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The use of transformer oil act as a cooling medium act as a dielectric media isolate winding from the atmosphere quench the arc Possible contamination in transformer oil Solid particle like dust and fiber Absorption of Air Moisture content Absorption of Gases Sludge formation Acidity in oil

The Electrical effects of contamination in oil Low dielectric strength. Low resistivity. Increase in Tan delta value. The vacuum dehydrated oil purification system (VDOPS) This machine is used for transformer oil filtration. Free, emulsified and dissolved water and gaseous contamination can be removed by this machine. A high performance VDOPS removes 100% of free and emulsified water, air and gases. 90% of dissolved water, air and gases. Up to 5-10 ppm water content in oil

Overall schematic diagram of an oil purification machine

Oil in take
Inlet pump

Heater Pre filter

The amount of heat is decided by oil vendor Filter is around 10 micron

Vacuum pump

Mechanical booster

Vacuum chamber

The vacuum chamber contains PDM for effective vacuum expose

outlet pump

Fine filter

Filter is around 0.5 micron

Oil outlet

Oil Purification Machine

System Principle Boiling point of the water is dependent on the pressure. Normally, at atmospheric pressure ( 1atm) the boiling point of water is 100 C. Boiling point of the oil is around 250 C at 1 atm. When the surrounding pressure is low the boiling point is also reduced for a liquid. When oil is exposed to vacuum even at low temperature( around 150 F), the water molecular and other dissolved gases reach its boiling point and are boiled off effectively since the boiling point of the oil is very high.

Operation of Oil Filtration Machine

Oil is in taken through inlet valve A inlet pump circulate the oil through the heater where the oil temperature is raised up to 150 F. The system heat is adjustable This oil is filtered through a pre filter ( 10 micron) and pumped to a vacuum chamber. This removes major portion of coarse dirt. Then the oil is pumped through vacuum chamber. Vacuum chamber contains permanent dispersion media (PDM), a cylindrical type element. The oil flows through the pores of the PDM into shower in order to ensure more exposure of vacuum to the oil particles. This process, boils off dissolved water and gases effectively. The boiled off process is called Degassing. Then the dehydrated oil is collected at the bottom of the vacuum chamber and pumped through the fine filter (0.5 micron). Then the oils is taken out through the outlet valve NOTE: At the beginning the outlet valve is closed and the oil is circulated through a by pass valve. This is done to make the system stable

Finding boiling point The equation used to find out the boiling point is

T(p)= T0/[1+T0*ln(P0/P)/(L/K0)] T(p) - boiling point in Kelvin T0 - boiling point in Kelvin at the pressure P0 L - Latent heat of vaporization/ molecule K0 - Boltzmans constant = 1.4 x 10-23 J/K

Boiling point of water at 5 Torr

Data: 1 atm = 760 Torr = 760 mmHg Boiling point of water is = 100 C or 373 K at 1 atm L/K0 = 4800 K for water Boiling point of water at 5 Torr : T(p) = 373/[1+373xln(760/5)/4800] = 268.3 K = (268.3 273) C = - 4.7 C At -4.7 C water reaches its boiling point. So at this vacuum, 150F (around 66C) temperature is enough to boil off all the water content in the oil.

Boiling point of oil (Ex: Nytro Libra X) at 5 Torr

Data: 1 atm = 760 Torr = 760 mmHg 5 torr = 1/760x5 = 0.0066 atm 1 torr = 1/760 = 0.0013 atm

The following table shows the boiling point of Nytro Libra X at different pressure from vendor data
Pressure ( ATM) 0.00001 0.0001 0.001 0.01 0.1 1.0 5.0 10 50 Temperature ( Celsius) 40 68 102 146 207 294 382 437 593

So the boiling point of Nytro Libra X at 5 torr is 102 < T < 146 Celsius And also the boiling point at 1 torr is 102 < T < 146 Celsius

Boiling Point and the Temperature in Oil Purification Machine

When the pressure reduces the boiling point also reduces. According to the vacuum created in the oil purification machine, the temperature of the oil purification machine also need to be set If the temperature is higher than the oil boiling temperature then the oil also will be vaporized In our oil purification test we keep the pressure less than 5 Torr and the temperature around 70 Celsius. This temperature is well below than the oil boiling temperature at 1 - 5 Torr so that the oil will not be vaporized.

Transformer oil filtration Transformer oil filtration is done through three main steps 1. Vacuum the transformer 2. oil filling to transformer 3. oil circulation When shipping the transformers are filled partially with oil. So there is a need of oil filling for new transformers. Before filling the oil the transformer need to be vacuum. After filling the oil to required level, the total amount of oil must be circulated 2 or 3 times through oil filtration machine

Vacuum the transformer

The figure shows the transformer vacuuming diagram

Vacuum the transformer Close the valves V3, V7, V10 Open the valves V4, V5, V8, V9 Start the vacuum pump The degree of vacuum and the vacuum holding time should satisfy the following table Vacuuming of transformer can be done by oil purification machines vacuum pump other than external vacuum pump
RATED VOLTAGE ( k V) Below 80 Below 140 Below 200 Below 500 BEFORE OIL FILLING Degree of Vacuum < 5 Torr < 2 Torr <2 Torr < 1 Torr Vacuum Hold Time > 2 Hrs > 7 Hrs > 12 Hrs > 24 Hrs

Oil Filling to Transformers

Oil purification machine Main Tank of Transformer

Oil purification machine and external oil tank

The figure shows the transformer oil filling diagram

Oil Filling to Transformers cont

The external oil tank is filled with required amount of oil before starting oil filling to transformer. This external tank oil filling also done through the oil purification machine After finishing the vacuuming of transformer the oil purification machine is connected to the transformer as shown in the figure above. Before filling the transformer the oil is circulated through the oil purification machine for 30 min to warm up the system. Open the valves V1, V2, V3 Start the oil purification machine When the dial oil level indicator shows a reading more than a little minimum position perform the following procedure 1. temporarily stop the oil purification machine 2. close Valve V9 and V3 3. Close valve V8

Oil Filling to Transformers cont

Open the valve V10 Inject the nitrogen gas into the conservator tank (Inside air bag) until the degree of vacuum become 0 psi Remove the nitrogen tank and keep valve V10 opened Check the oil temperature versus oil level temperature curve If the oil level is lower open valve V3 and operate oil purification machine to adjust the oil level according to Oil level temperature curve

Oil Level Indicator

Oil Circulation

Oil Circulation
Open valves V3 and V7 Circulate the oil in tank at 60- 70 Celsius not less than 2 cycles Close the valves V3 and V7 Slightly open Breather pipe flange P1 Connect the nitrogen tank at valve V10 and inject the nitrogen at the pressure of 0.2 bar until the oil spurt from P1 Close P1. Remove nitrogen tank and make the degree of pressure of conservative tank 0 psi. Connect the silica jell breather


Rated voltage/ kV
Below 80 Below 140 Below 200 Below 500

Break down Voltage of oil

> 50 kV > 50 kV > 50 kV > 50 kV

> 35 kV > 35 kV > 35 kV > 35 kV

Water Content in Oil

< 20 PPM < 20 PPM < 20 PPM < 20 PPM

Elapse time
> 12 HRS > 24 HRS > 36 HRS > 48 HRS

1. After oil filtration, the oil must satisfy these values 2. Elapse time: after oil filtration the transformer must not be energized before elapse time.