O E MINFS A N D . ; G E O L ~ G Y


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Descriptions of caves-Continued Grant County-Continued

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CONTENTS Descriptions of caves-Continued Page I .



.....................CONTENTS Page - Descriptions of caves-Continued Whatcom County-Continued Sumas Mountain Cave .......... Cavernous fissure southeast of the Ideal Cement Companyquany near Soda Springs 3........................ Map o f Washington showing locations of caves ....... Typical small littoral cave on the Washington coast 4............... littoral cave xi ........ .......... In pocket In pocket In pocket In pocket In pocket In pocket In pocket In pocket In pocket Page 2 7 9 9 FIGURE 1. 2.............. Hole-in-the-Wall.................. ......................

ILLUSTRATIONS Page - 11 12 12 15 16 17 19 19 20 21 22 24 25 27 27 29 31 32 32 33 34 37 39 40 41 41 46 46 47 49 50 51 53 53 55 .

.. Lava cascade from an upper level to the main passage i n Falls Creek Cave Group o f lava stalagmites in a Washington cave Map of Fish Hatchery (Boyles Creek) Cave Xlll ----- 84 85 85 86 89 90 90 .............. "Pipestem" variations o f a tubulor lava stalactite .............. 67... 50..... ........ Map of Big Cove ... ..................... Tubular lava stalactite and globular lavo stalagmite .............................................. . Lavafall into chamber above 40-foot pit. Dynamited Cave ------------------........ Main enhance o f Dry Creek Cove .................. 42. 59.......... 49...... Dynamited Cave 70..... 58........ 51................... Entrance o f Dynamited Cave--------------------------------------------69.... 66. 71....ILLUSTRATIONS Page FIGURE 39...-----...... 60 61 62 63 64 67 70 72 73 73 73 73 75 45......... 56 59 59 59 40.. H o l e in "upper floor1' 75 75 75 76 76 76 78 78 80 81 83 60......... 41......-------------Map of C u rl y Creek Cave ---. -----------------.. 48.... 43........... Downslope end o f entrance section...... o f A+ Cave ............................. Mop of &It Cove------------------------------------------------------63...... 72.............. 46. An unusual form o f lava stalactite i n Ape Cave 62.................... Horizontally divided passage at the lower end o f Ape Cave 61................. 68.. 47........ 65........ Moths on a breakdown bl oc k in Big Cove -------------. 73.............. "bvo 57................ Upper entrance o f k t Cove 64................ ... b o l l " inApe Cave-----------------------------------------------56...... 44.....

77. t03 105 106 107 108 109 110 114 115 . 86.. 88. 89. 84. 90. 81. 82. 91. 91 93 94 99 100 101 101 103 103 103 83. 92. 80. 76. 79.ILLUSTRATIONS Page - FIGURE 74. 87. 75. 78. 85.

The Mesozoic and Cenozoic limestones of limited extent in Both areas." For those speleologists who are concerned wholly with solution caverns i n limestone and other soluble rocks. the littoral (sea) caves of Washington. Skamania County. and the Columbia lava plateau. i s only about 1. are also o f specialized interest. Persons concerned with broader implications of speleology w i l l find Washington a fruitful area of study. southern Cascade Mountains. 99 percent o f which. In that report some lava tubes of the southern Cascade Mountains were erroneously listed a occurring in Miocene basalt. this i s a reasonable concept. was able to determine that any solution cave existed in Washington (Bischoff. the nationwide organization of speleologists and spelunkers. Ape Cave. contain numerous caves of other types. were in Miocene basalt As far as i s known. To a lesser degree. . I t was not until 1942 that the National Speleological Society. fissures and by compression of air therein. Nevertheless. Gardner Cave. 1942). and perhaps the world's longest. the limestone caves of Washington are of interest because the unusual variety of their environments i s reflected in their differing natures.CAVES OF WASHINGTON By William R. features. i t was stated. pounded out by wave action on In discussing the caves of Washington. The total slope length of the passages of the largest limestone cave in Washington. mostly i n the Columbia plateau region. a Beds the longest lovo-tube cave known in the continental United States. This is purticularly true o f the student of lava tubes and of vulcanism in general. Halliday INTRODUCTION Washington i s not generally considered to be a "cave state. However. is in The concentration of lava-tube caves in Woshington i s not so great as in h National Monument in California. or perhaps in the Bend area of Oregon. northern Cascade Mountains. i t i s convenient to divide the State into four regionsthe Olympic Peninsula-Willapu Hills area. 1954) the Washington Archeological Survey recorded 188 coves in the state. the latter were a l l rockshelters rother than s true caves.050 feet. Washington's nu- merous and extensbe lava tubes provide a great variety of features of these caves and their enveloping bedrock. and contenk. In 1954 (Swanson and Bryan. however the Olympic Peninsula and Willapa Hills region contain no known limestone cave. The basalt flows of Miocene age in the Columbia lava plateau of eastern Washington contain no known lava tube or sizable remnant thereof.


The other speleolikrous region of Washington i s the southern Cascade Mountain area. limestones are difficult or impossible. as would be the assistance of individuals who wish to aid the future work of the Survey in any other way. Because of the logistic problem of a volunteer effort of this kind. the goals of this Survey have not been reached in full. and the Okanogan Highlands. although an attempt has been mode to list everything in - This has been done not only for the reference of students o f the allied sciences. some of which hove received surprisingly wide publicity in print and by word o f mouth. fnitiated by the Cascade Grotto of the Notional Speleological Society. which includes the San Juan Islands. and others in fields ollied to speleology. study. and the scant stratigrophic and geomorphic knowledge about much of the State. and i t oppears that a l l these tubes were formed in late Pleistocene and Recent time (Halliday. i t has not been possible to locate a few coves that have been reported to exist. I t i s entirely probable thot a few important caves hove not come to our attention. although age determinations in most of these the Pleistocene epoch. In this report the limestone caves of the State are discussed in more detail than has been customory in other state speleologicol surveys. and every major lava tube in Washington. continued by individual membersof The Mountaineers after the temporary inactivation o f the Cascade Grotto. Only cursory mention or fissure cove in Washington. a unit of thewestern Speleological Survey. allwium. even though odditional exploration and mapping w i l l be completed in future years. ond revitalized by the Washington Speleologicol Survey. and describe in detail every limestone cavern and related karstic phenomenon. Undoubtedly. where lava tubes have been found i n a number of lava'flows in a wedge-shaped area south of Mount St. In this strip there are caves in limestones that appear to range from Cambrian to Permian (7) age. there are still others thot are choked with glacial ond even more proboble that there are a number of important caves not yet discovered because of dense vegetation or lack o f human visitation. biologists. the rugged terrain and heavy vegetation of most o f the cave areas. Helens and Mount Adams. talus. This report i s the result. I t appears that the origin and development of limestone caves in . has been given to such caverns in this report. This report on the caves of Washington i s based on a correlated 10-year field and bibliographic study. but in order to prevent future confusion about the nature of minor caves. As indicated further in the text. corrections. they w i l l probably always remain mere goals. the northern Cascade Mountains.INTRODUCTION 3 I 1 The limestone cave region of Washington i s i t s northern strip. The goals of this Survey have been to locate. extending from east to west across the central port of Skamania County and into adioining counties. deposits. even though they may be significant to archeologists. survey. and further information of any kind on Washington caves would be extremely welcome. One Washington cave i s so difficult to find that the Survey has been unable to locate i t agoin after an initial cursory visit. Washington thot has been termed a cave. or logging debris. N o evidence has been found that any of these caves are in flows that were extruded prior to 1960b). Additions. The Survey has not attempted to locate and record every rockshelter or every littoral. asthese are of minor speleological importance.

and d r i p of descending water. Because these caves are so few. i t appears that they originate as sinuous. the terminology of the features of lava tubes used here i s largely originol. in a honeycomb or latticelike pattern. i t has seemed appropriate to discuss their features and speleogenesis individuall y and i n terms of the locality rather than as a group. still to be made.4 CAVES OF WASHINGTON Washington. Nevertheless. considerable degree within its caves. This report discusses lava tubes in much more detail than do previous. Additional studies w i l l be necessary to determine or disprove the validity o f this theory. Subsequently. and . like those of other regions. The study of lava tubes i s also hampered by the lack o f a standard classification and specific As a result. The high-elevation caves of Mount Snoqualmie show marked modification by. With the exception of a few terms such as "cupola" and "contraction fissure. solution by films. Solution o f the limestone by acidic ground water begins beneath the water table. Accurate surveying o f lava tubes i s a very difficult process. both phreatic and vodose features are evident. along joints and other zones of greater permeability. are scattered so widely. As elsewhere. whereas the two large limestone caves of eastern Washington (elevation 2.900 feet) have the massive speleotherns that the other limestone caves in Washington lack. preliminary study of the lava tubes of Washington. Discussion of the features and speleogenesis o f the lava tubes of Washington has been hampered by additional factors. and modified by stratigraphic and other factors. trickles. in certain areas preferential solution occurs under the influence of gravity and hydrostatic factors o f sub-water-table flow. i. This writer tentatively holds a modified version of the theories of Wentworth and Macdonald (1953) on the origin of lava tubes. I t i s e\. complexity of the recent geomorphology of most of the limestone areas of Washington i s reflected to a As in caves of other areas. and i s as descriptive as possible. some of the terminology in this report may be some- what vogue and may overlap or contradict usages elsewhere in the world. The study of lava tubes i s i n its infancy.ident from even these preliminary studies that lava-tube speleogenesis i s much more complex than i s generally recognized. similar studies of other areas. At a later stage the cave i s drained by regional uplift Still The and (or) downcutting. roughly cylindrical structures. but also because in many lava tubes the physical effort o f mapping approaches the endurance burrier. much progress descriptions of their individual features. they are found only in flows of pahoehoe basalt." wh:ch i t is hoped are used in the same sense as by their originators in Hawaii. are intimately related to regional and local geomorphic cycles. and occur under such varied environmental conditions. which m y be simple or complex depending on prior surface and subsurface topography. under either vadose or phreatic conditions. as a result of effluence of molten lava and with some effects due to hot gases. for example. not only because of compassdeviations caused by magnetite in the lava flows. and detailed sequential speleogenetic Many features and partial sequences indicative of this O n the basis of studies are needed. further modifications result from deposition of fills. cornplexify are listed i n the descriptions of individual caves. and subsequently modified by vadose solution and speleothem deposition. and most of them are markedly modified by the passage of lava through the primitive tube or system under a variety of conditions.

each with a surface glaze. are dangerous and also fragile. The writer most o f the caves of Washington are at least potentially dangerous. others definitely do not. The former are glacier caves. Studies of these processes are in progress and w i l l be the subject of a later report. As a group. of their floors show typical congealed surfaces of lava rivers. neophytes interested in caves would rP" rties of experienced covers. Breakdown of In other tubes. the latter are ice caves or placieres. minute. A cave visitor should never break.36th Ave. and in some a complex series of events can be traced. Calcareous speleothems are absent or Lava stalactites and stalagmites formed by dripping of lava are present in a few caves. although two or three are entered through schollendom. functioned as conduits of lava flow. v ~ h author's e present (1962) address i s 11 17 . In passing. or remove any feature of any cave unless i t i s I t may well not be replaced within the life span of the Because essential for study by competent authorities. Several of them have two or more gently sloping sections connected by Others have as many as five superimposed levels. I t must be stressed that many Washington caves.INTRODUCTION 5 to determine the nature o f many details of these caves. E. as many cavern features were formed under different conditions than now prevail. The slope o f the floors of the tubes i s subiect to some variation and may be related to the pielava topography. None show explosion features. are t y pical smooth or ropy pahoehoe lava. others are granulated. most. i t should be noted that this report follows the standard practice of nomenclature of coves in glaciers and caves in various rocks that trap cold air and form ice. Seattle. rather than explore alone or with other inexperienced w i l l be glad to assist such persons upon request. or confluent branches or both. The thickness of roofs ranges from 1 to about 50 feet. these tubes do not seem entirely in accord with the traditional concept of these caves as simple lava conduits with distal ramifications. revealing multiple layers. Wash. do well to accompan persons. of these caverns there are features that seem to indicate the existence of multiple extra-tubal lava sources thot have intersected the tubes at various points. . A l l the lava tubes examined during this survey occur in pahoehoe basaltic lava flows on gentle slopes. For a detailed study of ice caves and their meteorology the reader i s referred to an earlier report (Halliday. some tubes i s so great thot the pile of rubble on the floor i s higher than the original roof. like those elsewhere. Some Most of the lava tubes hove effluent and grooves on the walls o f most of the coves record temporary levels of flow of a lava river. 1954).. connected by pits of at least two only a thin veneer has fallen. others because of solid fills of undrained lava. These caves contain many features that indicate the conditions present during their They appear to have In several origin and development. Some show distal ramification. destroy. types. human race. Some stretches of the tubes are inaccessible as a result o f trenchlike collapse of the roof. Most of the tubes' original surfaces are heavily glazed by secondary remelting. Where not coveredby rubble. Ridges A l l the caves can be entered through breakdowns in the roof caused by collapse. None were noted in pressure ridges. short steep pitches. but not all.

identified the puzzling Bob and Ira Spring kindly contributed some of their and arranged for the use o f those red autobrecciated lava seen in Ape and Lake Coves. which were studied by Ashley 8. the National Park Service. Without the cordial ossistance of Harry Reese. kindly identified salamanders. with the exception of the grylloblattids. as did (elsewhere) Carl Nielsen. of the U. National Museum. Senator N a t Washington supplied information on coves near Soap Lake. including critical review and several photographs.<::::. magnificent photographs. So many persons h e l p d in field work that i t i s impossible to name them a l l here. identified the invertebrates mentioned. contributed much of the information on limestone deposits o f western Woshington and other valuable assistance. Howard Coombs. Homer I. and Thomas C. Members of the San Juan Reef Raiders and of the Washington Foldboat Clubsupplied data on various littoral caves.S. . the National Speleological Society. Spencer aided greatly in the survey o f the Trout Lake area. and a great many persons have assisted in the preparation of this I report and the research that preceded i t . o f the University of Woshington. of the University of Washington. and Datus Perry. Barr. Jr. Gurney. W.. Charles I. Donner. and the University of Woshington Library is gratefully acknowledged. the Seattle Public Library. Special credit i s due B i l l Dailey o f Portland for preparing the original maps used as a base for the tracings used in this report.6 CAVES OF WASHINGTON ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Speleology requires teamwork. Assistance o f the U. Forest Service. David Bronnon. Barker also supplied a by B i l l Lancaster. Breakdown Prominent rock k 2 Dip Feet below entrance Feet above entrance Flowstone Stalagmite Stalactite Column Ladder W Mfd Dirt or mud slope 2 @ ) Narrow passage overlying wide passage up>dorn Ceiling height / &@ A V Slope Paol or lake Chimey Pit Ledge --------' Dry streomcourse z=ss TSiY Streamcourse XW . Miss Ruth Brown. the extremely important lava tubes of the Mount St.S. and Leonard Libbey gave valuable biblio- graphic assistance. Helens flows would still be largely unknown. Their help is deeply appreciated. the Western Speleological Survey. of Tennessee Polytechnic Institute. Richard Snyder. R. MAP SYMBOLS Cavern passage ksurveyed cavern passage Passage with division . o f the Uni- versity o f British Columbia.

Danner. a sinkhole swallet. despite rumors o f their occurrence. Another karst area with sinks and at least three swallets i s located on the hillside on the south side of the Little Figure 2 . CHELAN COUNTY Chelan County contains small scattered deposits of limestone. in the valley of the Little Wenatchee River. but no caves have been reported. R. There are a number of rockshelters i n the basalt walls of the canyon of the Snake River. In that localit y there are numerous karstic features. ASOTIN COUNTY A little limestone occurs in the southeastern corner of Asotin County. and a resurgence. Only one cave has been reported. 1954). but no caves o f any type hove been reported. Photo by W. Wenatchee River for about 1 mile eastward from Rainy Creek (W. MEYER CAVE This i s a rockshelter near Ritzville in Miocene basalt (Swanson and byan.-Cavernous fissure southeast of the ideal Cement Company quarry near Soda Springs. a narrow cavernous fissure (fig. Danner. R . the Survey has been unable to locate any limestone caves in this county. respectively. including collapse and solution sinks. The most extensive limestone areas are west of Lake Wenatchee. The latter two features are. in and below the Soda Springs quarry o f the Ideal Cement Company. Rockshelters undoubtedly are present. written . but. Chelan County. 2).DESCRIPTIONS OF CAVES 7 DESCRIPTIONS OF CAVES ADAMS COUNTY Adams County i s not known to contoin any limestone. BENTON COUNTY N o limestone i s known in Benton County.

CARSON CAVE Sec. T. CAVES OF WASHINGTON Caves have been locally reported about 2 miles southwest of Cashmere. 31 N. ion beside a main highway. that they are relativel y common in Chelan County. R. R.S. the cold air slowly Ice usually migrates downward through the irregular spaces among the talus fragments (Halliday. 1960). CLALLAM COUNTY The only caves reported in Clallam County are littoral. There i s a smaller. Danner. CHELAN ICE CAVE (I)* It is a This i s a small overhang at the lower end o f a talus slope.. feet. 1904. and local inquiry has produced the information Because of its loc. . 4) that extends through a headland about 2 miles north of La Push. Joyce quadrangle. and in warm weather the overhang serves as the egress o f slowly Because o f its heavier weight.8 communication). remains on the floor o f the "cave" i n late spring. Indian legend which claims thot. oral communication). two adventurous braves paddled into one o f the caves and were never seen again.. 8 W. east of the highway. 13. and north o f Lo Push (fig. long before white men came to the Northwest. Chelon Ice Cave has been known for more than 50 years (Steele. They are o f interest largely because o f the The extent o f these littoral caverns i s undetermined. but sizable littoral caves are reported at the south end o f Shi Shi Beach. *The numbers following cave names correspond with the numbers that indicate the locations of the caves on the mop (fig. p. north of Cope Alovo. HOLE-IN-THE-WALL (4) This i s o tunnellike littorol cavern (fig. Highway 97. T. somewhat similar tunnel north of Yellow Bonks (W. 1) on page 2. 1954). released cold air remaining from the previous winter. 20. a t Point o f Arches... Most widely known are probably those at Agate Boy.2 miles south o f the Chelan-Okanogan county line on U. 16 W. 3). AGATE BAY CAVES (2) Sec. 31 N. hobits the cavern (Anon. typical example o f cold-trapping talus. A large variety o f marine life in- This i s a major littoral cavern 2 miles north o f C a p Alava. (3) Ozette Lake quadrangle. and this i s not a limestone area.. 700). similar occurrencesare listed in this report. but none were found during field work. near the bottom of the canyon 6. and temporarily extends past the overhang for a few Other. R.

25. Cougar quadrangle.Hole-irrthe-Wall. feet from h e entrance i s a chimney to the surface 10 feet overhead.ClARK COUNTY 9 Figure 4. R. but the presence of rotting string within the cove indicates that i t hod been visited previously. There is said to be a small cave near Washougal. .. The cave continues northwestward for about 60 feet as a stoopway and crawlway.100 feet. feet high. COWLITZ COUNTY The western fringes of the Mount St. 4 E. To STRING CAVE (5) Sec. 1960. Elevation about 1. date. Helens lavetube area extend into C o w l i n County. however. a littoral cave extending completely through a small headland about 2 miles north d La Push. CLARK C O U N T Y N o limestone and no Recent or Pleistocene p h w h o e lava flows are known i n Clark County. Debris on the floor indicates that the cave i s a seasonal streamcourse. but i t was not found during field work.. T. Tree casts and a few flow marks ore present.. COLUMBIA COUNTY N o caves hove been reported i n Columbia County. 5. 7 N. only one small lava tube has been found within the county. The main entrance is about 8 feet wide and 4 About 25 This smoll cave was found by the writer on Nov.

The Washington Division of Mines and Geolo g y (written There are local reports of - communication. there is said to be a lova sinkhole plugged by logs standing on end as i f drawn into i t by a whirlpool. BEVERLY ICE CAVE (See Srnyrncflce Cave. 1958).10 CAVES OF WASHINGTON OTHER CAVES On the southwest side of Grass Lake. Helens cove area. which penetrates about 75 feet of cold-trapping talus before entering solid rock. between Bridgeport and Brewster. FERRY C O U N T Y N o coves are known in Ferry County.) BLUE LAKE CAVE This i s a small rockshelter near Blue Lake (Washington. I t i s believed locally that this i s the opening o f a swallet that engulfed flood waters of Grass Loke on December 24." ARROW SHAFT CAVE A This i s a large rockshelter east of Lake Lenore (Washington. considerable number of rockshelters in this county have been termed "caves. This i s undoubtedly a rockshelter site. excavated Christmas Canyon.) . a prominent landmark on the north wall of the canyon of the Lewis River. a glaciere in talus. GRANT COUNTY N o limestone i s known in Grant County. on that date. BLUE LAKE RHINO CAVE (See Rhinoceros Cove. DOUGLAS COUNTY A "cave dwelling" north of Orondo i s shown on current State road maps. west o f the Mount St. 1933. as neither limestone nor pahoehoe lava occurs near Orondo. the resurgence of which. GARFIELD COUNTY N o coves have been reported in Garfield County. one o f at least seven in the area. Most of the bedrock i s basalt o f Miocene age. 1960) reports that a supposed ice cave near Covada i s an old mine adit. 1958).

W.-Dry Falls Cave. west of the north end of Soap Lake (N. DRY FALLS CAVE This small rockshelter (fig.GRANT C O U N W 11 BOY SCOUT CAVE This i s a small cave in talus. Figure 5. 5) i n basalt is near the trail descending into the Dry Falls basin from the observation platform on the rim. It i s believed to be a rockshelter near the town of Wilson Creek. CRAB CREEK CAVE (Wilson Creek Cave) This cave was not found during field work. Washington. Pholo by Bob and Ira Spring. . The opening extends about 60 feet back into the sheer cliff. oral communication).

MOONSHINER'S CAVES These two adioining rockshelters are in T. 23 N.12 CAVES OF WASHINGTON EAST LENORE CAVES Besides Arrow Shaft Cave.Indian Cave near Vantage. with an "ice cave" at the lower end. 23 E. a typical example of eoldtrapping talus. JASPER CAVE This i s a large rockshelter on the west wall of Jasper Coulee (Washington. This i s a typical rockshelter in the basalt of eastern Washington.-Srnyrna Ice Cave. HORSETHIEF CAVE This is a 300-foot cave with two entrances in the c l i f f north of Soap Lake.. 6) about \ mile south of Vantage. which i s under study by various archeological organizations. Washington. 1958). R. 1958). W. Figure 7. The description i s (N. A spring emerges from the floor of Figure 6. on the east bank of the Columbia River. oral communication. six small rockshelters have been reported in the area east of Lake Lenore (Washington. . Grant County.. suggestive of a block-creep cavern.) I N D I A N CAVE This i s an easily seen rocksheltei (fig. A door closes the "cave" entrance. one of them (Washington. The name i s also applicable to a number of other rockshelters in this area. 1958).

) G R A Y S HARBOR C O U N T Y N o limestone cave has been reported in Grays Harbor County.. Other small littoral caves. oral communication). parallels the c l i f f and i s open at both ends. 26 E. . 1951) usoge. 5 miles west of Smyrna. JEFFERSON Little limestone i s p-esent in Jefferson County. Its The mold i s about 8 feet long and i s caves on the shore of the Quinault Indian Reservation. 7) dug into cold-trapping talus. entered through a small opening in the left thigh region.d. a). WEST LENORE CAVES There ore several rockshelters west of Loke Lenore in lower Grand Coulee (Washington. 24 N.d. are along the west side of Dabob Boy and at Pulali Point on Hood Canal (W. ISLAND COUNTY There are a number of littoral 1959). One extends completely through a small island N o caves have been reported in Island County. (Osborne.S. near Elephant Rock (Doward. location i s shown on the U.GRANT COUNTY OWL CAVE This i s another rockshelter in basalt in the Grand Coulee area (Osborne. The largest. 1958). RHINOCEROS CAVE (Blue Lake Rhino Cave) 13 The mold of a rhinoceros in pillow lava at the mouth o f Jasper Canyon has been termed a "cave" in both popular and technical (Chappell and others. about COUNTY A number of littoral caverns ore south of Lo 100 feet long. n. Geological Survey Smyrna quadrangle. R. n. PICTOGRAPH CAVE This i s a small rockshelter in T. WILSON CREEK CAVE (See Crab Creek Cave . R. Push. Danner. b). SOUTH CAVE This i s a rockshelter in the lower Grand Coulee (Gallagher. SMYRNA ICE CAVE (6) (Beverly Ice Cove) This i s an artificial "cave" (fig. 1958). in basalt of the Crescent Formation.

a cave today. DANGER CAVE (9) (Breakdown Cave) Sec. Snoqualmie quadrangle. passages and chambers. Elevation about 50 feet. 1957). 5 E. R. KING COUNTY King County contains the largest limestone caves known in western Washington. Renton quadrangle. and i s south of Red Cave. I t i s at the base of the This tiny cave was the first discovered of the Snoqualmie Pass group. Snoqualmie quadrangle. A number of caves of other types are also in this County.) CLARK'S CAVE (7) Sec.075 feet. 16. 28. there i s said to have been a small natural cove in the cutbank o f the Black River in Renton. 1952)... - Although this i s not a limestone area. T. 23 N. T. Elevation about 5. 23 N. R. 11 E. BREAKDOWN CAVE (See Danger Cave ... One may have collapsed here about 20 years ago (Douglas. Elevation about 5.. but i t was filled to prevent accidents. Elevation about 4. 8) i s treacherous. CLIFF CAVE (8) Sec. 28. This cave and a small. 23 N. ADAIR'S CAVE (See Prospector's Cave. Their status as glacieres i s uncertain.200 k e t . 11 E. impenetrable fissure a few feet farther up the gulch serve as resurgences after periods of heavy rainfall and are dry only in late summer. I t i s at the south end of the s m l l ridge that forms the east border of Cave Ridge. slopes on the south side of the hanging volley on the south side of Mount Snoqualmie.. T. and moderately sizable. just upstream from Ih entire length of about 35 feet consisk of tight crawlways (Steinburn. The cave i s on the southeast side of the . 1952). 23 N. deep. T.14 CAVES OF WASHINGTON LAKE LENA CAVES These are talus caves at the end of Lower Lena Lake (Morgan.750 k e t . below Maple Street and the Seattle highway.) BLACK RIVER CAVE Sec. with about 250 feet of Danger Cave (fig. Srioqualmie quadrangle.. a small pond. 11 E. R. This small cavern i s hardly more than a rockshelter i n limestone. R. 28. I t reaches a depth of about 150 feet.. There i s no trace of such The present residents report that a sinkhole developed in their backyard about 1955.

breokdown and f i l l forming several Block of fallen rock F w i r c 8.. I Dcccmber 1960.KING COUNTY SMALL ENTRANCE 15 Small room i n breakdown r below &per Room b m r r o w pit 17' deep. King County. D ~ s l a n c c r bclow enwance arc c s m a t c d . teep rlopc.Danger Cave. Preltmln~rys i w c y by Warhtnglon S p c l c o I o r j ~ ~ d Survey. .

Extensive slumping and breakdown are present throughout the cave. The bedrock at Danger Cave i s a marble member of the Denny Formation.16 CAVES OF WASHINGTON area locolly called Sinkhole Amphitheater. Figure 9. King County. 1960). but experienced covers. Danger Cave is a l i t t l e warmer than the Its name i s due to the loose rock in the cave. i s present. and boulders are prominent in its lower areas. gravel. Ridge. and i s at the south end of a small lapies ravine about 100 yards long. suggesting that the cave has been formed along a fault aligned parallel to the dip of the bedrock. Photo by Bob and Ira Spring . I t i s heavily fractured and appears to dip about 30" S . . and deposits of sand.-Breakdown-strewn entrance chamber o f Danger Cave. which i s believed to be of Permian age (Foster. but low alpine growth Perhaps because of its position on the open ridge. opposite Red and Hellhole Caves. The immediate environs ore not forested. which i s a prohibitive risk to a l l other coves of the group. as in most o f Cave The beds exposed on the opposite sides of the main passage do not correspond.

At a point about 100 feet downslope from the base of the pit. Near the point where the fallen block divides the main passage. A t the southeast corner a sloping. A t the southwest corner of this chamber a series of portly tubular bedrock pssoges permit the flow of the cave stream to another small pond. Just inside the moin entrance of the cave. chutes near this place. By ascending this block. One contains a fissurelike pit.KING C O U N N The main entrance of the cave i s a narrow opening in a small hillock. a small "upper level" can be entered. Its floor i s covered with large accumulations o f breakdown and stream deposits. a large block of fallen rock about 12 feet long divides the passage. Below this p i t i s the breakdown-choked main room o f the cave.-The 4 0 . These are the only passageways in the cave that are not heavily modified by breakdown.f o o t p!! in Danger Cave. F w r e 10. gravel-strewn pit about 15 feet deep leads to a small pool that i s the only visible part of a more extensive water surface beneath the breakdown. Nearby are two short tubular stalactites and a small white stalagmite. 10) at the end of the Upper Room i s actually a dropoff to a steeply sloping passage about 3 feet wide that extends southward. During the wet weather other. which form several "levels. In widened horizontal joints. The crawlway passes approximately The entrance chamber. leads downward about 20 feet to the low entrance chamber (fig. a stream enters from the east and flows down the east branch of the passage to a 15-foot p i t beyond the block. a tortuous narrow pit leads to two small breakdown chambers beneath the entrance room. miniature ceiling pendants are locally prominent. Great masses o f breakdown are present. smaller streams enter the cove through waterfall . This chamber ends at a 40-foot pit. and has a maximum width of 38 feet a t a place where a narrow dry stream channel enters the room from the west. fissure of the cave. 17 feet deep. Its floor plan i s irregular." pik. beneath the main entrance. which can also be reached by a crawl- way from a tiny second entrance 15 feet north of the main entrance. aligned with the main and a little boxwork i s developed locally. tions. the only maior speleothems in the cave. The central part of ik From south wall i s about 30 feet southeast of the base of the pit. and ledges. On the ceilin g i s a half-tube that appears to be of phreatic origin. are prominent. i s I t contains irregular in outline. known os the Upper Room. where vertical waterfall slok One group of slok approaches dome p i t proporExtremely thin blades o f impurities project from the walls. no speleothems. 55 feet from the entrance. i s 2 to 6 feet high. The 40-foot pit (fig. this point i t i s 55 feet to the farthest point of the east wall. King County. A steep. narrow passage 17 91.


CAVES OF WASHINGTON Danger Cave i s being enlarged and flushed by vadose water. Speleothem deposition i s almost nil. O f particular interest are

Despite the great accumulations of breakdown and stream deposits, there i s evidence of a sub-water-table origin of the cave, but no sign of integration by shallow sub-water-table flow. when that passage was temporarily filled with sediment. DANGER CAVE ANNEX (10) About 50 feet southeast of Danger Cave and 20 feet lower than its entrance i s a small cavern. a single short, tight crawlway to one side. DON'S CAVE (11) (Mount lssaquah Cave) ~ ~ ~ r o x i r & sec. tel~ 36, T. 24 N., R . 6 E., Snohomish quadrangle. It is The the ceiling pendants in widened horizontal ioints along the main passage, which appear to have developed

cavern i s aligned parallel to Danger Cave and consists of a steeply sloping passage about 30 feet long with

This i s a talus cave 111 feet long, roofed almost completely by a single enormous boulder. on the western face of Mount lssaquah. DONL4N'S CAVE Repeated search for this cave, supposedly on Denny Peak, has been fruitless. had discovered the cave 50 yeors earlier. Denny Peak.

The informant,

Joseph P. Donlan, in 1952 was unable to recognize any landmarks in the area where he believed that he There i s an abandoned limestone quarry on a different part of The sound of running water can be heard through a crack near this quarry, and a small

stream issues from tolus farther down the slope. GROTTO CAVE (See Lost Cave, King County. ) HELLHOLE CAVE (12) Sec. 28, T. 23 N., R. 11 E., Snoqualmie quadrangle. Elevation about 5,180 feet.

Hellhole Cave i s a few dozen yards south of the crest of Cave Ridge, about 200 yards west o f Red Cave. I t i s in a small flat above the northwest end of the so-called Sinkhole Amphitheater, about 100 feet northeast o f a large collapse sink. The small entrance sink of the cave i s about 4 feet in diameter I t i s about 12 On the floor and 8 feet deep, and i s almost concealed by heather and other low alpine plants. The actual entrance of the cave i s a triangular orifice at the bottom o f the sink. inches on each side, and barely admits an agile, slender person. Below i s a free 60-foot drop to the

floor of a large sloping chamber about 100 feet long, 35 feet wide, and 20 to 60 feet high.

are masses of breakdown, much of which i s unstable. Because of the danger involved, the cavern has been only partially explored. There are several narrow, roughly parallel side passages, but none has been found to be more than about 100 feet long. Pits leading t o o total depth of more than 100 feet below the surface have been partially explored.



Most of the breakdown consists of fragments of schist from a bed of that material in the Denny Formation overlying the tilted marble in which the cave was formed. Although irregular vertical vadose grooving (fig. 11) is prominent, the rounded shape of the cavern where not disrupted by breakdown appears to be of sub-water-table origin. One short sinuous rs-entrant passage between two parts of the larger chamber evidently carried a heavy flow o f water at some period before the time of collapse. fluted to a height of several feet. Speleothems are spcrrse in Hellhole Cave. that found in Red Cave, i s present in several areas. Entry into this cave and travel on i t s floor are slow, difficult, and dangerous. Persons planning exploration in i t should consider the fact that an iniured explorer cannot be hoisted through the narrow entrance, a passage There are a few small stalactites. Red terraced flowstone, like Its walls are

that i s difficult even under ideal conditions.
Figure 11.- Drip slots at the bottom of the 60- foot drop i n Hellhole Cave, King County, look as i f they had been incised by pneumatic drills. The helmet, to the left side of the upper part of the slots, shows their size.

LEDGE PIT (13) Sec. 28, T. 23 N., R. 11


Sncqualrnie quadrangle.

Elevation about 4,950 feet. Formed in limestone at the base of a ledge about 200 feet above Clark's Cave, this pit i s about 10 feet deep. bottom to form a room about 5 feet wide.
Figure 12.-Entrance of Ledge Pit, a very small cave near Snoqualmie Pars.

The entrance

(fig. 12) i s approximately 2 feet wide, but the pit widens at the


CAVES OF WASHINGTON LOOKOUT CAVE (14) Sec. 28, T. 23 N., R. 11 E., Snoqualmie quadrangle. Elevation about 5,125 feet.

The 1961 Cave Ridge expedition of the Washington Speleological Survey discovered that a t the bottom o f o prominent sink about 100 yards southeast of Hellhole Cave a large rock had moved or been moved, permitting entry into a major cavern (fig. 13A).

This sink

i s on a smoll flat on the southwestern

edge o f Cave Ridge, affording a magnificent view of Snoqualmie Pass and wide expanses to the south (fig. 13).

A descent of 6 feet through a vertical opening 2 feet in diameter conducts the explorer to the
floor of a low passage obout 3 feet wide, i n which i s some soft, terraced, red-orange flowstone. feet to the northwest i s a p i t with an upper orifice aboui 1 foot wide and 2 feet long.


I t was necessary


to enlarge this opening to permit entry and return of the initial explorer. This p i t i s the uppermost part of a fissurelike passage trending SSW. for obout 30 feet. Its upper part i s about 12 to 18 inches wide, but its lower part i s wider, and contoins some irregular grottos. The floor i s a mass of steeply Some block flowsloping breakdown and mud. groovings.

stone i s p-esent on the walls, as are vadose Noncalcareous impurities are exposed The ceiling i s unstable at in the country rock. its south end. A t the lover (southern) end of this passage

i s a large, fairly stable pile of debris about 10
feet high. Beyond i s a partly overhanging descent of 35 feet into the Big Room. This irregularly shaped Several alcoves chamber i s about 35 feet long and 5 to 15 feet wide. and at least one intermittent watercourse. Its ceiling height i s 30 to 50 feet.

and orifices are present, and breakdown subdivides the chamber. There are some vertical vadose groovings Some curious but minor flowstonelike mud deposits are on In a small upper grotto off the east side of the Big Room the walls, and a little moonmilk has been noted.

are some o b l i q w ceiling pendants and a sloping vadose grooving adjacent to the opening through which a high-velocity seasonal rivulet flows. Some small quartz crystals have been observed in the noncalcareous impurities in the wall o f the Big Room. A smoll orifice leading north from the eostward extension of the Big Room conducts the explorer downward to a small chamber, from which a crawlway continues to a more spacious level passage leading eostward for about 30 feet to a small sloping chamber that appears to be blocked by breakdown and mud, although the passuge can be seen to continue. This passage also may

be reached by way of a p i t about 15

feet deep near the easternmost point o f the Big Room.

. King County.Lookout Cave. were not detected in Lookout Cove.. Compass and tape survey by Washington Speleological Survey. known passages i s about 200 feet.. Figure 13A. present.S. although the entrance shown on a photograph (fig. T. I t i s doubtful that this cave i s connected to nearby Hellhole Cove. rock-strewn possoge In breakdown to the east of this passage. and into the hillside. Depths estimated. water at the bottom. Highway 2 between Grotto and bring. LOST CAVE (Grotto Cave) Sec. steep. some very tight orifices remain The total s l o b length of Smoke bombs released in Biota i s scant except in the entronce zone. unexplored. 12. 1962. north of U. 10 E. where rodent nests are 125 feet below the entrance. and partially excavated. has not been found during field work. only competent speleologists should enter this cave. 14) supposedly of the cave has been located The cave may have been filled during construction of the power line tower I t was reported to be a limestone cave slanting steeply downward directly above i t s supposed location. Because o f loose rock and difficult conditions of exploration. Sk~komish quadrangle. in diameter. deep enough to require early explorers to place a rude ladder inside. at on estimated depth of From the northwest end of the chamber a long. the latter on September 7. There are several tiny white calcareous speleothems in this areo. about 10 feet This room slopes to the south and i s the lowest point in the cave.K I N G COUNTY The south end of the Big Room i s a steeply sloping grotto. R. This cave. 26 N. and having . 21 A t its lower end a short semivertical passage opens westward into a pile of breakdown at the northeast side of another chamber. leads upward for about 50 feet. September 2. 1962.



Figure 14.- This site is raid


be the blocked entrance of Lost Cave near Grotto, King Counly. Photo by W .



There are a number of sinkholes in other outcrops of limestone nearby, and also in limestone deposits to the south, on Palmer Mountain and Maloney Peok.

MINER'S CAVE (See Prospector's Cave.)
MOUNT ISSAQUAH CAVE (See Don's Cove.) MOUNT SNOQUALMIE CAVES Sec. 28, T. 23 N., R. 11 E., Snoquolmie quadrangle. Elevation about 4,750 to 5,200 feet.

The ri&e immediately south of Mount Snoquolmie, and between that mountain and Guye Peak, i s the leading cove area of western Washington. In i t are located Clark's Cave, Danger Cave, Hellhole
Cove, Lookout Cave, Newton Cave, Prospector's Cave, Red Cave, Second Cave, and a number of other


The ridge itself has no official name, but it i s called Cave Ridge by many persons interested

in the area.

Cave Ridge is separated from the main section of Mount S n q w l m i e by a small seasonal stream i n a small glacial hanging valley. A t the lower l i p of this valley is the higher of two waterfalls, below



which the stream joins the South Fork of the Sncqualmie River. A t the upper end of this hanging valley an arm o f Mount Sncqualmie joins the ridge to the Mountain. The summit line of Cave Ridge runs roughly from east to west, but i t swings somewhat toward the south at the west end, where a series of spurs complicate the topography. and the curving ridge form a horseshoe-shaped open basin. of the bedrock. The arm o f Mount Snoqualmie This shollow basin contains many sink, largely

developed along low parallel outcrops, or lapies, which are strike ridges of the dipping limestone members This basin i s locally called Sinkhole Amphitheater. Cave Ridge and Sinkhole Amphitheater Heother and low alpine plants are

contain some of the most pronounced karst topography yet observed in the Pacific Northwest. This i s an alpine area, irregularly covered by alpine forest. thick. Bore limestone appears only on the lapies and immediately adjacent to some of the sinks, except

for a few unmantled areas on the arm of Mount Sncqualmie, where the limestone shows glacial striae. SomeRmes as much as 15 feet of snow remains throughout the summer in the hanging volley, which overlooks a pecipitous 2,000-foot descent to the glacial valley below. The bedrock in which the caves occur i s the Paleozoic, east a t about 30°, thodgh there is some local variation. them are difficult and dangerous to explore. The entire area i s a fine example o f glaciated, partly mantled mountain karst. A @-Miocene erosion surface, deeply dissected subsequent to uplift, has been partially demarcated in this area, but its relation to the caves has not been determined (Smith and Calkins, 1906). Some b f the caves appear to show partial correlation with local "flats," but others do not. Initial discovery and exploration o f most of the caves in this area were by Thomas Steinburn, although Robert Clark reported the two small coves at the lower end of the hanging valley (Steinburn, 1952, Halliday, 19600). NEWTON CAVE (15) Sec. 28, T. 23 N., R. 11 E., Sncqualmie quadrangle. Elevation about 5,175 feet.


Permian, Denny Formation, which The dip i s generally north-north-

consists largely of alternating beds of marble and schist (Foster, 1960). dip or strike, with breakdown of overlying schist quite marked.

The caves tend to be formed primarily along the In general, they are narrow, and most of

Although not yet fully explored, Newton Cave (fig. 15) i s the second longest limestone cave discovered i n Washington, with a total slope length of about 500 feet o f explored passages and an estim t e d depth of about 180 feet. characteristic of the cave. Newton Cave i s located in the same lapies trench as Red Cave, and i s about 100 yards north of that cave, close to the rim o f the hanging valley. that seprates Cave Ridge from Mount Sncqualmie. The cave i s formed i n a marble member of the Denny Formation, the strotigrophy of which i s complex. I t is a complex of narrow passageways and small, mostly elongate chambers. Steep slopes, pits, jagged chimneys, short crawlways, and a great quantity of broken rock are

16) i s an asymmetrical sinkhole slanting eastward beneath a small limestone bluff. from which a narrow slot extends bock down to the floor of the main room. north end is at a iunction. There are several possible passage openings in broken rock high Figure 16. marble and the insoluble rnass. Beyond i s a small A queezeway to the southeast opens into a high-ceilin g ed chamber with marked vertical vadose grooving.K I N G COUNTY 25 The entrance of Newton Cave (fi g . The stream disappears again. showing lateral solution a t the water table. Features of interest include a complex of drip slots beneoth the entrance.. Its To the north i s a steep stream passage (7) material. . Several large chimneys with extensive vadose grooving are in the wider southern half of this passage. Below The Slide. North o f this chamber i s an interesting 42-foot passage (the Horizon Passage) containing a variety O n the walls at its north end are at least three horizons Stream fluting i s present in of fill materials. King County. this passage. The Slide i s o steep. but i t i s indistinct because of superimposed fine vertical fluting. A steep slope 20 feet long terminates with a sheer drop of 10 feet to the floor of the Entrance Room. The uppsr part o f this passage i s in marble. that conducts the entrance streom to The Slide. including sand and gravel. a gently sloping passcge a few feet long leads to a vertical 8-foot waterfall that flows over the same noncalcareous materLateral to the d e p i t . High on the woll of this chamber i s a small hole that leads into a small grotto. To the east of this junction i s The Slide. differential solution has caused a separation o f about 1 inch between the A t the base o f this 8-foot waterfall i s a small chamber. narrow passage floored by a noncalcareous rnass that i s coated with a slick organic ial.Entrance of Newton Cave. The Entrance Room i s 55 feet long. A short sloping passage leads downward from the southeast side of the Entrance Room to a steep chimneylike chamber in which red flowstone has been deposited along the steep slope. at successively lower levels. and deposits of orange-red flowstone on the southern part of the west wall. on its east wall. antechamber from which openings lead south and southeast. The seasonal stream that enters the cave entrance disappears in rubble near the northern end of this room. Its height averages 15 feet. into iti floor. although the upper part o f the room i s wider. and i t i s about 5 feet wide at floor level. Two muddy crawlwoys at the north end of this high-ceilinged chamber and the opening to the east from the antechamber iust described join at the south end of a straight corridor about 40 feet long.

about 40 feet to a lower level visible below. and The horizons indicate that this passage developed in the shallow I t seem likely even in i t there is faint vertical grooving. south wall. another mem- that first explored the cave. Immediately above the east end of this crawlway there i s a dangerously unstable chockstone. thot the rest of the cave also i s of sub-water-table origin but has much vadose development. as are traces of stalagmitic deposits. this type. on the belief that Mr. Beyond this small complex is onother junction. subwater-table zone. The biota of Newton Cave appears scanty. cascades to the ledge thot i s the main part of the room. The speleogenesis o f Newton Cave i s complex. ber of the party had noted the cave earlier. Very active vadose solution by drips and films o f water i s in progress. Newton had found the cave. on minute projections of the walls caused by slight differentials of solution. as piomising but blocked with debris. The name was applied in 1959 by the leader of the party Actually. It has several waterfall grooves but i s not regular enough in rection to be considered a dome pit. However. nificance in explaining their origin. narrow passages appear to be ioints widened by vadose solution o f Their location may prove to be o f sig- The Horizon Passage shows the leost evidence of these phenomena of any port of the cave. and was enlarged by water-table flow a t three successive heights. East of this iunction a narrow sloping passage continues downward about 30 feet to the Big Pit Room. This p i t does not connect to the cave system. and mast of the high. thence cascades 5 feet and plunges This lower area has been explored for about 50 feet. Tubular stoloctites as much as half an inch long are present i n some of the lower ports of the cave. the A broad but steep and breakdown-choked passage Both the Flute Room and the lower part of leads down from the Flute Room. and i s difficult to decipher because o f breakdown and the occurrences o f noncalcoreous material. breakdown passage have well-developed vadose vertical grooving and slots.26 CAVES OF WASHINGTON Extending east from the northern end of t h i s passage i s a short crawlway thot leads to a short com- plex of small chambers and smaller passages. I t i s believed by some that Thomas Steinburn entered the Entrance Room i n about 1953. The history of this cave is controversial. A duck-under at the east end of this ledge leads to a little chamber that contains a small amount Aside from the red-orange flowstone. the writer visited the entrance in September 1956 and noted i t About 25 feet east of the cave entrance there i s a rounded p i t about 3 feet in diameter and about 20 feet deep. Tiny coralloidal nodules proiecting on thin stalks also occur locally. The cave stream reappears high on i t s recessed which i s a laterally sloping chamber about 30 feet long. of boxwork. . Newton Cave i s almost locking in speleothem. but no detailed search has been made. which i s 80 feet to the west.

Its entrance. 1956. pit. Breakdown i s fairly extensive near the rear o f the cave but i s slight elsewhere.. with filiform helictites. Washington Speleolog~calSurvey. Steinburn. fairly thick-bedded marble member o f the Denny Formation. and no clearly phreatic spelecgens were noted by the writer despite the pattern o f the cave that strongly suggests a subwater-table origin. Figure 18. linear passages. King County. Adair's Cave) Sec. R. Many o f the wall surfaces show the vertical icgged grooving o f descending films o f water. Elevation about 4. T. The hillside i s covered with heather.. The cave has been developed primarily on dip and strike joints. 11 E. This small cave (fig. The The dip marble alternates with shale. The bedrock i s a well-fractured.Entrance d Prospector's Cave. Most o f the pssages are about 2 feet wide and 8 feet high. i s approximately 35" NE. Snoqualmie quadrangle. and no karst i s apparent a t the cave. The only spleothems that have been found are delicate One small clump appears to be intergrading white coralloids in a lower passage not far from the entrance. Halliday and T. 28. King County.K I N G COUNTY 27 Figure 17. Survey by W. Steinburn's Cave. a narrow slit about 9 inches wide and 3 feet high (fig. 23 N. FROSPECTOR'S CAVE (16) (Miner's Cave. i s just above a small but prominent prospect Immediately inside the entrance i s an 8-foot drop.. 18).Prospector's Cave. .. but the d e p s i t and the individual speleotherm are too smoll for this to be determined with certainty. aclually a narrow slit a t the rear of this alcove. R . beyond which the cave widens slightly. September. on the north slope o f Cave Ridge.850 feet. I t i s a b u t 100 yards northeast o f Clark's Cave and about 50 feet above the hanging valley floor. which i s exposed as a hanging wall ceiling a t the rear of the cave. 17) has a total o f about 200 feet o f narrow.

The cave slopes steeply downward for several feet. 28. single-chambered cave i s in a small karst ravine bounded by lapies. Snoqualmie quadrangle. R.. The 9-inch-high entrance of an unexplored cave i s at the bose o f the north face of a prominent limestone outcrop just northwest of the crest o f Cave Ridge. Snoqualmie quadrangle. About 100 feet upstream from Clark's Cave i s the tiny entrance of the second cave discovered of the Mount Snoqualmie group.175 feet. Nevertheless. but at The cave is Vertical vadose grooves the entrance the bedding i s grossly distorted by the presence of a wedgelike intrusive body.28 CAVES OF WASHINGTON RED CAVE (17) Sec. I t i s even smaller than Clark's Cave (Steinburn. SECOND CAVE (18) Sec. (See Mount Snoqualmie Caves. A sloping passage 41 feet long enlarges near its lower end to form a chamber about 15 feet Breakdown chokes a p i t at its lower end. east the ridge drops away steeply to a srioll flat above Commonwealth Basin. chimney i s the deposit of bright-red terraced flowstone that i s the source o f the name of the cave. The bedrock i s a markedly fractured marble member of the Denny Formation. The beds dip about 65' north-northeast. 28. and much breakdown has accumulated. . T.) OTHER CAVES Sec.) S N O Q U A M I E CAVES STEINBURN'S CAVE (See Prospector's Cave or Second Cove. (fig. 19) and related speleogens are very morked in the cave.) STEINBURN'S CAVES (See Mount Snoqualmie Coves. 1952). its overall contour appears to be phreotic. and no clearly phreatic spleogens were Elevation about 4. about midway along the section of the arm of Mount Snoqualmie that joins Cave Ridge. Its entrance i s at the south end of the A few dozen feet farther A thin alpine forest i s near third collapse sink in this ravine south of the east end of the hanging valley. T. The entrance o f Red Cave i s an irregular opening amid large breakdown blocks at the southern end of the sink... 23 N. The overl y in g schist i s exposed in the roof and the eastern wall of the cave. 11 E. noted. R. formed along the marble-schist contact. T .. then levels off and continues for an undetermined distance. This pit is of considerable depth but In this A 30-foot chimney above the west side of this room almost reaches the surface. the cave. and heather and oiher low plants grow thickly. 28. Elevation about 5.760 feet. i s impenetroble. 11 E. 23 N. 11 E. This small. wide and 20 feet high.. 23 N.. Snoqualmie quadrangle. R. approximately on a line between Hellhole and Clark's Caves.

.KING COUNTY 29 Figure 19. King County.-Irregular vertical vadoregrooving in Red Cave. Pholo by Bob and Ira Spring.

. a descent of approximately 30 feet in breakdown in on open fissure leads to a small linear solution cavern about 40 feet long. tures of especial interest. R. I t has no feo- I t i s west of Cle Elum Lake. 1954).. KITSAP C O U N T Y N o coves hove been reported in Kitsop County. the cave i s difficult to find.) BUTTER CAVE (19) Appoximately center. COX CAVE This i s one of several small rockshelters north o f Vantage (Swanson and Bryan. TRINIDAD CAVE This i s a rockshelter near the town for which i t wos named (Swonson and Bryan.) BRANCHING CAVE (See Red Cave. 21. some o f which hove come to be k n w n as caves. Because o f the numerous logging roods and lack of landmarks in this area. This small fragment of a oncesxtensive lava tube (fig. Yakima County's Boulder Creek Cave (Boulder Cave) erroneously has been listed as being in Kittitos County. KITTITAS C O U N T Y Only one deposit of limestone i s known in Kittitos County.30 CAVES OF WASHINGTCN About 100 feet west of Danger Cove. trending east and west. T. 1954). There i s no limestone in this county.075 feet. Willard quadrangle. I t i s at the confluence of two largely collapsed lava tubes that joined about threequarters of a mile southwest o f the Trout Lake sawmill. 10 E.. VANTAGE CAVE (See COX Cove. biolo g ical papers. and no In some caves have been reported there. Klickitat County. BIG LAVA CAVE (See Cheese Cave . 20) i s o f note historically and geologically. 6 N. which contuin several important lava tubes. In this basalt are many rockshelters. south edge o f sec. Elevation about 2. Most o f the bedrock of the eastern p r t of this county is basalt of M i o cene age. ) KLICKITAT COUNTY Klickitat County includes the southeastern part of the Mount Adoms pahoehoe lava flows.

6 N. T. . 1909b) and. Immediately inside i s a broad chamber about 15 feet high. to Because the temperature ranges from 42' 44' F. and a breakdown-strewn lava tube about 10 feet high and 20 feet wide continues another 250 feet northwestward to a small upper entrance at the lower end of a sinuous lava trench in which several short sections of tube remain. which was used for the storage of butter during pioneer days (Anon. About 100 feet from the entrance the chamber narrows.S t a l w e l l Tube Complex. Aside from Ice Cave. for the commercial production of Roquefort cheese. protected.B u t t e r . 1909b).KLICKITAT COUNTY 31 The main entrance sink of this Y-shapd cave i s on the southeast side of the road. Spencer. There are remnants of a door iamb at the entrance. 21 and 22) i s the best known of the Mount Adam lava caves. The entrance of the main part of the cave has been enlarged. the cave traps much cold air. Because both entrances of this cove are small. Stairwell Cave i s several hundred feet farther Old wooden skid rails are still in up this trench. Elevation 2. At the far end of th'is small sink i s on additional 30-foot remnant of collapsed tube. . and semivertical. Willard quadrangle. this impressive lava tube (figs. Figure 2 0 . Lava Cave. 21. 10 E. R. oral communication). Spencer's Cave) East edge of sec. Klickltat County. (Homer I. A low passage about 20 feet wide extends about 60 feet westward beneath the road to a smaller sink. more recently. place.. and often i s nearly blocked with ice until midsummer.020 feet. for many years a small port of the cave was used for the storage of potatoes (Anon.. so thot i t is now about 5 feet high and 3 feet wide. CHEESE CAVE (20) (Big Lava Cave.


Upper entrance of Cheese Cave.. . Klickital County.KLlCKlTAT COUNTY 33 I 1 I Figure 23. Photo by Bob and Ira Spring.

34 CAVES OF WASHINGTON Near the upper end o f the cave there i s o particularly fine splash concentric (fig. stalagmites i s nonvesicular. but i t i s blocked within a few feet by the flow that entered i t from the main tube. with corresponding multiglobular. They appear to have been the result of coagulation or lack o f remelting along fractures. its height is about 65 feet. and longitudinal flow grooves along the course of the tube may be seen on the ceilin g and walls. ICE CAVE (See Trillium Cave. The somewhat hidden upslope passage i s a long crawlway with its flow enThe downslop side passage is the more prominent. mold from the cheese process. which permitted ingress o f cooler air or gases during the thermal phase o f the cave.) LAVA CAVE (See Cheese Cave specifically. A t several places there are lateral "waterfalls" o f cinder-surfaced lava on the walls. A detoiled biologic study of Cheese Cave would be valuable. The tube beyond this chamber has an unusual "boxwork" of potholelike ceiling cavities about 2 feet i n diameter. A t least two kinds of salamanders. have been discovered in the cave.) . Bones o f unidentified small ani"Runaway" includin g Ambystomo microdactylum. Near the lower end o f the cave are well-developed lava stalactites. espein a lava tube cially on and near the east side o f the large pillar that divides the passage upslope from the artificial entrance. downslope from the Cupola Room there are vertical or oblique scratches where more of such material has slid down the walls. mals hove been found i n several places. and its length 100 feet. 24). Especially. and also a different mold are present on sections o f the ceiling. downslope from the artificial entrance. The Cupola Chamber. Lava flowstone from the base o f these Toadstools grow on rotting wood deep in the cave. and a l l caves o f this county generally . tering the main tube. A t a pile o f breakdown about 200 feet from the end o f the cave there are two adiacent side passages on the a s t side of the tube. its width more than 80 feet. is unusually large. Lateral flow deposits are fairly well developed both high and low on the walls. highly vesicular stalagmites as much as 6 inches high.

and then ioin the lower passage.KLlCKlTAT COUNTY LAVA BRIDGE CAVES (21) Sec. Farther north i s a long. with a double-level tube still farther u p l o p . there are two additional small collapse sinks at intervals o f about bet. I t i s reported that the lowest pussage i s a comparatively straight section of lavo tube.28 or 29. very instructive when i t i s found again. A few flow grooves are in this breakdown-strewn segment of tube.) RED CAVE (22) (Branching Cave. 10 E.. 6 N. In the main tube. Spencer. interrupted at intervals by short lengths o f uncollaped tube. with a slope length of obout 365 feet. 10 E. This "bridge" i s near the midpoint of a segment of lava trench obout 1. the floor of much of the cave i s very rough. Only o small section of the. the uppermost of these two side passages could be entered through a small collapse sink. Willard quadrangle." ond there i s o complex series of small sinks and short segments of tubes about 100 feet east of the main tube in that general area. MEAT CAVE (See Trillium Cove. Detailedstudy of this cave w i l l be In the Because o f a great quantity of breakdown. T. served as a natural bridge for the old Trout lake-Peterson Prairie rood. a small amount of lavo tube slime in the cave. The m i n pussage i s upslope. 35 Elevation about 2.cave was visited by the Survey. enhance section t h i s rubble has a brick-red color.575 feet. I t has been explored principally by Homer I. Willardquadrangle. extensive.000 feet long. . the northernmost being obout 275 feet long and terminating with a dirt fill. I00 It i s reported that each of these levels leads to a separate collapse sink. The Lava Bridge ystem i s not a unitary tube. One of these. which gave the cave its name.150 feet. 31. southeast. about 50 feet long... Several cavernous remnants o f a mostly collapsed lavo tube ore obout half a mile east of the Skamania County line. and south sides of the The other Until filled during logging operations. From this sink four passages lead off. This little-known lava tube cavern i s in a densely forested area of obscure landmarks and changing logging roads. however. R . north. Elevation about 2. Spencer's Red Cave) Approximately sec. A t each end ore longer segments of tube. north of Cave Creek. The moin entrance sink i s the lowermost of a series of collapse sinks along a passage length of several hundred feet. hvo side passages rejoin. The cave at the south end i s more There i s Its entrance section also contains much breakdown. sink. 6 N. uninterrupted passage. T. A short confluent passage i s in the short segment o f tube upslo'pe from the "bridge.. as rediscovery was not effected on a subsequent trip to the area. upslope. R . and i t s lower section possesses o beautifully convoluted lavo flow and other interesting deposits. leading roughly The openings o f the other three passages are roughly on the eost.

. Because of the complexity o f Stairwell and Butter Caves. even though the trend i s actually up-tube. Elevation about 2. About 10 feet high and 6 feet wide at first. Most o f this side tubs i s spacious. The cold air trapped in the sink and cave causes retardation of plant growth.) STAIRWELL CAVE (23) Sec. of an old-fashioned stairwell.050 feet. Elevation o b w t 2. to the entrance of the cave. 10 E. the tube soon narrows in breokdown. Total possoge length i s about 1." one of the few parts of the cave that are free of breokdown. 21. the main upper passage continues about 75 feet and rejoins the main route about 125 feet below the upper end o f the cave.350 feet.100 feet. Along its northern wall ore two other branch tubes.000 feet up the sinuous trench from the upper entrance of Butter Cave. 21." which has a width of 40 feet and a ceiling height of 35 feet. Beyond the Main Room the main passage of the cave pursues o sinuous course north. 6 N. about 25 feet above the floor. then east for about 450 feet to a hole in breakdown through which light i s visible. The second side tube leads to a breakdown crawlwoy containing a lava spring. Klickitot County. R. but maintains its identity for on additional 30 feet. 6 N. but beyond the Stairwell is one crawlway section. 31) i s an interesting but small lava tube complex about 1. " I t i s noteworthy for i t s smooth clean pahoehoe floor. obout 50 feet to a point above the main route. The spacious first 170 feet of Stairwell Cave slopes downward over breakdown. the first of which reioins the main passage up-tube from the "Moin Room. and short segments o f uncollapsed tube. in this area trends roughly north. Willard quadrangle. so that the sink contains o profusion o f blooming trilliums i n midsummer. A t the end of the slope the cavern widens into what i s termed the "Main In this sinuous main corridor. Its modern name arises from the cold-trapping action of the sink adiacent This short length of lava tube served the pioneer immigrants of the Trout Lake area as a refrigerator in which meat was stored. Meat Cave) Sec. Between the two caves are several sinks That on the east extends about 250 feet to the domed "Bubble Chamber. T. Stairwell Cave (fig. interesting problem. side tube near the Bubble Chamber by passing through this breakdown.. 20.36 CAVES OF WASHINGTON SPENCER'S CAVE (See Cheese Cave. on p.. 10 E. T. ore two other tube openings. R. the speleogenesis o f this area is a particularly TRILLIUM CAVE (24) (Ice Cave. . I t is possible to return to the On the west wall of the Moin Room.) SPENCER'S RED CAVE (See Red Cove. Willard quadrangle. there is an opening of another tube. to which i t i s connected by a circular opening reminiscent Beyond the iunction with this upper side passage that leads to the stairwell. I t extends About 150 feet from the entrance of this tube a side tube enters at a sharp angle from the right. Most of the intervening passage i s spacious.. then widens again. which Room.

-Twidwell's Cave. and about 100 yards north of the road from that cave to Butter Cave. and the floor plan i s roughly prabolic. which i s the location o f Figure 25. about 60 feet long. 1961 . July 16. I t consists of a single grottolike segment of lava tube I t i s about 25 feet wide at the entrance. Klickitat County. Compass and tape survey by Washington Speleological Survey. The ceilin g height i s about 15 feet in most o f the cave. although at the rear of the cave i t descends ab- ruptly to a height of about 6 feet.KLICKITAT COUNN 37 Trillium Cave is about 300 yards northwest o f the entrance of Cheese Cave. then rises again to form a small inner grotto.

Its explored length i s only 300 feet. nation con be viewed. in a very small area of s i n k and low domes. neve was present in the entrance. 25). At least one other opening appears penetrable. at which the tube i s i m p s a b l e . not appear likely. (25) 5 N.. Other. - LINCOLN COUNTY N o caves have been reported in Lincoln County. the southernmost known of the Mount Adoms group of lava tubes. On July 2. appears to be unusually simple in nature. MASON COUNTY N o caves have been reported in Mason County. . OTHER CAVES Other caves in addition to Red Cave are rumored to be in the area between Butter Cave and the Lava Bridge complex. rubble and in the form of melting stalactites and stalagmites in the rear third of the cove. and many roots are pendant. although neither gloze nor flow grooves or ridges ore present (except for o little elevation of the edges of the floor). northwest o f Omak and Riverside. and neither termi- This small unitary lava tube (fig. although their presence does The overall appearance of the tube is that of the upper port of o larger tube that now i s filled almost to the ceiling by lava. Husum quadrangle. R. 13. As shown on fi&re 25. Consequently. Elevation about 1.. 10 E. The possibility of l o w r levels cannot be excluded. but ingress is blocked by broken glass and other trash. WIDWELL'S CAVE North edge sec.430 feet. They have not been found by the Survey. the cave has the form of a sinuous.38 CAVES OF WASHINGTON well-developed. entrance i s in a shallow sink. broadly arched tube with a single The ceiling height gradually decreases to the point The The floor i s a moderately granular rippled flow uninterrupted by break- The ceilin g i s cracked in many areas. 1956. constriction without corresponding increase in height. LEWIS C O U N T Y N o caves hove been reported in Lewis County. low. which crop out over an area several miles long and more than a mile wide. OKANOGAN COUNTY Okanogan County contains a considerable expanse of limestones and dolomites. down except at the entrance. T. / I transient ice speleothems. the possibility of o more complex speleogenesis than is apparent at first glance cannot be completely excluded. additional ice was noted omid the floor On that date The cove i s in o dense second-growth forest. which faces northwest.


stone i s thought to be of Triassic age (Waters and Krauskopf. 7 - PASSAGE . Allbright Cave i s the second lorgest limestone cave known in eastern Washington. and impenetrable crocks are visible on the almost unmantled southern slopes of the ridge. Allbright Cave. . in a thick-bedded gray'coarsely crystalline limestone that dips about 50' slightl y east of south. Vertical section along traverse line. which i s This cave is near the southern end of the local "lime belt.. Elevation about 2... 35 N. 26 E. a few feet higher than the main entrance. Okanogan County." The limeBennett. + . Green and William Halliday. Other shallow sinks A t its foot i s the farm of Thomas Tugaw.000-foot ridge has been termed "Cave Ridge. Conconully quadrangle. CAVES OF WASHINGTON The second largest limestone cave known in eastern Washington. C m p a s s and tape survey by Dale J. i s near the southern end of t h i s "lime belt.880 feet." ALLBRIGHT CAVE (26) Sec. R. 1944). 0 20 me. T. lapies 6 feet high in the saddle southeast of the cave. A l l slope lengths correct between points. July 1958. ." sinks in the summit line of the ridge. southern face is typical northwest sagebrush desert. O n recent maps this 1. from whom The two entrances of the cave are in small permission to cross the property to the cave must be obtained. Its lowest point i s obout 85 feet below the upper entrance. 18. The slope length of its passages totols about 400 feet. TERMINAL HAMBER R.Allbright Cave. 26 and 27) is atop a narrow limestone ridge about 1 mile north and 2 miles west of the junction of the Riverside-Conconully and the Okanogan-Conconully roads. Allbright Cave (figs. but its UPPER ROOM Chimney &EL c HIGH ROOM MISERY CRAWL Figure 27.40 smaller deposits also occur. 1941. 0 . and there are A few pine trees grow atop the ridge.

cursory visit: woodrat. 1903. A t the downslope end is a short crawlwoy that separates this corridor from the next chamber. Okanogan County. from the mouth of the passage below the main entrance to the rim of the p i t leading to the lower level. Aside from o single short talus slope downslope from this pit. Some shallow gours and a little flowstone The chamber are present. the High Room. toad. in winter. bats (probably Corynorhinus sp. Along the wall of this chimney i s the opening of a short Figure 28. called the Rimstone Passage. Much breokdown i s present here.. A sloping passage about 20 feet long and 4 feet in diameter extends south-southwest to the Upper Room. crickets.O K A N O G A N COUNTY 41 Allbright Caveshelters much animal life. small moths. the followin g were noted during a single which were collected on a previous visit). funnel-shaped lower end plunges down dip. with the date March 22. who formerly occupied the farm below the cave. and there are no important speleothems. The main entrance (figs. a bear was found hibernating in the upper room of the cave. The history of this cave i s imperfectly known. but i t soon broadens into a long. irregularl y shaped chamber p r a l l e l s the strike of the bedding. i s nearly 80 feet. The passage at its beginning i s locally sinuous and sloping. and possibly a campodeid. and two types of mold were growing from rotting wood and from rat droppings. i s the greatest in the cave. The ceiling height of this next chamber. When the cave was visited 18 months later. I mosquitoes (twilight zone only). but its sloping. Figure 29. 28 and 29) of Allbright Cave i s a hole about 3 feet in diameter at the bottom of a dip-influenced sinkhole.-Enbance of Allbrighl Cave. Flat-topped mushrooms were growing in the entrance. has been inscribed in the lower level of the cove. spiders. An 8-foot drop at the funnellike lower end of the Upper Room leads to the lower level of the cave. small diptera. The upper part of this large. spacious corridor trending south-southwest. in a hilltop rink.-Enbance of Allbright Cave. I t i s said locally to have been discovered by memThe name "Allbright. almost the entire verticol range of the cave occurs in this room and in the entrance passage. The longest measurement in this room. contains a large chimney about 30 feet high." bers of the Samuel Allbright family. . In July 1958.

tionship o f the cave either to a ~ e v i o u s erosion cycle or to o time when the valleys on both sides o f the ation. but i s offset the breadth of the High Room. rough pisoliths. A cloy bonk about 3 feet high partially obstructs the entrance o f the next passoge. A narrow opening from this bedding-plane passoge also bypasses the entrance of the crowlway at the downslope end o f the section o f the moin passoge just described. Just below this p i t there ore o few perched remnontsof ared cloy fill similar to that i n certain Missouri caves described by Bretz (1956). . glacial action were noted on the ridgetop. and appears to hove been deposited in quiet water. at successively lower levels down dip. o short upper level passoge extends bock to the large chimney mentioned p. This passoge contains some smoll gours in which there are some small. however. A low eastward extension of this room continues for A little weathered flowstone i s on its walls. would indicate a relaSuch o situation conceivably might hove arisen during Pleistocene glociHowever.filled valleys within a few miles of Allbright Cave.42 CAVES OF WASHINGTON upper level. Development along the bedding plane and on d i p and oblique joints i s of lesser impartonce. and the cave does not show the massive fill typical of the subglacial caverns o f Woshington. which i s entered more conveniently by another chimney at the end o f the next passoge. no conclusions can be drawn The cove appears wholly unrelated about the relationship of A l lbright Cave to Pleistocene glaciation. which slants down from the second enThis passage contains a large quantity o f rubble. this fill would not necessarily be present. A water-level stain i s visible on the wall about a yard above the floor. Atop a 20-foot ascent. This crawlway. ridge were filled temporarily. about 18 inches i n diameter and 20 feet long. incised ceiling channel a t the p i t separating the two levels. which has left a channel in the dirt floor. i s basically a continuation o f the moin passage. A few tiny helictites steeply inclined. A smoll hole at the chamber's south end serves as a swallet of a smoll seasonal stream. to the stream (or possibly lacustrine) terraces o f the surrounding volleys. I t opens into o small bedding-plane-determined chamber thot i s the end o f the cave. The floor o f the High Room i s level. bedding-plane side passage enters from the northwest. I t i s the only Woshington cave in which such a red cloy has been found. The cove developed mostly on vertical joints parallel to the strike. I t i s aligned with the Rimstone Passage. trance. A t this time. when there were ice. There i s a suggestion o f a about 20 feet to the end of a narrow passoge about 50 feet long. A second entronce to Allbright Cove consists o f a narrow slotlike pit east o f the main entronce. Misery Crawl. no traces o f Breakdown has been great only in the Upper Room. The speleogens o f Allbright Cave ore almost exclusively phreotic. I t i s most readily found from within the Upper Room. which i s about 27 feet long.eviously. Development of such o cave would seem to require a deep phreatic circulation. A t the downslope end o f this passage a steep. although if a cave were in proximity to the upper part o f a thick glacier instead of the lower. which are hundreds o f feet lower than the cave. Such circulation in this ridge-top cave. and some short tubular stalactites are also present. The vadose streams thot flushed this and other fills hove not significantly modified the bedrock.

which appears to dip gently to the Some of the fissures are offset several feet along oblique fracture lines. 3 feet wide. 43 T. O m k Lnke quadrangle.O K A N O G A N COUNTY BOY SCOUT CAVE (27) Sec. Okanoganquadrangle. just west of Riverside. The cave i s probably the result of block slumping and (or) creep. those more been important in their origin. 5 . than 8 feet wide have lost their roofing. and has the contour of a phreatic ioint passage. R. Elevation about 1. Elevation about 1. 26 E. A numberof portly ioofed fissures of unusual extent are in the ridge just north of the mouth o f McLaughlin Canyon. Highway 97 at a point about 4 miles north o f Omak. MclAUGHLlN C A N Y O N CAVES (28) Approximately sec. 36. I t i s visible from U. T. west. 34 N. which basically i s a geological rather than speleological problem. I t i s in a Triassic dolomite (Bennett. narrow passage with revera1 successive vertical pitches and at least one larger chamber. and one that was not visited by the Survey i s locally said to contain a small lake.. 1944). and 15 feet long. This fissure cave in the gneissic and mylonitic facies of the Colville batholith (Waters and Krauskopf. MOUNT OLIVE CAVE (29) (Riverside Cave) Sec. Elevation about 1. 33.. RIVERSIDE CAVE (See Mount Olive Cave.. This tiny solution cavern i s at the base of the low summit cliffs on the east side of Mount Olive.450 feet.S. to be primarily of fracture origin rather than due to faulting.400 feet. R. and some exceed 40 Small deposits of ice were noted in some of the fissures in July 1957. explanations of the origin of these fissures ore varied (Anon.) . The fissures and their caves vary in width from a few inches to many feet. Generally. the passages appear Local Block creep and frost wedging may have 1957).. 35 N. Slickenslides are exposed on several faces. and local informants report that i t consists o f a deep.. 8. A few small coralloids were the only calcareous speleothems noted. The cove has been formed on a dip joint.800 feet. R.. 27 E. Vertical pitches of 20 feet are common. Tonasket quadrangle. 1941) was not examined by the Survey other than through field glosses. 27 E. The bedrock i s a schistose facies o f the Colville batholith. and possible fault gouge was observed at one place. In at least one area the fissures have formed a rectangular maze. Nevertheless. Most of the ice was in talus. I t s double-barreled crawlway entrance This chomber contains a single leads to a narrow chomber 15 feet high. feet. Several of the fissures have small streamcourses. and appears to be about 100 yards long. rough stalactite.. 36 N. entry into which requires a rope ladder. and the fissures appeor to have formed parallel to the dip and strike of the indistinct bedding. The cave i s often visited by local Boy Scouts.

of Oregon and Idaho are excluded... 1959). 19431. N o other karstic phenomena have been observed in the cave area. entrance passage the dip appears to be slightly greater. 40 N. I f the extreme southwest and southeast.4 mile to a parking area.) GARDNER CAVE (30) (Crawford Cave. The cave i s in the Metaline Limestone. Elevation about 2. but contain relatively few known caves. and the climate i s generally mild despite rather . this cave i s the largest in the entire area of these three states. PEN D O R E I L L E C O U N T Y The limestone deposits of Pend Oreille County are extensive. maps of the area indicate that the bedding dips about 21a SW. dense forest.050 feet. a side rood leods north for 0. 1) i s the largest limestone cave in Washington. a thick-bedded formation of Cambrian age. and Oregon Cave. perhaps in part because of the The cave i s at a relatively low altitude. a hanging wall ceiling. However. I t i s easily accessible. The cave i s the feoture of Crawford State Pork. near Omok. The cave i s reached by a dirt road that leaves State Highway 6 at the northern town About 10 miles to the north. 43 E. and has Argillaceous impurities are exposed in several places in this section of the cave. R. Gardner Cave (pl. but in the The entrance passage parallels the strike. and has undergone considerable vandalism. i t i s probably the northernmost limestone cave in the contiguous part of the United Stotes. 4. and was partially developed as a tourist attraction in 1959. I t was not found during field work. 120 miles to the north. Metaline quadrangle. (Park and Cannon. Geologic A good trail continues north up the h i l l for about 200 yards to the main entrance of the cove.44 CAVES OF WASHINGTON OTHER CAVES There ore local reports of a small cave in Shale Rock Point. British Columbia. Lost Cove) Sec.900 feet. Since i t is about half a mile from the Canadian border. exceed the size of Gardner Cave. limits of Metaline. among limestone coves of the Pacific Northwest only the extensive Nakimu Caves of In this county other caves have been intersected in mines near Metaline Falls. The Washington State Division of Mines and Geology reports that i t i s in agglomerate (written communication. With a total slope length of about 1. Gardner Cave i s entered through a collapse sink atop a small h i l l in a densely forested area northwest of Z Canyon. T. CRAWFORD CAVE (See Gardner Cave . respectively. PACIFIC C O U N T Y A littoral cove about 40 feet long and 15 feet in diameter at its entrance is near the Cape Disappointment lighthouse. near the Oregon-California border.

45 I t i s in foothills that have been subjected to much glacial activity. A large column (fig. About 50 feet to the north i s a smaller. less evident i n the cave than on the mop. 19180. The rock cover over this part o f the cave The entire 820-foot length of the main passage slopes downward at a surprisingly uniform angle o f about 25O. who homesteaded a quarter section near the About 200 feet from the entrance. and a different type o f mold on rat droppings in the first 300 feet of the cove. a Metaline merchant. and a porcupine were observed. the only features o f biological interest noted in the cave were some tiny diptera. Gordner Cove seems almost sterile. quite steeply. 1930). I t i s one o f the most prominent features of the cave. this ceiling in several places i t is inclined traced to The Narrows. which appars to consist of both calcite and moonThe latter i s particularly prominent a t the upper end of this section. i t has . 1904. 48. in Okanogan County. and i s similar in dimensions to the passage just described. although small local variations make this i s very thin. and a section o f trail crossing i t i s resonant underfoot. H. Beyond the bend mentioned i n the previous paragraph.E N D OREILLE COUNTY severe winters. Several small stream channels open into this passage. and is not limited to horizontal and near-horizontal sections o f the ceiling. at the lower end o f this section. small-leafed plants. 200 feet beyond the end o f this section of the cave. are two nearly The quarter section around the cave was later acquired illegible inscriptions with dotes 1883 and 1888. as discussed on page Contemporary accounts indicate that the cave was discovered in the summer of 1903 by Ed Gardner. broad section of the cove immediately downslope from the main entrance terminates at o flowstone-splashed c l i f f about 50 feetsouth of the entrance. the next 120 feet of the cave extends I t i s featured by the presence of enor- southwest. 31) i n the center of the passage near the lower end of this section is the most spectacular single speleothem in the Pacific Northwest. Gardner Cave i s of geological rather than biological importance. also in a collapse sink. entrance zone. he deeded the 40 acres surrounding the cave to the State for a State Park (Dingee. The next 120 feet o f cavern consists of a high. 1918b). and large dripstone and flowstone accumulations (fig. partiall y blocked second entrance. The channel was carved by the flow o f a stream atop fill that almost completely filled the The stream must have completely filled the tube that i t occupied and enlarged. fairly brood passage that i s aligned from north to south. A wooden ladder extends to the floor of the broad passage below. mous gours (rimstone pools). mold on rotting wooden steps. cave. milk.. where moss. The main entrance of Gardner Cave i s a vertical collapse sink about 10 feet wide and 12 feet deep. Crowford. The history of Gardner Cove i s not known satisfactorily. cave (Steele. Unfortunately. The largest enters from the east at the bend Near this junction. however. channel forms the entire upper half of the passage. In contrast with the teeming Aside from the life of warmer Allbright Cave. In October 1921. which can be A t The Narrows. Its walls ore richly decorated with flowstone. 30) that narrow the passage in several places. several wide-based stalactites on o low overhang Prominent on the ceiling i s an incised channel. Anon. The high. by W. have been truncated at an old water level.

.' 0 ~ a r n 6 y . ~ a s e = u e i 11!a i g OP& .~1uno3 all!aro puad lane3 m p r e 3 '?l!uuooe ql!m parano3 aualsMalj pue ' s m 6 a 6 l e 3 .

including both forks of its terminal chamber. This lowermost p r t of the cave i s also the most complex. The false floor i s continued through the small aperture at the lower end of this passage. Beyond this aperture. On July 26. t h i s lake was noted to consist mostly of mud. i s about 115 feet. Beyond i s the s m a l l Junction Chamber. this part of the cave i s subiect to seasonal flooding. I t is almost free of speleothem. Beneath are moderately coarse stream deposits. 1958. passages enter this chamber. This stream appears about 150 feet from the lower end of this passage. angled crawlway at floor level.False floor with gravel and cobbles cemented l o its under surface. extends downward for about 20 feet. About 70 feet from the lower end of the main passage. muddy. . 32) i s a prominent feature. and some small gours. was evident. Two small stream in which slumping. The Mud On the southwest side of the small chamber just mentioned. Leading dowtiword and southwest from the Junction Chamber i s o tapering passage about 50 feet long. Terminal section. and i s visible i n many places as i t courses i n and out of breakdown. Gardner Cave. Pend Oreille County. i t also contains Its total considerable accumulations of stream cobbles and gravels. a small tube leads to a ledge 4 feet above the floor o f the Mud Room. length. which i s nearly choked with breakdown. 180 k e t o f broad muddy passage leads to the impassable exit of a seasonal stream at the termination of the main passage of the cave.END OREILLE COUNTY 47 small helictites. and i t shows the iagged residuals of vadose solution much more prominently than does the main passage. Finally. Photo by Bill Lancarter. impenetrable fissures. a low opening i s present on the southeast side o f the passage. A flowstone folse floor (fig. This narrow passage contains phreatic speleogens. presumably into a deeper part of the a v e system. the room usually contains a seasonal lake. but the chonges are very small. about 275 feet below the entrance. which i s the part of the cave farthest from the entrance. from which may be entered the two principal Beyond i s a narrow passage that descends side passages of the cave. sharply from the northeast.. floors. but neither is passable. Four feet up the south wall of the small chamber beyond the aperture just mentioned. about 790 feet along the slope from the entrance. slumped mud. however. A t the southeast end of this chamber i s a small opening. This i s the deepest point i n the cave. a Room can also bs reached by a tighter. When not flooded completely. The Mud Room has few katures visible through its coating. and false I t has modified the bedrock with which i t has come in contact. Figure 32. sloping pit.

but i f so. or a new cave stream began to remove the fill. i t was in the waning stage of each advance. water table of the area. and speleothe tapering side pussage near the lower end of the cave i s not clear.500 feet appears to be of lacustrine origin (Park and Cannon. The main passage i s developed mostly on dip joints. The same stream. i t could The route does not appear to be related to present or past topography After this period of phreatic integration the cave was drained. and in turn left some coarser deposits. There i s evidence that both phreatic and vadose phases of speleogenesis have been complex. not northward as at present (Park and Cannon. and i t Small trends southwest. The cave has been covered deeply by the ice of at least two glacial advances (Park and Cannon. not be determined within the cave. Because the Pend Oreille River flows northward in a deep gorge. No stream fluting has been recognized. indicate that a primitive cavernous network originally existed here. a channel upward into the ceilin g . and i s not yet fully known. Probably due to compaction. 1943). in order to maintain its constant slope of about 20°. The waterlevel stain and the strotified clay in the chamber iust downslope from the great column suggest that this was an intermittent process. and seems to have deposited much more than i t . and a presumed lake cannot be explained so easily. but within the incised channel the effects were phreatic. one's natural initial reaction would be to explain this deposit of silt and fine sand as the residual of 0 lake dammd against retreating ice. the cave. Thencam a period during which the entire moin passage wos filled with sediments. Subsequently. now under vadose conditions. The sequential position of a coarse stream deposit overlain by flowstone in Flushing of the fill.esumobly by downcutting subsequent to regional uplift.. 1943). Although the advancing glacial ice seems to have had a thickness of about 4. Near the entrance there has been considerable development on oblique joints as well as parallel to the strike of the bedrock. parallel to the dip. The geomorphic history of the region around Gardner Cave is complex. 1943). This may represent bedding control. There are many stream terraces on the flonks of tributaries of the Pend Oreille River. p.48 CAVES OF WASHINGTON h r e a t i c speleogens are common throughout Gardner Cave. rolling valley surface o f moderate geomorphic age. flow in this ceiling channel ceased.000 feet at Gardner Cave. 1943). flowstone was deposited i n i t and atop the underlying f i l l . Specific vodose modifications have been mentioned. them deposition are still in progress in the cave. beyond the initial series of passages. and the flowstone on the floor at The Narrows was deposited. and the channel was drained. side passages along the main pussage. and also the complex of larger side passages near the lower end of The main passage was selectively enlarged along the route affording the least resistance to phreatic flow under hydrostatic pressure. but. permitting entry of water that completely filled the s p c e and dissolved This event could have occurred either above or below the general Locally. there i s satisfactory evidence that the preglacial flow of the river was southward. below which the Pend Oreille River has re-excavated a youthful gorge (Park and Cannon. selection of the route must have been influenced by some factor not yet understood. The cave i s i n a small foothill knoll in a broad. How- ever. a small spoce developed atop this fill. N o mature upland surfaces have been recognized in this area. and a prominent terrace at an altitude of about 2.

R. 34). one can only say that reasonable working hypothesis that the massive cave f i l l was the result of the deposits o f the last glacial of a single chamber 67 feet wide and 46 feet long. but thisis supported only by indirect evidence. 44 E. and the north entrance has the cross section of a phreatic joint possage intersected by a horizon. 32. The massive spleothems are postflushing in age. streams adjacent to the knoll in which the cave i s located. i t appears premature to attempt to correlate the details of the history of the cave with those o f the surface history. Gardner Cave merits detailed study. and also following the dip o f the bedding. of the cavern follow a prominent joint that crosses the long axis of the cave rather obliquely. I t is difficult Figure 33. Elevation about 2.olongations The south entrance i s 4 feet wide and 5 feet i s more irregular in shape. advance. 34 N. 1943). The third i s a larger I t consists cavern (fig.-lndtan Rock Cave. the cave was probably drained at that time. Pend Orellle County. The local drainage of the cave area flows southeast. averaging perhaps 6 feet in width (fig. T.. however.E N D OREILLE COUNTY 49 removed (Park and Cannon. and the major part of its phreatic phase may have occurred just prior to that episode. 1952). and Linear p. Newport quadrangle. high.100 feet. As yet. I t has two smallentrances facing west. 33) i n the same rock. As the ori g inal gorge of the Pend Oreille River probably resulted from downcutting subsequent to Pleistocene or late Tertiary uplift. to explain the contour of this as being a .. The latest flushing of It is a the cave i s a feature o f local runoff accompanying and following retreat o f the last glaciation. Two o f these three caves north o f the mouth of Seseah Creek on the east side o f the Pend Oreille River are merely overhangs i n the sandy Tiger Formation of Tertiary (?) age (Schroeder. not a l l o f the spleogenetic sequence o f the cave has been recognized during this short survey. and also because o f the complexity of the geomorphic history o f the area. 1 6 8 They have the appearance of phre- o 16 32 Feat atic joint pockets. Because o f this. That to the north i s 12 feet high. followin g the There are no permanent surface preglacial drainage pattern. I N D I A N ROCK CAVES (31) (Indian Caves) Sec. Survey by WashcnQm Speleolog8cal Survey. and hence postglacial. Probably. w i h o maximum ceiling height o f 20 feet.

1943). (Park and Cannon. 15. but most are small. The following Figure 34. Caves have been discovered also in the Grandview mine. LOST CAVE (See Gardner Cave. 43 E. cave contained fragments of galena-bearing rock (Jenkins. was mined by the One Lehigh Portland Cement Company (Park and Cannon. Several caves filled with clay. I t i s said locally that in 1844 Father DeSmet held services in this cave for the Indians. and more than 20 feet long. One such cave. 39 N. Potts. They were said to be most common above the 500-foot level (altitude 2. 43 E. silt. R. in sec. A l l the caves were reported to show faulting.50 CAVES OF WASHINGTON result of vadose processes. R. Others were said to have been larger. ciated Metaline Limestone of Cambrian age. but others underlie h e Kautz. 1938. The county's only known caves are related to the The Paradise glaciers of MountRainier. Barker. A t the altitude of 14. Halliday. less than3 feet in greatest dimension. slickensided walls. 39 N. 1943). and sand were intersected by the long odit of the Bella Moy mine. A l l those on the 700-foot level (altitude 1. Many o f these caves contained sphalerite and galena in fragments on the One cave above the 500-foot level was said to be 8 feet wide. 1954).-Main entrance of largest Indian Rock Cave. Carbon. i n sec. Some o f these glacier cover are extensive. and other glaciers (Matthes. They have been formed as a result of melting by . 4 feet high. PIERCE C O U N T Y Little limestone i s found in Pierce County.. Nisqually. Pend Oreille County. The mine i s in brecfloors and as crystals lining the walls. have been reported to date 0960): Small caves have been discovered i n operating the Pend Oreille Mines and Metals mine. Caves similar to those in the Bella May mine are in Woshington Rock. R. 1950. west of Metaline Falls. Ice Cave (fig. T. its phreatic origin would be accepted unequivocally.900 feet) were and to decrease in size and number at depth. T. 1943).. in sec. Photo by Charles I.) OTHER CAVES The caves in the Metoline mines were not examined during the survey. filled with brown clayey iron oxide.124 feet).. in sec. T. 16. 32. Many of the caves i n this mine contained paligorskite.. and if the cave were in limestone. 39 N. 35) i n the Stevens Glacier i s the best known and most extensive.200 to 14. 21. 4 3 E. R. 39 N. 43 E. with smooth. which has not been discovered in other Washington coves (Park and Cannon. T. 1924).400 feet in the crater of Mount Rainier there are several openings between the bedrock and accumulated snow and ice.

They are variously referred They ore the highest to as Summit Caves. sizable caves in the United States. Stevens Glacier. the steam and volcanic gases that escape through small vents in the crater. or Thermal Caves. Mount Rainier. . and are described as "passageways for several hundred feet from one large dome-shaped chamber to another" (Mclellan. possibly excluding Alaska. 1953).Paradise Ice Cave. Photo by Bob and Ira Spring.PIERCE C O U N N 51 Figure 35.. Steam Caves.

R. low extensions o f the upper section o f the passage. less f u l l y developed joint cavity. A t its bottom i s a pool about 1 foot deep. where i n the cave. 1927). The entrance o f the cave (fi g . English Camp Cave. R. sinuous tubular course The next 25 feet o f the cave i s characterized b y a slightly This hackling i s also present i n one tiny ceiling joint cavity else- 3 t o 4 feet in diameter with one elongated and several small openings to the surface. Beyond the southern l i p of the i o i n t pocket chamber i s another.. The entrance o f this smoll cave (fig. (W. the entrance section consists o f o typical phreatic joint pocket about 12 feet long and 9 feet high as measured from a point about 5 feet lower than the main passoge level. indicatin g thot a more extensive system i s present. as i f water-table controlled. . unlike the other vertical tubes. 4 W.. Part o f the ceiling i s horizontal. There ore several other small vertical phreatic tubes neor the cave. fihich here moy be o f Permian age oral communication). i s o f unusual speleogenetic interest despite its small size. 42) i s about 4 feet high and 2 feet wide. 36 N. i s a similar vertical opening. O n O n the west the east side o f the ceiling is another vertical phreatic tube connecting w i t h the surface. Several phreotic tubes about 6 inches i n diameter ond one long phreotic i o i n t cavity on a main speleogenetic joint extend upwaj to the flat surface o f the limestone deposit (fig. CROOK PROPERTY CAVE (See English Camp Cave. Beyond this cavity the passage extends about 15 feet as o tube about 4 feet high and 2 feet wide. c e i l i n g meander. 2 5 . One o f these. 2 feet below o gently sloping terrace thot i s presumably o f marine origin. because o f its potential correlation w i t h l ittoral Littoral caves are present i n various features. Its orien- tation is along a joint thot i s o t an angle o f about 40' to that along which the main passage i s aligned. and broad. At the south end o f this small cavity-chamber is the first o f the vertical phreatic tubes that connect w i t h the surface.58 CAVES O F W A S H I N G T O N Son - J uan -- lslond - O n San Juan lslond there are a t least three small solution coves in lenses of limestone o f the Orcas Group o f the Son Juan Series (McLellan. w a l l o f the small abandoned quarry. 41). parts o f the island. Roche Harbor quadrangle. i t s surface i s pitted and jagged. Donner. Elevation about 170 feet. A t another point are traces o f a small irregularly rounded phreatic joint packets. which does n o t permit the entry o f light. T. About 28 feet from the entrance the passage bends slightly to the east t o follow a joint that parallels the i o i n t cavities a t the entrance. 40) i s i n an abandoned limestone quarry eost o f English Camp. It i s i n the low south Although the main part of the cave extends southward as an inte- grated horizontal passage. so thot much of the cave's length o f obout 70 feet i s w i t h i n the i w i l i g h t zone..) ENGLISH CAMP CAVE (36) (Crook Property Cave) Sec. but.

_ Figure 42. Danner. A - -. San Juan Island. English Camp Cave.._ . December 1960.. R . Photo by W. SECTION A-A' Figure 40. San Juan Island. - .English Camp Cave. . . San Juan County.. Survey by Warhlngton Speleolog8cai Survey.Joint c a v ~ t yextending to surface.SAN JUAN COUNTY 59 -F Tube with vadose hackling I hrecrtic tube to rurftlce Phreatic tube to surface Figure 41..Entrance a f English Camp Cave. .

On ik south wall i s an offset continuation o f the main route about 9 inches wide and o f undetermined length. at the south end o f Quarry operations opened the cave's main entrance. spiders and mosquitoes. San Juan County. and about 5 feet in maximum width extends northwest.60 CAVES OF WASHINGTON A t the end o f this part o f the cave. 3 feet high. 3 W. and a small green frog. a low side chamber 16 feet long. A t its southeast end i s the partiall y slab-blocked rear entrance. HAFFNER'S QUARRY CAVE (37) Sec. snails. The beauty of the cove Excavation o f earthy f i l l a t the rear o f the cave may i s ik display o f speleogens. Elevation about 220 feet. hill- feet high. which i s about 4 feet high and 2 feet wide. a large pole green slug with a large black spot. Most o f the cave consists of narrow crawlways on phreatically dissolved joint passages averaging 2 feet in height. but the entire cave i s within an area 30 by 40 feet.. i s mostly horizontal. reveal beach sands. A few coralloids and two stubby stalactites are i n English Camp Cave. with some lower areas. three earth-blocked p i k extend . 29. Along the chamber's eastern wall. In this small chamber the ceiling Figure 43. 36 N. A t the time o f its examination a plentiful biota was present. Beneath the west margin of the main entrance i s the small oval entrance to a separote section 10 C-C-C---------I 5 of the cave that i s at a lower level than the 0 10 Feet main part. This surprisingly complex little solution cave (fig. but the entrance passage maintains its 4-foot height throughout REAR ENTRANCE f i l l . Survey by Washington Speleolwical Survey. Total length o f a l l the cave's passages i s about 125 feet. Reportedly. 1949) i s o sandstone rockshelter just north o f the Oceonogrophic Loboratories o f the Universiiy of Washington at Friday Harbor (Peter Mclellan. oral communicotion). R. including several types of moths. Friday Harbor quadrangle. 43) i s i n a small limestone ock about 15 a small abandoned limestone quarry. December 1960.blocked lower level ik length o f 24 feet. T. FERN CAVE This botanical site (Wylie. bats are i n the cave i n summer. but the other two enhances are natural.-Haffner's Quarry Cave..

This small. There are some expanses o f flat ceiling in the western section that apparently correlate with thot water leyel. 4 W. San Juan County. T. which today i s only a few feet above the local water toble. During periods of high water. the south is a low passage about 8 feet long. spiders. ond most of the cave i s within the zone of fluctuation of the water table. 14. gnats. the separate western section.SAN JUAN C O U N N 61 downward into an impenetrable. Its identity i s not known at this time (1962)... and a rabbit carcass probably dragged into the side entrance by a predator.-Roadvde Cave. still lower level. joint-controlled solution cave (fig. In part. and even thot part has at least 1 foot o f standing water. in ih wntml part but not at either end. a plentiful biota was present. with a curious narrow F w r e 44. only the small eastern section of the cave can be entered. ROADSIDE CAVE (38) (Lowson Property Cave) Sec. the cave i s remarkably horizontal. R. this i s due to accumulation of fill. On September 30. Roche Harbor quadrangle. A steep To descent of 4 feet post a grottolike westward extension leads to the main cavern level. When the cave was examined. there was about . Elevation about 300 feet. 35 N. Beyond i s a broad. 44) in limestone i s about 10 feet southwest of the West Side Road about o mile southeast of Smallpox Boy. The entrance of the cave (fig.) MOONSHINER'S CAVE There are vaguebut persistent local reports that o cave in approximately the location o f Hoffner's Quarry Cove sheltered a still during prohibition days. including mosquitoes. but there appears to have been some shallow sub-water-table integration o f joint cavities in the development of the present form of this cave. low 10 Feet P passage leading north. at least. 45) i s about 4 feet wide and 2 feet high. LAWSON PROPERTY CAVE (See Roadside Cave. With the exception of these small pits. and i s separated from a swamp only by the road f i l l . which ends in a small complex of breakdown at each end of a small phreatic passage. I t is at the foot o f a slope about 25 feet high This swamp apparently i s on the local water toble. Compass and tape survey by Wash~nglonSpeleolcqcal Survey. The western section of the cave i s SECTION A-A' 10 entered through a crawlway that is filled with water seasonally. which may connect with similar small pits in the main section. and the slope downward from the side entrance. 1961.

and a small. With a total of about 200 feet o f passages. very narrow one has been found just south of the first beach north of Lime Kiln Light. and i t is developed on two (prhops three) levels. and neor Quarry 5 In o road cut on the Roche Harbor rood. At the north end of this chamber i s o sloping "fissure" passoge of very different nature. Almost correspond with the maximum woter level. Shaw Island YANSEN'S CAVE (39) Sec. extending eastward from the northeast side o f a low that i s a few acres in size. 46) i s the largest known in the San Juan Islands. north of Merrifield Cove. There i s locally rumored to bea larger Others have been reported on the north shore of Smuggler's Cove. north of Sportsman's Lake. Like other Son Juan lslond caves. every part of the cave i s a crawlway. ot Delocombe Point. this small solution cavern in limestone (fig. 29. of limestone caves on or near Cady Mountain. and neor Bellevue Point.. R. Orcas lslond quadrangle. ond to be undergoing modification at the present time in the zone of fluctuation of the water table. and north and south The Survey has not confirmed local reports Total length of passages i s obout 100 feet. about 10 feet high and 100 feet in diameter. A maderote biota was observed. Horizontal ceilings in several parts of the cave appeor to Yansen's Cave hos hvo entrances and extends completely through the low limestone spur. There are no spleothems. 5.2 W. I t i s in o spur of limestone. at Roche Harbor. 36 N. above tenacious mud more than 2 feet deep (the total depth was not plumbed). Elevation about 225 feet. one in thot area. . hill ond on the south end of a small flat The cave i s almost entirely within the zone of fluctuation of the local water seasonally filling almost completely. about 3 feet apart. OTHER CAVES A large littoral cove i s on Turk Point.62 CAVES OF WASHINGTON 1 foot of woter in this meander. Roadside Cave appears to have-been formed by shallow sub-water-table integration o f o pre-existing network of solution along various ioints. 1. table. there are two small solution pockets on the contact between shale and very small deposits of limestone.. eost and south of Sportsman's Lake. of thot cove.. and farther to the west is a small complex of passages with sub-water-table characteristics and with moderate breakdown at the for end. but veinlets and larger masses of noncalcoreous material ore exposed i n several locations.

which has a flat floor. toward the main passage. crawlway that leads to the Mud Room. The Mud Room i s a curious cavity. passage that leads to the Mud Room. The next 20 feet of the cave has formed along the edge of this noncalcareous rock. Along its west side are two large ond some small A t the end o f this area i s a sloping p i t about 3 feet deep. but are mare spacious. Beyond this large mass i s a more spacious. &foot sinuous Both crawlway entrances to the chamber are at o level about 3 feet below the main section of the room.SAN JUAN COUNTY 63 SECTION A. pockets and joint cavities. 1961 The main (eastern) entrance i s near the northeastern tip of the limestone spur. in which of etting from one joint to another i s displayed.-Yansen's Cave. Compass and tape survey by Washington Speleological Survey. joint-controlled side passages. Also i n this area are side passages on prominent joinh. I t i s irregular in shape and contour. Smaller masses of such rock are present elsewhere in the cave.A' WEST ENTRA fs noncalcareous material Figure 46. at its base i s a The western entronce and the passage beyond are somewhat lower thon the eastern entrance. San Juan County. and contains many wall On its northeost wall i s an area of breakdown in which daylight i s visible. About 20 feet from the enh.once there i s a very large mass of noncalcareous material. in which there has been much breakdown. Near the center of the room is a . Inside i s a low A l l slope down but roomy crawlway leading south for about 20 feet. obout 2 feet above which i s a flat ceiling.

36 N. however.. in general. and almost Veins ond masses of noncalcareous material are The rear sections of Breakdown in noncalcareous material on the south side of the terminal chamber permits an explorer to stand erect precariously. and elsewhere in the cave. Yonsen's Little Cave. This cave (fig. Elevation about 230 feet. Orcas Island quadrangle. 10 Feet Compass and tape survey by Washington Speleological Survey. T k r e are no speleothems. p i t about 3 feet in diameter ond 6 feet deep. Although the speleogenesis of Yansen's Cave may have been slightly more complex thon that of other Son Juan County coves.64 CAVES OF WASHINGTON potholelike cavity about 3 feet in diameter. noted. slope gently downward toward the entrance. Many roots project into this room. 47) i s about 30 feet south and 80 feet west of the west entrance of Yonsen's Cave. and to be presently undergoing modification by solution in the zone of fluctuation o f the local water table. 2 W. I t i s entered through a Totol length of passages i s less than 100 feet. the entire cave is crawlway. this cove appears to hove developed largely through shallow sub-wotertable integrotion of a pre-existing solution network. Three incipient tubular stalactites were the only speleothems . R. I San Juan County.. the appearance and speleogenesis of this cave are much like those o f Yansen's Cave.eviously. ' Figure 47.-Yansen's L i t t l e Cave. 29. T. moderate biota was observed. prominent i n other sections. and the horizontal ceiling i s found only in part o f the entrance area. YANSEN'S LITTLE CAVE (40) Sec. even to the development on two levels about 3 feet apart. and roughly sphericol. and a few feet up the slope of the main part of the low h i l l mentioned p. although a narrow fissure leads A southwest to the entering passoge. and.

and these ore very smoll. but authentic information about i t has not been obtained. 33 N. oral communication). both Recent and ancient. however. about 25 feet southwest of the west entrance of Yansen's Cove. Pleosant Ridge Cave) Sec. R. 36 N. leads to o breakdown passage in shale (7) about 15 feet long. noted madowz along the trails to Dock Butte Lookout. T. on the Finger Islands.. have been explored in the past 5 years by the San Juan Reef Raiders. BECKLEY'S CAVE (41) (Old Miller Place Cave. Bow quadrangle. R. solution caves known. under the leadership of Jan Utterstrom and Dale Wood. R. Only in the Concrete orea. 9. i s at the foot o f a sea c l i f f about a quarter o f a mile northwest o f the Beckley farm . SKAGIT COUNTY Skagit County has scattered deposits of limestone. 3 E. are in the alpine Other places where solution caves may be found even- tuall y are the limestone cliffs along the east and south sides of Washington Monument Peak. reportedly. 22 (?)... Danner. which was formed by collapse o f part of the roof of a shallow littoral rockshelter about 150 feet long. There are other small sinks in this same area. Woody Island There are local reports of a littoral cave on the north side of a narrow inlet on the west side o f Woody Island. About 1940. Stewart Island There are local reports of a cave on Stewart Island. Sucia Island -Rockshelters. terminating close to the main passcge of Yansen's Cave. between Deception Pass and Bizz Point. There i s locally reparted to be a small talus cave northeast o f Edison in which bats often congregate. where some sinks have been (W.SAN JUAN COUNTY OTHER CAVES 65 A pit 8 feet deep. a boy was fatally injured by a rockfall in this cave. locally termed "wind caves" are on Sucia Island near the isthmus near Fossil b y . The county also has littoral caverns. This cavern.. BAT CAVE Sec. Mount Vernon quadrangle. The Recent ones. and northeast o f Blue Lake. and also. T. 3 E.

A very old. 9 E. 4 to 7 feet high. Near the end of the cave a submerged fissure leads at two levels to an irregular side passage about 25 feet long. T. of the entrance and of the main port of the cave are under water. I t i s south of Sares Head. Elevation about 1.600 feet. The main section of the cove is about 15 feet About two-thirds high. The entronce i s about twice as high and wide. This small limestone cave (fig.. narrow.5 feet wide. and also flowstone There are signs that the cave is the home of at least one porcupine.66 CAVES OF WASHINGTON on the north side of the delta of the North Fork o f the Skagit River.. coatings. R. entrances. and other indications o f an extensive biota ore present. DECEPTION CAVE Deception Cave was the first of the Deception Pass littoral caves to be discovered and explored by the San Juan Reef Raiders. A straight pascage of 40 feet through small talus chambers and crawlways extends to The chamber is irregular in width and height. 1 . paralleling the cliff. and 50 feet long. 1913). 1. On the east wall. The cove i s separated from the river mouth by a marine terrace now in agricultural use. JACKMAN CREEK CAVE Sec. I t i s about 45 feet wide. unauthen- ticated verbal report indicates that it i s in limestone on the east side of Jackman Creek. 48) i s on the south edge of an abandoned railway grade. in its central area. and about 30 feet wide i s somewhat more in places. a submerged room about 5 feet wide and The remainder o f the side passage area is broader but low. 8 E. and contains bats. and i s about 50 feet south of Beckley's Shelter Cave. but the cave i s not known locally. 4. The height averages about 5 feet. i s a remnant of an old Some small stalactitic and coralloidol deposits ore in the cave. however. are given in a 1913 reference (Shedd. reaching almost to the ceiling. 35 N. Not until the autumn of 1951. and about 20 feet deep. Lake Shannon quadrangle. in a sink h a t war certainly first viewed many years ego. when State . It i s the remnant of the pre-collapse shelter mentioned above.. above-water passage that leads upward at a steep angle for about 15 feet. Its location and a photograph of its entrance 10 feet high has been formed. This cave could not be found during field work. A t a point where the two levels converge. At the end o f the main section there i s a short. BECKLEY 'S SHELTER CAVE (42) About 50 feet north of Beckley's Cave i s a prominent rockshelter of littoral origin at the base of the sea cliff. 35 N. sandy beach level.. T. but the main room of the cave. has several JENSEN CAVE (43) Sec. which i s about 95 feet long. The inconspicuous entronce of the cave i s in a little recess below some small fractures in the conglomerate cliff. Lake Shannon quadrangle. R.

June 1956. Jensen Cove is on a gently sloping bench on a heavily mantled and forested karstic hillside. forming the small streom that parallels Franklin logging road far a few dozen yards. but ta the west. Skagit County. Between the cave and theresurgenw i s a vertical hillside panor sink. did anyone realize that i t led into a cavern.SKAGIT COUNTY 67 EXTENDED PROFILE ENTRANCE R O O M WATERFALL R O O M PLAN Waterfall @& -g I I Dry streamcourse Streamcourses Prominent rock 4 C 10 ER O O M ? Figure 48. the nearest I t i s possible that the small streom that enters the cave flows surface stream i s mare than a mile away. Seasonal surface torrents occur a few hundred feet east o f the cave. which may also conhibute to the resurgence.-Jensen 20 Feet Halliday. . Survey by William R. Washington Cave.400 feet above the Skagit River and more than 3.000 feet below the summit o f the ridge in which i t i s located. 1. Forester Fred Jensen peered into the hole at its bottom. into a fairly extensive karst drainage that wholly or partially resurges a t the spring about three-eighths of a mile east of the cave. Speleological Survey. 15 feet in diameter.

It is named for the seasonal Elsewhere i n waterfall in the northwest corner of the room. s o that only a few fossils can be distinguished. Along its walls are stratified clays and gravels. indicating that most of the cave sometimes i s filled with water. only a small trickling stream was flowing into the Entrance Room. The Waterfall Room is about 17 feet long and 8 to 10 feet high. which has a tendency to reaccumulate and must be re-excavated at each visit to the cave. Small stream flutes are present on several minor overhangs.) OTTER CAVE (44) This littoral cave north o f Rock and Surge Caves was discovered and explored by members o f the Son Juon Reef Raiders in 1960. a hole less than 1 foot in diameter opens into a short. McQUEEN'S CAVE (See Three M i l e Creek Cave. pendants that appear to be of phreatic origin. a very tight crawlway 10 feet long psses north beneath meander niches thot must have been formed atop a f i l l thot i s no longer present. N o biota and no speleothem have been observed in Jensen Cave. the dip and strike are difficult to measure. From the lower end o f this room. This part o f the cave i s . but the dip appears to be southwest at about 25'.68 CAVES OF WASHINGTON The limestone bedrock at Jensen Cave i s intensely fractured and partially metamorphosed. The Entrance Room i s a low. connected by a crawlway. the cave. and to be a functioning part o f a small karstic drainage system on an otherwise typical lowland Northwest hillside. This room contains smooth ceili ng 4 feet in diameter. much of the ceiling of the Entrance Room i s bedding-plane-determined. irregular chimneys and iagged limestone remnants showing the vertical groovings of waterfalls. A flashbulb placed in this p i t in 1951 was found on a ledge a foot above the f l q r i n 1956. which falls from a high. 3 to 10 feet wide. norrow passage 8 feet high that leads southwest to the northeast corner of the Waterfall Room. The crawlway i s now floored chiefl y with sand. I t appears to be a cave of phreatic ori g in with very marked vadose modification. and 3 to 6 feet A proiecting meander spur i s near the entrance of During two visits by spele- A debris level that appears very recent i s about 4 feet above the floor at the lower end of this room.) OLD MILLER PLACE CAVE (See Beckley's Cave. The name resulted from a close-range encounter with a sea otter within At low tide the floor of the 75-foot enhance section i s above water. at the bottom of a brush-grown The cave consists o f two small chambers conical sink 15 feet deep and 20 feet in diameter a t the surface. the crawlway. A t the lower end of this room i s a small. ologish to this cave. A t the cave. choked p i t into which the waterfall stream disappears. 17 feet long. Jensen Cave can be entered through a hole If this i s true. sloping chamber high. I t i s believed to be of Permian age. this small room are other. A t the end of this crawlway. narrow chimney.

Two feet of the 7-foot high entrance is above water. and was named by members o f the San Juan Reef Raiders for their organizotion. however. I t has been explored briefly on three occasions by members o f the San Juan Reef Raiders. so that explorers place.7 mile from the latter on an abandoned The entrance of the cove i s at the edge of a smoll marble quarry. roomy passage measures about 70 feet in maximum length. Elevation about 3. 6 feet high and 10 feet wide.SKAGIT COUNTY 69 about 10 feet high and 10 feet wide. with two narrow terminal branches about 15 feet long. and i s estimated to be The cave gradually tapers. The cave i s on the south side of a promontory south of Bizz Point. The single. the narrow passage i s almost blocked by a rock with a clearance of about 2 feet. SURGE CAVE (47) This dangerous littoral cave i s between Rock and Otter Caves. Three M i l e Creek Cave (fig.. The cave is entered through a narrow passage about 2 feet high and 15 A t the end of the narrow entrance section i s feet long. ROCK CAVE (46) This littoral cave just north o f Sares Head has not been completely explored and i s extremely dangerous because of heavy surge. T. . north of Deception Pass. about 2. Even though partiall y blocked by dirt and rubble. 49) i s on the steep slope east o f Lake Shannon. at the lower end of a fissure about 20 feet high. which extends walk-in entrance i s about 100 feet into the sloping hillside in what was once typical heavil y timbered upland country. PLEASANT RIDGE CAVE (See Beckley's Cave. but the only scuba diver to pass t h i s point to date had a very difficult time with surge and spay. About 40 feet from its half-submerged entrance.. which i s obout 4 feet wide and 20 feet high. a chamber about 15 feet in diameter. 9 E.) RAIDER CAVE (45) A t high tide the entrance o f this littoral cave i s almost completely submerged. Lake Shannon quadrangle. McQueen's Cave) Sec. The cove continues. i t i s about 1 : feet wide. secondary logging road.an extremely dangerous situation. 36 N.%0 above the lake and about 500 feet lower than the Thunder Lakes flat to the northeast. excavation of beach gravels in o low part i s necessary in order to crawl about 20 feet into a low terminal chamber about 10 feet long. feet THREE MILE CREEK CAVE (48) (Weaver's Cave. I t i s reached by way of the Thunder Creek and Section 19 logging roads. R. 30. About 35 feet from the entrance. and the ceiling descends to the water a t t h i s Wove surge in this cave i s very strong. although there i s an air space beyond. although local rumor indicates that originally i t was much longer. about 60 feet long. are usually swept in with one wave and out with the next . Beyond this section. and i s 0.000 feet. the solution-sculptured. The cave i s not extensive.

following an unusually severe winter. Below these levels the passage section widens irregularly. 1956. . A large quantity of surface debris and soil has entered the cave through the collapse sink en- trance. I t has enlarged perceptibly during the 5 years that the cave has been under observation. Sutvey by Cascade Crollo. Halliday. Figure 49. National Speleological S ~ ~ i e l yAdditions . The slot i s joined by a narrower tributary slot developed along a prominent joint. and animal life i s fairly profuse. a small chimney entrance p r m i t s entry of a seasonal stream. 12 feet wide. o f the cave. are evident. where such chonnels e n k r h e cave through two fill-blocked passages. sink i s about The corresponding collapse 20 feet long. On the north wall there i s a smaller horizon. About 90 percent of the cave i s within the twilight zone. which i s responsible for deposition o f a considerable amount of recent fill. abrupt. dirt has not quite covered the floor.-Three M i l e Creek Cave. the slot ism incised flat meander niche about 18 inches high. where the cone of The bedrock exposed here i s flat. Its upslop beginning i s quite Adjacent to twisting slot about 1 foot wide and rapidly reoching a depth of 4 feet. where it oswmes the inclination of the bedding.70 CAVES OF WASHINGTON These reports claim that the cave was partially choked with mud and reduced to its present size MLLAPSE SINK ENTRANCE within the memory of oldtimers still living. A little boxwork i s present. About 18 inches below the flat ceiling of the entrance area there i s a prominent horizon on the southern wall. and a lesser amount through the main entrance. O n May Insects and centipedes are particularly camman. 31. 1956. i t appears that h e pesent Three M i l e Creek Cave is only a fragment of a larger cave that was partially destroyed by development o f the canyon o f the Baker River. The limestone i s partially metamorphosed. Skagit Cwnty. The cave traps some cold air. although there are a few traoes o f flowstone and coralbids. only o few speleogenetic features From those already described. a small patch of nkve' wos present 30 feet inside the entrance. Washington Speleological Survey. Three M i l e Creek Cave has been formed horizontall y and parallel to the strike of a Paleozoic (possibly Early Pennsylvanian) limestone that dip: about 20" SSE. Bedrock The ceiling of Three Mile Creek C w e is horizontal throughout most o f the main chamber of the cave except at the southeast end a f the room. Vodose channels incised in f i l l are present in several parts They are particularly prominent at the east side at the rear. unite. but incised into it is a narrow. A t the rear of the cave. i s exposed on the floor only in one small area at thenorthern margin o f the entrance. by William R. moderately veined. closer to the ceiling. and fractured. As a result. This cave contains almost no spleothem. and 9 feet deep. and leave through a third such passoge. Distinct variation in the fill has occurred in this section of the cave during a 5-year p r i o d o f observation.

earlier stage of water-table control of phreatic solution. Mount St. i s about 11. measured by plastic tube.. the flow of kcavotion this phreatic water was probably not due to the sudden entry of flood waters into the water table a t the The known part of the cave clearly developed through shallow sub-water-table flow. a misnomer (Verhoagen. Danner.SKAGIT COUNTY and partially blocked by recent f i l l . APE CAVE (49) Secs. and it has known in the United States. SKAMANIA COUNTY Skamania County contains both a maior Mount St. and on the southwest side of the southeast branch of Fidolgo Island (W. T. As sheom flutes are not present. 2) i s the largest cave in Washington and i s the longest unitary lava tube cave Its slope length. which is progressively wider near the floor. and its shortness indicates that the resurgence was not of long duration. 71 The small stream channels atop this f i l l do not appear to hove had The vadose slot a t any significant role in speleagenesis except. Helens pahwhoe lava flow and the western part of the Mount Adams pahwhoe flows. Ape Cave (pl.) OTHER CAVES Other small littoral caves are known north o f Deception Pass. Helens Apes in memory of a widely publicized incident in which two ..215 feet. and can be entered to a depth o f Elevation o f upper entrance 2. perhaps. Helens quadrangle. cave. Theodd name of the cave was chosen by its first explorers. of the f i l l at the rear of this cave might prove o f unusual speleolagenetic interest. R . the entrance i s the only evidence o f vadose stream e x i t from the cove subsequent to the development of the steep slope adjacent to the cove. 1937). An earlier vadose stage with a gentle gradient in this part o f the cave system i s suggested by The flat ceiling suggests a still the entrance cross section. 5 E. These flows contain the largest and most important lava tubes N o limestone is known in this county. a few yards east of the highway. 5 and 8. oral communication). on the south side of Cypress Island. Neor the spectacular north c l i f f of the island that bisects Deception Pass i s an unusually accessible example o f a small block creep cavern. R. a descent of approximately 700 feet. about 12 feet.450 feet. and the name of Marble Mountain i s The offset of the cliffward part i s The cavernous fissure i s about 15 feet long. slightly more than 1 foot. 7 N. to distribute part of the fill. in thestate of Woshington. WEAVER'S CAVE (See Three M i l e Creek Cave. as measured hydrostatically. a local group of young outdoorsmen who call themselves the St.

The cave was named for the organization rather than for the ape. and light i s visible On this The cave extends about 500 feet upslope from the upperentrance and more than 3. in miniature. from Amboy. both entrances lead to sepFigure 50 . usual "badlands. breakdown domes.-Drip-eroded rand deposits in Ape Cave. In the spring of 1952. which has never been seen again. It i s about 15 feet in diameter and 20 feet deep. there are stream deposits as much as 2 feet thick. like several o f those in its area. Mr. but. In the lower section. but in protected areas. date o small stream was visible in several sections o f the cove. the Apes built ladders in the cave and explored it. below which other drops lead to the main tube level. or lower entrance i s the one I t i s iust across a prominent abandoned logging rwd. but no channels were Coalescence of drip and splash holes in the stream deposits has formed unApe Cave i s a unitary lava tube cave. This At upper channel i s often offset a few feet. gravel overlies sand. Johnson. i t has some vertical complexity." (fig. As mentioned. swinging mwe widely than the lower. Several large breakdown domes apprwch the surface. Washington. A considerable m o u n t of dripping water enters the cave through some of these A t one place the drip amounted to a heavy downpour on December 27. A p Cave has two entrances. particularly downslope from the main It i s said to be seasonal. and the upper section often separates into short segments of a distinct level. separate upper The south. but they are not as prominent as ceiling channels. A number of cupolas ore present. 1958. most often entered. Nevada. and to a lesser degree in some other sections of the cave. bath collapse sinks. levels. arate lengths o f upper level. entrance. 50) mimicking Cathedral Gorge. about 100 yards sli g htl y east of north from a parking area. Small rivulet channels on the surface of the depasik are not uncommon. There are several small "lava falls" that probably represent a point of cwlescence of still . through one of them. There are found incised in the bedrock.72 CAVES OF WASHINGTON prospectors claimed to have had rocks thrown at them by an ape-man. They connect with short. long sections with an hour-glass cross section.900 feet downslope from the main entrance. almost drove his tractor into the lower entrance of the cave while clearing brush. consisting of sand and gravel o f pumice. it i s reported. Skamania County. The deposits appear to have been reworked frequently by the stream. Ape Cave was discovered in 1951 by a "cat skinner" named Johnson. one lace i t forms an offset upper loop a b u t 50 feet long before rejoining the main tube.

-Small "lava spring" in Ape Cave.SKAMANIA COUNTY 73 Figure 51. ." Figure 5 4 . Their origin appears to be entirely different from t h ~ s e of the tubular type. Figure 52. Skamania County. Note "lava dripstone. Figure 53.-Broken specimens of "tapered" lava stalactites.-One type of ribbon stalactite occurring behind the crust of lava tubes.-Another type of ribbon stalactite occurring behind the crust of lava tuber.

56) are supported by the boundary ledges. and the passage then narrows appreciably. occasional splash ring may be seen. They are white to red brown in color. the walls. The next 600 feet of the cave i s not of special note except for Lorge About 1. " a zone of heavy drip from the ceiling. Locally. The sheam from the waterShelves fall terminates at a small pond behind a lava darn. I Downslope from the \ Where the lateral crust has collapsed (a common occurrence throughout the cave). o f much of the lova is spotted with tiny brown egglike protuberances that have not yet been identified. Tapered lava stalactites (fig. almost no breakdown has occurred other than from the walls. About 400 feet downslope from the upper entrance there are two lova falls. prominent. which i s followed by a steep short slope. and there are lateral flow marks. of [avo are revealed in the spoce behind the crust. breakdown increases but i s intermittent. i s p. Some of the latter show the influence of wind currents. where additional autobrecciated lova and flat speleothem are exposed. the surface This cave contains a number o f interesting geological features. and some tiny gours.74 lower levels. and the On the east side o f the pssage i s a lava spring (fig. is about 200 feet farther south. down beyond the first 1. Short tubular lavo stalactites (fig. Downslope from the main entrance. 57) and helictites are present. Autobrecciated lova is exposed behind the walls of the tube. CAVES OF WASHINGTON The lower end o f the cave is blocked by stream deposits. high ledger and a smaller amount of rockfall.100 feet downslope from the upper entrance i s a collapse dome that is open to the surfoce. Along the walls in this ore0 i s a row of unusual "porthole"4ike round splotches in the lava. ribbon stalactites (figs. There i s little breakA t one place Some reddish rippled lava (fig. 54) are l a w l l y the most recent flow mark i s horizontal. which are being excavated by Near the upper end. 53). large rounded chockstones (fig. In the lowest section. and an Lateral flow marks are prominent close to the floor. Slump ripples are prominent on . N o multiglobular stologmites were observed. although an older mark. 55) i s visible on the floor.000 feet. I t i s not a feasible route for human entry. the Apes. and one pipestem stalactite (fig. 51 and 52) and stalagmites Wall flowlines and ridges are fairly well developed. but a few examples o f unique form that may represent imbedding o f stalactites in molten l w a have been found. and upper level segments are prominent in this region.esent in several sections. accumulations of rockfall follow. Additional lavo spings and a lavafall p i t 10 feet deep are interspersed amid rather dangerous breakdown dome chambers. The "Waterfall. In this section and also near the middle of the cave there are a few calcareous speleothem -ribbons and stalactites as much as 3 inches long. upper entrance the ceiling shows unusually prominent signs of remelting. upward for several inches. upper level i s large and well marked. 58). which i t obscures elsewhere. the cave narrows again and becomes more tortuous in its course. An upper level Lateral ridges are better developed than are flow marks. stream deposits are mare prominent. was rippled In another area there i s a remelting film over a lava tongue. Beyond this point. A t one area of transition from one to two levels.

Fisure 58.SKAMANIA COUNTY 75 Figure 57.Tubular lava stalactite and globular lava stalagmite... . Figure 55.-"Ptpertem" variations of a tubular lava stalactite.Rippled lava floor rhowing differential flow in a lava tube.

Hole in "upper floor" of Ape Cave.Horizontally divided passage a t the lower end of Ape Cave.. Figure 61. Penetrating the horizontal division shown in figure 60 are several openings such as this. . Figure 60.An unusual form of lava stalactite in Ape Cave...76 CAVES OF WASHINGTON Figure 59. T h e lower end was i n contact with the upper surface of a flow.

B a t Cave. i s in a thin-shelled lava dme. and the main passage extends to the south and west down a breakdown slope to a junction about 60 feet from the . the main entrance i s about 50 yards from the margin. Figure 63.d e v e l v d ceiling glaze with some flaking-off. November 1960. tube i s about 5 feet high and 18 feet wide where not obstructed by breakdown. and a group of small lava stalactites that are a l l deviated in the same direction as though affected by strong currents of hot gases while still molten. A small amount of lava tube slime i s present. . crawlway leads northeastward through breakdown to the upper level tube just described. w e l l . which i s on the edge of the lava From the small entrance chamber. The main entrance of Bclt Cave i s a collapse sink about 12 feet i n diameter. with a larger cavernous space below. This deviation has not been noted in other Washington lava tube caves.Upper entrance of B a t Cave. Skamania County. In contrast with the upper entrance. Survey by Washington Speleologlcai Survey. Skamanla County. a lava falls. a flow area. Features of t h i s section o f the main tube include unusually complex wall grooves to a height of 3 feet.78 CAVES OF WASHINGTON UPPER ENTRANC U P P E R PASSAGE Impassable breakdown L O W E R PASSAG F~gure 6 2 .

R. obout 3 feet in diameter.700-foot lavo-tube cave (fig. upslope from the entrance. slopes more Its mouth i s broad and Only a few bats have been observed in this area. another passageextends southwestward I t i s o f interest thot the two passages ore also connected by o smaller tube. but o few yards downslope.200 feet. where breakdown blocks a small be reached only by crawling through about 40 feet o f dangerously loose rock. Big Cave does not offer as much opportunity for spleogenetic However. A few lava dripstone spleotherm ore present. Feotures of this side pssage are a large lava spring and some lava speleothems. where the tube bifurcates..A M N I A COUNTY entrance. which further passage i s blocked by breakdown. ately granular surfoces are visible. Willard quadrangle. wide section. on the roof of which i t can be traced for some distance. for a total distance of about 400 feet past the iunction. 8. at a level about at a lesser slope. breakdown i s characteristic of the entire cave. beyond Where the cavern floor i s exposed. usually referred to as the Upper Passoge. which the bats are plentiful. which i s about 100 feet wide. The more western branch of the cove. whereas the upper part i s more than twice as wide. The entrance of this 2. more southerly tube. study as do some other caves o f the area. It i s at the north end o f a large lava trench. 40 feet The cave trends north and east. deep. including grylloblattids and polyLava tube slime i s scant and patchy. Elevation about 3. longitudinal mounds of lava to a point about 700 feet from the iunction. This i s the section in spacious. clinkery and moder- In the lower. followed by a steep. there i s a short lava falls downslope from the junction. of the passage. and & m i l e long. and again about 75 feet farther downslope. The passage then alternates between areas o f extensive breakdown I t ends at a room about 25 feet wide and 7 feet high. Well-developed wall grooves are present. other creotures have been observed. the ceiling and lateral breakdown have exposed . length o f tube that can desmid millipedes. and unaltered sections o f lava tube averaging about 10 feet in width and 6 feet in height. 9 E. T. the floor and the lower half o f the tube narrows to a width of obout 6 feet. to ioint the lower passage. The main passage extends south and downward.. and ledges and gutters are pominent in its initial section. 79 On the west wall 4 feet higher on a prominent shelf. BIG CAVE (51) (Nielsen's Big Cave) Sec. Consequently. In addition to the bats. which leaves the more western passage just below the iunction. with the eastern trend The cave entrance is a crawlway through breokdown. and extensive its original floor i s exposed only in one short section about predominating in its final half. openings on the north side of the passage lead to a branch that roughly parallels the Upper Passoge for obout 250 feet. 64) i s about 100 yards west of the WillardPeterson Prairie road at a point about half a mile south of the iunction o f that road with the Goose LokePekrson Prairie road. 5 N. The main Upper Passage continues past great piles of breakdown and Very little breakdown i s present. ending in a lava-sealed room about 30 feet in diameter. 400 feet from its upper end. About 250 feet from the start o f the Upper Passage. gradually than the other.

. Survey by Waslullqlon Speleoloqcal Survey. Skamanfa County.Woll groovlngs mostly mclmed Contorted layering /Ag floe-off olygonol surfaces Lorge lava trench F w r e 64. November 1959.s Cave.-6.

Skarnania County.. 30 to 50 feet are characteristic. Lava tube slime i s present in moderate quantity. T.000 feet. 65) were noted on the wall of sections that ore in total darkness. and no branches have been found. but becomes considerably narrower. of its varied features. markedly distorted. A short length o f tube-in-tube is nearby. I t owes its name to thd Beyond this section the cave impressive size of the entrance section of the tube. the system i s one of unusual interest because .000 feet. A t a point about 600 Other unexplained features o f the cave include what may prove to be spatter vents and a large lava bubble. feet from the entrance i s a phenomenon that may prove to be a s i l l of reddish lava. until the terminal breakdown area i s reached. the passages o f whichoriginally had a slope length o f at least 4. BIG TRENCH CAVE SYSTEM (52) Sec. R. which demonstrate some o f the internal mechanisms of lava flows. Figure 65. Elevation about 3.SKAMANIA COUNTY 81 In some features of unusual interest. feet from the entronce are vertical wall Many show some deflection Lateral toward the upper end o f the cave. 3). North o f Mann Butte is the largely collapsed remnant o f a complex lava tube system (pl. Big Cave supports a moderate biota. inal floor shows a ropy pahoehoe flow. where ceiling heights o f 25 to 40 feet and widths of maintains a characteristically high ceiling. In one chamber the width reaches 90 feet. parts of the cave the exposed bedding i s regular. although not less than 25 feet i n width.000 feet. but some ore deflected toward the entrance. in others. flow grooves are prominent i n short sections where lateral breakdown has not been excessive.000 of tubular stalactites. A sequence of at least two flow One small travertine levels can be traced. includin g clusters The single visible section of the origA t a point obout 1. have been found on fragments o f breakdown. 6 N.. Steep rubble piles are present throughout Big Cave. Although the 6 small caves and 2 natural bridges still uncollapsed total less than 1. and many moths (fig. served.-Molhs on a breakdown block in Big Cave. Various lava speleothems. Big Cave i s believed to have been discovered by loggers about 1957. drapery about 6 inches long has been ob- b t s were observed in flight in November 1959. The course o f the cave i s moderately sinuous. 34. groovings. Willard quadrangle. 9 E.

relatively shallow segments descendrather abruptly to depths of 40 to 50 feet and. the uncollapsed tube i s about 15 feet high and 25 feet wide..050 feet. In other sections of the trench. siderably greater depths. The remaining caves appear to harbor a rich biota. 7 E. feet. R.) CURLY CREEK CAVE (53) (Lava Cave) Sec. Discovered in 1958. the sink iust west of this entrance i s more than 50 feet wide and vobably more thon The Big Trench Cave System. breakdown has revealed glaze on several wall The lower end o f the terminal cave i s blocked by billowy 75 feet deep. In this area. This area i s quite dangerous to The cave has a somewhat sinuous course toward the northwest. and has an overburden of about 10 In contrast. averaging about 25 feet in width and 20 feet in height. and p-imarily i s a single tube The downslope end of the cave i s blocked by .. The small an underground sink extends downward to a short lower level. thick s l i m i s present. layers. foot ride passage. Skamania County. Because o f extensive breakdown. in a few areas. Elevotion about 3. therefore. 66) near the new (1961) Curly Creek road may be only one o f a number of lava tubes in this area. with overburdens o f 10 to 20 feet. In one cave near the center of the system. Daylight i s visible almost to the breakdown chokes 200 feet inside. conA t the western end of the second cavernous section from the east end of the system. T. with local thin coatings of lava along the lower parts of the walls. possibly including BLASTED CAVE (See Dynamited Cave. With one exception. The terminal cave and the one iust upslope from i t have granular walls. except a t the downslope end. Steamboat Mountain qwdrangle. 2. 6 N.) CAMPGROUND ICE CAVE (See Ice Cave.) BOYLES CREEK CAVE (See Fish Hatchery Cave.82 CAVES OF WASHINGTON Except for the re-entrant side passage originally about 400 feet long (the Cougar Den area). lava that prevents access into another small chamber visible through a little opening above the lava seal. novices. oppears to be a largely collapsed system ofsuperimpased tubes with a single shallow re-entrant. a l l the cavernous remnants of the system that now can entered are very shallow. the be Big Trench Cave System displays in its trench areas features of multilevel tube development elsewhere found only underground. the slope length of the save i s 1. volume and thin overburden of the remaining caves are conformable to certain sections of the trench. Breakdown i s present throughout nearly a l l Including the single 100- of the cave and almost blocks the passage about 200 feet from the entrance. at least one cougar. largely choked with breakdown. which appear to be the remnants of collapse of tubes of these proportions. this little-known lava-tube cave (fig.225 feet. few tube features are visible In the Cougar Den Cave. The entrance of the cave i s a spacious but sloping opening at the lower end o f a large sink.

and is potentially I t consists of a complex o f small tubes and broad. lateral shelves proiect as much or one foot Stream invasion o f Dry Creek Cave has left small local deposits. hardly more than 3 feet apart. low chambers. and elsewhere most o f the floor consists of great piles of rubble of reddish granular lava or dark gray massive bosalt. Willard quadrangle.. miles north o f the road junction near that station. there are moderate quantities of an unusually compact form of lava tube s l i m . pssibly with flow from west to east. and at least one small tube-in-tube i s present. Skamania County. August 27. Longitudinal ceiling tubes are well developed locally. circular and obout 3 feet in diameter. The entrance area appears to support a rich biota. The main entrance of Dry Creek Cave (fig.Curly Creek Cave. A lava floor. 67) i s a small collapse sink west of the Forest Service road leading north from Peterson Prairie Guardstation at a paint 1 . filled with multiple tongues of aa and pahoehoe lava. One small upper-level tube. and some glazed areas are near the downslopz end of the main passage. Pillars o f various sizes are numerous. and the tubes repeatedly branch and reioin. Compass and tape survey by Washington Speleological Survey. Tubes are developed on at least two levels. R. 9 E. a pit leads to a short side passage terminating in a lava seal. Elevation about 3. T. which demonstrate many features of the dynamics of subsurface lava flows.SKAMANIA COUNTY 83 Figure 66. has been incised into such a deposit. to enter that i s known to the miter. Some small gowed calcoreovs ribbon deposits ore present. 1 9 6 1 . m d at least one rivulet channel . Dry Creek Cave 4) i s the most complex lava cavern known in Washington. as well as some pasty. breakdown.. Downslope. flow grooves.. shows the least modification by flow through i t of any lava tube large enough Most of its rather short length i s free of flow groovings and ridges.400 feet. 6 N. A smaller. partially of exceptional scientific value. About 1. upper entrance about 400 feet west-northwest o f the main entrance can also be used for entry. DRY CREEK CAVE (54) Sec. In the main passage. There i s very little breakdown.000 feet from the entrance. granular lava coatings. 27. and the cave contains unusually fine lava speleogens.

000 feet o f passages have been mapped.). A total o f about 1. and about 5W feet i n addition have been explored systematically.. Willardquadrangle. The lava tube trends sli g htl y east o f south from the Initially. Dry Creek Cave i s not yet fully explored. which has filled the tube to about 18 inches from its arched roof. The biota o f the cave system i s plentiful.-Mam entrance of Dry Creek Cave. 5). denlike grotto just north o f the entrance o f the Annex. Lemei Road Cave) Sec. 9 E. 1958). Skamania County. The known part o f the cave i s a vertical complex o f superimposed Slightly more than 4. larvae (perhaps fungivorids). 1958). R. spiders. system. i n a slightly sinuous course. there i s a long collapse sink about 100 feet west o f the main entrance. and left However. known as Dry Creek Cave Annex. was discovered i n 1958 (Nielsen. The entrance section o f the cave has a slope length of 680 feet.400 feet o f passages have been mapped. and there are as many as five successive lateral flow ridges on some walls. entrance. (probably Plusiocampa sp. e). harvestmen. and perhaps hibernatin wormlike fly g bears i n the smelly.). Elevation about 3. This 100-foot cavern. - A t least two floor concentrics o f depositional rather than splash origin are Besides the main portion of the cave A t its upper end Fqure 67. moths (Scoliopteryx sp. vaulted chamber containing many insects in summer.. present. and the total depth o f the cave may exceed 300 feet. appear to be integral parts o f the Dry Creek Cave It varies from springtails (collembola).. descent o f about 40 feet i n a warm. but had been explored only partly when i t was dynamited by vandals (Anon. This extensive lava tube cave (pl. which i s a t the south end o f a shallow. and other insects to pika (Ochotona flight throughout the cave.84 CAVES OF WASHINGTON from the wall. The blasted entrance o f the cave i s at the base o f a 30-foot cliff. together with the adioining sink. there i s a rockpile tubes of greatly varying size and nature. Bats have been observed in Detailed biological and geological studies of this cave would be exceptionally DYNAMITED CAVE (55) (Blasted Cave. other great rocks loosely poised a t the edge of the sink.360 feet. valuable. Above . broad. 35. containing dangerously deep pits. i s a low lava tube crawlway over aa lava. greatly eroded lava trench. 6 N. the exceptional scientific interest regarding this vertically complex cavern i s sufficient grounds for h o p o f future studies of the cave. The dynamiting effectively closed the entrance (fig. bristle-tails mosquitoes. 68) with many tons of tightly packed rock. T.

Elsewhere i n this section. The sub-entrance part i s 1. and higher. breakdown i s locally minimal. and the main route extending south from the iunction.Entrance of Dynamited Cave. ending i n breakdown.. Farther from the entrance the passage becomes progressively narrower Itends a t a 15-foot ledge. underlying support was removed. Beyond this tube. below which i s the intermediate sectionof the cave. Constant-drip and deposits of fine sediments have accumulated to a maximum thickness o f about 2 feet. the main route continues as a roomy corridor containing large amounts o f breakSand and silt deposits are present locally. i s beneath this rubble.670 feet long.beneath the entrance section and extending much farther north. Several segments o f flat ceilings represent flow-crust Overhead. This intermediate section has two parts. an unusual blocky rectangular ridge about 10 feet in hei g ht and in width occupies the center of the tube. Skamania County. down. if any. of the original cavern floor i s visible. points have resulted in formation o f miniature "badlands" in these deposits. vertical alignment o f what oppear to be These flows Then the crusts collapsed when their remnants o f crusts o f 12 or more successive flows ore visible on the ceiling and upper walls. 69) i s an upper-level tube about 200 feet long and 6 feet in diameter. In its southern half. o p p a r to have progressively occluded the upper port of the tube. breakdown . and there are a few small In another port o f this southern half. remnants. unusual lava speleogens are prominent. entrance section. pools and rivulet channels.SKAMANIA COUNTY 85 Figure 68. and little. that are roughly triangular in cross section. its lower end (fig. one lying lorgely. and several short segments o f small ceiling tubes In other areas. and there are two delicate natural bridges.

glazed margins (fig. Near the junction with the entrance section are the disintegrating remnants of the skeleton of o large mammal (bear?). where i t i s narrower. the area.. is prominent on the walls and ceiling. some slump ptterns. contains some unusual features. On this ledge and on the glazed wall are many small . tar/ deposits are some interesting speleogenetic features. a t which point the continuation cannot be reached without the use o f climbin g poles. multiple wall layers. andthere oresomeslump patterns. a large horizontal lava spring overhead with concentric layering. and at the northern end of this Surface section are some stubby calcareous speleothems as much as 5 cm. 75 feet north of the pit. One there is little tube flow visible except at the lower end. which can be skirted on a highly glazed ledge. each with a glazed surface. the upper and intermdiate levels ore united for a distance o f about 200 feet. multiple loteral coatings. and has been accomplished only once. including locally some red-brown gloze. A ceiling channel i s visible in Also present are a few stubby calcareous stalactites.fool pit. ceiling channels. including some on the underside o f a "hanging wall" ceiling i n on area where the passage cross section i s pear shaped.86 CAVES OF WASHINGTON Downslope from the area o f sedimen. just before the 40-foot pit. Dynamited Cave. 70). long and 3 cm. large loteral gutters. feet are present. i n diameter. but crossing the p i t to reach it requires special gear and skill. and Small sand deposits hove accumulated. including small upper levels. White (colcoreous?) coralloids and black dripstone are present. The southern l i p of the pit actually i s a large glazed chockstone. natural bridge. glaze. Beyond the pit. and a t one point the tube i s almost occluded by rockfall. i s marked. I t i s entered by descending a 10-foot lovafall. and a small pear-shaped upper-level tube i n which breakdown has exposed a multilayerec floor. The main route of the intermediate section o f the cave extends about 950 feet south from the 15-foot ledge to a lava-wolled pit 40 feet deep. Breakdown i s moderote throughout this section. is a small chamber with a rippled floor. and i s about 10 feet high and 6 to 8 feet wide except a t floor level. flow groovesare marked. about 30 feet high and 10 to 15 feet wide.Lavafall into chamber above 40. and flow grooves up to a height o f 15 Glaze i s moderate. Figure 70. and there are Locally. and a t the l i p o f the p i t i s about 15 feet above the intermediate section. roughly keyhole shaped i n the section just north o f the pit. which has o central clinker tongue The upper level arises as a lava spring about I t is and smooth. A t the lower end of this intermediate section. The 40-foot pit i s a junction o f three major levels. This combined section. Beyond is a continuotion o f the pit.

but beyond it. extruded. A t the base of t h i s p i t i s an impressive arched chamber-"The Grand Bollroom"-which i s the upper end of the l o w r sectian of the cave. insects have been found only at the upper end o f the subentrance section and no biota noted elsewhere in the cave. preceded by a horseshoeshaped "pulled" pattern in the pahoehoe floor. The interrelationship o f the various flow levels o f the different p r t s o f the cave. From their recesses. the lower-level tube leading from The Grond Ballroom gradually narrows en route to a 55-foot pit. 87 There i s very little breakdown in the immediate area of the pit. and Innumerable small lava stalactites hang from projecting surfaces of its midsection. interrupted by s t i l l another 5-foot drop to another sublevel. way i n The p i t i s said to leod to a short basal crawlThe room i s about 50 feet in diometer. the p i t i s separated by a narrow span from a To date. this section of the cave has received no speleogenetic study. part contains a typical lavafall. These sublevels contain red lavo tongues. Howver. a cupola. A small waterfall and stream ore known to be present. i s present. large chamber. but a lovofall. here. beyond which i s o partially explored areo that i s several hundred feet long and is developed on at least three flaw levels. Over a course of about 650 feet. including some red autobreccioted lava in which sever01 rivulet channels hove developed. There are well-developed flow patterns and relatively little breakdown. The 55-foot p i t in some ways resembles the 40-foot pit. and additional outobrecciated lavo have been noted. beneath which i s a descent of obout 5 feet to a sublevel about 5 feet high and 3 feet wide. Both of these sublevels slope downOnly its upper The overhanging lower 12 feet is part of the underlying passage. are prominent. inA few yards farther downslope creasing omounts are present as far as the end of the combined section. Its appearance suggests that i t wos either a gas vent or an abandoned upward conduit that was suddenly The lateral breakdown has exposed a vorieiy of lavas. A t the downslope end are numerous gray-black lava speleothems. which becomes smaller over a course of a b u t 100 feet.SKAMAN IA COUNTY spatter accretions. On the far side of its 10-foot mouth. drained. ward toward the lowest sublevel. a l l seemingly following the same alignment. A possible tumulus. breakdown has occurred here. The speleogenesis of Dynamited Cove i s complex. in the intermediote level i s another glazed chockstone. to dote no extensive biological survey has been attempted . where insects are abundant and a number of bats have been seen. and a l l its ropy floor Relatively little ceiling or lateral Lorge lateral ridges and gutters is level except perhaps o small areo of subsidence beneath the pit. Crossing the 55-foot p i t and descending the 50foot c l i f f into this section of the cave should be attempted only by highly skilled speleologists. the demarcation i s sharp. extensive irregularly contoured masses of reddish lava have been breakdown. The 40-foot p i t i s o curious structure worthy of detailed spelecgenetic study. Aside from the profuse biota o f the entrance chamber. is the most difficult speleogenetic problem o f lava tubes that the writer can recall.

but not aligned with.2M)-odd feet of the main passage itself have not been surveyed. T. 1960. The entrances of this extensive and moderately complex lava-tube cove (pl. there are many speleogenetic features indicative of a complex history. ural bridge. a flow broke through from t h i s level to a lower chamber that now has o lava From the main level. Lava Coves) Secs. Their entrances occur both at floor level and at high ledge levels..88 CAVES OF WASHINGTON FALLS CREEK CAVE (56) (Panther Creek Cave. The two upper sections are very short.000 feet. This section. i s about 150 feet long. but a l l penetrable openings of the cave system are believed to have been explored. 1960. tomed level. i s the steep entrance o f the main passage. Totol slope length of the passoges of the cave i s about 6. the side passages off the main passage. A small amount of melting ice was found at its lowest point on July 23. although the unmapped lowermost section of the cave seem to trend more to the west. which extends Because of logistic poblem.300 feet of which i s along the main passoge. particularly upon attempting to return to the road. east wall of this sink i s a smaller chomber. Actually. 8 E. In this area i t appears that the main tube originally continued at its accus- Subsequently. due to breokdown. which follows a sinuous course. a l l are efflwnt. two chimneys lead upward to o third level of smoll. Wind River quadrangle. section south o f the large sink the passoge section i s roughly rectangular and has a copping flat arch. 5 N. roughly north to south from the Big Entrance to the terminal complex. Despite the occurrence of considerable Both Except at the points of reentry. The . A t the south end o f the sink i s the entrance of the second section of the system. At the lowest part of this spacious chamber. On the southwest wall of this larger sink i s the entrance of another smoll passoge. a thick ice The nearby additional sink just mentioned i s much more eroded and Along the filled with vegetation than the two sinks of the cave system proper. separated by coliapse sinks. floor was found on July 23. roughly southwest for about 500 feet. varies considerably.. Elevation about 2. about 450 feet from the northern end of the system. Falls Creek Cove i s o f considerable geologic interest. there are three separate parts to the cave system. the lotter tube are natural bridges and several superposed levels (fig. the floor is extremely steep and rough. In the passageways that was almost occluded in twa locations by a flow o f reddish lava. Within the The terminol complex of the cave partic- breakdown in the cave. 6) are about half a mile north of the end of the Falls Creek road. northern end of the system consists of a grottolike chomber adjacent to. and appears much older. where not disrupted by breakdown. an additional sink with raised margins. re-entront and non-re-entrant side tubes are present.875 feet. which resembles o natA t both ends. ularly merits detailed study. 1 and 12. irregular chombers and The cross section of the cave. and the final 1. This northernmost chamber is a t the north end of o collapse sink about 60 feet long. A t the southwest end of this second section of the cove i s the larger o f the two sinks of the system. about 4. A t its southern end. R. seal. however. The upper. in a forested area in which exploring parties have repeatedly lost their way. 71). which i s olso a remnant of the original tube.

and usually 20 The side passages are l o w r and narrower. to crusting. walls here are vertical for a distance o f more than 30 feet. this passage i s rarely less than 15 feet in width. the ceiling height o f the main passage is rarely less than 15 feet. to 25 feet. and i n a few areas there i s a red gloze on the walls and ceiling instead o f the commoner . locally shows buckling subsequent A few splash concentrics ore present. but i n general contain less breakdown..Lava cascade from an upper level to the main passage in Falls Creek Cave. usually more than 25 feet. In some areas its surface i s almost smooth. Similarly. Photo by Peter Alburar. In some places. flat arch is more common. Except i n the stoopwoy just upslope from the terminal complex and i n areas with mossive breakdorm. large lateral ridges have been formed of the same lava. brick-red lava flow can be seen on much o f the original floor of the cave. and show particularl y fine lateral flow grooves. An area farther downslope has a cross section resembling a moorish dome pattern. and i n places 50 feet or more. and A dark.SKAMANIA COUNTY 89 Figure 71. but a brood. i n other sections i t i s rippled.

and a few small colcoreous dripstone deposits seemingly independent o f the slime have been observed. and a few are atop lateral ridges. flomtone i s present in one section. O n thot date. Nothing i s known of the history o f Falls Creek Cave. a distinct air current could be felt flowing W. Due to i t s proximity to a maintained but little-used trail. 5 E. 73) in the Eagle Creek Formation of Miocene age (Hodge. 1938). dry weother. tube slime i s patchy in distribution. FISH HATCHERY C A M (57) (Boy les Creek Cave) Mosses and ferns grow profusely in the r a i n 1960. entrance.. larger. Its channel i s not penetrable. August 1960. down the cove at a l l constricted parts of the passoge. Shamanla County. 2 N. . T. ENTWN tREGISTER ROOM 20 2 0 d O 20 Fee1 GRO Figure 73. Figure 72. and its origin i s a perplexing problem. Elevation obout 750 feet. Falls Creek Cave i s of some biological importance. gracile) were found in that area on July 23. edge sec. Survey by Washington Speleological Survey and Oregon Speleological Survey.Fish Hatchery Cave (Boyles Creek' Cave).. and obout a dozen salamanders (Ambystoma after o prolonged period o f warm. 14. R.90 CAVES OF WASHINGTON blackish type. Similar material has also Lova Slime washed in through the main entrance. i t has pobobly been known to a few persons for many years. and has formed a deposit of sand and mud.Group of lava stalagmites in a Washington cave... Bridal Veil quadrangle. This small cavern (fig. and are tubular. i s a hydrological curiosity. Lovo stalactites are few and Lovo stologmites ore small. indicating thot they were o late development during the thermol period of the cave. A small rivulet enters the cave obout midviuy along the main possoge.

A feature of especial interest i s the spaghettilike mass o f rootlets in a small grotto connecting this chamber with the east end of the Waterfall Chamber Extension. with a This chimney. 1960. posed in this chomber. Two openings extend upward and northward between this extension of the Waterfall Chamber and the largest chamber of the cave. Skamania County. seasonal ingress of water. From i t The en- trance passage appears to be incised in saft pyroclastic rocks underlying a horizontal basalt flow. determined largely by breakdown. at ceiling level. steep pitch i s the west end of the Waterfall Chamber. and i s 30 feet long. emerges a sizable perennial stream.that resemble tiny bedding-plane anastomoses. not been explored. 40 feet long and 8 feet high. low chamber in which ore some vadose speleogens. rocks in which this cave occurs i s evident. In t h i s complex area the varied nature of the volconic Above a short. which is the part of the cave farthest from the entrance. I t leads to the floor level of a brood dry corridor. A t its eastern end i s a 5-foot This hole has be seen beyond it. on August 20. and considerable dripping water enters this chomber in' several other places. although additional cavern can The Waterfall Chamber i s slightly curved. with a deep plunge A small rivulet emerges B y ascending this waterfall one can enter an upper continuation of the Waterfall Cham- This passage narrowr rapidly. A feature o f interest in this passage i s a rodent nest of mbss and other organic . I t averages 7 feet in height and 10 feet i n width. On the northern edge of this chamber.-Sparkling stream merging from !he entrance of F i s h Hatchery Cave. waterfall (almost dry in August). through which most o f the perennial cave stream emerges. O n its north wall i s a hole about 1 foot in diameter. and terminates 24 feet from the waterfall. At Figure 74 . there i s an opening about 2 feet in diameter. Aside from a small pool at its lowest point. pool 't ber. Entry into this opening i s dangerous. 74) i s about 2 feet high and 4 feet wide. of lava tubes been observed. Nowhere in the cave have any features The slightly sinuous entrance passage maintains approximately these dimensions over a southeastward course o f about 40 feet. its base. serves as a terminal chimney. because o f the fractured and poorly consolidated rock adjacent to it. fromgranular pyroclastic rocks at this point.SKAMANIA COUNTY 91 The entrance of this cave (fig. The cave stream cascades into this chamber from the more spacious part o f the cave to the north and east. this large chamber was dry Its present margins appear to be The bedding of several members of the Eagle Creek Formation i s exOn the floor o f the main I t i s about 20 feet in diameter and 8 feet high. its end there i s a small. part of the room are fragments of basalt with small tortuous channels.

.) ICE CAVE (58) (Campground Ice Cave. the pattern and occurrence of the cave i s merely curious. Mount Adorns Ice Cave. The main passages o f Fish Hatchery Cave are developed along the strike of the pyroclastic rocks and lavas o f the Eagle Creek Formation. sloping downward from the west. and serve as dendritic stream courses perhaps abandoned. 6 N. separated by 3 collapse sinks in addition to the main entrance of the cave. Trout Lake Ice Cave) Sec. R. beetles (Quedius s e s ) . Total length o f the cavern passages i s about 650 feet. ion o f these pyroclastic rocks was significant in the cave's speleogenesis. The next section. feet long. millipedes (fom. 9 E. Between the sink at the lower end o f this section and thot at the upper end of the "main" section. T. Willard quadrangle. Polydesmidae). 1952). uppermost section o f the cave i s a low. and Breakdown and bedding variations have influenced part of the pattern o f the cave. The Forest Service has constructed a ladder leading to a nLv6 cone beneath the main entrance o f this lava tube glaciere.perennial. On the The cave 1869). low passage from which another flow entered 5 feet high. I f this cove was initiated by headward sapping by a spring located between two resistant beds. floor. River and The Dalles in pioneer years (Raymond. 75) has 4 sections. GULER ICE CAVE (See Ice Cave. and other inverte'brates. and modified. but its overall form resembles that o f certain types of limestone solution caverns. i s about 100 feet long and 15 feet wide. has been known for almost 100 years (Raymond. 1869. which i s another collapse sink about 15 feet in diameter and 14 feet deep. the tube. but some penetrate the more constricted. Elevation 2. and is floored with smooth lava. rather unremarkable passage about 150 I t i s the widest part o f the cave system (fig.92 CAVES OF WASHINGTON material. sinuous 200-foot passage leading west to another collapse sink.. broad. This entrance i s within Ice Cave Forest Campground of the Gifford Pinchot National Forest. are generally overlooked.820 feet. without significant solution. . 1896). Most visitors are aware only of the 120-foot glaciere section that slopes southeastward from the ladder. despite the irregular breakdom. which i s the locus o f springtails (collembola). Guler Ice Cove. by the factors mentioned above. north side of the sink at its lower end i s a short. seasonal. The straight southem . development of karst through solution o f diorite. This well-known cave (fig. 1960b). 35. on the The other three sections of the tube. Condon. which also i s a poorly soluble rock (Legrand. the situation i s very I. although a somewhat similar occurrence has been noted in tuff in California (Halliday. the tube divides into two smaller tubes about 60 feet long and I t i s the only section o f the cave in which one may stroll from one sink to the next. to the east. and sewed as the ice supply for the towns of Hood The western. 75).

the main Upslope. farther up this main section of tube is a fine lava span or notural As described elsewhere (Halliday. McLellan. T. the l o w r . o f unusual scientific importance.. Mount St. oval Crack Room. Skamania County. St. Figure 75. bridge. but the curved northern branch i s on almost perfect tube. 76) i s pimorily a unitory lava tube cavern of moderate length and vertical complexity. Helens cave area. R. cave i s usually snowed in until at least mid-June o f each year. lnke Cove (fig.775 feet i n slope length. the tubes rejoin beneath the debris-blocked upper. and refreezing begins in October or November. The western branch i s terminated The passage trends roughly from north to south. Sargent. There i s no active Much seasonal The circulation of air in this part of the cave. 5 E.SKAMANIA COUNTY 93 branch i s floored with debris and rockfall. and Tyler. Survey by Hailiday.. and large drip masses of ice apparently persist throughout the year. retaining heavy cold air that settles into the cove in winter. but in a small space above the flow an agile person can crawl for a t least 50 . melting occurs. After becoming lower in interior height. Helens quadrangle. following the sinuous course typical of unitary tubes. the passage has two branches. eostern end of this cove acts as o trap. north of the entrance. 7 N. but on ice floor. by an intrusive lava seal about 50 feet from the enhance. ME CAVE (59) Sec. a few stalagmites. arched. 1954). western entrance sink of the "main" section. east fork i s almost blocked in a similar manner. at the east end o f the "main" section. It i s a cave Fiom the collapse sink entrance.900 feet. and descends about 225 feet.. Near the base o f the ladder. Its floor i s a flat lova surface interIn a tapering recess rupted only by small contraction fissures. The part of the cave immediately adjacent to the entrance is complex. I t i s south of Ape Cave in one of the older appearing flows of the Mount Its main tube i s apvoximately 3. September 1950. a small opening in lava talus leads to the low. Elevation obout 1. 17.Ice Cave.

.L a k e Cave. Halliday. Additions by Washington Speleological Survey. Washington Speleological Survey. Survey by William R . Skamania County.94 CAVES OF WASHINGTON - Figure 7 6 . December 1958. . June 1959.

upper end o f this side passage. where it ioins the larger seasonal stream thot enters the cave a t that paint. and a reddish mold and on unidentified fungus were observed A seasonal stream emerges from this low opening. the broad but fairly low main passage descends from the entrance level to a lower tube level. making the total penetrable length of this side passage about 100 feet. o f this coloring i s only a surface c w t i n g over gray-black lava. A t least three layers o f this crust can be distinguished in some places. enters the cave from the west iust south of the entrance sink. Thot from the west 95 was the more recent. sparse below The gravel deposits occur olong much o f the length o f the cove.500 feet from The combined Sand and the entrance. an upper-level tube can be seen over the main possage. upslop part is almost blocked by breakdown. but much of i t i s inherent in the main The coloring i s identical with thot of the red crystalline autobrecciated lava exposed by lateral breakdown in the downslope parts of A seosonal stream emerge from part o f the roof o f the passage. The f l o w entering through the two passages were not simultoneous. tube descends about 10 feet. between the first and second. but is relatively Waterfall. of nearby Ape Cave. stream then continues to a sediment. several small chambers hove formed where h e lotera1 crust o f the tube has partly broken away. a p i t leads down to a crawlway on the fourth level. brilliantly brick-red lava flow that emerged from and lines it. 1958. carrying gravel. but ore not as common as in the lower section keakdown i s widespread i n the upper 2. Other interesting features of this side passage include a small pit ot the first bend. In this area. entrance. then turnsupword. About 100 feet south from the entrance of the cave. seals. the main tube. flow of this areo.and grovel-impounded lake at the lower end o f the cave. local explorers have succeeded in forcing the first o f two intrusive lava The most interesting feature Some o f this passoge i s the rather smooth. third dam. This stream i s visible intermittently as far as The Waterfall. the Red Passage. as i t overlies and hos partially remelted the margin of the flow from the east fork. Its channel disappears in the main tube. About 500 feet from the Its The updope port of the second level of the cove consists of an impressive passage about 25 feet high and 20 feet wide near the ceiling. there i s a descent o f 8 feet to a third tube level. paralleling the main passoge for a short distonce before ang ling northwest. about 2. but a l i t t l e farther uplope A t the i t turns to the north. on the ceiling on December 28. Another short side passoge. drips through the roof in this area. This lower tube extends bock north beneath the i t i s almost occluded by a flow of rough lava that makes crawling Its narrow Smoll roots This flow appears to be the most recent in the cave. although quite narrow ot floor level. A t the iunction i t is at right angles to the main passage. entrance passage for some distoncedifficult.SKAMANIA COUNTY feet farther. carrying more water and sediments than that o f the Red Passage. beyond o massive overhang on the east.000 feet of the cave. Beyond an areo o f dangerous breakdown are three lava dam. About 250 feet from the beginning o f this third level.ascending almost to the passage level. but there i s an easier descent on the far side of the .

the greatest height stream passages. LAVA C A M (See Ole's Cave and Curly Creek Cave. oral communication). These are vadose About 400 feet beyond the lava falls.) LAVA CAVES (See Fal Is Creek Cave. dense charcoal resembling bituminous coal.) &and Enrotina escholtzii oregonensis). but puddles are present rather than In t h i s area the ceilin g height i s approximately 30 feet . a lava dam and a 6-foot lava falls lead down to the fifth tube level. About 2. aligned There are many small lava springs along the lower wall of this part of the cave. Despite the seasonally sizable stream. Tubular stalactites are common. Beyond The Waterfall. being blocked with stream deposits. basalt flow. Helens Apes (see Ape Cave). transversely to the axis of the passage.) LEMEl ROAD CAVE ( L e m i Cave) (See Dynamited Cave. . Arthur Fairhall of the University o f Washington for radiocarbon study were found i n years old (Arthur Fairhall. exposed by the stream chonnel. and much as 5 feet in diameter and 10 feet deep. In the walls o f the vadose The root stump o f a large tree. (Ambystoma I t i s in a densely forested region in which there are many vertical tree casts as The cave contains a considerable biota. Fungivoridae). multiglobular stalagmites. no channel has been incised The lake i s about 50 feet long and The end o f the cave Under ordinary conditions the lake at the end of the cave has a maximum depth o f 4 feet. Gryllablatta chirurgico (Gurney.96 CAVES OF WASHINGTON Beyond this descent. submitted to Dr. and ribbon stalactites occur behind the crust. which have cut into partially weathered autobrecciated lava thot underlies a compact The undersurface of this flow i s exposed along much o f the 200-foot length o f these crawlHorizontal and vertical tree casts are visible on this undersurface. ways. The cave stream i s augmented by dripping water at this paint. filling the entire width of the tube at t h i s paint: i s not a siphon.100 feet from the entrance.250*150 and little breakdown has occurred. by a scouting party o f the St. 1961). Wall ridges are prominent. red autobreccioted lava is locally exposed by lateral breakdown. averages about 9 feet in width. in the cave. the sinuous passage i s rather regular in outline. gradation from uncharred wood to very hard. which emerges from two confluent dendritic stream passages. Two small cupolas are present. including salamanders larvae o f fungus gnats (fam. An interesting feature o f this section is a miniature flow containing a tube about 8 inches in diamter. in the floor. preliminary studies to be about 2. but a high-water mark 10 feet higher than the surface i s present. Lake Cave was discovered and first explored in April 1958. show a Samples passages i s considerable charcoal in the shape o f roots of plants thot were growing an the surface at the tim the basalt flowed over it. a large opening in the east woll o f the cave permits entry o f a seasonal 6-foot waterfall.

following o sinuous course roughly southward. which i s a junction of three To the north is the orifice of a larger tube. A 15-foot snag projects upward from the bottom of The actual opening o f the cave is a triangular space about 3 feet high and 10 feet wide. by B i l l Reese. The entrance of the cave is a collapse sink about 10 feet in diameter and 8 feet deep. shallower. i s a drop o f about 20 feet to another tube level. at a point about 190 Almost exactl y beneath the l i p o f the 20-foot dropaff at the lower. 7. A t the end of this brood. The lower "slide" i s the longer. A t the lower end of t h i s breakdown area. One feature of interest i s the exposure of vertically lominoted lovo i n the ceiling. For several h~mdred feet i t averages about 15 feet in width and 12 feet in height. i s larger than that of Lake Cave. spacious chamber. It is reached most conveniently by way of the tube with the red glaze mentioned above. 8 N. floor. extend downward at an angle of about 45' in a narrow tube. most of which i s a unitary lava tube. as if the flow had been partially obstructed by the narrowing of the passage that prece&s the &scent to the lower level beyond. and i t terminates in a lake thot. and a short segment of an upper Near the lower end o f this section. although The unusual name of this cave i s due to a reddish discoloration on the floor o f the channel o f the rivulet that form the lake.865 feet. below the north wall of the sink. the small sink. from the short lava tube complex at the entrance i s dramatic.. Slumping o f its lateral glaze i s apparent about 200 feet from the beginning of t h i s section. 97 I i Elevation of entronce about 2.SKAMANIA COUNTY LITTLE RED RIVER CAVE (60) Sec. measuring more than A small upper level complex. markedly rippled. southern end of the main passage level i s a short crack about 1 foot wide. the character of the cave changes abruptly. pleasant passage. through which an overhanging The transition descent of 10 feet conducts the explorer downword into a stream-eroded section of short passages and a steeply sloping large breakdown chamber i n what appears to be autobrecciated lava. Helensquadrangle. lateral flow grooves are present to a height o f 6. Bob Kitch. and little breakdown has occurred. part of the chamber. including a fine span. A number of features o f interest are i n the slide area. 5 E. R. which i s the main route. Mount St. separated by a short horizontal landing. To the northeast. 7) was discovered September 15. Beyond i s an irregular. a lower-level tube i s encountered. feet northeast of the entronce. and finally 9 feet above the Two large lava springs open into the passage at prominent shelves. from which flowed a lava that left o red glaze on walls and floor. T. levels and several tubes. TWO steep descents. . Farther along its course. 32.800 feet. This northernmost of the Mount St.. in the most spacious Just below and to the east o f the triangular opening are remnants of a tube about 4 feet in diameter leading south. while cave-hunting. at the foot of o Douglas fir about 44 inches in diameter. Helens group of lavc-tube caves (pl. Its total slope length i s about 3. The overall &scent i s about 50 feet. 1960. The floor o f its upslope part i s covered with a thin coating of stream deposits. the lava floor has been tube opens in the ceiling along its course. and Gene McCune. 75 feet in length.

over a course of about 600 feet. 15 feet. The sink is about 30 feet east of the East Peterson Ridge 4 mile north of its iunction with If the writer's interpretation of the billowy mounds o f aa lava at the upper end of the tube i s correct. New Cove is o sinuous. About 100 feet beyond the turn to a southwest trend. and only a little pahoehoe floor i s visible. a few small side passages. I t i s o f minor biological importance. The slope length of the newly discovered (1961). and there are deposited the red coloring matter that gave the cave its name. 6. occasional duck-unders. The end of the cave i s occupied by a shallow permanent lake. but dangerous passage. spacious. T. Locally. about 8) was discovered in 1954 by a logging crew that was con- The main entrance of the cave (fig.98 CAVES OF WASHINGTON I A t its base i s o There are some small lava largely overlying the main tube but floored with a smooth. Much breakdown i s present.140 feet. western section of New Cave i s about 2. A considerable variety of . The lateral glaze of the main tube i s smooth and Beyond this descent i s massive breakdown over a length of about 400 feet of brood. HELENS CAVE (See Ole's Cave.000-foot unitary lava-tube cavern trending roughly from west to east. i s present. Lava MOUNT A D A M ICE CAVE (See Ice Cave. glazed flow.775 feet. 20 feet long. Skamania County.) and millipedes hove been noted. wall grooves to heights of 3 to 5 feet. 15 feet wide. although the cave narrows toward its lower end. tube slime i s fairly well developed locally. Little Red River Cove is of especial geologic interest because of its features of flow phenomena. 9 E. Then the general trend of the cave turns from southeast to southwest. spacious. partially interrupted by four collapse sinks. structing the East Peterson Ridge road. Thisinteresting lava-tube cave (pl. 77) i s a collapre sink about the Trout Lake-Peterson Prairie road. ropy. and characterized by much breakdown elsewhere. road. local glazed ribbon flow deposits i n the gutters. and a prominent lava tongue near the lower end of the cave. and only local breakdown i s present in the cave's final 1. above which the ceiling height descends from 10 to 2 feet. 36. This rection i s morked by the presence o f fine deposition01 features. The granulor flow of the floor of the main tube norrows to form a thin central tongue on the upper slide. R. then rises to about 8 feet at the downslope end.200 feet. these rivulets appear to have The width of this section overages about The height is more variable. and 8 feet deep.) NEW CAVE (61) See. pronounced loterol glaze that locally has been flaked off by subsequent floor flows. but traversable from initial tumulus to terminal lava seal..) MOUNT ST. a few bats (Corynorhinus sp. small cracks in the east wall o f the passage p m n i t entry of Along their channels. Elevation about 2. coalescing rivulets. and ledges at a level well above the cavern floor are indications o f complexity in speleogenesis. including prominent lateral gutters.. surprisingly small "clinker pile" of the same material. stalactites. Willard quodrangle. chambers. However. large patches o f this glaze peeled off while still molten. 6 N.

The floor o f most of this part o f the cave consish of p a h w h w lava with a sli g htly clinkery surface. but rockfall is so heavy in this area that the reason for this rise i s not clear. by breakdown along much of this passage i s unusually nonvesicular and uniform. Skamania County. An uncollapsed section of tube about 40 feet long separates this sink from another. A t the eastern end of this extensive upper section i s a compound lava sink about 100 feet long. In many areas. leading roughly from east to west. there i s a steep ascent of 30 feet at a sharp bend i n the passage." or lower. a relatively undisturbed section o f tube has an The basalt bedrock reveoled Along the walls and In contrast to A t the east end of this sink i s the upper end o f the "main" section arched roof.725 feet long. and short side passages and level-floored chambers are present in three areas. about 150 feet long and 50 feet wide. although about 750 feet of i t trends mare nearly from south to north. of the cave. Travel in this section requires clambering over piles of breakdown and over great billowy mounds o f aa lava. i t i s almost free from breakdown. figure-8 passage cross rections. Six to eight bats were observed flying in its entrance Figure 77. and barriers o f aa lava and of Near its western end. breakdown are almost continuous. flat ledges. ceiling of t h i ~ passage are extensive deposih of lava tube slime. part of New Cave consists of a single sinuous tube about 3. 78). the western part. from which a 175-foot segment of tube extends to a point beneath breakdown in the largest sink in the system. and one or two small chambers above the main tube. rudimentary sections o f an upper level are present in several areas. This part of the cave is very rough. includin g some red autobrecciated lava. which i s gently rippled in some areas (fig. and on each shoulder of the passage are very brwd. natural bridges. The eastern part of the "main" rection of N e w Cave is about 2. A t approximately midpoint of the passage. smaller sink. The western section of this "main" part crosses beneath the road and continues for about 1. and its varying cross section and its speleogens are of considerable p t e n t i a l importance in speleagenetic studies. These vary from small ledges to ceiling channels. of upper passage.100 feet to the large collapse sink just mentioned.850 feet long.SKAMANIA COUNTY 99 lavas ore exposed in the walls. which b l o c k the upper end of the cave and has the semblance of a modified tumulus. flow lines and shelves are well developed. short lengths . The "main. Longitudinal ceiling grooves are locally prominent. 1961. area on June 18. Although i t i s basically a unitary tube with a gentle slope throughout.-Enbance of New Cave.

and is recorded for that reason. and a 5.400-foot main passage. 9) i s the second longest cave i n the Mount St. 7 N. A t first. NIELSEN'S C A M (62) Sec.100 CAVES OF WASHINGTON Contraction fissures. R. 9 E. Figure 78. 5 N. Its small entrance was discovered by Carl Nielsen while scouting neor Big Cave. with a perceptible grade only i n one short segment about 500 k e t . the cave has the form o f a unitary. flying in the cave. In several areas One 5-inch lava stalagmite has been observed. but its passage graduall y trends more and more towcrrd the west. Elevation of main entrance about 1. Skamania County. Helens group. Willard quadrangle. Lava Cave) Secs. Ole's Cove (pl.Crawlway floored with granular lava. ond was forced by the Survey in November 1959. NIELSEN'S BIG CAVE (See Big Cave. fly larvae. locally sinuous lava tube. i t has Crawlways through the talus can be followed i n several directions for about 50 feet. lateral ridges. and there i s a single 3-inch tubular travertine stalactite.800 feet o f mapped passages. with a s l o p length o f about 5. OLE'S CAVE (63) (Mount St. 79) and of a k w short lava springs and segments of additional upper levels.350 feet. 5 E. T. are tubulor lava stalactites. the slope is gentle. and there are several small chambers. T. The main entrance suppork an extensive growth of mosses. As now known. the cave trends south from ik upper end.200 feet. Elevation about 3. Helens quadrangle. and small cupolas are present. not been possible to reach an identifiable segment o f lava tube beyond the talus. 8 . entrance (fig. The cave ends at a lava seal in a narrowing crawlway. Mount St. R. this cave consists of Iova talus at the end of a shallow branch lava trench that i s a tributary of the southern end o f the Big Cave trench. with o thin film o f the same material deposited beneath it. Helens. He tens Cave. I t is probable that the cave is undergoing or w i l l undergo ecological changes due to the presence o f the nearby road in whot previously was densely forested country. Bats have been observed Unidentified moths. With the exception o f the b i f i d 400 feet immediately south o f the lowest.. The cave supports an extensive biota... 19 and 20. As in most known lava tubes o f the Northwest. and cocoons have been found near its eastern end. New Cave. only a few miles from the lower slopes o f Mount St.) However. New Cave is o f some biological importance. or main...

Photo by Harry Reese. and near Figure 79. Helens. 1910). near the pillar. years. i t tends to be broader than onywhere else in the cave except perhaps below the northernmost entrance. who o w e d a farm near the Lewis River below the cave (Forsyth. entrance. Below the lowest. Helens Cave) was Washington's first commercial cave. or main. Far several Figure 80.-Ole Peterson. however. Despite the heavy rainfall o f this area. 1937). the reg ion of the cave. . fragments fallen from the ceiling into still-molten lava have left congealed splash rings in the floor. and the floor o f much o f the cave has the appearance o f fresh lava. i n diameter.SKAMANIA COUNTY 101 south of the second entrance.. near Mount St. Note the bulge over Ule course of the tube. many places. This cave i s in what may be the most recent pohoehoe lava flow i n the conti- nental United States. and has caused the formation o f five entrances. Rockfall is prominent i n many sections of the cave. The overall slope o f the flow i s about 300 feet per mile in The interior of the cave varies considerably in size and cross section. Washingtonorfirst cmmercial cave. discoverer and poplietor of Ole's Cave. Some o f these rings are several feet The cave was discovered i n 1895 by O l e Peterson (fig. Peterson conducted parties through the cave. used courtesy of Harper and Bror. casts of delicate tree parts are visible in tree molds on the surface of the flaw. Much o f the cave i s about 10 feet high and 15 feet wide. and the trees growing on the surface of the flow are strikingly younger than those bordering it. Photo copyright 1 9 5 9 . perhaps originating concomitantl y with the 1842 or 1854 eruptions o f Mount St.Main entrance of Ole's Cave. The rockfall appears to be segmental In rather than general. Helens (Vcrhoogen. but there are long sections that are high and narrow. 80). w Ole's Cave (Mount St. the second entrance the passage i s only about 3 feet in diameter.

giving the stalactite the shape o f a sequence of pipe stems. Several o f the moderately developed cupolas o f the cave are found in this section. near the main entrance. about 400 feet farther sauthwest in the cave. 84) and same drip stalactites as much as 6 inches in length. which are not a l l aligned parallel One of them is domed. The area uplope from the fourth entrance has been described. be due to subsidence of lava into a vent. The Oregon salamander. includin g another length of tube-in-tube. o f this section. and the second entrance i s little more than a skylight. rockfall i s heavier than elsewhere in the cave. Aside from the plant growth mentioned above. the short section of cave between the fourth and third entrances i s not remarkable. the cave i s locally mare sinuous than in the upper sections. tropic response consisting o f vertical. i s the enhance of the parallel passage that rejoins the main pasage 800 feet long.700 feet in length. measuring about 3.500 feet between the third and second entrances. . because its floor shorn a slope that i s the reverse of that elsewhere in the cave. entrances. 83). Neither is a safe or practicol point o f entry into the cave. About 50 feet from the end o f the cave. The lava floor i s largely a granularly surfaced p a h w h w with well-marked flow ripples and splash rings. The section downslope and southwest o f the second entrance i s the longest unbroken length of tube in the cave. In this section. as well as two similar red speleothems of an unidentified nature. Glazing of the walls i s very marked in this area. A few have the form of pipestem lava stalactites with segmental flattenings. Ensatina escholhii oregonensis. There are several short lengths of upper level. i n profile. has been found in the cave beneath the second entrance. A short upper level at this entronce partly masks the main passage below. which must be entered through a small hale in breakdown. the cave's finest flaw ledges and contraction fissures. a large The section northwest of this opening i s of especial This appears to A fine pillar The cave i s divided into five sectionsby collapse sinks that serve as entrances. The northwesternmost section i s the shortest-about 200 feet in length. and one its best lova springs. about 10 feet in diameter divides the passage at a point obout midway between the t w northernmost As the usual approach to the cave i s from the south. Ferns growing in the upper entrances show a photo- rather than horizontal leaf alignment. a short length o f secondary lova tube i s formed in the pahoehoe flow that i s the Just north of this entrance i s the only part of the cave where crawling is necessary in the main passage.102 CAVES OF WASHINGTON Ole's Cave i s o f biologic interest. as i s the unique and unexplained speleogen projecting from the'bedrock and resembling. present floor o f the cave. There i s a distance o f about 1. the face of George Washington (fig. and contains several tiny white calcareous tubular stalactites to the main passage. About 200 feet north o f the second entrance. The lowest section of the cave i s about Near the lower end In the rockfall along the nwthwest side o f the tube. the entrances are numbered i n reverseorder to the slope. I t contains many small spatter deposits (fig. collapse sink opens into the north wall of this passage. interest. of I t s upper end i s particularly interesting.

. different sizes. the granular floor. used courtesy of Haroer and Bros..George Washington's Face . and the slumped bubble area on wall. Photo copyright 1959.Typical lava tube (Ole's Cave) without breakdown. Photo copyright 1959..F i g u r e 81. used courtesy of Harper and Bror.a curious feature of Ole's Cave. Figure 83. Note l a t w a i grmvingr on lower portion of walls.

000 feet. This small segment of lava tube (fig. the entrance sink i s only 194 . 85) i s betveen Petenon Rairie and Dry Creek.000 feet. of the lower end of the system as presently known.336 feet long. 27. 35. although a number o f short.. i s massive in most areas. Glaze i s prominent where not obscured by breakdown.. T. . complex segments s t i l l persist. tropism. Elevation about 2.900 to 7. An additional shallow sink i s about 500 feet southeast bcally. i t is usually a rather smooth but granular pahoehoe.) PETERSON PRAIRIE C A M SYSTEM Sec. S l o p length o f the main route is 3. The only feature in it of interest i s an old flow mark that slants upward a few feet beyond the cupola. This extensive but largely collaped lava tube system (fig. and the original tube floor i s rarely seen. complex dripstone agglomeratiom occur. In few other caves can a tube be traced from an upper vent to a terminal cuwla. T. 86) was discovered i n August 1962 by a Washington Speleological Survey party. 6 N. Ik slope length along traverse lines i s 241 feet. Multilevel development has taken place in a t least two short sections. The cave ends at a cupola. Elevation &out 3. no sizable cavernous section remains. small plants display a marked photo- PETERSON RIDGE ROAD CAVE Sec. R.900 feet. fluent passage 1. 9 E. It i s smaller than the main passage. PANTHER CREEK CAVE (See Falls Creek Cave.104 CAVES OF WASHINGTON About 400 feet southwest o f the main entrance is the junction of the main passage with the parallel passage that enters from the northwest. other tubes may be found here in the future. and i t i s probable that considerable additional lengths of the tube system have not been traced. 6 N . Ole's Cave has features o f particular interest to persons interested in the unexplained details of lava-tube speleagenesis.. The complexity o f t h i s system and its possible relationship to schollendom i n two areas m k e s i t o f especial interest despite the degree of collapse. Willard quadrangle. There are many other openings i n the surface of the flows near Ole's Cave. but re-entranh and confluent and efflflvent With the exception o f a canBreakdown passages and trenches bring the s l o ~ e length to a total of 6. Although none o f the openings has been found to lead to a tube mare than a few feet long. as well as small lava stalactites and stalagmites o f more typical form. R. beyond which a 30-foot crawlway can be entered through a small hole that has been opened by blasting. 9 E. Willard quadrangle. W e r e visible. The crawlway beyond the cupola is i n dangerously unstable rack. One cavernous p r t contained ice deposits in August 1962. apparently because someone felt a strong breeze entering a small crevice. and i n a few areas. A rather extensive biota i s sheltered i n the cave.915 feet. but contains one chamber into which a lava spring entered from above and southeast. locally "Skylights" o f collapse origin are pesent i n several places.

1962. Compass and tape survey (uncorrected) by Cascade Grotto. Skamania County.-Peterson Prairie Cave System. . &gust 18. Nallonal Speleological Society.SKAMANIA COUNTY 105 Figure 85.

with a slightly sinuous course trending almost exactly from south to north. glaze i s pfesent. Much breakdown and inwash lie in most of the cave. with a crowlway leading about 30 feet eastward. lava i s visible locally.. Steamboat Mountain quadrangle. 110 feet farther southwest. the Peterson Prairie system. National Speleological Society.600 feet. is an impenetrable opening that wos emitting large quantities of cold air on August 19. or even a connection between the two systems. and about 3. 1962. at a point about half a mile south of Smoky Creek Campground. cor. feet from an impenetrable sink alongside Peterson Ridge road thot corresponds to the farthest penetrable part of the cave.106 CAVES OF WASHINGTON beakdown End of m v e ENTRANCE 100 Blowing hole Figure 86. An abandoned side road closely cave and runs alongside the entrance sink. 9 E. 3. R. Skamania County. At the west end o f still another sink.000 feet from the lower end of T.. he .Petwson Ridse Road Cave. sec. Some insects inhabit the cave. - 0 w 1qa 200 Feet Compass and tape survey by Cascade Grotto. 1962. Possibly addition01 study may show that this small system i s port of the Peterson Prairie Cave System or of New Cave. 6 N. and much crawling i s required.. The entrance sink i s 24 feet long and has the cave entrance ot its east end. Another sink i s 88 Considerable Terraced mud "flowstone" occurs locally. Preliminary data suggest that i t i s only about 500 feet from the upper end of New Cave. Slime Cave (fig. SLIME CAVE (64) SW. August 19. Its entrance is in a collapre sink about 100 yards east the upper part of of the main Forest Service road leading north from Peterson Prairie Guard Station. Elevation about 3. 87) i s a unitary lava-tube cavern about 775 feet long. but a rippled floor o f granular The cave tends to be wide but low. feet farther west.

- S K A h 4 A N IA COUNTY 107 Survey. 1960. .

amount o f reddish lava. cups (fig. together with local patches o f red and black flowstone. Breakdown i s present. A t a point 66 feet from the enhance. a t an offret to the east. and the flow i s bounded with aa. and somewhat muddy beyond it. zone. the center of The ceiling glaze the flow consists o f beautifully roped pahwhw. moister. 40' W. trends N. Thinner deposits o f similar material have been found i n many lava tubes o f the Northwest. i s another collopse sink. which contains a considerable amount o f rodent debris. long rootlets hang from cracks i n Below the rqcond lavafall the passageway i s lofty and contains particularly well developed flow patterns. flow level. Other features o f the cave include small amounts o f white calcareow dripstone and flowstone. A t a paint about 400 feet from the entrance o f the cave. The entrance o f the cave i s about 25 feet wide and 6 feet high. the ceiling does not follow the same slope as the floor. and the cave i s cooler. A crawlway about 10 feet long continues to the south end of the Slime Cave entrance sink. the center o f the passage but does not extend quite to the walls. from its entrance. However. This small cove i s 3 to 6 feet high. Slime Cave i s named for an unidentified algoelike material that i s present on the ceiling and walls i n many of the moist parts o f the cove. recessed behind (north of) the opening to the lower A flow line i n this grotto is at the same level as that in the main portion of the cave.-Unexplained lava wall gourr or melt cups. Lateral grooves are evident as high as 6 feet above the present floor. Skamania County. Slime Cave. plentiful biota was noted August 8. A lava tongue occupies In several areas. In fact. the cave descends 6 feet rather abruptly to a second flow level (fig. Terraced flowstone or flowstone-coated melt There isasmall Biota i s scanty except i n the twilight The cave has little total darkness and i s rather warm and dry. . which i s connected to the entrance sink by a short length o f lava tube. the general apparance is that o f a hole punched downward diagonally from the lower part of the A small grotto i s present. da y li g ht i s no longer visible. which gradually increases in height and narrows somewhat as it slopes gently northward. wet. 89). A short distance onward. Flow marks ore prominent i n the first part o f the cave. Below this lavafall. I t maintains a width of 15 to 25 feet for about 400 feet.108 CAVES OF WASHINGTON Also alongside this rood. and wider. the ceiling. about 10 feet i n height. but in Slime Cave i t reaches a thickness o f more than 1 cm. and the cave i s low. a second steep descent. This small cave A 25 feet wide. 1959. between Slime Cave and the highwoy. leads to a third flow level. and 54 feet long as measured to a point where breakdown occludes most o f the passage. Figure 88. old termination of a tube. 88)are present i n a fewareas.

the former appears to be the case. A thin clay layer obscures some floor details. A t first glimpse.Second level. ropy pahoehoe flow i s jumbled. I t i s a unitary lava-tube cave with three flow levels and with relatively minor subsequent flow. large semirectangular ceiling pockets are present. demarcated flow levelsmay represent descents o f the tube-forming flow over the lover ends of earlier flow units. Locally.SKAMANIA COUNTY 109 Figure 89. The sharpl) Slime Cave presents no unusual problem of spleoeenesis except for the aa lava at the north end. a darker aa flow billows dorm from the end o f the cave to the pahoehoe jumble. the glaze peeled off in small patches About 100 feet from the northern end of the cave.. Slime Cave. is prominent. and at a p i n t 30 feet from the end o f the cave. . Beyond this point the smooth. Photo by Ed Wyman. while s t i l l molten. Whether this mass of aa was intruded from the north through a separate vent or w s forced southward along the tube into its present position by a later flow of pahoehoe i s not clear. and there are same small tubular stalactites. or o f invasion of underlying tubes.

and in the forested area soutfi- A large compound sink. although locally the cave contains areas with widths as much as 40 feet.110 CAVES OF WASHINGTON SPEAR POINT CAVE Sec. TROUT LAKE ICE CAVE (See Ice Cave.. 90) i s the only lava-tube cave in Washingtar in which Indian artifacts are known to have been found. show on some Forest Service maps. floor ripples. Elevation about 3. . Lava tube slime i s present in moderate quantities.) OTHER CAVES Homer Spencer (oral communication) reports that old-timers spoke o f a large glaciere south or southwest o f Steamboat Mountain. Figure 90. breakdown. T. A flint spear point wos found half embedded in mud during the mapping o f the lower section of this cave in August 1962. 16. or inwash. National Speleological Society. 6 N. This small. The cave consists o f 568 feet of low crawlways on granular lava. R. but none of these reported caves could be located. i n the downslope section. was found in the latter area by the Survey. R. There are said to be at least two lava-tube caves i n the northwestern corner of sec. .. west o f Peterson Rairie. 6 N. August 19. and indications o f a moderate biota were observed. 1962. Skamania County.Spear Point Cave.200 feet. Willard quadrangle. the downslope section i s 353 feet long.. I t apparently i s not known today. 33. somewhat complex lava-tube cavern (fig. Flow ridges are well developd i n the section upslope from the entrance. 9E. with one 35-foot effluent passage. Compass and tape survey by Cascade Grotto. with one 35-foot confluent. 9 E . The upslope section i s 145 feet long. T. Skamania County..

Danner. It is of Bear Cave i s a rockshelter in quartz diorite. Its entrance is visible from the Barlow Pass r w d . 1910) shows the apporent entrance of a cave in anothe~ When the quarry was found.SNOHOMISH COUNTY SNOHOMISH COUNTY Although there are a number of limestone outcrops in Snohomish County that possess karstic characteristics. and only a few rockhelters and talus caves have been reported. have been one of the mines in that area. The origin o f the report may There are also some smoll karstic features in a creek bed on the hillside high above Wallace River. R. 13. no limestone cave has been confirmed there. Big Four Ice Cave i s a large glacier cave or snow cave southeast of the site of the former Big Four Inn between Silverton and M o n k Cristo. 28 N. extending into the c l i f f about 30 feet. i n the same general area. and on the ridge crest east o f Crystal Creek northeast o f Walloce C ~ l l (W. 1953). T. was filled during logging operations. two small grottos there were found to have phreatic characteristics. and may have been enlarged by prospectors (Carithers and Guard.. oral communication). BEAR CAVE Sec. but neither was large enough to qualify as a cavern (Gibson. SPOKANE COUNTY N o limestone or phoehoe lava i s h o r n . i f one existed. s R. trating a University o f Washington thesis (Norum. 111 A small cave i s m i d to have been encounA photograph illus- tered i n qwrrying a limestone lens near Arlington. 9 E. BIG FOUR ICE CAVE Although this name apparently i s also applied locolly to a mine containing ice. Index quadrangle.. This i s not a limestone area. some geologic interest. but i t was soon qwrried away. ICY WIND CAVE I t i s said locally that formerly a sign on the road to the Boy Scout Camp near Silverton indicated the entrance of a cave by this name. within Spokane County. 1945). there i s rumored to be a cave in one of the small limestone pods along the west side of Proctor Creek southeast of Gold Bar. limestone quarry east o f Granite Falls. but none was found in the field study for this report. . Also. Field work and local inquiry in 1951 strongly suggested that the cave.

R. Also.. T.. marble.) OTHER CAVES There was a small rockshelter in granite an the south side of Minnehoha H i l l in Spokane until blasted shut by local authorities (Washington Division of Mines and Geology. 40 E. 1958). Aladdin quadrangle map. 17 miles north o f Eureka (Butler. 1959). T. 1942). Ash Cave i s a large rockshelter in basalt. Elevation about 1.900 feet. R.. one being about 30 feet deep. I t was not found during field work for this report. 26 N. there i s said to be a cave of undetermined type about a mile west o f Dartford. STEVENS C O U N T Y Extensive but scattered deposits o f limestone. WALLA WALLA COUNTY No true about caves are known in Walla Walla County. written communication. THURSTON COUNTY N o caves have been reported in Thurston County. nication. and dolomite occur in Stevens County. there are said to be several sinks. 42 E. SPOKANE ICE CAVE (See Ice Cave. 37 N.. with the exception of a block-creep cavern in basalt at the top of a c l i f f in sec. written commuon the On the saddle o f Rabbit Mountain. . but no caves have been reported there. Deer Park quadrangle. 28 N. 12. shown i n sec. 12. (Washington Division o f Mines and Geology. The Washington Division of Mines and Geology (written communication. This small rockshelter i s only about 8 feet long but i s of some note because of the artifacts found in i t (Bischoff. 39 E... T. 23. 1959) reports that the name i s due to confusion with a nearby shaft in cold-trapping talus. WAHKIAKUM COUNTY N o caves have been reported in Wahkiakum County. R.112 CAVES OF WASHINGTON ICE CAVE (Spokane Ice Cave) Sec. 1962).

(1960) logging road.. From the hillside. 5 E. T. 91) i s about 200 yards south-southeast of the parking area at the p i n t where the quarry rim road o f the Permanente Red Mountain limestone quarry reaches the level of the rim. the grotto has the appearance of an overhung A t the bottom i s an impenetrable Aside This impressive karstic feature i s some 50 to 100 yards east of the 1960 rim road o f the Permanente quarry. The cave entrance i s several k e t above the low point o f the sink. Elevation about 1. Looking outward from this point. northeast of Mople Falls. Van Zandt quadrangle. SINKHOLE CAVE (65) Sec. collapse sink about 40 feet in diameter and 70 feet deep at the uphill side and 50 feet deep at the southern. 3 feet wide. This may or may not be the rum-runners' cave rumored in this vicinity.. 40 N. Van Zandt quadrangle. .. Danner. significant speleothems and speleogens are absent. p n o r in an impure limestone of Early Pennsylvanian age (W. R. impenetrable horizontal and In July 1960. Sumas. R. LARRABEE STATE PARK CAVE On the north shore of the small cove immediately north of the main beach at Larrabee State Park i s a tunnel about 25 feet long. Other types of caves are also present in Whatcom County. There i s evidence that at high water a small rivulet flaws into the entrance of the cave and runs most of its length before vanishing into a small ponor. However. 14. i t i s unclear whether this opening i s an abandoned excavation or a littoral cavern. 40 N. Elevation about 1. As the tunnel i s aligned along a small vein of verticall y bedded coal. 5 E. Collapse sinks and p n o r s also occur in two limestone outcrops on the north side of Black Mountain.900 feet. T. after a rainless month.WHATCOM COUNTY WHATCOM COUNTY 113 / Karst topography i s a feature of several limestone deposits in Whatcom County. and 4 feet high. and some s m l l caverns have been found in the Red Mountain deposits. oral communication). flood debris at ceiling level indicates that the cave occasionally floods completely . southeast o f BIG SINKHOLE GROTTO Sec. I t i s half filled (largely on the uphill side) by debris.. vertical openings. This small cave (fig. fairly close to its south end. 14. including sandstone rockshelters r e p r t e d near North Pass. downhill side. R. from a single small chimney. The cave entrance i s at the south end of an irregularly shaped sink between the quarry rim road and a recent Also at the southern end of this sink are reveral other. a small rivulet from a pond in the northeastern part o f the sink was observed entering rubble a few feet below and northeast of the cave entrance.900 feet. the viewer obtains a thoroughly cavernous impression.

muddyappearing draperies are present. a narrow passage averaging 7 feet in height and a dip joint. Its low entrance i s at the base of a low limestone face that forms the west wall o f a shallow sink. Besides the other openings in the same sink. and another iust east o f the parking area mentioned above. About 100 yards southeast of the . Halliday and Fleming side of the passage"swallows" the cave stream. Immediately inside i s a low antechamber with irregular enlargements along dip joint planes. I t appears to be the only penetrable part of a largely filled n e t w r k o f small phreatic passages of considerable extent. SUMAS MOUNTAIN C A M (66) Sec. Elevation about 1. Sinkhole Cave i s in typical cutover Northwest lowland hillside forest.. 14 to 2 feet in width extends 37 feet along A small amount of flowstone and some small.500 feet. there are at least t w other sinkholes between t h i s cave and Big Sinkhole Grotto. 92) has about 250 feet o f narrow passages and small chambers. To the northwest. and i s the only known sizable limestone cave o f western Washington outside of the Snoqualmie Passgroup.-Sinkhole Cave. there are coralloids near the entrance. The distance I to the rear wall i s 17 feet. Van Zondt quadrangle. R . Also. Whatcom County. 5 E. which probably developed in relation to the erosion surface o f which the gentle slopes o f the mountaintop are a remnant. R. which i s on a small flat section of the steep eastern slope o f Sumas Mountain..114 CAVES OF WASHINGTON The low entrance to the cave i s about 3 feet high and 8 feet wide. Figure 91. then destroyed during quarry operations. This complex little cuve (fig. the course of which i s evident in the alluvium on the cave floor. 40 N. Eleven feet from the end o f the cove. As the quarry is extended eastward. an impenetrable p n o r on the southwest 10 5 0 10 Feet Survey by Wm. 21. Quarry employees report that a small cave about 20 feet long was recently encountered. additional caves may well be encountered. T.

desirable. but they are not well enough defined to be classified with In the narrow entrance passage are some indistinct transversely elongated flutings that might indicate solution by turbulent water. Some spongework i s present. spans. harvestmen were noted in total darkness i n the survey for t h i s report. A l . rather than one developed i n the shallow phreatic zone.5' SW. where the limestone i s more markedly interbedded and less pure. October 1 9 6 0 . oblique joints. Whatcorn County. particularly i n the fossiliferous horizons. A large white slug was collected in total darkness. natural bridges. Danner. The bedrock i s limestone o f varying purity and interbedding. within the cave. 7-. certainty as water-table horizons. its pattern i s better described by the accompanying map than by text. 20 10 o 20 ~e. and i n the dim twilight zone of the entrance passoge. Because of the complexity o f the cave. but the dip averages about 4.e bedding has greatly influenced the speleagenesis of the western part o f the cave. . the multilevel development of the small passages and the massive fills of the cave suggest that the cove extends to greater depth as a small three-dimensional network o f deep phreatic origin.1 Figure 92.. and bedding planes. oral communication) have been found.Sumas Mountain Cave. and the presence of numerous small sinks in the deeply mantled and densely vegetated slopes and flats of this part of the mountain indicates the existence of more extensive local karst development. in which Late Devonian plagioporan corals (W. several highly fossiliferous horizons are expsed in the cave. little or no vadose modificationof the bedrock is apparent. and the like. Sumas Mountain Cave shows phreatic development along dip and strike joints. The rest of the speleogens of the cove. Although some small stream channels In two locations have been incised atop fills. which include many rounded ioint pockets. The dip and strike vary considerably However. Survey by Washington Speleolosical Survey. spiders and t w large white slugs with irregular large black spots were noted. and rodent (cony ?) droppings were present. t h u e are small flat areas on the ceiling. though the vertical extent o f the cave is less than 20 feet. appear to be typical of quiet phreatic solution..WHATCOM COUNN 115 cave i s a large sink about 60 feet long and 25 feet wide. R. Detailed study o f bedrock features exposed in the cave i s The fauna o f the cave is Mosquitolike insects and maderakly large.

Mount A i x quadrangle. WHITMAN COUNTY The only caves reported i n Whitmon County are small rockshelters near Ewan. in the cliffs north and west o f Rock Lake (United States W.. The This impressive 400-foot cavern was cut by Boulder Creek after a slide dammed i t s canyon. 1961). The cave follows a curved p t h . 14 E. Elevation about Their existence 2. has not been confirmed. imposing upper entrance i s almost 200 feet wide and about 50 feet high. C A M be a small rockshelter near Satus Creek from which local Indians formerly obtained I t s existence has not been verified. and i s much visited by campers at the nearby Forest Campground across and a short distance up the Naches River from Cliffdell.. 21. P.800 feet. and there are local r e p r t s of one or two small lava tubes south of Bird Creek near Smith Butte. actually a huge closed stream meander niche. opening between the compacted slide and the canyon wall. Federal Writers' Proiect. and i s The lower entrance i s a narrow Much of i t s length i s in total darkness despite the immensity I t has been known since 1901 (Anonymous. . 1961) i s locally believed by some to be an Hell Roaring Ridge on the lower slopes of Mount Adams (Anonymous. CRYSTAL CAVES It is locally said that there are rockshelters near Priest Rapids on the Columbia River that have been given this name. of the entrance. A.116 CAVES OF WASHINGTON OTHER CAVES - There i s rumored to be a large cave entrance near the mouth of Sulfide Creek. T. I N D I A N OCHER There i s said to ocher. BOULDER CAVE (See Boulder Creek Cave. R. 1941). 17 N. OTHER C A M S A legendary Dead Man's Cave (Lynch.) BOULDER CREEK CAVE (67) (Boulder Cave) Sec. YAKIMA COUNTY The northeastern part of the Mount Adams lava tube area extends into Yakimo County. only rock overhangs were observed by the Survey. 1901). Although there i s a little limestone in this general area. in the cliffs east o f the Baker River about 3 miles north o f the Baker Lake Bridge.



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Soc. P a p r 202. Washington: U. 224. Mount Rainier's greatest ice cavern: Pacific Discovery. Vienna. Jr. 19. v. Washington Div. Antiquity. Soc.. no. Geol. . Natl. New York. C. 15. 15. F. 111. F. C. v. . Osborne. An archeological survey o f caves in Woshington: Am. and Chelan Counties. Okanogan.. a. 57 p. 3. Perry. New York. Solon. 1954. New England's buried treasure. p. K. Spangle. Bull. Underground empire -wonders and tales of New York caves. n. W.. Shedd. Earl. p. 1952.d. Dec. 14 p. The ice caves of Washington Territory: Overland Monthly. no. S. R. 1910. Spring. 5. Clay [Clair Willard]. Stone. no. Speleol. n. Bull.. Washingk [History of North Woshington] Spokane. to. Washington Univ. 1960.. p. Geology o f the southwestern portion of the Stilaguamish quadrangle. Cement materials and industry in Washinaton: Washington Geol. Western Historical Publ. Stephen Day Press.. Sac. 221 p. and Calkins. thesis. Washingbn. 29. R. 1952. 1953.. 3-4. Ferry. F. 1952. R. R. Park.. W. p. 1943.. Iro. 4. Cave Report 5. 1953b. M.d. 40. 348 1948. 1904. Thomas. C. 1950. 38. Geology of the Bead Lake district.. and Cannon. Survey Geol. 421. Geology and ore depositr of the Metaline quadrangle.. S. 1953. [Seattle] B. Spleol. 4. Steele. O.S.io: U.. 3. 51-137. June 21. Owl Cove: Unpublished manuscript. 387. Speleal. 1906. Douglos. 2-3.S. and Spring.. Atlas. v. Soc. 1913. Pend Oreille County. Swanson. 1946. Pictograph Cave: Unpublished manuscript. Geol. Bob. Stephen Daye Ress. Va. Survey Bull. Snoquolmie fol... F. Birger.. G. Potts. Schroeder.. 5 . Steinburn. Cascade 1953a. Washington: Raymond. Wash. p. 1869. b. Jr. Aguidebook to Carlsbad Caverns National Park. p. Mines and Geology Bull.. Alan. Mount Snqualmie Caves: Natl. 43 p. An illustrated history o f Stevens. 39-50. Cascade Grotto. p. Survey Prof. P. Descriptions o f knnsylvanio's undeveloped caves: Natl. Lava cave cures cheese: Seattle Times Pictoriol Sec. Speleol. 867 p.. and Bryan. p.120 CAVES OF WASHINGTON Norum. p. Smith. (editor). Commercial caves of f'ennsylvania: Natl. M.. Folio 139.

G. a guide to the Binfords and Mort. 687 p. K. 12. Washington. 263. 1949.. America Bull. 1958. 36. p. 52. Helens. no. 1941. Survey Bull. no.S. 1355. Variations in leaf structure among Adiatum Fedaturn growing in a rock cavern: Am. p. C. 994. Evergreen State. A. Waters. Soc. 282.. Structures and forms of basaltic r o c k i n Hawaii: U. Botany. and Mclcdonald. p. Sciences Bull.. Protoclastic border o f the Colville Batholith: Geol. Washington. 1 . W. v.. A. 3. . v. Wylie. 9. v. Caves o f the lower Grand Coulee: Washington Archeologist. a recent Cascade volcano: California Univ.. 121 Federal Writers' Program. v. C. Konrad. W.. Wentworth. Geol. Oreg. 1941. no. 24. Verhoogen. 1953. 9 . Jean. Mount St. Jour. p. N.. Dept. 1937. Geol.. 98 p. B.REFERENCES CITED United States Work Proiects Administration. Portland. and Krauskopf.

usually as the result of fusion o f a and a stalagmite.122 CAVES OF WASHINGTON GLOSSARY Ao. Contraction fissures. Blowout. clinkery type of basalt flow in which lava tubes do not form. a natural subterranean opening large enough to enter. Concentric. A voguely similar speleogen has been recorded in a Washington lava tube. various modifications o f which are indicative of speleogenetic factors. Breakdown. or gouged into the ceiling o f a lava tube. a petromorph o f intersecting mineral blades proiecting from the walls or ceiling of a limestone cavern. a fragment of breakdown that has become wedged i n a narrow passage insteod o f falling to its floor. with some part i n tohd darkness. resulting from partial. Breakdown dome. Chockstone. usually resulting from rockfall into a partially crusted flow ("splash concentric" or "splash ring").a specific type o f fissure cove. resulting from flaking off from or collapse of the walls or ceiling of a cave. - Boxwork. a downwardprojection of limestone. longitudinal scratch marks in the ceiling of a lava tube. usually intermittent. - Ceiling tube. in lavo tubes. Cave. . but rarely by deposition o f successive lateral ridges oround a small obstruction. stalactite . occumulotion of rock. collapse of the ceiling. resulting from an explosion o f the gases within the tube during its thermal phase. a distinct chonnel dissolved upward into the ceiling of o pre-existing limestone cave. Column. - a a i l i n g channel with a particularly tubular appearance. an opening from a lova tube to the surface. arched chamber or passage section in either o limestone cavern or a lova tube. Ceiling chonnel. the rough. Ceiling grooves. a "bull's-eye" pattern on the floor. cracks found in the f l o w on the floors o f lavo tubes. The term - - i s applied loosely to a variety o f other natural underground cavities. Covern. formed by a fracture parallel to the face of a c l i f f Block creep cavern. Ceiling pendant. presumably as a result o f contraction during cooling. o grovitomorphic speleothem attached at both ends. essentially the same or cave. a high. with subsequent "creep" of the smaller fragment away from the main block.

a popular or semitechnical group term including stalactites. and similar projecting speleothems. low section between two more spacious areas of a cave. . (1) a small side chamber of a cavern. due to crusting. resulting from deposition from water thot trickles aver a surface. A similar phenomenon occurs less commonly in lava tubes. without dripping. Helictite. t . Flow -&. domed upword expansion in a lova tube. but t h i s usage probably shollld h discouraged. any longitudinal deposit or site o f removal of material in a lava tube seemingly a result of -subsequent flow through the tube. Flow line. . Flowstone. extending longitudinally as though deposited at the upper margin of a flow through the tube. resembling the inside of a huge gas bubble. -Flow ~ False floor. a cave or other subterranean site in which ice forms and persists for considerable periods of time ( c e alro ice cave). At times.a large or small ledge on the wail of o lava tube. 123 Co-alloids vary widely in size. -a broad flow ledge. slightl y groov~d walls and roughly circular cross section. leaving a space beneath an apprently solid floor. a smooth. and both the calcareous and lava types probably originate in several ways. grooves in the walls of lova tubes. Duck-under. Gour. a thin deposit of flowstone over a f i l l that has subsequently compacted or been washed away. a calcite-walled pool or the space that a n o w d r y pool o f this type once occupied. -an imprecise term applicable to indistinct flow grooves or ledges. . a mineral deposit in a cave.GLOSSARY Coralloid. -Grotto -1 Glacier cave. - s longitudinal . (3) a local unit of the National Speleological Society. a specific nongravitomorphic axial speleothem. in limestone caves. Flow shelf. columns. (2) a cavernous opening that extends only into the twilight ZOhe.a shart. Most helictites are curved throughout. seemingly incised by gouging during flow through the tube. Mony lava helictites are not h u l y axial. or at some point in their length. a cave developed by melting in or beneath a glacier. Flow mark. Dome & - a speciFic vadose speleogen consisting of a shaft several feet in diameter with sheer. t h i s term has been applied to the openin3 of an upper-level tube into a lower-level tvbe as seen from below. Dripstone. deposited from dripping water. stalagmites. Glaciere. a speleothem resembling branched globular corals or massed ppcorn.

&. a low. -- Joint pocket. usually representing the exposure of the strike o f the beds in kant topography. a spccific type of topography resulting from the solution of limestone bedrock and characterized by the features of development of underground drainage at the expense of surface drainage. a specific phreotic speleogen consisting of a rounded enlargement of a cavern space a joint. jellylike film. a long. -a cave in which ice forms and persists for a considerable period (see also glaciere). somewhat tubular cavern found in certain flows o f pahoehoe lava. a specific level of spele~~eneticflowmonifested Ice cave. -Lava tube slime. an elongated depression o f considerable length resulting from collapse o f a section of lava -tube. near-surface. pertaining to the zone of wave action. without flow features. the still-molten co:e of which has drained to lower levels after the Lava spring. -dam has solidified. a deposit o f smooth nonvesicular pahoehoe lava at the base of a lava speleothem or at the outlet o f a lava spring. 7 - Lava tube crust. a recess in the wall o f a lava tube from which lava has flowed into the tube. Lavafall. Lavo @. Lava trench. Lava dams. structures o f some lava tubes that roughly resemble gours several feat high. a curious and little-studied material found on the walls and ceiling of many lava tubes. apparently deposited at the margins o f a flow throrrgh the tube.124 CAVES OF WASHINGTON in the cave walls Horizon. a thin smooth shiny nonvesicular form of lining of many lava tubes. a raised section of a flow within a lava tube. Lava tongue. Lava puddle. 7- Lava tube. . Lava tube &. Ingressive or egressi+e branches are not uncommon. --consisting of an amorphous. It may consist of a silica gel and (or) micra-organism . narrow limestone ridge. -a point where a smooth lava floor meets the ceiling of a lava tube. They may prove to be the snouts of flows. a short section of wall dividing a lovo tube pssoge. and considerable complexity i s present in some caverns. slow Karst. a deposit lining lava tubes. Lava seal. Lateral ridge. a longitudinal floor deposit of a lava tube. a solidified cascade o f lava. o f which lava tube glaze i s a specific subtype.

Melt cup. a deposit formed within bedrock and subsequently exposed in the Phreatic. but usually applied to streams or rivulets o f some size. a specific pattern of lova tube crust resulting from its irregular partial slumping. Speleogen. a Iova speleothem resembling vertical terraced flowstone. the point of emergence o f a subterranean stream to the surface. formed of calcite. Stalagmite. a feature o f a cave resulting from mineral deposition. the study of caves and their contents. gravitomorphic speleothem directed downward. a white. -. a cavernous notural rock overhang. puttylike form o f flowstone. Ponor. Stalactite. Splash concentric. seemingly formed in the molten phase. resulting from removal of material therefrom. a thin-walled. d a stalactite with a base larger than its lower end. Speleogenesis. Resurgence. same as ponor. "congealed ripples" resulting from the fall of an object into congealing lava. Rockshelter. lava tube slime. Pahoehoe. (See concentric. but not yet subjected to microscopic. a speleogen showing the characteristics of solution of the wall o f a limestone c w e by fie curve of a stream.GLOSSARY 125 k a n d e r niche. Schallendom. Speleoliferous. Stalactite. or dolomite. seemingly resulting from the action of. Pisolith. o point o f piracy of a large or small stream by underground drainage. Slump ripple. containing caves. and subsequent smoothness. a terraced flowstone. petrographic. tubular. the process of origin and development o f caves. Stream flute. Petromorph. Moonmilk. Speleolagy. the German term for tumulus. hydromagnesite. o law domelike protrusion in congealed lava flows. -an elongated. an axial. a feature of the bedrock o f a cave. - . Slime flowstone. cupped speleogen resulting from turbulent flow of water. Speleothem. - Swllet. - wll o f a cave.) Stalactite. a type of basalt flow characterized by marked fluidity. pertaining to the zone o f water beneath a water table. or mineralogical study. b rounded concretion of calcium carbonate. hollow stalactite with a uniform diameter. or coincidental with. an axial. gravitomorphic speleohem directed upward.

a specific speleogen consisting of fairly regular vertical grooving o f limestone walls by solution o f descending film o f water. Vadose grooving. --- e. a tubular (horizontal or vertical) imprint in lava o f a tree trunk engulfed by the lava. -Tube-in-tube. . elevation caves. i t is seen predominantly in high- *. - through the tube." In Washington. a longitudinal deposit on a lava tube wall. a rudimentary lava tube inside a lava flow which itself i s within a larger lava tube. a law domelike potrusion in congealed lava flows. an accentuated andregular form o f vadose grooving limited to a small ore0 as a result o f local concentration o f descending water. pertaining to the zone above a water table. Waterfall slot. Wall - Tumulus. Tree cast. apparently deposited at the margin of a flow Probably should be superseded by the term "flow ledge.126 CAVES OF WASHINGTON Terraced flawstone. a specific form of flowstone on which small gours have developed.

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