Accepted Manuscript

Title: Principle, Modeling, and Testing of An
Annular-Radial-Duct Magnetorheological Damper
Author: <ce:author id="aut0005" biographyid="vt0005">
Xian-Xu Bai<ce:author id="aut0010" biographyid="vt0010">
Dai-Hua Wang<ce:author id="aut0015"
biographyid="vt0015"> Hang Fu
PII: S0924-4247(13)00353-1
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1016/j.sna.2013.07.028
Reference: SNA 8416
To appear in: Sensors and Actuators A
Received date: 25-1-2013
Revised date: 24-7-2013
Accepted date: 25-7-2013
Please cite this article as: X.-X. Bai, D.-H. Wang, H. Fu, Principle, Modeling,
and Testing of An Annular-Radial-Duct Magnetorheological Damper, Sensors and
Actuators: A Physical (2013), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sna.2013.07.028
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PRINCIPLE, MODELING, AND TESTING OF AN ANNULAR-
RADIAL-DUCT MAGNETORHEOLOGICAL DAMPER
Xian-Xu Bai
1,2,*
, Dai-Hua Wang
1,2,†
, and Hang Fu
1,2
1
Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Technology and Systems of the Ministry of Education of China,
Chongqing University, Chongqing, 400044, People’s Republic of China
2
Precision and Intelligence Laboratory, Department of Optoelectronic Engineering, Chongqing
University, Chongqing, 400044, People’s Republic of China
ABSTRACT
Aiming at improving the efficiency of magnetorhelogical (MR) dampers, the principle of an annular-
radial-duct MR damper (ARDMRD), in which annular-radial ducts in series in MR fluid flow channel are
integrated, is presented and the prototype of the ARDMRD is designed and fabricated. The mathematical
model of the ARDMRD considering the nonlinear flow effect of the MR fluid in the flow channel is
established. The finite element analysis (FEA) is utilized to validate the principle of the ARDMRD and
obtain the magnetic properties of its magnetic circuit. The controllable damping force and equivalent
damping of the ARDMRD are tested on the established experimental setup based on MTS 849 shock
absorber test system and compared with the theoretical results based on the mathematical model and FEA.
The tested controllable damping force of the ARDMRD under excitation velocity of 0.19 m/s is as high as
3149 N and the tested damping force range of the ARDMRD under excitation velocities of 0.025-0.19 m/s
is 140-3149 N. The research results show that the designed magnetic circuit structure of the ARDMRD is
beneficial to improving the efficiency of the MR damper and the established mathematical model of the
ARDMRD can describe and predict its damping force performance accurately.
Keywords: Magnetorheological fluid damper, annular-radial duct, efficiency, magnetic saturation.
I. INTRODUCTION
Magnetorheological (MR) fluids [1-3], as one kind of typical active materials, have attracted considerable
interests recently as it can provide a simple and rapid response interface between electronic control and
mechanical systems. MR dampers, which take the advantages of MR fluids, have excellent performances as
one promising semi-active actuator, including rapid response, controllable damping force, simple structure,
and low power consumption. Even the control systems fail to work, MR dampers can still act as passive
actuators in semi-active control systems based on MR dampers.
Over the past two decades, MR dampers with various magnetic circuit structures have been presented,
studied, and applied in semi-active control systems [4-10]. Carlson and Chrzan [11] presented a MR
damper principle with an annular fluid flow channel in 1994 and developed a commercially available MR
dampers (type: RD-1005-3, LORD Corp.). Later, Carlson and Spencer [10] presented a full-scale MR
damper with the same structure used in civil structures with the maximum controllable damping force of as
high as 20 kN. However, the volume of the MR fluid in one MR damper is over 5 liters. Thence, MR
dampers with bypass valves [12-14] and with bifold valves [15] have been studied. The controllable
damping force of the MR dampers with bypass valves is much larger than that of the traditional ones,
whereas the MR dampers always occupies much larger installation space. As for the MR damper with

*
E-mail: xxubai86@gmail.com (Xian-Xu Bai)

Author to whom any correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: dhwang@cqu.edu.cn (Dai-Hua Wang); Tel: +86 23 6511 2105; Fax: +86 23 6511 2105;
URL: http://www.pilab.coe.cqu.edu.cn/
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bifold valves, two identical MR valves are set at the two ends of the cylinder of the MR damper, which
makes the structure of the MR damper complex. How to improve the controllable damping force and the
efficiency simultaneously and guarantee the installation space of MR dampers is a challenge which should
be confronted and solved when designing MR dampers. Besides, in order to control the MR dampers based
semi-active systems efficiently, the mathematical models of the MR dampers, i.e., the damping force
performance, should be described and predicted efficiently by the established models. For the MR dampers
that are applied in low-speed environments, the quasi-steady models [16,17] are adequate to describe the
damping force of the MR dampers. While for the high-speed applications, the nonlinear flow effect of the
MR fluid [14,18,19] or the effect of MR fluid-walls of the MR dampers [20-23] are of significance and not
negligible.
Ai and Wang [24,25] presented an MR valve with both annular and radial fluid flow resistance gaps and
the efficiency of the MR valve was improved apparently. Nguyen et al [26,27] further simulated and
optimized the structure of the MR valve based on the principle for optimizing MR valves and MR dampers
with constrained volume presented by Rosenfeld and Wereley [28], and obtained the same results with
those by Ai and Wang [24,25].
Based on the structural principle of the MR valve presented by Ai and Wang [24,25], this paper presents
an annular-radial-duct MR damper (ARDMRD) with integrated annular-radial ducts in series in the MR
fluid flow channel. The prototype of the ARDMRD is designed, fabricated, and mathematically modelled.
The principle and performances of the ARDMRD are theoretically and experimentally validated. In
addition, the performances of the developed ARDMRD are compared with a commercially available MR
damper (type: RD-1005-3, LORD Corp.).
II. PRINCIPLE AND PROTOTYPE
Figures 1(a) and 1(b) show the structural principle and three-dimensional (3D) drawing of the
ARDMRD, respectively, and figure 1(c) shows the photograph of the exploded components of the
ARDMRD fabricated with the structural dimensions and materials’ properties as listed in table 1.
Observing figure 1, the ARDMRD comprises the piston unit, piston rod, and damper cylinder. The piston
unit consists of a magnetic core with a through-hole in center, two magnetic circular disks, an exciting coil
wound on the nonmagnetic bobbin, a magnetic core cylinder, nonmagnetic washers, and nonmagnetic
positioning pins. Two identical circular disks are connected to the two ends of the magnetic core by pins
and the radial ducts are formed. The washers that are coaxially installed with the corresponding pins
guarantee the thickness of the radial ducts. The core that is housed in the bobbin and connected with two
circular disks is coaxially positioned in the core cylinder. Then the annular ducts are formed between the
inner circumference of the core cylinder and the outer circumferences of the circular disks, as shown in
figures 1(a) and 1(b). As it can be seen in figures 1(a) and 1(b), as the piston compresses (rebounds)
relative to the damper cylinder, the MR fluid flows from the lower (upper) annular duct into lower (upper)
radial duct. Then the MR fluid flows into the upper (lower) radial duct through the central hole of the core.
At last, the MR fluid flows out of the piston through the upper (lower) annular duct. The MR fluid is filled
in to flow in the channels by a pressure drop, which is controlled by the magnetic field.
The magnetic field generated by the exciting coil with current starts from the core, goes though the radial
duct, circular disk, annular duct, along the core cylinder, through the annular duct, circular disk, and radial
duct to complete a closed magnetic circuit. When applying a magnetic field, the MR fluid flowing through
the annular-radial duct will give rise to pressure drop at the two ends of the duct because of the yield stress
of the MR fluid. The yield stress continuously increases with increasing the current applied to the exciting
coil before the magnetic field strength for the MR fluid/ARDMRD structure is saturated. In this way, the
damping force generated by the ARDMRD can be controlled continually by tuning the current applied to
the exciting coil.
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MRF
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2r
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a
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a
2r
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x(t)
Piston rod
Damper cylinder
Circular disk
Core
Core cylinder
Magnetic flux
Exciting coil
Bobbin
Radial duct
2r
pr
2r
o
Annular duct
(a)
Piston rod
Diversion hole
Annular duct
Radial duct
Washer
Magnetic flux
Exciting coil
Central hole of core
Core
Core cylinder
Positioning disk
MR fluid
Floating piston
Accumulator
Circular disk
Circular disk
Positioning pin
(b)
(c)
Figure 1. Developed ARDMRD: (a) the structural principle, (b) the 3D drawing, and (c) the photograph of
the exploded components.
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Table 1. Structural dimensions and materials’ properties of the developed ARDMRD.
Parameter Symbol Value
Damper length l
D
185 [mm]
Damper radius r
D
24 [mm]
Radius of piston rod r
pr
5 [mm]
Piston radius r
p
20 [mm]
Radius of circular disk r
d
12.84 [mm]
Radius of core r
c
10.54 [mm]
Radius of central hole of core r
o
3.5 [mm]
Height of annular duct h
a
8.6 [mm]
Thickness of radial duct t
r
1.0 [mm]
Thickness of annular duct t
a
1.0 [mm]
Thickness of core cylinder t
c
6.36 [mm]
Core height h 30 [mm]
Piston maximum displacement s 50 [mm]
Exciting coil turns N 280 [Turns]
Magnetic steel material 20
#
steel
Nonmagnetic steel material 304
#
steel
Density of MR fluid ρ 3.08×10
3
[kg/m
3
]
III. THEORETICAL MODELING
As it can be seen from figure 1, the operation mode of the MR fluid in the ARDMRD is the valve mode
[2]. The damping force of the ARDMRD can be expressed as
( )
a p ml r a
f A P P P F + A + A + A = (1)
where
a
P A and
r
P A are the pressure drops through the annular ducts and the radial ducts, respectively;
ml
P A is the minor loss pressure drop due to the elbows, such as sudden expansions and contractions along
the MR fluid flow channels; f
a
is the force generated by the accumulator; A
p
is the effective area of the
piston and can be written as
( ) | |
2
pr
2
d
2
a d
2
p p
r r t r r A    ÷ ÷ + ÷ = (2)
where
p
r ,
d
r , and
pr
r are the radii of the piston, circular disk, and piston rod, respectively;
a
t is the
thickness of the annular duct.
The pressure drop through the annual ducts can be expressed as
( )
τa ηa a
2 P P P A + A = A (3)
where
ηa
P A and
τa
P A are the viscous component and field-dependent induced yield stress component,
respectively, and can be expressed as
|
.
|

\
|
+
= A
a d
3
a
a a
ηa
2
1
6
t r t
h Q
P


(4)
a
a ya a
τa
t
h c
P

= A (5)
where  is the viscosity of the MR fluid without magnetic field;
a
Q is the volume flow rate of the MR
fluid through the annular duct and
d p a
V A Q = if
d
V is the piston velocity;
a
h is the height of the annular
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duct;
ya
 is the yield stress of the MR fluid in the annular duct;
a
c is a correction factor dependent on the
volume flow rate and yield stress of the MR fluid through the annular ducts or the pressure drop through
the annular ducts and can be given by [27]
ya
2
a a d a
a
a
2
1
8 . 0 12
12
07 . 2
  

t t r Q
Q
c
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
+ = (6)
The pressure drop through the radial ducts of the piston can be expressed as
τr ηrH ηrC r
2 P P P P A + A + A = A (7)
where
ηrC
P A and
ηrH
P A are the pressure drops due to the MR fluid when flowing into and out from the
central hole of the core, respectively;
τr
P A is the pressure drop due to the yield stress of the MR fluid
through the radial ducts.
ηrC
P A ,
ηrH
P A , and
τr
P A can be respectively expressed as
o
c
3
r
rC
3
r
rC
ηrC
ln
6
d
6 c
o
r
r
t
Q
r
rt
Q
P
r
r




= = A
}
(8)
c
o
3
r
rH
3
r
rH
ηrH
ln
6
d
6 o
c
r
r
t
Q
r
rt
Q
P
r
r




= = A
}
(9)
( )
o c
r
yr r
r
yr r
τr
d
c
o
r r
t
c
r
t
c
P
r
r
÷ = = A
}
 
(10)
where
rC
Q and
rH
Q are the volume flow rates of the MR fluid when flowing out from and into the central
hole of the core, respectively, and
a rH rC
Q Q Q = ÷ = ;
r
t is the thickness of the radial duct;
r
c =
a
c [17];
yr
 is
the yield stress of the MR fluid in the radial ducts.
The minor loss pressure drop
ml
P A in Equation (1) can be given by [14,18,19]
( )
ml
2
o
2
r
2
a ml
2 2
2
K V V V P + + = A

(11)
where  is the mass density of the MR fluid; V
a
, V
r
, and V
o
are the average flow rates of the MR fluid in
the annular duct, radial duct, and central hole of the core, respectively; K
ml
is the overall minor loss
coefficient [14,18,19].
Combining Equations (1)-(3), (7), and (11), the damping force of the ARDMRD can be rewritten as
( )
( )
a ml
2
o
2
r
2
a
r
o c yr r
a
a ya a
o
c
3
r
a
a d
3
a
a a
p
2 2
2
2 2
ln
12
2
1
12
f K V V V
t
r r c
t
h c
r
r
t
Q
t r t
h Q
A F +
¦
¦
)
¦
¦
`
¹
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
´
¦
+ + +
(
¸
(

¸
÷
+ +
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

+
|
.
|

\
|
+
=

 




(12)
The equivalent damping [29], which is defined by the ratio of the energy dissipated over a closed circle in
a sinusoidal displacement excitation system to the properties of the excitation conditions, can be expressed
as
2 eq
X
E
C

= (13)
where  and X are the frequency and amplitude of the sinusoidal displacement excitation to the
ARDMRD, respectively; E is the energy dissipated in one cycle, i.e., the area enclosed by the force-
displacement diagram, and can be written as
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} }
= =
cycle
2
0
d d


t x F x F E  (14)
where x is the velocity of the piston of the ARDMRD under the sinusoidal displacement excitation.
IV. FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS
FEA on the ARDMRD is conducted based on the software package Maxwell 2D. Considering that the
ARDMRD is an axis-symmetric structure, as shown in figure 1, a ½ model of the magnetic circuit of the
ARDMRD is utilized to conduct the FEA. Figure 2 shows the axisymmetric entity model of the piston of
the ARDMRD with the structural dimensions and materials’ properties as listed in table 1 for FEA using
Maxwell 2D. Figures 3(a) and 3(b) show the corresponding contours of the magnetic flux density and the
magnetic flux of the ARDMRD applied with a 2.00 A current, respectively. Figure 4 shows the magnetic
flux densities along the annular and radial ducts of the ARDMRD applied with a 2.00 A current.
Observing figure 3(a), when the exciting coil is applied with a current of 2.00 A, the magnetic flux
densities in the areas of the annular ducts and radial ducts are nearly 0.5 and 1.0 Tesla, respectively.
Observing figure 3(b), the contours of the magnetic flux of the ARDMRD show the closed magnetic circuit,
which validates the principle presented in section II.
Circular disk #1
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Radial duct #1
A
n
n
u
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a
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#
1
Radial duct #2
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u
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a
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#
2
C
o
r
e
c
y
l
i
n
d
e
r
B
o
b
b
i
n
Circular disk #2
Figure 2. Axisymmetric entity model of the ARDMRD.
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(a)
Detecting
line #1
Detecting
line #2
Detecting
line #3
Detecting
line #4
(b)
Figure 3. Contours of the magnetic circuit of the ARDMRD applied with a 2.00 A current: (a) the magnetic
flux density contours and (b) the magnetic flux contours.
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Figure 4. Magnetic flux densities along the MR fluid flow ducts when the ARDMRD applied with a 2.00 A
current.
Observing figure 4, at the field-on state, i.e., the maximum current case, the magnetic flux densities along
the radial and annular ducts are obtained by using four detecting lines (#1-#4) in the radial and annular
ducts as shown in figure 3(b). The magnetic flux densities of the radial ducts along the detecting lines #2
and #3 are larger than those of the annular ducts along the detecting lines #1 and #4, and the magnetic flux
densities of the radial ducts and annular ducts are 1.0 and 0.43 Tesla, respectively, as also shown in figure
3(a). In addition, according to the FEA results given above and literatures [26,27], the magnetic properties
of the ARDMRD can be further optimized by considering the thickness of the annular and radial ducts.
As given by Equations (1)-(12), the damping force of the ARDMRD is determined by the geometries of
the ARDMRD, the yield stress of the MR fluid in the MR fluid flow ducts, and the excitation velocity. In
other words, if the magnetic flux density along the MR fluid flow ducts, which determines the yield stress
of the MR fluid, can be obtained, the damping force of the prototype of the ARDMRD could be calculated
using the theoretical model (Equations (1)-(12)). Similar with the field-on state shown in figure 4, by using
FEA, the magnetic properties of the magnetic circuit of the ARDMRD when applied with 0.5 A, 1.0 A, and
1.5 A currents can also be obtained. The magnetic flux density along the annular and radial ducts of the
ARDMRD applied with 0.5 A, 1.0 A, and 1.5 A, are 0.13 Tesla and 0.25 Tesla, 0.23 Tesla and 0.51 Tesla,
and 0.34 Tesla and 0.75 Tesla, respectively.
It is noted that a commercial available MR fluid (MRF-132DG) [30] from LORD Corporation is used for
FEA, numerical simulation, and experimental testing in this study. The magnetic properties of the MR fluid
was curve fitted using least-squares method and given in literature [19].
V. EXPERIMENTAL TESTING AND CHARACTERIZATION
The ARDMRD, as well as a commercially available MR damper (type: RD-1005-3, LORD Corp.) with
an annular fluid flow channel [11], are tested on the established experimental setup based on the MTS 849
shock absorber test system and auxiliary devices, as shown in figure 5. Figure 6 shows the measured
damping force-displacement-frequency of the developed ARDMRD under 1 Hz and 3 Hz sinusoidal
displacement excitations with amplitude of 10 mm for nine current levels, 0 A, 0.25 A, 0.50 A, 0.75 A,
1.00 A, 1.25 A, 1.50 A, 1.75 A, and 2.00 A. Figure 7 shows the tested and theoretically predicted damping
forces generated by the ARDMRD under 1 Hz sinusoidal displacement excitation with amplitude of 10 mm
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when applying current in the range of 0-2.00 A in increment of 0.50 A. Figures 8(a) and 8(b) respectively
show the tested and theoretically calculated damping force ranges of the ARDMRD and the RD-1005-3 for
current levels 0 A and 2.00 A with the same electric powers. Figures 9(a) and 9(b) respectively show the
equivalent damping of the ARDMRD and RD-1005-3 under 1 Hz and 3 Hz sinusoidal displacement
excitations with amplitude of 10 mm for current range of 0-2.00 A in increment of 0.50 A using Equations
(13) and (14). When conducting the experiments and comparisons, it should be noted that 1) the electric
power applied to the RD-1005-3 is kept the same as that applied to the ARDMRD, and 2) the exterior
accumulator bottle, as shown in figure 5, instead of the interior accumulator as shown in figure 1(b), is used
as a pilot way to increase the stroke of the piston by extending the stroke of the floating piston of the
interior accumulator.
Observing figure 6, under certain displacement excitations with frequencies of 1 Hz and 3 Hz, both the
damping force and the closed area of the force-displacement of the ARDMRD increase with increasing the
current. When the current increases from 0 A to 1.25 A, the damping force is nearly directly proportial to
the increment of the current. When the current is over 1.25 A, with increasing the current, the magnetic
saturation of the MR fluid/ARDMRD structure becomes more significant and the damping force generated
by the ARDMRD increases more slowly. When the frequency of sinusoidal displacement excitation is low,
the viscous damping force reaches as low as 140 N, while the controllable damping force reaches 2327 N.
If define the controllable damping ratio by the ratio of the field-on damping force to the field-off damping
force [31], the experimental results show that the ARDMRD possesses a decent controllable damping ratio
around 17.
ARDMRD
To exciting coil Accumulator
Figure 5. Experimental setup.
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Figure 6. Measured damping forces of the developed ARDMRD.
Figure 7. Measured and predicted damping forces of the developed ARDMRD under 1 Hz sinusoidal
displacement excitation with amplitude of 10 mm.
As it can be seen from figure 7, the established mathmatical model using the magnetic properties of the
MR fluid flow ducts of the ARDMRD presented in FEA section could describe and predict the damping
force performance of the ARDMRD accurately. For the field-off state, i.e., no current case, the viscous
damping force of the ARDMRD is difficult to model due to its complex structure and MR fluid flow
channel. However, as presented in figure 7, the calculated damping force tracks very well the tested
damping force, which shows the effectiveness of the established model. As the current increases, the tested
and predicted damping forces increase and the damping force calculated by the model could still track the
tested damping force well. It should be noted that both the deformations on the top left corner and lower
right corner, as shown in figures 6 and 7, result from the insufficient pressure of the exterior accumulator
[32].
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Observing figure 8(a), the experimental and theoretical results are nearly the same for the field-off state,
as also shown in figure 7. For the field-on state, the difference between the experimental and theoretical
results increases with increasing the excitation velocity, which might attribute to the deformation of the
measured force-displacement curves for higher velocities due to the insufficient pressure of the accumulator,
as shown in figures 6 and 7. According to above analysis, the mathematical model of the ARDMRD
considering the nonlinear flow effect of the MR fluid can predict the damping force performance of the
ARDMRD effectively.
(a)
(b)
Figure 8. Damping force ranges of: (a) the ARDMRD and (b) the commercially available MR damper
(type: RD-1005-3, LORD Corp.).
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(a)
(b)
Figure 9. Equivalent damping of the developed ARDMRD and the commercially available MR damper
(type: RD-1005-3, LORD Corp.) under the sinusoidal displacement excitations with frequency of: (a) 1 Hz
and (b) 3 Hz.
As seen from figures 8(a) and 8(b), the damping force range of the ARDMRD is much larger than that of
the RD-1005-3 when the same electric power and excitation velocity applied to the ARDMRD and the RD-
1005-3. It is worth noting that the diameter (40 mm) of the piston of the ARDMRD is close to that (38 mm)
of the RD-1005-3. With identical electric powers, as the states of the MR dampers switches from the “field-
off” to the “field-on”, the damping force of the ARDMRD increases as much as around twice as the RD-
1005-3 does. This means that the ARDMRD structure could use the electric power more efficiently.
Observing figure 9, under the identical excitations of the electric power and sinusoidal displacement, the
equivalent damping of the ARDMRD is much larger than that of the RD-1005-3. In addition, the equivalent
damping of the ARDMRD saturates significantly when the current reaches over 1.50 A, while the
equivalent damping of the RD-1005-3 saturates when the current reaches over 1.00 A. That is, the magnetic
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circuit of the ARDMRD is better than that of the RD-1005-3. We can draw a similar conclusion indicated
by figure 8 that the magnetic circuit structure of the ARDMRD with the annular-radial duct structure could
use the magnetic field generated by the exciting coil more efficiently. That is to say, the electric power can
be utilized more efficiently and the efficiency of the MR damper is improved by using “better” structures.
However, as it can be seen from figures 8(a) and 8(b), as the excitation velocity increases from 0.025 m/s
to 0.19 m/s, the maximum controllable damping force of the ARDMRD increases from 2327 N to 3149 N,
while that of the RD-1005-3 increases from 1217 N to 1638 N. This increased damping force is totally
generated by the viscous pressure drop. Similarly, as shown in figures 9(a) and 9(b), as the displacement
excitation frequency increases, the equivalent damping for the non-zero current cases decreases while the
equivalent damping for the no current case increases, which means that the controllable damping ratio of
the ARDMRD decreases dramatically as the excitation velocity increases. According to the definition of the
controllable damping ratio [31], Equation (12) indicates that the controllable damping ratio of the
ARDMRD would be influenced by the excitation velocity and could be enlarged by optimizing the
thickness of the annular ducts and radial ducts and the length of the central hole of the core.
VI. CONCLUSION
In this paper, the principle of the ARDMRD, in which annular-radial ducts in series in MR fluid flow
channel were integrated, was presented to improve the efficiency of MR dampers. Based on the ARDMRD
principle, the ARDMRD prototype was designed and fabricated. Considering the nonlinear flow effect of
the MR fluid in the flow channel, the theoretical model of the ARDMRD was derived to demonstrate its
damping force performance. The principle of the ARDMRD was validated by FEA and the magnetic
properties of the magnetic circuit of the ARDMRD was obtained by FEA. Under the same excitations of
electric power and sinusoidal displacement, the experimentally tested characteristics of the ARDMRD were
compared with those of the RD-1005-3 from LORD Corp., including the controllable damping force and
equivalent damping. According to the experimental results, the ARDMRD could provide a large
controllable damping force as high as 3149 N under excitation velocity of 0.19 m/s and a large damping
force range from 140 N to 3149 N under excitation velocities from 0.025 m/s to 0.19 m/s. The magnetic
circuit of the ARDMRD is superior to the RD-1005-3 and the ARDMRD could use the electric power more
efficiently than the RD-1005-3. In addition, thanks to considering the nonlinear flow effect, the derived
mathematical model of the ARDMRD could describe and predict the damping force performance of the
ARDMRD accurately.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The authors would like to acknowledge the financial support of the National Natural Science Foundation of
China (Grant No. 60774042), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (project No.
CDJXS11122217), the Program for New Century Excellent Talents in University (grant No. NCET-05-
0765), and the Foundation for the Author of National Excellent Doctoral Dissertation of PR China (grant
No. 200132).
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BIOGRAPHIES
Xian-Xu Bai is a Ph.D. student in Department of Optoelectronic Engineering at Chongqing University,
Chongqing, China. His current research interests focus on the magnetorheological damper/energy absorber
for vibration and shock mitigation and energy harvesting based on smart materials and structures. He is
now a student member of ASME and SPIE.
Dai-Hua Wang received the Doctor of Engineering degree in instrument science and technology from
Chongqing University, Chongqing, China, in 1999. Now he is a professor with Chongqing University and
the founding director of the Precision and Intelligence Laboratory (http://www.pilab.coe.cqu.edu.cn/) there.
Currently, he serves on the Editorial Board of the IOP Journal of Smart Materials and Structures. His
current research interests include fiber optic sensor technology, opto-mechatronic technology &
equipments, micro-/nano-manipulation technology and systems, smart structures and systems, and super-
precision measurement technology.
Hang Fu received his BEng. and MEng. degrees in instrument science and technology from Chongqing
University, Chongqing, China, in 2009 and 2012, respectively. He is currently an employee of Zoomlion
Heavy Industry Science & Technology Development Corp., Ltd., Changsha, China.

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