\

=


.

\

o o
T T R
R 1 1
ln 
Where R
o
is the resistance at a reference temperature, T
o
, while is a constant,
characteristic of the material
Thermal runaway (generally not a good thing)
Thermistor resistance varies inversely with temperature.
The voltage applied directly across a thermistor causes its
temperature to rise, and its resistance to decrease.
Sufficiently high voltage may cause thermal runaway, in which
case, higher currents and temperature are induced until the thermistor
fails or power is reduced.
A
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
Time
T
E
T
E
R
B


.

\

=


.

\

o o
T T R
R 1 1
ln 
or power is reduced.
Thermal runaway is generally prevented by placing a large resistor in series
Static Calibration of Temperature Sensors
Calibration of Thermocouple and Thermistor
RTD (Resistance Thermal Detector) is used as reference
temperature
Measure V
tc
and V
tr
for different
steady reference temperatures.
Draw static calibration curves for
the thermo couple and the
thermistor
Why static calibration?
Heater
RTD displayT
o
C
RTD
Thermo
Couple
Thermistor
DAC
system
ComputerLab
viewMeasure
Voltage V
tc
and V
tr
R1
R2
R3
V
V
R
thermistor
Unsteady response of the Thermocouples are measured
DAC
system
ComputerLab
viewMeasure
Voltage V
tc
(t)
Time constant is a parameter used to define the
dynamic response of a system.
In this experiment, we measure the time constant
of various thermocouples
Heater
T
h
Ice bath
T
c
Transfer quickly from
hot bath to cold bath.
The time response of
thermo couples are
measured
Different
thermocouples are
used ( size, material)
Dynamic Calibration of Temperature Sensors
Transient/Dynamic response of a system
Any system will take a finite amount of time to respond to a
change in input
This delay in response is called the rise time or response
time
Larger the rise time, slower its system response
time
Input
(ideal)
time
Output
Rise time
In many systems (especially I
st
order systems, governed by I
st
order ODEs) the rise or delay of the system is exponential
System
Input
output
Time Constant
Time constant is a determined by the physical properties of the
system. Note that 1/e =0.368
Time constant = Time taken for a system to attain 63.2% of the
difference between initial and final steady state values
E
i
E
f
E
t
at
e
f E i E
f E t E
by given is
function response transient The
) ( ) (
) ( ) (
E
(t)
t cons Time
a
t
at
e f E i E
f E t E
tan ,
1
1
1
) ( ) (
) ( ) (
t = =
= =
)
Find the temperature variation T(t) and time constant of the Thermo
Couple ( assume TC as a lumped system ie Temperature is a
function of time only, Temperature variation in spatial directions are
neglected)
T
i
(t
0
=23)
Ice bath (T=T
)
T(t) can be found by using energy conservation
dt
dT
mc E E
out in
=
T(t)=?
Bi<<1
Bi=hD/K
s
Lumped system
) ( , 0
,
= =
=
T T hA E E
dt
dT
mc E E
out in
out in
Deriving Time constant of a Thermocouple
) (
) (
= =
T T
dT
hA
mc
dt
dt
dT
mc T T hA ie
u
u
u
d
hA
mc
dt T T define = =
) (
) ( ,
, 0
= =
= =
T T t t
t IC
i
u
u u
T
dE/dt
E
out
is where e
T T
T T
t
i
t
t
,
= =
) (
hA
mc
a
= =
1
t
mc
hA
a =
How do you find the time constant from your
dynamic calibration data
T(Volts)
time
T
i
T
f
=T
t cons time
slope the then t Vs
T T
T T
Plot
t
T T
T T
ie
e
T T
T T
have We
i
i
t
i
tan
1
, ln
ln
=
=


.

\

=


.

\

t
t
t
t
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