressed as follows

t TF TA tan = = = LBP LBP + LCF LBP LCF 2 2

Trim due to Movement of Weights C t Cont

Change in draughts forward


LBP + LCF 2 = t LBP

Change Ch i in d draughts ht after ft



Small Weight Changes

If a small weight w is added or removed from a ship, the draught of the ship will change as follows:

w Parallel sinkage / rise = TPC

Change in trim (CT) = trimming moment (TM) w distance to LCF = MCTC MCTC

Once the trim is obtained, the changes TF and TA can be calculated and the final draughts will include the parallel rise/sinkage and TF and TA.

Exercise 1
A ship p LBP 100m has MCTC 125 tonne.m while its LCF is 2.0 m aft of amidships. Its original draughts are 4.5 m at AP and 4.45 m at FP. Find new draughts when a 100 tonne weight already on board is moved 50 m aft aft.

Exercise 2
A ship p LBP 100 m has LCF 3 m aft of amidships p and floats at 3.2 m and 4.4 m at FP and AP respectively. Its TPC is 10 tonne while MCTC 100 tonne.m. 50 tonne cargo is removed from 20 m forward of amidships while 30 tonne is unloaded from cargo hold 15 m aft of amidships. Find the final draughts at the perpendiculars.