INTRODUCTION

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INTRODUCTION

In the present industrial era, it is necessary to raise the skill levels and increase the versatility and adoptability of employees. Inadequate job performance a decline in productivity or changes resulting out of job redesigning or a technological break -through require some type of training and development efforts. As the jobs become more complex, the importance of employee development also increases in a rapidly changing society. "Employee training and development is not only an activity that is desirable but also an activity that an organization must commit resources to if it is to maintain a viable and knowledgeable work force." Thus it shows that training and development has been becoming more and more important par of any industrial undertaking. Moreover management ability does not come automatically. It comes slowly and gradually from training experience and growth, since the days of the early Management pioneers, training has been recognized as vital and legitimate area of corporate concern.

Definition of Training:
Following are some of the major definitions given by various scholars:  According to Flippo," Training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skill of an employee for doing a particular job  According to lucius, "The term training is used to indicate only a process, by which the aptitudes, skills and abilities of the employees to perform specific jobs are increased."

Characteristics or Nature of Training
On the basis of different given by various scholars and on the basis of general knowledge the following facts can be presented about the nature or training and its characteristics:

Expense on Training is investment and not wastage:
The most important characteristics of training is that expenditure incurred on it is investment and not wastage. In other words the expenses on training of employees will be a recurring advantage for the enterprises for a long run, which will be in the form of an 2

increased efficiency of the employees.

It relates to special jobs:
The purpose of training is not to increase the general knowledge of the employees but to make them proficient or skillful in a special job.

It is beneficial both to the organization and the employees:
Training is a process which benefits both the organization and the employees. on the one hand ,the dream of the enterprise to have more production is fulfilled, and on the other hand, because of increased proficiency the employee get better remuneration by increasing production in less time. Because of a decrease in the numbers of accidents their life is also safe and secured.

Training is a continuous process
Training is not a process which can give all the knowledge to an employee regarding a particular work for all time to come. Whenever some new procedure, and new technology are adopted in the enterprise, training becomes imperative.

Development:
Employee development and training software helps companies invest in their people so that they will be ready for the challenges of the future. By making career and personal development more relevant, timely, and social, you can redefine your approach to employee development and training for increased engagement. Development program activities become relevant and timely when they are embedded within goal, succession, and career plans. Taleo performance review integration ensures that development plans are revisited regularly and are tied to employee career successes. Social networking tools enable your people to create, share, and rank development activities that unlock the hidden knowledge within your organization. With Talent Intelligence, you can identify and address skill gaps and ensure that employees are guided to the right development activities.

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Difference between Training and Development:
Basis Meant for Focus Scope Goal Initiated by Content Time- frame Training Operatives Current job Individual employee Fix current skill deficit Management Specific job related information Immediate Table-1 Development Executives Current and future jobs Work group or organization Prepare for future work demands The Individual General Knowledge Long term

IMPORTANCE:
BENEFITS OF THE BUSINESS Trained worker works more efficiency. BENEFITS OF THE EMPLOYESS Training makes an employee more useful to a firm. Hence he will find employment more easily. They use machines tools, materials in a Makes employees more efficient and properly is thus eliminated to a large effective. extent. Fewer accidents, Trained worker need Training enables employees to secure not be put under close supervision as promotions easily. they know how to handle operations properly.

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Training makes employees more loyal It can enable employees to cope up with to an organization. Each method has its advantages & disadvantages in terms of the ‘objective’ of a particular training programme or training situation.  Training is necessary to make employees mobile and versatile. require refresher training so as to keep abreast of the latest developments in job operations. Training is needed to make employees more productive and useful in long run. However. They will less in organizational client to leave the unit where there is changes. this is an absolute necessity.  Newly recruited employees require training so as to perform their tasks effectively. to another method.  Training is needed to bridge the gap between what the employees have and what the job demands. It is also a matter of his judgments of how much & what a particular group of trainees could learn from using one method or another. Each method of instruction has its use in a training programme. It is much more important to: 5 . The differences between the training methods lie mainly in terms of the trainees’ personal involvement or participation in the process of learning. Existing employees Training Methods There is a range of ‘teaching methods’ available to the trainer. The choice of method is a matter of experience & competence of the instructor. in management training the principal problem is not how to deal with specific subjects & functional areas. social & technological Table-2 Need for Training Training is needed to serve the following purposes:. In the face of rapid technological changes. growth opportunity.  Training is necessary to prepare existing employees for high level jobs. This can be represented on a continuum from least to highest involvement. in every way. It is difficult to establish whether one method of instruction is superior.

Thereafter competence level of each individual is taken. which essentially lie in an inter-disciplinary systems approach to management. 6 . production man viewing everything from production point of view etc.(one-function approach means marketing man viewing everything from marketing point of view.) Promote general management skills. behavioral & technical). Explain the relationship between various functions of the enterprise & highlight the complex character of the management process.  Help participants not to take a one-function & over-simplified approach to multidimensional situations in business organizations. after that required competency to carry out those duties & responsibilities which are mentioned (generic.1 For Executive: Key duties & responsibilities are mentioned position wise. TRAINING PROCESS NEED ANALYSIS DESIGN (TRAINING METHODS EXAMINED) DEVELOPMENT (TRAINING METHOD APPLIED) IMPLEMENTATION EVALUATION Model of the Training Process STEP1: Need Analysis Identification of Training Need: 1.

Training method Training method can be classified by the location of instruction. presentation.D. c) Training feedback is obtained at the end of the training program. training faculty is identified STEP 3: Training Implementation: 3.O. On the Job Training II. 1. Job Instruction Training The JIT methods is a four step instructional process involving preparation.2 For workers: It is recommended by the concerned H. It is used generally to teach workers how to do their current 7 . HR STEP 2: Training Design: Preparation of Training Calendar: • • Yearly calendar Monthly training calendar 2. This is to be done within 3 months after the training. Approvals are to be obtained for the training programs (out house training ) from H. HR b) Attendance sheet is filled during the training program. Off the Job Training ON THE JOB TRAINING: It is provided when the workers are taught relevant knowledge. STEP 4: Training Evaluation Training evaluation is to be made on the basis of the feedback given by the HOD.O.1 Imparting Training a) As per training need attached nomination are received from concerned HOD for seminar/external specialized training program.1. The widely used training methods are listed below. performance tryout and follow up. skills and abilities at the actual workplace. 1.D. It may be divided into two types I. Then the training records are maintained.3 Organizational Need Basis: It is recommended by H.O.2 Identification of Training Faculty: According to the training program.D.

2. procedures are agreed upon and the trainee is given enough authority to make divisions and even commit mistakes. In coaching. he throws light on why things are done the way they are. usually to subordinates or even peers.  Finally. its purposes and its desired outcomes. The four steps followed in the JIT methods are:  The trainee receives an overview of the job. It may be as an informal. The trainer shows aright way to handle the job. To help in institutionalizing a Mentoring system which would help nurture high potential individuals and put them on a faster learning curve. conducts lot of decision making meetings with trainees. Coaching Coaching is a kind of daily training and feedback given to employees by immediate supervisors. 8 . thus building a talent pool in the years to come. to align and move into the organization. the employee is permitted to copy the trainer way.  The trainer demonstrates the job in order to give the employees a model to copy. 2. Mentoring Mentoring is the process of shaping competencies or behaviors by providing feedback. 3. unplanned training and development activity provided by supervisors and peers. the supervisor explain things and answers questions. To help identify Mentors who can train the next generation Trainees. Mentoring is relationship in which senior manager in organization assumes responsibility for grooming a junior person. with a clear focus on the relevance of training. Objective: 1. Start an initiative that would bring a different culture and space for the future managers.jobs. interpersonal & political skills are conveyed in such a relationship from a more experienced person. Generally. he offers a model for trainee to copy. about how to achieve the best in life. technical. It involves a continuous process of learning by doing.  Next. 3. the employees does the job independently without supervision. Demonstrations by the trainer and practice by the trainee are repeated until the trainee masters the right way to handle the job.

Identify prospective Mentors. 3. pipe fitters. though requirements vary. apprenticeship programs are partnerships between labor unions. A three-day Role and Identity Lab: This would be designed to build up the energy required and the commitment to the process. The typical apprenticeship program requires two years of on-the-job experience and about 180 hours of classroom instruction. Identify the Critical Competencies required for being a mentor. Today. Phase 2 Training the Mentor. and the government. An apprentice must be able to demonstrate mastery of all required skills and knowledge before being allowed to graduate to journeyman status. 2. Identify Individuals who have maturity to become Mentors. Each individual would need to find a context.Methodology Phase 1 Identifying Mentors 1. 4. They are most often found in the skilled trades and professional unions such as boiler engineers. schools. Journeymen provide the on-the-job training. 2. Create a context to understand the style and the best fit for the Mentor Mentee Match. and carpenters. while adult education centers and community colleges typically provide the classroom training. which would sustain the role that he is required to play. 1. Map the competencies of the Mentors. Phase 3 Mentee Training A two-day workshop for all Mentees 1. 2. Train the Mentors on the key aspects of mentoring and process that aid in institutionalizing mentoring as a system. Formal apprenticeship programs are regulated by governmental agencies that also set standards and 9 . when skilled craftsmen passed on their knowledge to others as a way of preserving the guilds. To lay a context for the mentees and understand of the role that he !s required to play. This is documented through testing and certification processes. 4. employers. APPRENTICESHIP TRAINING Apprenticeship training dates back to the Middle Ages. electrical workers.

but some focus on the functional responsibilities of particular positions within an organization (e.provide services.. conflicting demands. and engineers. etc. in-basket exercises. economics. 2. EQUIPMENT SIMULATORS. and circumstances of the trainee's job. etc. and behavior modeling. usually being asked to make decisions about what to do given certain information.g. and principles derived from appropriate theory (e. and asked to make another decision. To facilitate this. military personnel. business games. OFF THE JOB TRAINING 1. as closely as possible. Prior to starting the game trainees are given information describing a situation and the rules for playing the game. To be effective the simulator and how it is used must replicate. human resource manager). increases the degree of fidelity between the simulation and the work setting 3. more importantly. are types of simulations. rules. company. They are then asked to play the game. Equipment simulators. SIMULATIONS Simulations are designed to mimic the processes. maintenance workers. Many business games represent the total organization.). air traffic controllers. BUSINESS GAMES.. They also reflect a set of relationships. the physical and psychological (time pressures. movements and/or decision processes that trainees must use with equipment back on the job. events. navigators. They allow trainees to see how their decisions and actions influence not only their immediate target but also areas that are related to that target. These are called functional simulations.) aspects of the job site. telephone operators. This process continues until 10 .g. or functional area operates. marketing director. Among those trained with this method are airline pilots. drivers. Business games attempt to reflect the way an industry. This reduces potential resistance to the training and. The trainees are then provided with feedback about the results of their decisions. the equipment operators and their supervisors should be involved in the simulation design and pre-testing. Equipment simulators are mechanical devices that incorporate the same procedures. organizational behavior. case studies. role playing. Games that simulate entire companies or industries provide a far better understanding of the big picture.

For example. what didn't and why. large groups. as perceived by the organization's key decision makers. the game might end when the company has reached a specified profitability level or when the company must declare bankruptcy. To begin the exercise. Trainees are then given a packet of materials (such as requests. The trainee is first presented with a history of the situation in which a real or imaginary organization finds itself. in written form. reinforcing appropriate decisions and processes or asking the trainee to develop alternatives. the trainer asks the trainee to identify the processes used in responding to the information and to discuss their appropriateness. 4. Business games involve an element of competition. When the in-basket is completed. though not always. In using them. they discuss the diagnoses and solutions that have been generated in small groups. Trainees are asked to respond to a set of questions or objectives. the trainer must be careful to ensure that the learning points are the focus. The key elements and problems. Here the trainer should attempt to get the trainees to discover what worked well. The trainer provides feedback. A variation is to have trainees discuss their processes in a group format moderated by the trainer. Some require the trainee to gather information beyond what was in the case. either against other players or against the game itself. Responses are typically. Longer cases require extensive analysis and assessment of the information for its relevance to the decisions being made. The trainer must guide the trainees in 11 . rather than the day-to-day decisions that occur in the in-basket. In large groups a trainer should facilitate and direct the discussion. CASE STUDY Case studies are most often used to simulate strategic decision-making situations. memos. if the focus is on the financial state of a company.some predefined state of the organization exists or a specified number of trials have been completed. Case studies range from a few pages in length to more than a hundred. 5. It affords an opportunity to assess and/or develop decision-making skills and attitudes. or both. IN-BASKET TECHNIQUE The in-basket technique simulates the type of decisions that would typically be handled in a particular position such as a sales manager or operations manager. messages. Once individuals have arrived at their solutions. trainees are given a description of their role (a current or future job) and general information about the situation. and reports) which make up the in-basket. They are asked to respond to the materials within a particular time period (usually 2 to 4 hours). may also be provided. rather than the competition. complaints.

conflict resolution. Having non-trainees act out the role play may eliminate these problems. A structured role play provides trainees with a great deal of detail about the situation that has brought the characters together. Written and oral responses to the case are evaluated by the trainer. The trainer should convey that there is no single right or wrong solution to the case. The objective of this type of role play is to develop insight into one's own behavior and its impact on others.g. other trainees analyze the interactions and identify learning points. Trainees who are actors in the role play are provided with a general description of the situation. In a multiple role play. their objectives. role plays may also differ based on the number of trainees involved.. multiple. It also provides in greater detail each character's attitudes. In a single role play. Single. Role plays differ in the amount of structure they provide to the actors. and concerns) and the problem they face. Spontaneous role plays are loosely constructed scenarios in which one trainee plays herself while others play people that the trainee has interacted with in the past (or will in the future). The role play is a simulation of a single event or situation. all trainees are formed into groups. leading to failure to play the roles in an appropriate manner.examining the possible alternatives and consequences without actually stating what they are. Whether structured or spontaneous. This approach may cause the role players to be embarrassed at being the center of attention. but many possible solutions depending on the assumptions and interpretations made by the trainees. and so on. opinions. ROLE PLAY. This provides a single focus for trainees and allows for feedback from the trainer. The solutions are not as important as the appropriateness with which principles are applied and the logic with which solutions are developed. but adds some cost to the training. emotions. and role-rotation formats provide for more or less participation in the role play. How much structure is appropriate in the scenario will depend on the learning objectives. Structured role plays may even provide a scripted dialog between the characters. and group decision making. It also has the drawback of not permitting the role players to observe others perform the roles. one group of trainees role plays while the rest of the trainees observe. This type of role play is used primarily to develop and practice interpersonal skills such as communication. a description of their roles (e. Each group acts out the scenario 12 . 6. While observing. needs. The value of the case approach is the trainees' application of known concepts and principles and the discovery of new ones.

However. video tapes of the role plays can be used by the trainee and/or trainer for evaluation. followed by a general discussion. Have the trainer and other trainees provide reinforcement for appropriate imitation of the 13 . each group analyzes what happened and identifies learning points. Role rotation demonstrates the variety of ways the issues in the role play may be handled. Have trainees practice the appropriate behaviors in a structured role play 6. Multiple role plays allow everyone to experience the role play role play in a short amount of time. it is more typical to video tape the desired behavior for use in training. creating additional artificiality. This allows greater learning as each group will have played the roles somewhat differently. and safety procedures are among the many types of skills that have been successfully learned using this method. After the discussion. but may reduce the quality of feedback. Again. trainees may not have the experience or expertise to provide effective feedback. the role play is stopped. and trainees are usually reluctant to provide constructive feedback to their peers. Specify key learning points and critical behaviors to watch for 4. Trainees who are observers are more active than in the single role play since they have already participated or know they soon will be participating. Have an expert model the appropriate behaviors 5. Provide a brief overview of relevant theory 3. when the trainees have interacted for a period of time. A drawback is that the progress of the role play is frequently interrupted. trainees may be inhibited from publicly critiquing the behavior of their fellow trainees. sales techniques. the role play resumes with different trainees picking up the roles from some. The groups may then report a summary of their learning to the other groups. Interpersonal skills. In addition. The steps in behavior modeling can be summarized as follows: 1. interviewee and interviewer behavior. While live models can be used. Observers then discuss what has happened so far and what can be learned from it. or all. To overcome this problem. BEHAVIOR MODELING Behavior modeling is used primarily for skill building arid almost always in combination with some other technique. The trainer will not be able to observe all groups at once. of the characters.simultaneously. The role-rotation method begins as either a single or multiple role play. 7. At the conclusion. Define the key skill deficiencies 2.

planning.  Case studies are most appropriate for developing analytic skills. Feedback to the trainee is especially powerful when video is used to record both the model's and the trainee's performance. and complex problem solving can be effectively learned through the use of business games. higher-level principles. Because trainees do not actually implement their decision/solution. Improving the trainees' ability to apply knowledge (i. its focus is more on what to do (strategic knowledge) than on how to get it done (skills). usually other methods are required for this type of learning. Simulations are not good at developing declarative knowledge. machine operation and tool-usage skills are best learned through use of equipment simulators. Through split screen devices. Although some knowledge development can occur in simulations. While this method is primarily behavioral. the performance of the model and the trainee can be shown side by side. Simulations do a good job of developing skills because they:  simulate the important conditions and situations that occur on the job  allow the trainee to practice the skill  provide feedback about the appropriateness of their actions Each of the different formats has particular types of skills for which they are more appropriate:  Mechanical. facts.  Role plays provide a good vehicle for developing interpersonal skills and personal insight. procedures. They are an especially effective technique for creating attitude change. Simulations provide a context in which this knowledge is applied. This allows the trainee to clearly see where improvements are needed. strategies) is the focus of simulations.model's behavior Behavior modeling differs from role plays and games by providing the trainee with an example of what the desired behavior looks like prior to attempting the behavior. Some initial level of declarative and procedural knowledge is necessary before a simulation can be used effectively. allowing 14 .  Business decision-making skills (both day to day and strategic).e. and complex problem-solving strategies.  The in-basket technique is best suited to development of strategic knowledge used in making day-to-day decisions. allowing trainees to practice interacting with others and receiving feedback.. steps 2 and 3 reflect the cognitively oriented learning features of the technique.

These objectives can be achieved only through harnessing the abilities of its people. employees. Here the focus should be placed on needs as opposed to desires of the employees for a constructive outcome. it is a process that needs to be carried out with sensitivity as people's learning is important to them. including owners. provides the basis on which all other training activities can be considered. resources. the organization must provide effective and attractive 15 . To differentiate between the need for training and organizational issues and bring about a match between individual aspirations and organizational goals.  Identification of training needs (TNI). if done properly. and people need appropriate opportunities. people have aspirations. Therefore people must know what they need to learn in order to achieve organizational goals. to meet people's aspirations.trainees to experience their feelings about their behavior and others' reactions to it. In order to emphasize the importance of training need identification we can focus on the following areas:   To pinpoint if training will make a difference in productivity and the bottom line. they want to develop and in order to learn and use new abilities. TRAINING NEED IDENTIFICATION INTRODUCTION OF TRAINING NEED IDENTIFICATION Training need identification is a tool utilized to identify what educational courses or activities should be provided to employees to improve their work productivity. Similarly if seen from an individual's point of view. and the reputation of the organization is also at stake. suppliers. Identification of training needs is important from both the organizational point of view as well as from an individual's point of view. releasing potential and maximizing opportunities for development. To decide what specific training each employee needs and what will improve his or her job performance. and conditions. From an organization’s point of view it is important because an organization has objectives that it wants to achieve for the benefit of all stakeholders or members. Therefore. Also requiring careful thought and analysis. and neighbours. customers.

Sometimes organizational training needs are also identified when the organization decides that it has to adopt a major new strategy.learning resources and conditions.2: Type of Needs  Group Needs 16 . or develop significant new relationships. And it is also important to see that there is a suitable match between achieving organizational goals and providing attractive learning opportunities DIFFERENT LEVELS AT WHICH TRAINING NEEDS ARE IDENTIFIED Identification of training needs can be done at three levels to ascertain three kinds of needs: -  Organizational Needs These concern the performance of the organization as a whole. such as joining with others to form new partnerships. undergo a large-scale change program. Fig. 4. exploring ways in which training or learning might help it to do so. create a new product or service. Here identification of training needs is done to find out whether the organization is meeting its current performance standards and objectives and if not.

Although they are independent sources for gathering the necessary data but it is usually beneficial if they are considered complementary to one another as the objective of the exercise is to prepare as consolidated data of training needs as possible. which may be a team. It is used to find out how efficiently a particular team or group goes about its business and meets its current objectives. It also sees to it that there is continuous improvement initiative taken by them. or so on.  Individual Needs These concern the performance of one or more individuals (as individuals. sub-unit. Moreover it also helps to find out whether individuals are comfortable in working across boundaries.which. SOURCES FOR IDENTIFYING TRAINING NEEDS There are three sources for identifying training needs. function. Therefore training needs are nowadays even identified at the group level. Here identification of training needs is about finding out to what extent individuals need to learn or be trained in order to bring their current performance up to the required level as a result of changes in methods and processes that call for new competencies and skills. which is not flexible enough to accommodate such changes into their daily work schedule. may be further utilized for training or other interventions. It is very common for us sometimes to find that people of 17 . Training needs here are concerned basically with the performance of a particular group. This is especially important because there is so much work force diversity observed today in organizations that it has become impossible to retain workforce. rather than as members of a group).Since working in groups and teams have become very much prevalent in today's corporate world that is why nowadays there is increased emphasis given on team effectiveness and team performance. with people from different backgrounds and different perspectives. again. department. Information about the performance of the group may identify areas of training need . The three sources are as follows: -  Job Profile It is a comprehensive description of all the functions and the responsibilities that a person has to carry out in due course of his job.

a particular department more or less perform the same kind of job and therefore a comparative study can be done on their performance to pinpoint on the training needs of those people who have not performed up to the mark. In here we can also include Job analysis in order to have a realistic and systematic appraisal of training needs.3: Job Analysis Matrix  Experiences of the training agency It is very common for organizations nowadays to hire professional training agencies in order to look into the training matters. skills and attitudes required for effective performance of the job. Fig. However. earlier experiences can only serve to facilitate the process. the training agency named SIBM along with the top management of the organization identify the training needs and decide the training modules for the employees of all levels. At ThyssenKrupp this method is used in a modified way. The training agency and the trainers thus should also draw from their own experiences of organizing programs for comparable groups or in similar areas. It cannot be the sole basis. 4. Next we have to classify these tasks/activities on the basis of their relative importance to the nature of the job. And lastly we can compute a priority listing of these tasks in order to have a catalogue of knowledge. 18 . In order to do this first we need to break up the functions and responsibilities into categories. as training needs of majority of organizations are very specific.

EVALUATION OF TRAINING PROGRAM INTRODUCTION AND PURPOSE OF EVALUATION OF PROGRAM: The process of examining a training program is called training evaluation. 19 . and training. Pre-training survey of the participant's needs This is suggested as the best way to conduct a training need identification . However it might happen in certain cases that it is not possible to actively involve the superiors due to various reasons like lack of time etc but in that case at least they must be kept fully informed of the proceedings. Training evaluation checks whether training program has had the desired effect.A pre-training survey is nothing but a survey of the needs and expectations of the participants well in advance of the program. transfer of knowledge at the work place. Training evaluation ensures that whether candidates are able to implement their learning in their respective workplace. especially in context of their performance. This is generally done in a systematic manner with the help of a structured questionnaire in order to reflect the genuine desire to involve the participants and the organization in the planning process. And in this exercise it is better to include the superiors also as they are in a good position to provide necessary data on the training needs of their subordinates. Research: It helps in ascertaining the relationship between acquired knowledge. Pre-training survey method is used to identifying the training needs of the employees. In this project. TRAINING Purpose of Evaluation Feedback: It helps in giving feedback to the candidates by defining the objectives and linking it to learning outcomes. or to the regular work routines.

an improvement in an individual’s Leadership skills cannot be measured in monetary terms. travel expenses. lost work time.benefit analysis helps in analyzing and evaluating any development efforts. Intervention: It helps in determining that whether the actual outcomes are aligned with the expected outcomes. which includes the participant’s 20 . consultant fees. supplies. However this strategy depends on the quality of the objectives set.  Cost-Benefit Analysis: A Cost.  Gap Analysis: Another strategy to evaluate development efforts is to measure the extent to which the objectives of the program are met. He proposed applying each level of evaluation to a program. Identifying the gap between the actual and desired level of performance helps in measuring the level of success of the development program. These costs include the costs of materials.  Kirkpatrick Model: In the late 1950’s D. against the monetary costs of development.Control: It helps in controlling the training program because if the training is not effective. Though the cost benefit analysis sounds appealing. and the like. METHODS OF TRAINING EVALUATION: As Organization spend a large amount of their time and resources in the training and development of their employees. Power games: At times. Kirkpatrick’s system has four levels of evaluation. then it can be dealt with accordingly. For example. it may not always be practically useful. Though it is easy to calculate the monetary costs it is difficult to translate the benefits into economic terms. the top management (higher authoritative employee) uses the evaluative data to manipulate it for their own benefits.L Kirkpatrick developed a model for evaluating workplace education programs. A Cost-benefit analysis measures the benefits from the development program. it is important to evaluate these programs for their effectiveness.

In addition. According to this model. the participants' reactions have important consequences for learning (level two). three.5: Kirkpatrick's Four-Level Model Level 1 . evaluation should always begin with level one. evaluation at this level measures how participants in a training program react to it. Thus. every program should at least be evaluated at this level to provide for the improvement of a training program. change in participant’s behavior and impact of the program on the organizational effectiveness. Fig. Although a positive reaction does not guarantee learning. participant’s learning. a negative reaction almost certainly reduces its possibility.reaction. 4. as time and budget allows. KIRKPATRICK’S MODEL IN BRIEF ASSESSING TRAINING EFFECTIVENESS often entails using the four-level model developed by Donald Kirkpatrick (1994).Did they like it? Was the material relevant to their work? This type of evaluation is often called a “smile sheet. but at the same time requires a more rigorous and timeconsuming analysis. Information from each prior level serves as a base for the next level's evaluation. should move sequentially through levels two.” According to Kirkpatrick. It attempts to answer questions regarding the participants' perceptions . each successive level represents a more precise measure of the effectiveness of the training program. 21 . and four. and then.Reactions Just as the word implies.

Methods range from formal to informal testing to team assessment and self-assessment. knowledge.Level 2 . From a business and organizational perspective. and how to evaluate. Determining results in financial terms is difficult to measure. Evaluating at this level attempts to answer the question .Are the newly acquired skills. If possible. reduced frequency of accidents. yet level four results are not typically addressed. or attitude. decreased costs. this level measures the success of the program in terms that managers and executives can understand -increased production. increased sales. However. and even higher profits or return on investment. measuring at this level is difficult as it is often impossible to predict when the change in behavior will occur. Level 3 .Results Frequently thought of as the bottom line. Measurement at this level is more difficult and laborious than level one. Level 4 . how often to evaluate.Transfer This level measures the transfer that has occurred in learners' behavior due to the training program. knowledge. improved quality. participants take the test or assessment before the training (pretest) and after training (post test) to determine the amount of learning that has occurred. or attitude being used in the everyday environment of the learner? For many trainers this level represents the true assessment of a program's effectiveness. this is the overall reason for a training program. BENEFITS OF TRAINING NEEDS IDENTIFICATION & TRAINING EVALUATION Benefits of Training Need Identification and Training Evaluation are: 22 . and is hard to link directly with training.Learning Assessing at this level moves the evaluation beyond learner satisfaction and attempts to assess the extent students have advanced in skills. and thus requires important decisions in terms of when to evaluate.

time. which is the most important resource today. Through this process it may be possible that certain new training programs. which are either not needed by the employees or they have no interest in undertaking them. which are actually needed by the participants. It also saves a lot of money for the organization as otherwise money is just unnecessarily wasted on those training programs.  23 . The organization is able to reduce the perception gap between the participant and his/her boss about their needs and expectations from the training program. which were. The organization is informed about the broader needs of the participants. as the training programs conducted are the ones. is also saved. Lastly. Track the development of staff knowledge and skills. The organization is also able to pitch its course input closer to the specific needs of the participants. Ensure training improves continuously. previously not in their list may come to the forefront.       Find out if the learning is being applied at the workplace.

COMPANY PROFILE 24 .

COMPANY PROFILE
Jubilant Organosys is a collaborative, innovative provider of products and services to the global life sciences industry, striving to accelerate the process of pharmaceutical drug approval. We have a presence across the pharmaceuticals value chain ranging from drug discovery services, custom research and manufacturing services, advance intermediates and fine chemicals to active pharmaceutical ingredients, dosage forms and regulatory affairs services. We also enjoy leadership in Industrial Products and Performance Polymers products in India.

VISION, PROMISE & VALUES
Jubilant symbolizes positivity, dynamism, triumph and joy, all of which guide and shape the Group’s collective experiences and efforts. Jubilant will always care for human needs, share its expertise to provide a better life and help upgrade the stakeholders’ standard of living and sustainable growth by dynamizing the value chain within the Group. Our vision is to be amongst the top 10 most admired companies to work for. We want to maintain our leadership position in our chosen area of business in India and to establish it globally. We will endeavour to create new opportunities for growth in our strategic businesses which give a 10 points higher rate of return than the cost of capital. Our values determine our business path. Combined with our Promise and Vision, these values have determined what we have achieved and they continue to guide our future.

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OUR VISION

OUR PROMISE

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OUR VALUES

We will carefully select, train and develop our people to be creative, empower them to take decisions, so that they respond to all customers with agility, confidence and teamwork

We stretch ourselves to be cost effective and efficient in all aspects of our operations and focus on flawless delivery to create and provide the best value to our customers

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By sharing our knowledge and learning from each other and from the markets we serve, we will continue to surprise our customers with innovative solutions

With utmost care for the environment and safety, we will always strive to excel in the quality of our processes, our products and our services

CORPORATE OVERVIEW
Jubilant Organosys is an integrated pharmaceutical industry player having presence across the pharmaceuticals value chain. We are a collaborative and innovative provider of products and services to the global life sciences industry, striving to accelerate the process of pharmaceutical drug approval. Our range of offerings include drug discovery and development services, custom research and manufacturing services, advance intermediates, fine chemicals, active pharmaceutical ingredients, dosage forms and regulatory affairs services. We are one of the largest Indian Custom Research and Manufacturing Services (CRAMS) and Drug Discovery Services companies and a leading active pharmaceuticals ingredients company in India. We are a Science Active company with more than 25 years of chemistry knowledge in producing innovative products and processes by leveraging our R&D expertise, knowledge driven operations and global scale manufacturing capacities.

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PSI N. Nira (in Maharashtra) and Samlaya (in Gujarat) and a US FDA approved manufacturing facility for dosage forms in Maryland. renamed Jubilant Pharmaceuticals. Vinyl Pyridine Latex and Organic Intermediates (e. is a generic pharmaceutical company having a US FDA approved manufacturing facility in the USA... is a clinical research organization (CRO) operating out of the USA. Pyridine and its derivatives. having international subsidiaries in USA. Jubilant Chemsys Ltd.g. Ethyl Acetate and Acetic Anhydride). Nanjangud (in Karnataka). USA. Jubilant Organosys also has marketing subsidiaries in USA and China.V. Inc. in which Jubilant Organosys holds 80% equity. Jubilant products are sold across the globe in more than 50 countries. 29 .Jubilant Biosys Ltd. Industrial Products and Performance Polymers. We have four manufacturing locations in India situated at Gajraula (in Uttar Pradesh). Trigen Laboratories Inc. for medicinal chemistry services and Clinsys Clinical Research Ltd.. a wholly owned subsidiary. a subsidiary of Jubilant in USA. Inc. JUBILANT HISTORY 2005 .g.Jubilant Organosys has three subsidiary companies in India .. Inc. a USA based Clinical Research Organization (CRO) Acquires Trinity Laboratories. a generic pharmaceutical Company in USA having a US FDA approved formulation manufacturing facility. renamed Clinsys Inc. for bio/chemo informatics databases & drug discovery services. and its wholly owned subsidiary. Inc. Solid polyvinyl acetate. We have a strong international presence. Our business is organized in three business segments: Pharmaceuticals & Life Science Products. Jubilant Pharmaceuticals.. and PSI Supply N.V. Enters clinical research business by setting up wholly owned subsidiary Jubilant Clinsys Ltd. Carbamazepine and Citalopram). Jubilant Organosys is a leading manufacturer in defined product segments. Clinsys Clinical Research Inc. Belgium and China.Acquires Target Research Associates. including select APIs (e. Globally. for clinical research. are the Belgium based pharmaceuticals companies providing regulatory affairs services and supply of dosage forms to European generic companies.

Commissions Pyridine & Picoline plant. near New Delhi. 2000 . BOARD OF DIRECTOR Shyam S Bhartia Hari S Bhartia Co-Chairman & Managing Director Chairman & Managing Director 30 . Jubilant Organosys Ltd reflects changed corporate and business profile. 1987 – Introduces new products in Performance Chemicals segments. 1985 – Research & Development center gets recognition from Government of India. 1998 . 1997 .Enters high school value added Pyridine derivatives HBR and Cyano Pyridine Plants. Equipped with all latest scientific instruments.New corporate identity. 1988 – Launches its first branded product. an adhesive product. the pharmaceutical companies in Europe. and PSI supply N. 1978 – Incorporated as Vam Organic Chemical Ltd. V.Sets up a new state-of-the-art Research & Development Centre in Noida. V. 2001. Poly vinyl acetate Emulsion for paint.Commission first Multi-purpose fine chemicals plants. 2002 . N. paper & packaging and woodworking industry. Acquires acetyl plant in western India.Sets up medicinal chemistry services business through wholly owned subsidiary Jubilant Chemsys Ltd. 1981 – Initial Public Offering. textile.Enters the Bio/ Chemo informatics arena by setting up Jubilant Biosys Ltd.Gets ISO 9001 certification 1990 . Plant for food polymer Commissioned. Forms marketing subsidiary in the USA. 1983 – Commercial production of Vinyl Acetate Monomer (VAM). Vamicol. 1995 . Listing on leading stock exchanges in India. 2003 .Acquires the active pharmaceutical ingredients business.2004 ..Enters formulations and regulatory affairs businesses by acquiring Pharmaceutical Services Incorporated.

Naresh Trehan Director Director Surendra Singh H K Khan Director Director MANUFACTURING FACILITIES Jubilant's manufacturing capabilities are one of its key differentiators.Dr. Industrial Products and Performance Polymers businesses.Life Sciences Executive Director Chemicals S Bang Ajay Relan Executive Director Manufacturing & Supply Chain Director Abhay Havaldar Bodhishwar Rai Director Director Arabinda Ray Dr. APIs. 31 . Dosage Forms. J M Khanna S N Singh Executive Director & President . The Company has vertically integrated manufacturing facilities for its range of Custom Research and Manufacturing Services.

List of Certificates & Awards Sr. Life Sciences and Speciality Chemicals Oil & Gas (Exploration and Production) Food 32 . The Indian cGMP compliant facility for manufacturing finished dosage forms in Roorkee. is US FDA approved . government and non-government agencies in the form of awards and certifications. Roorkee (Uttarakhand). USA. The Company's manufacturing facility in Maryland. Uttarakhand is operational and readying to undergo inspection by USFDA. Nira (Maharashtra). 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Awards & Certificate Year Golden Peacock award for Innovation Management 2003 Six-sigma Quality Award at the All India CII Convention 2004 The Greentech Foundation Award for Environment Excellence The Energy Conservation Award (Chemical sector) from the Government of India for the Gajraula unit Best Managed Manufacturing Plant for Single super phosphate by FAI 2003 Best HR Practices Award by Centre for International Businesses 2004 P C Acharya Award for Development of Indigenous Technology by 2004 ICMA Top 5 Best Managed Workforce in India . state of Maryland (USA) and Spokane. state of Washington (USA). UKMHRA and other regulatory bodies AWARDS Jubilant's rapid progress across all corporate aspects has consistently been acknowledged by various industry bodies. Salisbury. Udaipur (Rajasthan). Samlaya (Gujrat).Hewitt Award The DSIR Award for Innovation in Chemicals & Allied Industries JUBILANT CORPORATION Jubilant Group is a well-diversified conglomerate having business interests in four sectors of activity: • • • Pharmaceuticals.No.Jubilant Organosys has geographically diversified manufacturing facilities in eight locations: Gajraula (UP). Nanjangud (Karnataka).

Jubilant is creating a culture of innovation to give a free rein to the creative potential of our employees in order to develop fresh solutions and bring tangible results in the fields of R&D. Development and Application studies form the backbone of Jubilant Organosys' local and global presence. R & D FACILITIES Jubilant is an innovative firm that leverages R&D. The sophisticated instrumental facilities provide for complete analysis of products and their structures. Fine Chemicals. Our research and experimental development 33 . We have well equipped laboratories and pilot plant facilities that synthesise organic compounds and polymers. its potential and capabilities to exploit the existing and potential markets. APIs. The organisation must learn to evolve continuously to meet. Contract Management and Human Resources. We believe that R&D can contribute to establish criteria for quality and develop methods to verify them. Over the last fifteen years most of the Advance Intermediates.they include technical. marketing and economics skills generating new products/processes/services.• • Services The Group has a strong global presence in pharmaceuticals and chemicals business The Group is now enhancing its presence in services sectors with focus on Oil & Gas (E&P). Our R&D facilities are interdisciplinary -. flexibility. Dosage Forms and Performance products have been developed in our R&D laboratories. Research. Innovation is about instilling a mindset of entrepreneurial thinking. only an innovative firm will continue to achieve success in scientific. the customer and market needs and create competitive advantage in this age of rapid change. and organic growth .at every level of the organisation. R&D can cooperate to find solutions to production and customers' problems. Jubilant Group had a sales turnover of US$ 615 million in financial year 2005 INNOVATION Jubilant believes that. Food and Transport. technological and social arenas in the coming years.

comprises of creative yet systematic work. where the number of new developments across the pharmaceuticals value chain appears visible. technological and social endeavours. We have entered an age of innovation explosion. and supported by strong technical support services. in technical assistance to production and customers. To continue the ongoing scientific. to ensure that new product development remains focused on the customer's current and future needs. process developments and their possible applications across diverse industries. 34 .. The focus on the customer equips our team to understand and meet the needs of the Pharmaceuticals and Life Sciences industry. or just pure research. increasing the pool of knowledge in devising new applications. At Jubilant our research and development effort fulfils four basic objectives. Science has decoded the "book of human life'' by gene mapping.000 sq. Our laboratories spread over a combined area of 300. which are: • • • • The development of new products Improvement in the quality and performance of our existing products Increasing efficiencies in our manufacturing processes Supporting the customer through product application Our R&D works closely with direct customers using specialized skill sets. the role of research and development (R&D) cannot be overstated. We believe innovation is necessary to generate new ideas. ft. R&D has now assumed a wider role of managing technological change. in design quality and process control. have over one thousand and twenty five skilled scientists and engineers engaged in research on new products. Development and change are constant in life.

35 .One of the largest custom research and manufacturing services (CRAMS) companies.  Jubilant clinsys. Drug Development and Analytical Chemistry.  Jubilant Chemsys.One of the best clinical and bio analytical service provider.  Jubilant Biosys.  PSI & PSI Supply.Jubilant services integrate the expertise of our scientists in the areas of Drug Discovery.PRODUCT PROFILE PRODUCT DISCRIPTION Jubilant operates in four business segments: LIFE SCIENCE PRODUCTS AND SPECIALITY CHEMICALS.An innovative bioinformatics and chemo informatics service provider.It includes five companies  Jubilant Organosys.

canned and dry. frozen.  FOOD EXPRESS STORES (INDIA) LTD. The first Domino’s Pizza store was opened in India in January 1996. to its community of loyal customers all over the country.  DOMINO’S PIZZA INDIA LIMITED.Monday to Sunday is a chain of super stores. Its unique selling proposition is ‘freshness’. oil production registered a major increase. with a team of over 2. Today. The outlets encompass the whole gamut of food products.Jubilant Corporation has emerged as one of the leading private sector players in the Oil & Gas Exploration and Production (E & P) segment in India.sharing contract where. Domino’s pizza delivers fresh and ready to eat food in India by promising delivery within 30 minutes of placing the order. chilled. FOOD.Jubilant Corporation’s business interest in food and retail segment is represented through Domino’s Pizza and Monday to Sunday. post its takeover. packaged.Domino’s Pizza India Limited was incorporated in 1995.000 people. in New Delhi. it has grown into a countrywide network of stores. The corporation has been in the E & P business for the last thirteen years and has successfully bid for the development of the proven field at Kharsang in Arunachal Pradesh by teaming up with consortia in production. SERVICES  Oil & Gas services  Power & Infrastructure Services  Aerospace Services  Automobile Services  Software Solutions  Financial Advisory Services PRODUCTS MANUFACTURED 36 . fresh. MONDAY TO SUNDAY.OIL & GAS. which operates in Bangalore.

Speciality gases for beverages. Commercial scale plants for kilograms to tones with volume of 210 KL.500lts. Consumer Products for woodworking industry. textile and paper / packaging industry. Pilot Plant for kilograms to tones with reactor size of 1to 3 KL and total volume of 12. reactor size of 2 to 15 KL and total Acetyls that include Acetic Acid.500lts. Acetic Anhydride and Ethyl Acetate Single Super Phosphate Organic Manure Application Polymers for coating. and total volume of 3. engineering and health care industry. 37 .Advance Intermediates and Fine Chemicals Facilities – Kilo Lab for grams to kilograms with reactor size of 20 to 630 lts.

Pharmaceutical & Life Science Products 38 .

We cater to global pharmaceuticals and life sciences industry.com Discovery Research .com Clinical Research . Discovery Informatics .Log onto www. Drug Discovery & Development Services Jubilant's subsidiaries.com Drug Development Services . is the largest Custom Research and Manufacturing Services provider and a leading player in Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients in India. Our subsidiary PSI in Belgium provides regulatory affairs services and dosage forms to generic pharmaceutical companies. www. Jubilant Chemsys and Clinsys Clinical Research provide a range of functional as well as integrated services that help accelerate the discovery and development process within the global pharmaceutical and biotech industry.jubilantbiosys. Jubilant Biosys. we can seamlessly scale up from mg to MT quantities.com. Our products and services cover the entire gamut from development and supply of intermediates for drug discovery to commercial supplies of intermediates.Log onto www. Jubilant Pharmaceuticals. Whether it is advance intermediates. is a generic pharmaceutical company having a US FDA approved manufacturing facility for solid dosage forms. our subsidiary in USA. The Company has competence and knowledge to undertake more than 30 complex chemical reactions. fine chemicals or active pharmaceutical ingredients. divided into four sub segments.Log onto www.jubilantbiosys.Log onto www.jubilantbiosys. The subsidiaries located in the US and India provide innovative solutions to our collaborators and partners while creative business models help sustain these relationships.ClinsysCRO.jchemsys.com 39 .Our Pharmaceuticals and Life Science Products business. APIs and finished dosage forms.

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one such important division is training and development. such as education. The divisions included in HRM are Recruitment. There were also some views that training is a very costly affair and not worth. But now. developing. Organizations used to believe more in executive pinching. that emerged during the 1930s. It ensures that randomness is reduced and learning or behavioral change takes place in structured format. etc. Industrial Relation. and compensating the employees in organization. Retention. It comprises of the functions and principles that are applied to retaining. The modern approach of training and development is that Indian Organizations have realized the importance of corporate training. healthcare etc. from the time of his entry into an organization until he leaves.TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT IN JUBLIANT LIFESCIENCS LTD. Training And Development is a subsystem of an organization. Performance Management. Many people used to refer it before by its traditional titles. such as Personnel Administration or Personnel Management. the trend is changing. a relatively new term. come under the horizon of HRM. programs. Payroll. They were holding the traditional view that managers are born and not made. It is also applicable to non-business organizations. Training is now considered as more of retention 41 . train and develops. recruit. All the activities of employee. HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Human Resource Management is defined as the people who staff and manage organization. Out of all these divisions. But now the scenario seems to be changing. and functions that are designed to maximize both organizational as well as employee effectiveness Scope of HRM without a doubt is vast. TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT Human Resource Management (HRM). Human Resource Management is a management function that helps an organization select. It is now termed as Human Resource Management (HRM). training. Human Resource Management is defined as the set of activities. TRADITIONAL AND MODERN APPROACH OF TRAINING AND DEVLOPMENT Traditional Approach – Most of the organizations before never used to believe in training. Training and Development.

The training system in Indian Industry has been changed to create a smarter workforce and yield the best results TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT OBJECTIVES The principal objective of training and development division is to make sure the availability of a skilled and willing workforce to an organization. enhances the individual contribution to an organization. Functional Objectives – maintain the department’s contribution at a level suitable to the organization’s needs.tool than a cost. Organizational Objectives – assist the organization with its primary objective by bringing individual effectiveness. Individual Objectives – help employees in achieving their personal goals. Functional. 42 . which in turn. and Societal. there are four other objectives: Individual. Societal Objectives – ensure that an organization is ethically and socially responsible to the needs and challenges of the society. In addition to that. Organizational.

OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY 43 .

44 .OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY The objective of my study are as follows:• • • • To identify the training & development needs at Jubilant Organosys. To critically evaluate the training & development programme at Jubilant Organosys To give effective suggestions on the basics of the result in order to improve their training & development program To study the changes in behavioral pattern due to training.

SCOPE & RATIONALE OF THE STUDY SCOPE & RATIONALE OF THE STUDY 45 .

The scope of the study covers in depth. The broad Importance of the study of training policies in Jubilant Life Sciences Ltd is to study the impact of training on the overall skill development of workers. To examine the impact of training on the workers. To study the changes in behavioral pattern due to training. the various training practices. modules. The specific Importance of the study are: 1. 3. through its faculties. formats being followed and is limited to the company Jubilant Life Sciences Ltd. outside agencies or professional groups. To compare the cost effectiveness in implanting training programmes. The different training programmes incorporated/facilitated in Jubilant Life Sciences Ltd. 4. To examine the effectiveness of training in overall development of skills of workforce. To measure the differential change in output due to training 5. 2. and its employees. It also judges the enhancement of the knowledge & skills of employees and feedback on its effectiveness. 46 .

LITERATURE REVIEW 47 .

It has come to their attention by their own preferred model and through experience with large Organisations. although differences in terms of effect sizes were not large.g. According to Davenport (2006). acquisition of new skills. Arthur et al.62). (2003) conducted a meta-analysis of 1152 effect sizes from 165 sources and ascertained that in comparison with no-training or pretraining states. the different approaches to training and development need to be explored. The “content” and the “access” are the actual factors for the process. It is a representation itself by the Access on main aspect what is effective to the adopted practice in training development. However. Training-related changes should result in improved job performance and other positive changes (e. they advising on all the problems. in maintaining the uncertainty related to the purpose and in introducing new tactics for the environment of work and by recognizing this. 2008. A manager is that what the other members of the organization wants them to be because it is a very popular trend of development training for the managers in the training for the management (Andersson. Reassuringly.. (Meister. Usually the managers have the choice to select the best training and development programme for their staff but they always have to bear in mind that to increase their chances of achieve the target they must follow the five points highlighted by Miller and Desmarais (2007). There is a survey confirmation for using classroom to deliver the training would drop dramatically. 2002). which reiterates the requirement for flexible approach. 2001). the effectiveness of training varied depending on the training delivery 48 . training had an overall positive effect on job-related behaviors or performance (mean effect size or d = 0. The current traditional training continuously facing the challenges in the selection of the employees. Hill & Lent 2006.LITERATURE REVIEW According to Casse and Banahan (2007). Luo. As per the recent theories to access the knowledge is changing from substantial in the traditional to deliver the knowledge for the virtual forms to use the new meaning of information with electronic learning use. Some of the Training theories can be effective immediately on the future of the skill and developments. Satterfield & Hughes 2007) that serve as antecedents of job performance (Kraiger 2002). mentioned in his recent studies that it’s easy to implement strategy with the internet supported software.

trained mechanics developed an intuitive feel when removing dents—a complex process particularly when the fender is badly crumpled. In a qualitative study involving mechanics in Northern India. trained mechanics learned to build two Jeep bodies using only a homemade hammer. Declarative knowledge is knowledge about 49 . Regarding tacit skills. and oxyacetylene welder. one of the mechanics had a “good feeling of how to hit the metal at the exact spot so the work progresses in a systematic fashion” (Barber 2004. Although behavior-modeling training has a rich history of success (e. Specifically. chisel. p. Decker & Nathan 1985. Robertson 1990). the general findings reported by Arthur et al. this type of repair is common practice in the developing world (Barber 2004). although most shops in developed nations would not even attempt to repair a fender that was damaged so badly. Specifically. This type of tacit skill was particularly useful in the Indian context because. They ascertained that the largest effects were for declarative and procedural knowledge (ds around 1. Benefits of training are also documented for technical skills. Training effects on performance may be subtle (though measurable). the most effective training programs were those including both cognitive and interpersonal skills. a unique aspect of this research was that training was found to affect changes in worker skills through a change in trainees’ knowledge structures or mental models (see also Marks et al. mentally rehearsing tasks allowed trainees to increase declarative knowledge and task performance. Tacit skills are behaviors acquired through informal learning that are useful for effective performance. 134). For example. followed by those including psychomotor skills or tasks. As a result of informal training.0 resulting from comparing training versus a no-training or pretest condition). 2008). (2005) conducted a metaanalysis including 117 behavior-modeling training studies. Barber (2004) found that on-the-job training led to greater innovation and tacit skills. as well as go beyond. We emphasize that results from metaanalytic reviews should generally be given more weight than individual (i. Barber noted that the job of a mechanic requires “feel” to be successful. primary-level) studies because they are more reliable (Aguinis et al. Taylor et al. More recently. Davis & Yi (2004) conducted two experiments with nearly 300 participants using behavior-modeling training and were able to improve computer skills substantially.. Next.e. (2003).g. each measured 10 days after the training was completed. 2002 for an examination of mental models at the team level).method and the skill or task being trained. For example. we describe studies to exemplify.. Regarding innovation.

1993). indicating the need to investigate moderators of the relationship between behavior-modeling training and outcomes. meaning of terms). (2005) reported substantial variance in the distribution of effect sizes. Taylor et al. The overall mean effect on changes in job behavior was d = 0..g.e. facts.27. Kraiger et al. how to perform skilled behavior) (see Aguinis 2009.. whereas procedural knowledge is knowledge about “how” (i. 50 . However.“what” (e. We address the issue of moderators below in the Suggestions for Future Research section.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 51 .

then he has to look into various 52 Types of Research – The research is based on exploratory research. There are several method of collecting primary data. It may be understood as a science of studying how research is done scientifically. When the researcher utilizes secondary data. Research Methodology is a way to systematically solve the problem. Secondary data –The secondary are those which have already been passed through the statistical process. It is necessary for the researcher to know not only the research methods/techniques but also the methodology used. .RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research methodology involves the process to systematically solve the research problem or research objectives of the research. Research process consists of series of actions or steps necessary to effectively carry out the research. A careful investigation or inquiry specially through search for new facts in any branch of knowledge. and happen to be original in character. particularly in survey researches important ones are : (a)through questionnaires(b)observation methods (c) through schedules(d)interview method (e)other method which include. It not only includes research methods uses in conduction the research but also consider the logic behind the methods we adopt in the context of our research study and explain why we are using a particular method of technique and why are not using others so the research results are capable of being evaluated either by the researcher himself or by others. Research is a systematized efforts to gain new knowledge It is a movement .a movement from the known to the unknown.The research is based on primary as well as secondary data. Researchers not only need to know how to develop certain indices or tests. DATA TYPE: . In it we study the various steps that are generally adopted by the researcher in studying his research problem along with logic behind them. how to apply particular research techniques but must also know which of these methods or techniques are relevant and what would they mean and indicate and why. It is actually a voyage of discovery. how to calculate mean or median or mode. • . Primary data-The primary data are those which are collected afresh and for the first time.

usually published data are available in (a)various publication of the central. In what style will report be prepared? 53 . What is the study all about? 2. magazines and news papers (e) reports and publications of various associations connected with business and industries . measurement and analysis of data. Where can the required data are found? 5. How will data be analyzed? 8. the research design is the conceptual structure with in which research is conducted. What type of data is required? 4. we can say that research design decisions happen to be in respect of: 1. How will the data will be collected? 7. RESEARCH DESIGN A Research design is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to research purpose with economy in procedure. state are local governments (b)various publication of foreign government or of international bodies and their subsidiary organization (c) technical and trade journals (d) books. In fact. Research Methodology of a research includes these major aspects of a research: Research design  Sampling Design  Data Collection Methods  Processing and Analysis of Data  Interpretation and conclusion 1.sources from where he can obtain them. Why is the study being made? 3. More explicitly. In this case he is certainly not confronted with the problem that are usually associated with the collection of secondary data. It constitutes the blueprint for collection. What period of time will study included? 6.

3. The desire precision of the inferences. It depends on a host of factor. 4. We can say that sample size is depends upon:1. Probability Sampling Techniques. For example All senior citizens residing in national capital region. (B) 1. The kind and number of comparisons. Non-Probability Sampling Technology. 3. SAMPLE SIZE Every researcher has to determined to sample size of the population for which the study is to be conducted. 3. 5. Determination of the precise size of a sample that has to be selected from the population is a difficult task. 54 . All the sampling design techniques are divided into two categories:(A) (B) (A) 1. and Area Sampling. 2. 2. 6. Non -Probability Sampling Technology are:Convenience Sampling Judgmental Sampling Quota Sampling Random Sampling Techniques are: Simple Random Sampling Systematic Random Sampling Stratified Sampling Cluster Sampling Multi Stage Sampling.2. 2. Then the next step is to determine the samples size that is to be selected from the population. SAMPLING DESIGN TECHNIQUES There are various types of sampling design techniques. Nature of research and analysis. 3.

The sample size in the project report is 100 taken from the various HR Departments employees. My report is based on Non -Probability Sampling Techniques. 5. magazines and news papers) 55 . The analysis is based on questionnaire as the sampling instrument and the information gained is through primary sources ((a)through questionnaires(b)observation methods (c) through schedules(d)interview method (e)other method which include. My research based on primary data and sample size is 20 including employees of Jubilant Life Sciences Ltd.) and secondary sources ((a)various publication of the central. 6. etc. state are local governments (b)various publication of foreign government or of international bodies and their subsidiary organization (c) technical and trade journals (d) books. The statistical level of confidence used.4. The variance one expects to find in the population. The number of variable to be measured and analysis.

DATA ANALYSIS & INTERPRETATION 56 .

1.2. 40% respondents choose the option in team and remaining 10% respondents choose the option both.DATA ANALYSIS & INTERPRETATION Q. Q.No. 2. Options 57 Percentage .No. Are you getting training and development in your organization? Table No – 1 S. 1. Do you know the basic objective of training and development? Table No – 2 S. 3. Options Individually In team Both Figure No – 1 Percentage 50% 40% 10% INTERPRETATION:50% respondents choose the option individually.

3. 3. Are you satisfied by the training and development provided by the organization? Table No – 3 S. 2. 2.No. Q. 60% respondents choose the option partially and remaining 10% respondents choose the option no. Fully Partially No Figure No – 2 30% 60% 10% INTERPRETATION:30% respondents choose the option fully.1.3. Options Yes No Can’t say 58 Percentage 60% 10% 30% . 1.

No.Figure No – 3 INTERPRETATION:60% respondents choose the option yes. 1. Q. 10% respondents choose the option no and remaining 30% respondents choose the option can’t say. 3. 2. Options Agreed Partially agreed Disagreed Figure No – 4 Percentage 60% 30% 10% 59 . Do you believe that training and development system reflect any scope of improvement in one’s performance? Table No – 4 S.4.

5. 2.INTERPRETATION:? 60% respondents choose the option agreed.No. 1. 4. Training and development helps you in? Table No – 5 S. 30% respondents choose the option partially agreed and remaining 10% respondents choose the option disagreed. 3. Q. Options Career planning Goal achievement Promotion Others Figure No – 5 Percentage 10% 30% 40% 20% 60 .

INTERPRETATION:10% respondents choose the option career planning. 3. 2. 30% respondents choose the option goal achievement. Q. 1. Options Members of the personnel staff Outsides consultants Your’s supervisors Faculty members at universities Figure No – 6 Percentage 20% 10% 50% 20% 61 . 4.6. 40% respondents choose the option promotion and remaining 20% respondents choose the option others.No. Who is providing the training to you? Table No – 6 S.

10% respondents choose the option outsides consultants. 3. 2.7. Options Yes No Can’t say Figure No – 7 Percentage 60% 30% 10% 62 . Are you satisfied with the criteria adopted by your organization? Table No – 7 S.No. 1.INTERPRETATION:20% respondents choose the option members of the personnel staff. 50% respondents choose the option your’s supervisors and remaining 20% respondents choose the option faculty members at universities Q.

Q.No. 1. 30% respondents choose the option no and remaining 10% respondents choose the option can’t say.8.INTERPRETATION:60% respondents choose the option yes. 2. 3. Options Yes No Can’t say Figure No – 8 Percentage 45% 30% 25% 63 . Is the training system of your organization transparent? Table No – 8 S.

If any development is required after performance appraisal then proper training is given to you? Table No – 9 S. 1. Options Yes No Figure No – 9 Percentage 65% 35% 64 . 30% respondents choose the option no and remaining 25% respondents choose the option can’t say.9. 2. Q.INTERPRETATION:45% respondents choose the option yes.No.

1. Does the training system provides an opportunity for orientation of individual objectives towards the achievement of organization goal? Table No – 10 S. 2.INTERPRETATION:65% respondents choose the option yes and remaining 35% respondents choose the option no.No. 3. Options Agreed Partially agreed Disagreed Figure No – 10 Percentage 35% 50% 15% 65 . Q.10.

INTERPRETATION:35% respondents choose the option agreed. Q. 1. Do you feel that any reward are given to you according to your performance? Table No – 11 S.No. 3. 50% respondents choose the option partially agreed and remaining 15% respondents choose the option disagreed. 2. Options Yes No Can’t say Figure No – 11 Percentage 50% 20% 30% 66 .11.

1. 4. 3.12. 2. Q. As par your view which factors make a training programme ineffective? Table No – 12 S.No. 20% respondents choose the option no and remaining 30% respondents choose the option can’t say.INTERPRETATION:50% respondents choose the option yes. Options Management commitment is lacking and uneven Aggregate spending on training is inadequate Educational institutions award degree but graduates lacks skills Others Figure No – 12 Percentage 35% 20% 20% 25% 67 .

3.No. Q. 20% respondents choose the option Aggregate spending on training is inadequate. 20% respondents choose the option Educational institutions award degree but graduates lacks skills and remaining 25% respondents choose the option others.13. Options Lectures Audio-visuals On-the-job training Computer-Assisted instruction Figure No – 13 Percentage 55% 20% 20% 5% 68 . The methods adopted by your organization is? Table No – 13 S. 2.INTERPRETATION:35% respondents choose the option Management commitment is lacking and uneven. 4. 1.

20% respondents choose the option on-the-job training and remaining 5% respondents choose the option Computer-Assisted instruction Q. 20% respondents choose the option audio-visuals.No. 2. Do you think that need assessment diagnoses present and future challenges to be met through training and development? Table No – 14 S.INTERPRETATION:55% respondents choose the option lectures. Options Yes No Can’t say Figure No – 14 Percentage 40% 30% 30% 69 . 1.14. 3.

15.INTERPRETATION:40% respondents choose the option yes. Options True Partially true False Figure No – 15 Percentage 60% 35% 5% 70 . 1. 2. Q. 3. 30% respondents choose the option no and remaining 30% respondents choose the option can’t say.No. Is your trainer given the honest feedback to you? Table No – 15 S.

Q. 35% respondents choose the option partially true and remaining 5% respondents choose the option false. What is the effect of Sales of Product after Training & Development programme organized by Jubilant organization? Table No – 16 S.INTERPRETATION:60% respondents choose the option true. 1.16. 2. Options Increasing Decreasing No Effect Figure No – 16 Percentage 70% 10% 20% 71 . 3.No.

20% 10% 70% Increasing Decreasing No Effect INTERPRETATION:70% respondent say after training and development sales is increasing. 20% say no effect and 10% say sales is Decreasing. RESULTS / FINDINGS 72 .

Most of the respondents choose the option agreed. Most of the respondents choose the option promotion.RESULTS /FINDINGS • • • • • • Most of the respondents choose the option individually Most of the respondents choose the option partially Most of the respondents choose the option yes. Most of the respondents choose the option yes 73 .

• • • • Most of the respondents choose the option lectures Most of the respondents choose the option yes Most of the respondents choose the option true Most of the respondent say after training and development sales is increasing. CONCLUSION 74 .• • • • • Most of the respondents choose the option yes Most of the respondents choose the option yes Most of the respondents choose the option partially agreed Most of the respondents choose the option yes Most of the respondents choose the option Management commitment is lacking and uneven..

The training programmes were adequately designed to cater to the developmental needs of the respondents. The objectives of the training programmes were broadly known to the respondents prior to attending them.CONCLUSION Training is considered as a positive step towards augmentation of the knowledge base by the respondents. 75 . Some of the respondents suggested that the time period of the training programmes were less and thus need to be increased.

The training programmes were able to improve on-the-job efficiency. Some respondents also recommended that the number of training programmes be increased. 76 . Some respondents believe that the training sessions could be made more exciting if the sessions had been more interactive and in line with the current practices in the market.Some of the respondents also suggested that use of latest training methods will enhance the effectiveness of the training programmes. The training aids used were helpful in improving the overall effectiveness of the training programmes.

LIMITATIONS 77 .

78 .LIMITATIONS Following are the limitation of the Training and Development procedure at JOL: • • • • Less emphasis was given on behavioral training Training effectiveness was measured using only the feedback from the HOD Lack of direct interaction between the workers & training department Lack of resources provided to the training personnel of the HR department in the form of the man power and material resources.

SUGGESTIONS 79 .

 The organization can arrange the training programmes department wise in order to give focused attention towards the departmental requirements.  The duration of the training sessions should be amplified.  New programmes for personal as well as professional development of the officers should be developed.SUGGESTIONS Based on the data collected through the questionnaire and interactions with the Officers and Workers of Jublient Life Sciences Ltd the following recommendations are made for consideration:  The organization may consider deputing each employee to attend at least one training programmes each year. The major suggestions for changes in the existing training programmes are as follows: The frequency of the training programmes organized in a year should be increased. 80 .  The In-house training programmes will be beneficial to the organization as well as employees since it will help employees to attend their official work while undergoing the training.  The organization can also arrange part time training programmes in the office premises for short durations. in order to avoid any interruption in the routine work. spanning over a few days.

BIBLIOGRAPHY 81 .

A Practical Guide to Needs Assessment.  Kothari C. San Francisco: JosseyBass/Pfeiffer. Wishwa Prakashan. Kavita. WEBLIOGRAPHY : • http://www..“Human resources management” fifth edition.BIBLIOGRAPHY  Ashwathpa K.N “Personal growth training and development”Savera publicationGupta. 1998  Jha R.com 82 . third edition1999.R “Research Methodology” Second Edition. New Delhi 2003.jubl. Tata McGraw hill.

ANNEXURE: QUESTIONNAIRE 83 .

Is the training system of your organization transparent? Q.10. Members of the personnel staff b. Partially b.2. Does the training system provides an opportunity for orientation of individual objectives towards the achievement of organization goal? 84 b.4. Yes one’s performance? a.1. Do you believe that training and development system reflect any scope of improvement in . Fully a.8. No c. Individually a. Faculty members at universities Q. In team b. Your’s supervisors d.9. Yes b. Are you getting training and development in your organization? a. Are you satisfied with the criteria adopted by your organization? a. No Q. Outsides consultants c. No c. If any development is required after performance appraisal then proper training is given to b. Career planning c. Can’t say c.6. Training and development helps you in? b. Are you satisfied by the training and development provided by the organization? Q. Partially agreed c. Both c. No c. Promotion Q.7. Do you know the basic objective of training and development? Q. Can’t say Q. Goal achievement d. Others b.3.Disagreed Q. No b. Yes a. Agreed a.5. Can’t say Q. Yes you? a. Who is providing the training to you? a.QUESTIONNAIRE Q.

Computer-Assisted instruction Q. Educational institutions award degree but graduates lacks skills d. The methods adopted by your organization is? a..13. Audio-visuals d. Can’t say Q. False Q. Yes a. Lectures c. On-the-job training b. What is the effect of Sales of Product after Training & Development programme organized by Jublient organization? a. Partially agreed c. Agreed b. Others Q..14. No Effect RESPONDENT PROFILE Name………………………………………………………………………… Age …………………………………………………………………………. Address……………………………………………………………………. Do you feel that any reward are given to you according to your performance? a. True b. As par your view which factors make a training programme ineffective? a.16..a. No c. No b. Decreasing Sales c. Do you think that need assessment diagnoses present and future challenges to be met through training and development? a. Management commitment is lacking and uneven b.12. Can’t say c. 85 . Yes b. Partially true c.15. Aggregate spending on training is inadequate c. Disagreed Q.11. Increasing Sales b. Is your trainer given the honest feedback to you? Q.

…………………………………………………………………………… 86 .

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