Explain disposal of sewage by dilution, and conditions favoring disposal by
Disposal by dilution is the process whereby the treated sewage or the effluent from_
the treatment plant is discharged into the river, stream or a b?dy
such as lake or sea. The discharged sewage in due course of time IS pUrified t:>y
what is known as self purification process of natural waters. The degree
amount of treatmemt given to raw sewage before disposing it of into the nver
stream will depend not only on the quality of raw sewage but also on the self
purification capacity of the river stream and the intended use of its water.
Disposal by dilution can be adopted under following conditions:
When sewage is comparatively fresh (4-5 hr.? old) and free from floating
settable solids. '
When diluting waler has high dissolved oxygen content.
When diluting are not used for the purpose of navJg.c:I!lQD or supply for
at least some reasonable distance on the downstream from the pOint of sewage
disposal. "
Where the flow currents of the diluting ,
nuisance or destruction of aquatic life. Swift forward currents are helpful as they
easily carry away the sewage to the points 0: unlimite? On the other
slow back currents tend to cause sedimentation resulting In large sludge depOSits.
When the outfall sewer of the city or the treatment plant is situated near some
natural waters having large volumes.
What are the different causes of water pollution?
Pollution in a body of water is caused by the introduction of objectionable ­
, in!9.JL Pollution may be Le. caused man. ma?e
-'Natural pollution is related with adverse weather conditions .I.e. rain,
sudden thaws etc. This may consists of run off from land carrying Silt,. vegeta?le
matter manure etc. washed into a watercourse during a storm orfollowmg
of rive; banks and valley slopes. Natural pollution being intermittent and restricted
in short reaches of river is of little consequence.
Artificial pollution is mainly caused by' wastes from household: and
agricultural lands. The domestic waste include. human excreta, Urine, __ :
ell and laundry which do not receive treatment
discharged into water course. Industrial waste comP:lse of ?rganlc and .
chemical substances in minute or colloidal suspension which underg? microbial
decomposition resulting in products odoriferous or unacceptabl
In. taste or
appearance or harmful to human beings. to
the barnyard drainage or washing in of chemical fertilizers,
and herbicides into surface or ground water sources.
What are effects of water pollution?
The effects of water pollution are as follows
1. It depletes the DO content of the receiving water to a point that the stream
becomes incapable of exercising self purification process.
2. The de oxygenation may be sufficient to destroy practically all the fish and
other aquatic life.
3. 9ause stream insanitation by causing suspended solids to deposit on the
stream bed causing silting, the organic matter undergoing putrefaction with
, the solid matter buoyed up by gas riSing to the top and resulting in floating
masses of evil smelling and unSightly sludge.
4. The use of polluted water downstream by communities for their daily
requirements may cause the outbreak of water borne diseases.
5. The industrial discharges upstream of decreases the utility of such,
watersfor bathing and recreational purposes.
6. Polluted waters are difficult to be easily treated and the treatment plants have
to incur increased cost in handling such waters. ' ,
What are preventive measures for water pollution?
Preventive measures include gublic consciousness, industrial cooperation and
'legislative control. Sl:lfficient publicity and efforts are needed to educate the peoPle
the necessity of keeping ponds and streams flowing nearby clean and unpolluted.
Industrial cooperation include adequate pretreatment of all such industrial wastes
which are of toxic nature before being discharged into municipal sewers or into
water courses. Industries could be given some form of tax incentive so as to
encourage them to undertake water pollution control measures. On the other hand
industries causing pollution could be subjected to pollution tax and heavy
"[he legislative control is a necessity to counter effectively all possible violations, of
pollution control practices. With the enactment of the water (Prevention and
control of pollution) Act 1974 most of the states in India have established Water
Pollution Control Boards. This has resulted in setting up of waste water
plants in a number of industries in order to bring down the pollution level within the
acceptable limits prior to disposal. These limits must conform with minor
modifications to the tolerance limits prescribed already by Indian Standards
Institution for discharge of effluent into different bodies. Besides Central & State
boards are formulating comprehensive water resources conservation program
and developing practical standards for waste water discharges into different river
basins based on actual river water quality data.
Explain self purification of streams.
When sewage is discharged into a body of water the receiving water gets polluted
due to the waste products borne by sewage. But the conditions do not remain so
for ever because ihe natural forces of purification Le. dilution, sedimentation,
8 BC2.5
oxidation-reduction, sunlight etc. go on acting upon the polluted elements and
bring back the- water into its original state. This principle of self purification of
polluted waters is utilized in the methods of disposal of sewage by dilution.
06. Briefly explain water pollution legislation.
Ans: Water pollution has become a universal problem essentially due to the increase in
population and industrial growth. In India about 70% ofthe surface water pollution
is caused from domestic sewage and the rest from other sources. Voluntary
measures to check pollution of water are neither sufficient nor strictly followed,
therefore the govt. of India has to specify certain laws to control water pollution.
These specified laws have been formed to be implemented at the state and central
To formulate such laws Indian Parliament in 1974 passed a "Water Pollution A0"
under article 252 of the constitution to check water pollution. This act makes
provisions forthe following
1. Constitution of central and state water pollution control boards
2. T ~ r m s and conditions of selection and service of the members of these
3. Meetingofboards, disqualification and vacation of seats by its members ..
4. Functions and powers ofthe water pollution control boards.
5. Setting of water testing labs, penalties and prosecution of industrial
units/municipalities found flouting the norms ofthe board.
6. Provision offunds and infrastructure by state and center .
The aforesaid act has since been modified and amended in 1975, 1977 and
1978. We have a central and state water pollution control boards almost .in
every state ofthe country.
07. What are the differenttechniques used for control of noise pollution?
Ans: The techniques employed for controlling noise pollution can be broadly classified
1. Control at source
a. Reducing the noise levels from domestic sectors
b. Maintenance of automobiles
c. Control over vibrations
d. Low voice speaking
e. Prohibition on usage of loud speakers
f. Selection of machinery
g. Maintenance of machines
2. Control in the transmission path
a. Installation of barriers
b. Design of building
c. Installation of panels or enclosures
d. Green belt development
3. Using protective equipment.
a. Job rotation
b. Exposure reduction
c. Hearing protection '
08. Discuss how the adverse impact of noise pollution on the workers can be
Ans: The noi!?epollution can be controlled by using protection equipments as­
Protective equipment usage is the ultimate step in noise' contrQLte.QhnQJQ.9Y, i.e.
after noise reduction at source and/or after the diversion or engineered control of
transmission path of noise. The first step in the technique of using protective
equipment is to gauge the intensity bfthe problem, identification of the sufferer and
his exposure to the noise levels. The usage of protective equipment and the
worker's exposure to the high noise levels can be minimized by ­
1. Job rotation: By rotating the job between the workers working at a particular
noise source or isolating a person, the adverse impacts can be reduced.
2. Exposure reduction: Regulations prescribe that, noise level of 90 dB (A) for
more than 8 hr continuous exposure is prohibited. Persons who are working
under such conditions will be exposed to occupational health hazards. The
schedule ofthe workers should be planned in such a way that, they should not
be over exposed to the high noise levels.
3. liearing protection: Equipment like earmuffs, ear plugs ett. are the commonly
. used devices for hearing protection. Attenuation provided by ear-muffs vary
widely in respectto their size, shape, seal material etc. ­
atmosphere whenever the D.O. content of the water falls below its saturation
value. Oxygen is also contributed by other factors including green
influence of This supply of oxygen is termed as reaeratlon and Its rate
depends upon.
depth of receiving water (rate is more in shallow depth) .'
condition of body of water (rate is more in a running stream than In a qUiescent
01. Explain the processl various actions involved in the self purification of running
Ans: The various actions involved in the self purification of streams are physical,
chemical and biological and may be explained as dueto
1. Dilution: As the putrescible organic matter is discharged into the flowing water, it is
rapidly dispersed or diluted in it, the action resulting in. diminishing the potential
nuisance of sewage. This process is further accelerated by the joining in with the
main stream of surface tributaries and under ground streams.
2. Sedimentation: This helps by the separation of the settle able solids in sewageJn
form of sludge deposits ..Settle able solids are most stable and easily
separated out.
3. Q]<idation: As soon as the organic matter meets the water, it starts getting oxidized
owing to the development of the oxidizing organisms in water. This process goes
on till the organic matter has been completely oxidized, the oxygen demand is then
fully satisfied and the stream is said to havepl,J!jTIed itself. It is therefore essential'
for the stream to have initially dissolved oxygen in it. Oxygen is also contributed
through the dilution received from tributaries, through aeration by the action of
wind or by the action of microscopicorganisms.
4. Reduction: Reduction occurs due to the hydrolysis of organic matter
,chemically or biologically. Anaerobic organisms liquefy splitting complex organic
constituents of sewage with the evolution of odors and gases and in this way
paving the way for stabilization by oxidization .
5. . Sunlight: Sunlight is effective in the self purification and
bleaching effects on bacteria and through the biological action of certain:-­
microorganisms deriving the energy from the sun, converting themselves into food
for other forms of life, absorbing carbon dioxide and giving off oxygen- a process
known as photosynthesis
02. Discuss oxygen sag curve.
Ans: As the sewage is discharged into a body of water there is at first a depletion
D.O. content ofthe diluting water in order to meetthe biological requirement (BOD)
of the organic sewage. This is termed as deoxygenation and closely follows the'
progress of BOD of polluted water. For the reason it is also sometimes referred as
BOD reaction. The rate of deoxygenation action depends on
1. Volume and BOD of sewage
2. Time available for decomposition and
3. Temperature ofthe diluting water
Due to deoxygenation, the D.O. of water would have been rapidly consumed up,'
but for the fact that oxygen is also absorbed at the water surface from the
11 BC2.5
pond)' .
saturation deficit or the deficit of DO below the saturation
Both deoxygenation and reaeration are occurring simultaneously in any. polluted
stream exposed to the air. Their rates can b.e formulated into expressions and
curves obtained there from. In order to determine the amount of DO present at any
instant the two can be combined together to give the DO or the oxygen curve,
Curves of De oxygenation Re aeration and Oxygen sag
Two distinct points of the oxygen sag curve are , .
1. The critical point or the point of least oxygen content, when the oxygen defiCit
shall be maximum
2. The point of inflexion, when the rate of recovery is maximum.
What are the different zones of pollution in a river stream?
A polluted stream undergoing self purification has the following four distinct zones
1 Zone of degradation: This usually occurs below the outfall, sewer when
. . discharging its contents into the stream. The zone is characterized by water
becoming dark and turbid with the formation of sludge deposits at the bottom.
D.O. reduced to 40%. There is an increase in the carbon dioxide content,
reaeration occurs but is slower than deoxygenation. C'onditions are favorable
development of aquatic life, fungi at higher points and bacteria at 10weT
points, breed small worms which work over and stabilize the sewage sludge:
2. Zone of active decomposition: This is marked by heavy pollution. It is
characterized by the absence of DO, water is greyish and darker with active
anaerobic organic decomposition accompanying and with the evolution of
methane, hydrogen sulphide, carbon dioxide and nitrogen bubbling to .the
surface with masses of sludge forming black scum. Fish life, is practically
absent, fungi and bacteria disappear. As the organic decomposition slackens,
reaeration sets in and DO again rises to its original level.
3. Zone of recovery: In this zone the stream tries to recover its former
appearance. Most of the organic matter has been settled as sludge, BOD falls
and the DO content rises above 40%. Microscopic aquatic life reappears,
water becomes clearer, fungi decreases and algae reappear. Mineralization is
active and the products such as nitrates, sulphates and carbonates are
. formed.
4. Clear water zone: In this the natural stream condition is restored, the DO is
higherthan the BOD. Oxygen balance (DO minus total BOD in the first stage)
is attained and recovery is said to be complete. Water b,ecomes attractive in
appearance. Some pathogenic organisms may however be present.
04. What are the different factors affecting self purification?
Ans: The following conditions affect the self purification of streams
1. Dilution: When the sewage is mixed with a large volume of water the sewage
always remain in aerobic conditions and DO always remain present in the
2. Current: When there is no current the sewage matter deposits ne(;lr outfall
causing formation of sludge bank and foul odors. In heavy currents the
sewage is thoroughly mixed up with the stream waterpreventing all nuisance.
3. Sedimentation: With slow current the heavier solids settle in the stream bed
and start anaerobic decomposition. The products of decomposition are again
mixed with water by the current. If the dilution is sufficient the anaerobic
condition will not develop and the scouring tendency of streams during flood
will wash the deposits.
4. Temperature: At low temperature organisms activities are slow due to whjch
rate of decomposition is slow and in warm temperature action is reverse.
Therefore in summer the streams will get self purified in less time than in
winter. Butthe quantity of DO is more in cold water than in hot water.
5. Sunlight: The pathogens are killed if they are exposed to sunlight, therefQ[e
sunlight helps in self purification. Algae also grows in sunlight caw:?1ng
production of oxygen.
13 BC2.5
. 'd' d due to the
'd t'on' After mixing with water organic matter starts getting OXI Ize
6. OXI a I . . t' the water This process
development of the oxidizing organisms In . Em demand is "
till the the stream
satisfied by the aera Ion
becomes purified. . tt
. .' ccurs due to hydrolysis of the organlGrna

matter present in the sewage, t e ac Ion
stabilization starts.
Whatdo you understand by noise pollution, give the different sources of noise
pollution? . . d b 'b ting
Ans: Noise is unwanted
body and on reaching . b d' re not audible. The frequency limits of
Sounds produced by all Vibrating 0 les a '
audibility are from 20 HZ to 20,000 HZ. "
Anoise problem generally
receiver and the pad" g' ated but can include the structural
atmosphere through which the. s?un IS ,
materials of any building contalnmg the receiver.. f I
Noise may be continuous or intermittent. Noise ,may be of high
which is is
a child produces soun , . ' , The discrirnination and differentiation between
unwanted sou.nd, we call It the habi; and interest of the person/species
sound and nOIse als? depen upon. t of the sound generated during that
receiving it, the conditions that, excellently rendered
particular duration of time. There cou It as noise and exceptional music as well
y f
, musical concert for example, mia be de ffrequencies less than 20 HZ are called
during the course of the concert.
oun so.
infrasonics and greater than 20,0000 HZ are called ultrasonics.
Sources of noise pollution
1. Road Traffic
2. Use of loudspeakers
3. Bursting of crackers
4. Industrial activities
5, Railways
6. Aircrafts
.",-, 7. Radio and Television
, !
Discuss the effects of noise pollution on human beings and living, organisms. f th
Noise induces a severe impact on humans and on living organisms. Some 0 e
adverse effects are:
-- ---------------
1. It creates annoyance to the receptors due to sound level
The aperiodic sound due to its irregular occurrences causes
dlspreasure to hearing and causes annoyance.
2. Physiological effects: The physiological features like breathing amplitude,
blood pressure, heart-beat rate, pulse rate, blood cholesterol are effected.
3. of hearing: L?ng exposure to high sound levels cause loss of hearing.
ThiS IS mostly unnoticed, but has an adverse impact on hearing function.
4. Human performance: The working performance of workers/human will be
affected as they will be losing their concentration.
5. Nervous system: It causes pain, ringing in the ears, feeling of tiredness,
thereby effecting the functioning of human system. .
6. Sleeplessness: It affects the sleeping there by inducing the people to.
become restless and loose concentration and presence of mind during their ­
7. Damage to material: The buildings and materials may get damaged by
exposure to infrasonic/ultrasonic waves and even get collapsed.
Discuss control of noise pollution at source.
The noise pollution can be controlled at the source. of generation itself by
employing techniques like ..
1. Reducing the noise levels from domestic sectors: The domestic noise
coming from radio, tape recorders, television sets, mixers, washing machines,
operations can be minimiLed by their selective and judicious
operation. By usage of carpets or any absorbing material, the noise generated
from fellin'g of items in house can be minimized.
2. Maintenance of automobiles: Regular servicing and tuning of vehicles will
reduce the noise levels. Fixing of silencers to automobiles, two wheelers etc.,
will reduce the noise levels.
3. Control over vibrations: The vibrations of materials may be controlled using
proper foundations, rubber padding etc. to reduce the noise levels caused by
vibrations. .
4. low voice speaking: Speaking at low voices enough for communication
reduces the excess noise levels.
5. Prohibition on usage of loud· speakers: By not permitting the usage of
loudspeakers in the habitant zones except for important meetings /
6. Selection of machinery: Optimum selection of machinery tools or equipment
reduces excess noise levels. For example selection of chairs, or selection of
certain machinery/equipment which generate less noise (Sound) due to its
superior technology etc. is also an important factor in noise minimization
7. Maintenance of machines: Proper lubrication and maintenance of
machines, vehicles etc. will reduce noise levels. For example, it is a common
experience that, many parts of a vehicle will become loose while on a rugged
path of journey. If these loose parts are not properly fitted, they will generate
noise and cause annoyance to the driver/passenger. Similarly is the case of
machines. Proper handling and regular maintenance is essential not only for
noise control but 'also to improve the life of machine.
Q8. Discuss control of noise pollution during transmission.
Ans: The noise pollution can be controlled during transmission by employing
techniques like­
1. Installation of barriers: Installation of barriers between ..
receiver can attenuate the noise levels. For a barrier to be effective, its lateral
width should extend beyond the line-of-sight at least as much as the height.
The barrier may be either close to the source or receiver, to increase the
traverse length for the sound wave. It should also be noted that, the presence
of the barrier itself can reflect sound back towards the source. At very large
distances, the barrier becomes less effective because of the possibility of
refractive atmospheric effects.
2. Design of building: The design of the building incorporating the use
suitable noise absorbing material for wall/door/window/ceiling will reduce the
noise levels.
3. Installation of panels or enclosures: A sound source may be enclosed
within a paneled structure such as room as a means of reducing the noise
levels' at the receiver. The actual difference between the sound pressure
levels inside and outside an enclosure depends not only on the transmission
loss of the enclosure panels but also on the acoustic absorption within the
enclosure and the details of the panel penetrations which may include
windows or doors.
4. Green belt development: Green belt development can attenuate the sound
levels. The degree of attenuation varies with species of greenbelt. The
statutory regulations direct the industry to develop greenbelt four times the
built-up area for attenuation of various atmospheric pollutants, including
16 BC2.5
1. Define water pollution.
1. Green house effect is caused by excess of
2. Give the significance of BOD in waste water.
a. CO
3. Name the process by which rivers and streams get purified naturally. b. H2
c. He
4. Name the various actions/ processes involved in self purification of streams.
d. O
5. Give the importance of oxygen sag curve.
2. Damage to leaf structure by air pollutants causes
6. What is the significance of two distinct points on oxygen sag curve?
a. Dead areas of leaf
b.. Chlorophyll reduction
7. Name different zones of pollution in river stream.
c. dropping of leaf
8. How does the water current in rivers affect the self purification process? d. All the above
9. What are the effects of water pollution?
3. Which of the following gas causes air pollution
a. nitrogen.
10. In what way will you dispose of the sewage of your town?
b. hydrogen
11. Define noise pollution.
c. water vapors
d. carbon monoxide
12. Name some sources of noise pollution.
4. Which of the following is not a green house gas
a. CO
b. CH
c. CFC
d. Hz
5. Depletion of ozone layer in 'the outer atmosphere is likely to increase the incidence
a. skin cancer
b. lung cancer
c. bronchitis
d. noneofthem
6. The most significant gaseous pollutant is
a. CO
b. O
- C. N2
d. 80
18 BC2.5
01. Classify different types of air pollutants.
Ans: Air pollutants may be classified as
1. According to origin:
econdary pollutants- Which are derived from th . .
chemical or photochemical reactions in the
2. According to chemical composition:
(a) Organic pollutants ego Hydrocarbons aldehydes, ketones
alcohols ' , amines and
(b) Inorganic pollutants as carbon monoxide carbonates' .
sU:hide, sulphur dio;ide,
asbestos dust. uon es, ozone, Inorgamc particles such as fly ash, silica....!
3. According to state of matter:
(a) Gaseous pollutants which get mixed with the airand do n t '1'1·
CO, NOx, sulphur dioxide. 0 norma y settle out
(b) I.iquids
smog and sprays . e, umes, ust, mist, fog and
02. What is meant by smog? Discuss its causes and effects
Ans: Smog is a synchronym of two words smoke ' d f' ,
photochemical or coal i og. Smog can be of two types-
motorized area in smog is restricted to highly
conditions when the air un?er adverse
under the '
nitrogen oxides PAN hyd Y I.rate (PAN). Its main constituents are
to visibility, causes eye
ihe fog t'rrom .burning of coal covers urban areas at night or on cold days wh
empera ure IS below 10 degree centigrade d h en
conditions prevail ego London (December efn calm
sulphur compounds and fly ash. . IS og consists of smoke,

pneumoma and other lung and heart disease. ' ronc 0­
23 BC2.5
Write short note on aerosols.
Aerosols refer to the dispersion of solid or liquid particles of microscopic size in
gaseous media such as dust, smoke or mist.
An aerosol can be defined as a colloidal system in which the dispersion medium is
a gas and the dispersed phase is solid or liquid. This term aerosol is used during
the time it is suspended in the air. After it has settled. either by virtue of its weight, by
agglomeration, or by impact on a solid or liquid surface, the term no longer applies.
Thus particulate matter is an air pollutant only when it is in aerosol. However, it is a
nuisance both as an aerosol (visibility reduction) and as settled or deposited
matter (soiling of surfaces, corrosions). Aerosols differ widely in terms of particle
size, particle density and their importance as pollutants. Their diameters generally
range from 0.01 microns or less upto about 100 microns. The following are various
aerosols dust, smoke, mist, fog, fumes etc. .
Discuss dust as an aerosol.
Dust is made up of solid particles predominantly larger than those found in colloids
and capable of temporary suspension in air or other gases. They do not tend to
flocculate except under electrostatic forces, they do not diffuse but settle ,under the'
lnflu·ence of gravity. Dust is produced by the crushing, grinding etc. of organiC or
inorganic materials. Generally they are over 20 microns in diameter although
some are smaller. Fly ash from chimney varies from 80- 3 microns cement from
150-1 Omicrons, foundry dust from 200-1" microns. Most of the dust particles settle
to the ground as dust fall, but particles 5 microns or smaller tend to form stable
suspensions. Sources of atmospheric dust are combustion, material handling and
processing, earth moving operations such as mining, construction etc.
05. List the sources of atmospheric dust.
Ans: The sources of atmospheric dust are
1. Combustion-
a. Fuel burning
b. Incineration (house and municipal garbage)
c. Others ( open fires, forest fires, tobacco smoking)
2. Material handling and processing-
a. Loading and unloading (sand, gravel, coal, ores, lime cement)
b. Crushing and grinding (ores, stones, cement, rocks, chemicals)
c. Mixing and packaging (chemicals, fertilizers)
d. Food processing (flour, corn starch, grains)
e. Cutting and forming (saW mills, wall boards, plastics)
1. Metallurgical operations (foundries, smelters)
g. Industrial operations (paper, textile, manufacture)
• :1
Earth moving-
a. (road, buildings, dams, site operations, clearance)
b. Mmmg ( blasting)
c. Agriculture (soilfilling,land preparation)
d. Winds
a. House cleaning
b. Mud road cleaning
c. Crop spraying
d. Poultry feeding
e. Engine exhaust
Identify the various pollution so f th
dioxide, sulphide, 0 following sulphur
hydrocarbons. e, car on monoxide, oXides of nitrogen,.
Sulphur dioxide- Combustion of fuel es .. .
metallurgical operations such as smelting teclallY coal, petroleum industry,
plants, and paper manufacturing industries.
ores, power houses, sulphuric acid
Sui h'd .... .
P .1 e- Natural emiSSions mclude anaerobic biological d
land, m marshes and oceans, vOlcanoes ecay .c>n.
hydrogen sulphide. Kraft pulp industry, spnngs
plants, viscose rayon plants and some ch . I . I re menes, coke oven
tanning industry. emlca operations, dyes manufacture,
of phosphate fertilizers, aluminium industry brick
, erro enamel works . d . ,
fumaces, glass,fibre manufacture. ' zmc oun nes and open hearth steel·
Carbon monoxide- Combustion especiall d .
operations such as electric and blast f y ue to automobile :xhaust, industrial
engine emission gas manufacturing mP:troleum refimng operations, jet
o . ' mes., .
nitric acid, exhausts,
industry. . maces, explosive Industry fertilizer
industries, petroleum refineries, automobile
Explain the mechanism of action of ak pollutants on human beings '
air pollution on human health generally occur as a result of contact
SUrfa:: and the body. Normally bodily contact OCcurs at the
e s m and exposed membranes. Contact with
membraneous surfaces is of utmost importance because hig·h
. a sorpbve
capacity compared to that of the skin. Air bome gases, vapours, fumes, mist and
dust may cause irritation of the membranes of the eyes, nose, throat, larynx,
tracheo-bronchial tree and lungs. Some irritants even reach the mucosa .of the
digestive tract.
Q8. What are harmful effects of polluted air on human beings?
Ans: Polluted air C8uses­
1. Eye irritation
2. Nose and throat irritation
3. Irritation ofthe respiratory tract
4. Gases like hydrogen sulphide, ammonia and mercaptants cause odour
nuisance even at low concentrations.
5. Increase in mortality rate and morbidity rate
·6. A variety of particulates particularly pollens, initiate asthamatic attacks
7. Chronic pulmonary diseases like bronchitis and asthama are aggravated by a
high concentration of sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter and
photochemical smog .
8. CO combines with the haemoglobin in the blood and consequently increases
stress on those suffering from cardio vascular and pulmonary diseases-
I·· .
9. HF causes diseases ofthe bone (fluorosis) and mottling ofteeth.
10. Carcinogenic agents cause cancer
11. Dust particles cause respiratory diseases. Diseases like silicosis, asbestosis
etc. results from specific dust. .. ­
12. Certain heavy metals like lead may enter the body through lungs and cause
Q9. What are the harmful effects of sulphur dioxide and carbon monoxide on human
Ans: 1. Sulphur dioxide- Sulphur dioxide is an irritant gas which affects the mucous
membranes when inhaled. Under certain conditions some of the air bome S02
gas is oxidized to S03' Each of these two gases in the presence of water
vapour or water forms sulphurous and sulphuric acid respectively. S03 is a
very strong irritant, much stronger than S02' causing severe bronchospasms
at relatively low levels ofconcentrations.
2. Carbon monoxide- CO has a strong affinity for combing with the haemoglobin
of the blood to form carboxy haemoglobin COHb. This reduces the ability of
haemoglobin to carry oxygen to the body tissues. CO has about two hundred
times the affinity of oxygen for attaching itself to the haemoglobin so that low
levels of CO can still results in high levels of COHb. CO also affects the central
nervous system. It is also responsible for heart attacks and a high mortality
26 BC2.5
are the harmful effects of h drocar
beings? • Y bon vapours and insecticides on human
Hydrocarbon vapours- Some of the h d
implications. The effect of in have
contributor to eye and respiratory irrit r yde IS primarily Irrltatmg. It .IS a major
Insecticides-. Insecticides are t a
Ion causeg by Photochem. icarsmog.
no on y harmful for' t
man e,g. DDT ( Dichloro Diphenyl Trichloroeth Insec s but also poisonous for
nervous system and may attack other v't I ane ). They can affect the central
affects domestic livestock The a I' a. organs. In fact Indoor spraying of DDT
to their growing use for atJon of pesticides in the environment
abort' d urposes can also caus r
. Ion, ueto high concentration ofpesti'd . e premature labour &
. CI es In the bodyof expectant mothers.
Write short notes on radiation hazards?
The important radioactive isotopes that ma . . .
32, cobalt 60, strontium 90 / ambient air are iodine 131,
calCium 45 and uranium The ma' ' alum 226, carbon 14, sulphur 35
. . sources of radioactive pollutants are '. ,
a N I . uc ear reactors
b. Experimental accelerators
c. and medical use of radioactive isotopes .
d. and industrial use ()f radioactive isotopes as tracers
e. Test.,n
of nUclear bombs in the atmosphere
!he serious health effects are anaemia leukaem' .
also cause genetic defects and la aocl. cancer. Radioactive
congenltalrnalformations. It also shortens th I'f y, as well defects and
e I e span of an IndiVidual.
List the air pollutants affecting plants and vegetation.
The pollutants which affect the plants and vegetation are
1. Sulphur dioxide
2. Fluoride compounds (HF)
3. Ozone
4. Chlorine
5. Hydrogen chloride
6. Nitrogen oxides (N9, N0 etc)
7. Ammonia
8. Hydrogen sulphide
9. Hydrogen cyanide
10. Mercury
11.' Ethylene
12. PAN
Herbicides ( spray of Weed killers)
14. Smog .
Q13. Explain necrosis, chlorosis, abscission, epinasty with respect to leaf damage due
to air pollution.
Ans: Necrosis- Necrosis is the killing or collapse of tissues ofthe leavelj>.
Chlorosis-Is the loss or reduction of the green plant pigment chlorophyll. The loss
of chlorophyll usually results in a pale green or yellow patterns. Chlorosis generally
indicates a deficiency of some nutrient required by the plants.
Abscission- Leaf abscission is the dropping of leaves from the tree.
Epinasty- Leaf epinasty is a downward curvature of the leaf due to higher rate of
growth on the upper surface ofthe leaves.
Q14. Explain the various kinds of injury to plants due to air pollutants.
Ans: Kinds of injury to plants due to air pollutants can be classified as
1: 'Acute injury- It results from short time exposure to relatively high
concentrations, such as might occur under fumigation conditions. The effects
are noted with in a few hours to a few days and may result in visible markings
leaves due to a collapse and death of cells. This leads to necrotic
patterns Le. areas of dead tissues.
2. Chronic injury-It results from long term low level exposure and usually causes
chlorosis or leaf abscission.
3. Growth or yield retardation- The injury is in the form of an effect on growth .
without visible markings (invisible injury).Usually a suppression of growth or
yield occurs.
Q15. Explain the effects of sulphur dioxide, ozone, hydrogen fluoride, PAN, Ethylene
and nitrogen dioxide in air pollutants on plants.
Ans: 1. Sulpt1Ur dioxide- Mild effects are interveinal chlorotic bleaching of leaves
and severe effects are necrosis in interveinal areas and skeletonized leaves.
2. Ozone- Mild effects are flecks on upper surfaces, premature aging and
suppressed growth. Severe effects are collapse of leaf, necrosis and
bleaching of leaf.
3. Hydrogen fluoride- HF has a cumulative effects and causes necrosis at
leaf tip.
4. PAN- Pan has a mild effect on leaves. Young leaves are more susceptible. It .
causes bronzing of lower leaf surface ( upper surface normal ),
5. Ethylene- Ethylene has mild effect causes epinasty and leaf abscission
6. Nitrogen dioxide- N0
has mild effect and it causes suppressed growth and
. leaf bleaching.
28 BC2.5
List out various methods of sampling.
in the air may be sa . .
ofthe following principles." uSing equipment based on one or
1. SedimentC!tlo.n.
01. What are the objectives of using control equipments? List the various types of
Impingement method collection equipments for particulates.
Ans: Objectives of using control equipments are.
5. precipitat;;-- 1. Prevention of nuisance
2. Prevention of physical damage to property
3. Elimination of health hazards to plant, personnel and to the general population,
4. Recovery of valuable waste products
5. Minimization of economic losses through the reduction of plant maintenance,
6. Improvement of product quality
Types of collection equipments forthe particulates are .
1. Settling chambers
2. Inertial separators
3. Cyclones
4. Filters
5. Electrostatic precipitators
6. Scrubbers or wet collectors
02. Explain with neat sketch the principle, construction and working of a settling
chamber. How can its efficiency be improved?
. Ans: The settling chamber is the simplest type of equipment used for the collection of
solid particles. It consists of a chamber in which the carrier gas velocity is reduced
so as to allow the particulates to settle out of the moving stream under the action of
gravity. The most common form is a long box like structure with an inlet at one end
and an outlet at the other, set horizontally, often on the ground. It can be
constructed from brick and concrete. The carrier gas is made to pass at the low
velocities. solid particulates density the
settle under the influence of gravity on the base of the chamber from where they
are removed through hoppers

Settling' Chamber
The gas velocity should be less than about 3m/sec to prevent re entrainment of the Types of inertial orimpact e of imingement separator. The gas
settled particles and less than ,O.5m/sec for good results. Installation costs are low 1. Baffle separators- WhiC:iS obtained by the insertion o,f
because ofthe simple structure.The efficiency can be improved by decreasing the
stream is made follow a to 0: As a result the gas is subjected to
height to be traveled by the particles and sometimes by incorporating horizontal
staggered plates mto the path of f d,g f on with the resulting impaction of the
. trays or shelves in the chambers.
a series of particles larger than 20microns .
particles on solid surfaces. UI a
03. What are the advantages and disadvantages.of the settling chambers? Give 'its
in diameter,
Ans: Advantages of settling chambers:
1. Low initial cost
2. Simple construction
3. Low maintenance cost
4. Low pressure drop
5, Dry and continuous disposal of solid particulates
6. Can be constructed of almost any material
7. Temperature and pressure limitations imposed only by materials of
construction used.
principle separators? types
Ans: Inertial separators type of control equipment include all collectors which utilize the
relatively greater inertia of the dispersoid to effect the particulate-gas
Two types of equipments utilize this fundamental principle. They are inertial or
impact separators nnd cyclonic separators.
Inertial or impact separators- They employ incremental changes of direction of
the carrier gas stream to exert the greater inertial effects of the dispersoid.
Cyclonic s,eparators- They produce a continuous centrifugal force as a means of
the greater inertial effects of the dispersoid,
31 BC2.5
1. Large space requirements
2. Only comparatively large particles ( definitely not less than 10 microns, if very Cd)
dense and 40 microns if of low density) can be controlled
Applications: Industrial application ofthis equipment is limited. Settling chambers
used widely for the removal of large solid particulates from natural draft furnaces,
kilns etc. They are also sometimes used in the process industries, particularly the
. ,.' fivers or impingement elements set at
food and metallurgical industries, as a first step in dust control
Louvre type this a senes a rapid reversal of the gas flow
Because of simplicity of construction and low maintenance costs, gravity settling
an angle to the carner gas stream so I tes to impinge on the louvers. The
chambers have found quite widespread applications as pre cleaners for high
and thereby cause the pa the moving gas stream in the inlet
efficiency collectors. This reduces the inlet dust loadings to the second stage '
particles thus impinged rebound r by a secondary air circuit. Suitable for
cleaner and can remove large highly abrasive materials thus reducing h
chamber and are removed from t e, co ec. ,
maintenance costs of high efficiency equipments. wnich is more subject to removing particles largerthi::'lO 30mlcrons m diameter.
abrasive deterioration. . . .
04. What is the of inertial Mention the of inertial
._. _ ) __ 'IR '"LEI
the degree of impaction which occurs. Efficiency is a function of four variables,
number, length spacing and configuration of the baffles. It is widely used for
particulate removal in power plants and rotary kilns.
Louvre type- The advantages of louver type of dust collector are simple and low
cost of construction as well as moderate low pressure drop for the degree of
removal obtained. The disadvantages are clogging of the louver grid with a _
corresponding reduction in efficiency and excessive abrasion of
Explain the principle, construction and working ota cyclone separator.
Cyclone separators depend on centrifugal force for its action. A cyclone separator
can be defined as a structure without moving parts in which the velocity of an inlet
gas stream is transformed into a confined vortex from which centrifugal forces tend
to drive the suspended particles to the wall of the cyclone body. It consists of a
vertically placed cylinder which has an inverted cone attached to its base. The
particulate laden gas stream enters tangentially at the inlet point into the cylinder.
The outlet pipe for the purified gas is a central cylindrical opening at the top. The.
dust particulates are collected at the bottom in a storage hopper. The gas path
in gas or density, cyclone diameter, gas ou
inlet area.
3. Dust trap- In this device dust laden gas is introduced into a central pipe (­
cylindrical or tapered) and is made to undergo a change in direction by 180
degree. Dust because of inertia settles in the conical chamber. This is useful when
dust loading is high and quantity of gas to be handled is low.
l"... 'ft
.......... _-"" "- ............. '"
Mention the advantages and disadvantages of baffle type and louver type
Baffle type separators-It is simple to operate. It has no moving parts. It is slightly
more expensive to construct than a simple open settling chamber because of the
---. . '­
interior work involved in fabricating and installing the baffles. But oWing,to high
. -----.
impaction velocity, abrasion is often severe. The efficiency is totally dependent on
follows 'a
penphery The str:am then moves upwards in a narrower i.nner.
with the first and leaves through the o.uffet pipe. Due tohraPld

, t of the gas the dispersoids are projected towards t e wa y
force and then they drop by ·gravity to the bottom of bOdy,. where
they ar2 collected In the storage hopper. During cyclonic sepa;atlon,
velocity may exceed several times the average Inlet gas ve OCI y
Be:" Oe/i.
I.e =HI:
Sc- 0c/6
lc· ZOe
Jc =arbitl'Ql'y
. USUo.Uy

Cyclone separator
"'td ending on the diameter of
with diameter of 10
microns and is about 95% for diameters higher than 20mlcrons.
Enumerate the factors on which the of a cyclone depends.
Give the merits and demerits of cyclone and Its apPhcatlons.. . '.
Increase in collection efficiency will result with an In any of followll1g.
dust particle size, dust particle density, gas inlet velOCity, .lnlet dust loadmg,
f volutions) and ratio of body diameter to gas ou e
. collector efficiency will
e . ,
34 BC2.5
Merits of cyclone separator
, 1. Low initial cost
2. Simple construction and operation
3. Low pressure drop
4. Low maintenance requirements
5. It has no moving parts
6. Continuous disposal of solid particulates
7. They can be constructed of any material which will meet the temperature and
pressure requirements and the corrosion potential of the carrier gas stream
1. Low collection for the particles below 5-1 0 microns in diameters
2. Equipment is subject to severe abrasive deterioration
3. Decreasing collection efficiency for decreasing dispersoid concentrations in
the gas stream.
Cyclones are used widely for the control of gas borne particulates in such industrial
operations as cement manufacture, feed and grain processing, food and' beverage
processing, mineral processing, paper and textile industries and wood working
industries. In disintegration operations such as rock crushing, ore handling and
sand conditioning in industries. They are also used in the recovery of catalyst
dusts in the petroleum industry and in the reduction of fly ash emissions ..
08. Explain the principle, construction and working of an electrostatic precipitator.
Ans: ESP are particulate collection devices that utilize electrical energy directly to assist
in the removal of the particulate matter. They have been used for the removal of
fine dust from all kinds of waste gases with very high efficiency. The principle on
I which this equipment operates is that when a gas containing aerosols is passed
between two electrodes. that are electrically insulated from each other and
between which there is a considerable difference in electrical potential. Aerosol
particles precipitates on the low potential electrode. Out of the two electrodes one
is a discharging electrode and the other a collecting electrode.
The four steps in the process are
1 . Place the charge on the partice to be collected
2. Migrate the particle to the collector
3. Neutralize the charge at the collector
4. Remove the collected particles
An ESP consists of six major components
1. Source of high voltage
2. Discharge and collecting electrodes
3. Inlet and outletforthe gas
35 BC2.5
4. Hopperforthe disposal ofttle collected material
5 An electronic cleaning system d
. I sure around the electro es.
6. An outer casing to form an enco
The entire ESP is enclosed in a casing
.0 'POWER ---......
iosuletor --:;;..-0­
discharge elect'ro<Je
collectil"9 elec;.1rod....
dust 01"
pr .... clpitator we
__ collected dust
gos: floW
· h' happroaching 100%.
The collection efficiency of the ES IS, Ig
of electrostatic
disadvantages and applications
What are advantages
'1 High collection efficiency d
2'. Particles as small as 0.1 micro meter can be remove
Low maintenance and operating costs
' of a large volume of high temperature gas
Treatmenttime is negligible (0.1-1?sec) , . 'tator for maintenance and
6. .' easy by removing Units of the precipi
7, Cleaning IS
operation h ' I usage
There is no limit to solid, liquid or corrosive c emlca ,
1. High initial Cost
2. Spac.e requirement is more because of the I .... .
3. PossIble explosion hazard d . arge slz,e ofthe equipment
particulates SUring collection of combustible gases or
4. Precautions are necessary to maO t . '
flow distribution, gas resistivity ,safety during operation. Proper gas
over must be maintained ate conductivity, and corona spark
5. The pOIsonous gas ozone is produced b .. ,. . .
• .electrodes during gas ionization. y the negatIvely charged discharge
Apphcatron of ESP in indust . .
'. nes are as follows
1. Cementfactories
a. Cleaning the flue gas from cement kilns
b. . Recovery of cement dustfrom kilns'
2. Paper and pulp mills
a. Soda fume recovery in kraft pulp mills
3. Steel plants
a. blast furnace gas to use it as a fuel
.b. RemOVing tars from coke oven gases
. '
& Cleaning open hearth and electric furnace gases
4. on rerrous metal industry
a. Recovering valuable material from flue ga
b. Collecting acid mist ses
5. Chemical industry
a. sulphuric and phosphoric acid mist
b. Cleaning various types of gas such as hyd
c. Removing the dust from elemental C02 and S02
6. Petroleum industry phosphorus In the vapour state·
a. Recovery of catalyst dust
7. Carbon black industry .
a. and collection of black
8. Electric power industry
a. Col/ecting fly ash from coal fired boilers
ESP used for cleaning air in public build in . . .
some private homes and club houses. gs, theaters, ShIPS, railway cars and
010. Explain the mechanism or principle of working of scrubbers for particulate
Ans: Scrubbers orwet collectors I,ltilize a (generally water) to assist in the removal
of particles from the carrier gas stream. The dust is agglomerated with the water
and then separated from the gas together with the water. These can remove
materials less than 0.2 microns in diameter to a large particles which can be
suspended in the gas phase.
Four major steps are involved in collecting particles. The first of these is transpo.rt.
The particles must be moved to theyicinity of the water droplets which are usually
10 to 1000 times larger. The second step is collision. The particles must collide with
the droplets. The third step is adhesion. Adherence is promoted by surface
tension. The fourth step is precipitation, or removal of the droplets containing the
dust particles from the gas phase.
Particles are removed from the gas stream by one or a combination of the following
a. Impingement- When gas containing dust is swept through an area containing
liquid droplets, dust particles will impinge upon the droplets and if they adhere
they will be collected by them. The efficiency is more if the liquid droplet size is
100 to 300 times the size of dust particles .
b. Interception- Particles that move with the gas stream may not impinge on the
droplets but can be captured because they brush against the droplets and
adhere there. This is known as interception.
c. Diffusion- Diffusion of the dispersoid on to the liquid medium helps in removal
of the particulate matter.
d. Condensation- Condensation of the liquid . medium vapours on the
particulates increases the size and weight of particles. It helps in the easy
removal of particulates.
011. List the types of scrubbers, their advantages, disadvantages and applications.
Ans: Different types of scrubbers are:
1. Spray towers
2. Venturi scrubbers
3. Cyclone scrubbers
4. Packed scrubbers
5. Mechanical scrubbers
1. Low initial cost
2.· Moderately high collection efficiency for small particles.
3. Applicable for high temperature installations
4. They can simultaneously remove particulates and gases
5. There is no particle re entrainment

1. High power consumption for high efficiency
2. Moderate to high maintenance costs owing to corrosion and abrasion
3. Wet disposal ofthe collected material
Applications: Wet scrubbers are useful in case of hot gas that must be cooled for
some reasons. Are suitable for particulate removal whereever the particulate is
combustible or any flammable gas is present even in trace amounts in the bulk gas
phase. Under such circumstances a precipitator is excluded because of the fire
hazards. They are preferred when gas absorption and reaction are required
simultaneously with particulate control.
Q12. Write short note on dust fall jar.
Ans: Dust fall jar is used to determine the particle fallout or dust fall in community
atmosphere and is based on sedimentation principle and is adopted for particles
size more than 10 microns. The collector is made of polyethylene, glass or
stainless steel. The container is more than twice as high as its diameter at the
base. This the re entrainment of dust due to drafts and heavy rain. The
typical dust fall jar is constructed of plastic and is 20-32cm high and is 10-15 cm in
diameter at the base with a slight inward taper of the walls from top to bottom.
Occasionally water containing algicide (1 mg of CuS04 per litre of water) is added
up to 500 ml to facilitate retention of particles, where error from loss of particles
may occur as a result of gusty winds. After a month the soluble and insoluble
matter is determined and the total solids collected are expressed in terms of weight
t-----t-------Ou$.r FAll JAR

Dust Fall Jar
39 BC2.5
munities one dust fall container for every 2600
per unit area per 30 days. In I' 'Inexpensive and requires no electrical
. used The metho IS simp e . bTl t
hec ares IS· . d t e include lack of precision and ma I I Y 0
power parts· to integration of the total sample weight
distingUish episodes 0
pea us
over the entire sampling period (30 days).
Write short note on Highvolume sampler. . , tt d '
. \I r f suspended particulate rna er an IS
High Volume Sampler IS used for co etc I?n 0 d to draw a sample through a filter
t k' law In HVS a mo or IS use I t
base on 0 e . * 't hich allows collection of an air samp e a
area, The filter IS 20cm 25cm rna w
,HighVolume Sampler ,
. r a nominal sampling period of 4-6 hrs and a
a rate from ccls ove These conditions permit the sampling from
normal sampling penod, of hrs: uent extraction of about 0.5gms of
1260-21 00 of ambient a substantial weight of sample for
analysis. The sampler consists of
1 . The face plate and gasket
2. The filter adapter assembly
3 Motor or blower unit '. .
.',.ded with a roof so that the filter IS .
It is installed inside a casmg IS provi 'ng dev'lce such as a ,rotameter is
, 't f An airflow measun
protected from precipi a Ion. I' 'ng through the filter for calculating
used to record the volume of samp e air passl
the mass of particulate per static volume of air ( micro gram/cum of sample air)
Q 14. What do you by air quality standards? Give Indian air quality standards
for residential, industrial and sensitive areas.
Ans: Air Quality Standards are legal limits placed on levels of air pollutants in the
ambient air during a given period of time. They characterize the allowable level of a
pollutant or a class of pollutants in the atmosphere and thus define the amount of
exposure permitted to the population and/or to ecological system.
A. Ambient air quality standards- These area legal limits placed on the concentration
of air pollutants in community where people arid things are exposed. Ambient air
quality standards need to be distinguished from Threshold Limit Value (TLV) for
work- room atmosphere. The TLV are the permissible exposure levels for healthy
adult worker for eight hours per day, five days per week. In contrast air quality
standards are permissible exposures of all living and nonliving things for
24hrs/day, 7 days per week.
B. OtherAirQualityStandards
1. Quasi-emission standard called 'point of impingement standard' which are the
limit on specific pollutants of the ambient air at ground level required by
national, state or local regulations
2. Soiling index which is the measurement of transmitted or reflected light
through or from a spot of particulate matter collected on a filter for a prescribed
period oftime.
3. Odour standards
4. Visibility standard
5. Standards for particulate matter deposited
Concentrations in p.g/m"
Category Area '--,
A. Industrial and mixed usc SOO 120 120 5000
B. R.esidential and rural 200 80 80 2000
C. Sensitive 100 30 30 looo
oJ ox
• " •••• ;ft ...._ ............. . .,"",_..-­
Q15. Write short note on emission standard.
Ans: Emission standards establish permitted emission levels for specific groups of
emitters and require that all the members of these groups emit no more than these
permitted emission levels. These standards can be to any selected
group of emitters and can be national, regional or local in application. They can be
based on AQS or can be entirely independent of any such AQS. Serving as an
entirely separate and different type of strategy from air quality management.
Emission standards from mobile sources include aircraft, ships, railroad
locomotive, motor vehicles. Motor vehicles include automobiles, trucks, buses
and motor cycles. Emission standards prescribe limits of contar'niRants
41 BC2,5
discharged into the atmosphere so that when standards are met adverse effects
from air pollution will be minimized. .'
Emission standard from stationary sources include
h' or vent intended to help achieve the desired aIr quality. They e
for buffer zones, stack height, equipment design and fuel
and those that directly limit the amount or concentration of a f;.om
a source. Standards may be derived from process and eqUipment consldera lon,
air quality consideration or both. '
What are the objectives of sampling the atmosphere? Explain in-situ sampling and
remote sensing methods for air pollutants.
Objectives of sampling the atmosphere: .
1. To identify specific industrial and other sources of pollution .., .
To determinethe degree of air pollution control required for eXisting industries
3. To identify and control pollution from vehicular emission
To assess health hazards and potential damage to property . .' .
4. To determine the back ground pollution levels for In
5. zoning, town planning or of sites for certain types of Indus nes
requiring stringent air quality cnterla. . .
To collect data for formulating and testing air pollutlO? models . . .
For purely scientific investigations' sampling methods are claSSified Into two
1. In-situ sampling
Intermittent sampling
b. Continuous sampling
2 Remote sensing . .
. . d sy to operate But It reqUires
Intermittent :anpower and facilities.
methods are more expensive a.nd

several atmospheriC pollutants by thiS ec mque. t' to be made is not
that physical access to the location where the measuremen IS f the
d ta is the instantaneous space averages 0
needed. Another a ge 'b obtained Method is costly and requires
constituent concentration may e .
sophisticated equipments.
01. What are vectors? Explain transmission of vector borne diseases.
Ans: Vectors may be defined as arthropods or animals that are capable of carrying
disease pathogens from an, animal, human, etc. (reservoir) to another. The
pathogens are transmitted either mechanically (e.g., trachoma by, non-biting flies)
to a susceptible host, or after biological transformation (e.g., malaria parasites by
mosquitoes) to a definitive host, Each emergency situation may be characterized
by different types of vectors and vector-borne diseases. In addition to transmitting
diseases, some vectors may also be considered a nuisance because of their
painful bites, e.g. mosquitoes, biting flies, fleas, and lice. The most troublesome
vectors in evacuation sites and refugee camps are the non-biting flies. The
following table summarizes the vectors and vector-borne diseases that are
common among displaced populations
Main Diseases Transmitted by Vectors

Anopheles Malaria, filariasis
. Culex Japanese encephalitis, filariasis, other viral diseases
. Aedes Yellow fever, dengue fever, filariasis, other viral diseases
Lice Skin infections, epidemic typhus, relapsing fever
Fleas prague, murine typhus
Ticks Tick-borne relapsing fever, tick paralysis
Rodents J..i_R_a_t_b_ite fever, ___ __ _
02. Enumerate the common vectors?
Ans: The common vectors are:
1. Mosquitoes
a. Anopheles
b. Andes
c. Culex
2. Non Biting flies
a. House fly
b. Blow fly
c. Flesh fly
47 BC2.5
3. Biting flies
a. Tsetse flies
b. Sandflies:
c. . Blackflies
4. Rodents and Fleas
5. Other Vectors and Pests
a. Lice
b. Mites
c. Ticks
d. Bedbugs
e. Cockroaches
f. Snails
03. Discuss the mosquito borne diseases.
Ans: Mosquito-Borne Diseases: There are many different species of mosquitoes, each
living in a specific habitat and capable of transmitting a variety of diseases. The
most common species are:
1. The Andpheles mosquito that is a vector for malaria and filariasis
2. The Aedes mosquito that is a vector for yellow fever and dengue.
3. The "nuisance" Culex mosquito that may also be a vector of filariasis and the
encephalitis virus is generally not a critical vector control issue in complex
04. Discuss the non biting flies borne diseases.
Ans: The non-biting flies housefly, blow fly, and flesh fly_ These flies usually hover
around food, carrion, garbage, and human and animal waste. When they land,
they may either transfer or carry disease pathogens that attach on their legs and
other parts of their bodies. These pathogens may then be mechanically
transported or transferred to humans, animals. Even though they can also be
transmitted via fly faeces, pathogens do not undergo biological transformation in
the flies. In unhygienic conditions, flies have more opportunities to cause the
1. Flies are mechanical vectors of intestinal infections such as dysentery and
2. Flies can transmit poliomyelitis and certain eye infections, such as trachoma.
3. Large fly populations can be extremely bothersome, interfering with human
comfort. In fact, some people think that the word "bother" is derived from a cattle fly
known as "Bot Fly."
48 BC2.5
05. Discuss the biting flies borne diseases.
Ans: In addition to causing. painful bites and sucking blood, some biting flies transmit
important diseases, for example:
1. Tsetse flies where known to transmit sleeping sickness (trypanosomiasis), tsetse
flies must be considered a serious threat to life. Sleeping sickness is 100% fatal
without complete treatment.
2. Sandflies: Sandflies can transmit two types of leishmaniasis: cutaneous and
visceral. Visceral leishmaniasis is highly fatal.
3. Blackflies: Blackflies are vectors of onchocerciasis (commonly known as river
06. Discuss the rodents and fleas borne diseases.
Ans: Rodents and rodent-borne diseases may become serious problems in displaced
population camps that have existed for some time. These problems may result
from uncontrolled and accumulating solid waste, which greatly increases rat
breeding. Increased rat populations discourage other efforts on environmental
health improvement and also leads to an increase in diseases transmitted by rats,
including the following:
1. Rats cause disease through their fleas, which can transmit plague
2. Rats can spread diseases such as salmonelloses, leptospirosis, hanta virus and
lassa fever through their excreta.
3. Rat bites can transmit pathogens that can cause fever and rabies.
4. People can contract leptospirosis from handling the dead bodies of infected rats,
or get trichinosis from eating undercooked meat from pigs that have eaten the
dead bodies of infected rats.
5. The multi-mammate rat is the natural reservoir ofthe lassa fever virus.
I' "
07. What are the various vector control strategies?
Ans: Vector control strategies may range from simple treatments (self-protection and
home improvement) to more complex measures. that require participation from
vector control experts (entomologists). Control strategies may be classified as
\: follows:
1. Environmental control: alter breeding sites by draining or filling sites, regular
disposal of refuse, maintain clean shelters, and personal hygiene.
2. Mechanical control: use screens or bednets, traps, food covers, 'lids or
polystyrene beads in latrines.
3. Biological management: use living organisms or products against vector larvae,
q such as fish that eat larvae bacteria that produce toxins against larvae, free­
floating ferns that prevent breeding, etc.
49 BC2.5
4. Chemical control: use chemicals for personal and household protection and
treatment or for environmental control. There are many forms including repellents,
insecticides for residual spraying, adulticides, or larvicides that minimise risk of
08.' What are the objectives of vector control program?
Ans: The objectives of the vector control program can only be achieved by
implementing appropriate vector control measures. Each emergency situation is
different, and may require different vector-control options. A vector control
measure that is appropriate for one disease may not be appropriate for another
disease or vector species. All measures should be based on the national and
international protocols. The following criteria may be used to select the most
suitable vector control measure: .
Criteria for Selecting Vector Control Measures
Criteria for Selecting Vector Contro1 Measures
• epidemiological situation and risk factors
• appropriate for controlling the specific vector species, given it's breeding,
flight and resting. behavior
• simple to understand and apply
• affordable and based on locally available resources (equipment,consumable
supplies, and technical skills)
• acceptable and compatible with 10cal customs and practices (postemergency
• safe for the user and the environment
Q1. Discuss the diseases caused by other vectors.
Ans: Other vectors of concern in displaced population camps those can cause diseases
1. Lice among the species of lice, only body lice are vectors of diseases that can
cause epidemics. Migrating populations easily transport body lice from their
I '
places of origin. Body lice are common where a large number of people live in
crowded conditions and they can transmit pathogens for the following
. ,
a. Epidemic typhus is a highly contagious disease, which can be transmitted by
contaminated lice faeces penetrating the skin while scratching
b. Relapsing fever can be transmitted by crushed lice penetrating the skin while
c. Bites of body lice can cause skin irritation leading to various skin infections.
2. Mites mites commonly cause scabies and other skin infections in displaced
populations, particularly children. Overcrowding and poor personal hygiene
favour the spread of mites within a refugee population.
3. Ticks ticks are usually not a problem in camp settings. But they can transmit
several diseases, (e.g., Q-fever, hemorrhaegic fever, and tick-borne relapsing
4. Bedbugs bedbugs can become a great nuisance after displaced population
camps have been established for several months. Bedbug bites cause significant
discomfort and loss of sleep. In heavily infested areas, young children may show
signs of anemia.
. 5. Cockroaches cockroaches contaminate unprotected food and may transmit
various pathogens including poliomyelitis virus, amoebae and intestinal viruses.
6. Snails snails are intermediary hosts for the schistosoma flukes that cause urinary
schistosomiasis and intestinal schistosomiasis.
Q2. Discuss the factors that make displaced populations more susceptible to vector
borne diseases.
Ans: Displaced populations often have an increased risk of vector-borne diseases,
even for diseases that may not have been present in the area before they arrived.
Therefore, just because there has been no history of a particular disease outbreak
in the area does not mean that it can never occur. Factors that make displaced
populations more susceptible to vector-borne diseases include the following:
1. Immunity and Disease Status: Stress, lack of good nutrition, and lack of previous
51 BC2.5
exposure to the disease will lower a population's immunity to vector-borne
diseases. This is especially true for malaria when a non-immune population has
moved from urban or highland areas to lowland areas that are warmer or wetter. In
urban or highland areas there may be very little exposure to malaria; whereas in
warmer climates, there isan increased chance for the disease to be transmitted.
When the weather is wetter than where the non-immune population came from,
the vector populations increase rapidly. Displaced populations may also transfer
certain parasites and diseases from their former homes to new locations where
they multiply and spread. This makes the vectors and humans at the new location
susceptible to diseases they would not normally be subjected to.
2. Increased Exposure to Vectors: Displaced populations may be more exposed to
vectors because of the following reasons:
1. Overcrowding makes it easier for lice and mites to spread from person to
perSon. It also increases the chance that there is an infectious human (e.g., a
person with circulating yellow fever virus, and a nonimmune susceptible host,
both living within the 50 meter flight range of the mosquito vector, Aedes
. aegypti).
2. Poor housing results in Closer contact with sandfly vectors of leishmaniasis,
flea vectors of rodent borne diseases, or tick-borne relapsing fever.
3. Increased Number of Breeding Sites
a. Mosquito populations can multiply in great numbers in poorly drained water
distribution points. There may be an increased number of breeding sites,
either due to more pools of water or more domestic water containers. This can
significantly increase the incidence of mosquito-borne diseases, as follows:
(i). More water-storage containers increase breeding of the dengue fever vector
Aedes aegypti.
(ii). More water-filled pit latrines increase breeding of the encephalitis vector
Culex quinquefasciatus.
(iii). More groundwater pits, ponds, and footprints increase breeding ofthe malaria
vector Anopheles gambiae .
b. While evacuation sites and newly established camps may have severe
problems with flies, lice, and mosquitoes, problems with rodent populations
usually takes' some time to build up. Poor storage or disposal of food will
increase the rodent population. These rodents bring fleas and possibly
c. Flies are attracted to areas with food and wastewater disposal problems,
especially around feeding centres. Fly problems are often severe at the very
beginning ofthe camp, before sanitation systems can be established.
d. Natural disasters (e.g., EI-Nino floods and hurricanes in 1997-98) may change
the environment and increase the breeding sites of other vectors of less urgent
concern, e.g. ticks, tsetse flies, etc., resulting in less common disease
outbreaks including viral haemorrhagic fevers.
52 BC2.5
4. Temporary Nature ofthe Camp Site and Reduced Peri-Domestic Hygiene:
The temporary nature of a refugee camp means that it is not intended to be "home"
for long. Displaced populations may not care as much to protect themselves or
their household from vectors or pests as they normally would. They may be too
worried about stresses of their situation, such as lack of resources, to be
concerned about a few mosquito bites or accumulation of refuse. With the
disturbed community structure and huge numbers of new neighbours, it may be
difficult to develop a "community responsibility" for sanitation.
5. Interruption of Vector Control Measures: In emergencies, vector control
programs may lack the resources to support the control measures (chemicals may
be too costly). As a result, epidemics of vector-borne diseases may occur once
routine vector control measures (e.g., insecticide spraying) and health care
services are disrupted.
6. Access to Basic Treatment: Epidemics can occur amongst vulnerable displaced
and host populations in complex emergencies due to poor access to effective
treatment. In complex emergencies, a general break down of the health
infrastructure is common, possibly compounded by gradual deterioration over
many years. In the case of displaced populations, health services often become
overwhelmed and many cases simply go undetected and untreated.
03. Explain what strategies are adopted to control mosquitoes.
Ans: Control of mosquito populations will depend on the mosquito species:
1. Anopheles - malaria
There are various strategies to control the Anopheles mosquito:
a. To Reduce the Source:
1. Site selection: From a malaria control perspective, any displaced population
camp or evacuation site should be located one to two kilometers upwind from
potential vector breeding sites whenever an additional clean water source can
be provided for the camp population. In this case they have less direct need to
be sited close to natural water sources.
2. Environmental control: If the Anopheles breeding sites are limited and
circumscribed then larval control may be possible through draining or applying
a larvicide. Anopheles funestus breeds in permanent water bodies with
vegetation, including ponds and swamps.
3. Chemical and biological control: If larviciding is chosen, there are only two
main larvicides that can be safely applied on water that is used for drinking.
a. temephos (an organophosphate insecticide better known as Abate) widely
used in control of dengue, onchocerciasis, 'and guinea worm
b. Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (a biological insecticide)
b. To Minimise Transmission: For control against the adult Anopheles mosquito, it
is important to remember that species generally bites late in the night. Therefore, if
. ! repellents coils, fumigants, and aerosol sprays are applied in the early evening,
53 BC2.5
the protection they provide may not last long enough to have a significant impact.
Where available, repellants and coils may be in use on an individual basis and their
use should be encouraged
2. Aedes -yellowfeverand dengue
a. Aedes aegypti is a daytime biting mosquito that does not rest on walls. It prefers to
reston hanging clothing. .
• Therefore, neither insecticide-treated materials (ITMs) nor indoor residual
spraying are effective control measures.
Many programs carry out space spraying with thermal fogs or ultra-low
volume insecticides. This is very expensive, but may be necessary during
epidemics and should always be combined witD larval control.
b. The following three methods are effective for larval control:
Environmental sanitation: Clean-up, bury Or dispose of "non-essential" water
including old tires, tin cans, broken jars, plastic bottles, etc.
• Prevent breeding: empty and clean domestic water containers once a week.
Since it takes 10 days for the mosquito to develop from egg to adult, cleaning
and covering the jars once a week will prevent adults from emerging.
• Use larvicide such astemephos (Abate),
3. Culex quinquefasciatus Culex mosquitoes are more often nuisance biters and
are less easily controlled by insecticide-treated mosquito nets or residual house
Larval control can be achieved through environmental sanitation,
Improved latrines, and applying insecticides, oils, and polystyrene beads on the
surface of pit latrines and cesspools.
04. Explain how non biting flies are controlled.
Ans: There are various strategies to control non-biting fly populations:
I. To Reduce the Source:
a. The most important control measure is to ensure there are enough fly proof
• Provide a water seal orfunctioning VIP latrines
• Provide covers for other types of latrines.
• If defecation fields are used in the early stages of a refugee settlement, they
should be at least 500 metres down wind from the nearest household and 30
metres from a water source.
b. A second important control measure is to regularly dispose of all garbage.
• Collect refuse from households, markets as well as from refuse sites at least
twice a week in order to limit the number of flies that reproduce.
• All refuse should be finally disposed in covered garbage pits or by burying. The
shaded, damp environment with organic matter mixed with mud provides a
perfect breeding site for houseflies and bottle flies.
54 BC2.5
. I
c. Dead animals and wastes from slaughter houses should be buried as soon as
Q5. Explain how biting flies are controlled.
Ans: It is important to control biting flies such as t::;etse flies, sandflies wherever they
cause major disease epidemics
1. Tsetse Fly sleeping sickness There are various ways of controlling tsetse fly
a. Traps: The biconical trap, pyramidal trap and vavoua trap are made up of blue
and black cloths and mosquito netting. Flies get attracted to the brightly
colored mosquito netting over the traps and are unable to escape after
entering. Traps are cheap, easy to transport, completely safe for the user and
very effective means for control of biting flies. Because they do not require any
specific training to use, they are ideal for use by individuals or communities.
b. Insecticide Treated Targets: these consist of impregnated traps and
screens, which are more effective since they kill any flies that land on them.
They may be impregnated by the same pyrethroids used for impregnating
mosquito nets (may be effective for upto 3 months).
c. Insecticide Spraying: Aerial and ground spraying of insecticides may be the
preferable method of control during acute epidemics of sleeping sickness,
river blindness or leishmaniasis. Daytime resting places such as tree trunks,
twigs and roots should be target, Because of its high cost, need for s p e ~ i a l
equipment and trained workers, spraying is not recommended as a routine
control measure.
Traps attract more flies than screens and require less handling. Screens are
much cheaper than traps and can cover a larger area. However, traps
continue to be effective in catching flies once the insecticide wears out,
screens are only effective as long as the insecticide is active.
2. Sandflies -leishmaniasis
The infection and spread of leishmaniasis may be controlled in the following ways:
Personal Protection:' avoid being bitten by keeping away from areas that
sandflies are known to breed or rest, and by using bednets, repellents,
Residual Spraying: although spraying the interior and exterior sides of
doorways and windows, and the inner walls is effective against indoor-resting
sandflies, malaria control is the primary reason for spraying wherever
leishmaniasis is a problem.
• Control of animal reservoir: controlling the animal reservoir population (e.g.
rock hyrax in Ethiopia, dogs or other domestic animals) may reduce the
incidence of leishmaniasis.
55 BC2.5
Q6. How rodent andfleas vector is controlled?
Ans: When controlling flea-borne diseases such as plague and murine typhus, never
attack the rodents before first getting rid of the fleas. Otherwise, when the rats are
gone, the fleas will attack humans. The effective ways to get rid of rodents and
fleas are:
a. Chemical control: dusting rodent footpaths with insecticide dust/powder is
effective for large scale flea control (during outbreaks of typhus or plague).
When the rats groom themselves, the dust spreads on their fur, thus killing the
b. Mechanical Protection and Sanitation: These are the only permanent
methods for reducing rodent populations in refugee camps. Efforts should be
made to store all food in rat-proof containers. The final disposal of solid waste
should be done in a location and manner that does not encourage rat breeding
or create other environmental health risks. Burial or incineration may be used
to finally dispose of household waste and refuse from markets and
slaughtering areas.
c. Traps: Trapping rats is good for publicity but generally catches only the sick
and the stupid rodents.
d. Poisons: Rodenticides are generally not recommended for refugee camps.
e. Caution to Rodent Trapping! safe handling: Lassa fever is common and the
virus is spread through the urine of rats. If trapped, these rats have to be
disposed of without direct contact between the human and the rat corps as
they urinate wildly and their bodies become covered in the virus
Q7. Discuss how other pests and vectors are controlled?
Ans: Vectors and pests of less urgent concern can be controlled through environmental,
mechanical, biological, or chemical control, as summarized below:
Possible Vector Control Measures
Lice mass laundering in hot water; mass delousing with insecticide
Mites mass laundering; supply adequate water for washing and distribute
soap for
the community
clearing vegetation or insecticide spraying is difficult to apply Ticks
Bedbugs household and personal hygiene; insecticide spraying
Black Flies larviciding breeding sites in surrounding rivers
Cockroaches protect food; insecticide powder or spraying
sanitation measures, drain water or speed up water flow, spray
56 BC2.5
08. What points should be kept in mind while using the pesticides?
Ans: Vector control measures should address two principle concerns: efficacy and
safety: They should be carried out according to internationally agreed methods
and ensure that staff and the affected population are adequately
There are three points about pesticide safety that should be emphasised in refugee
camp settings:
1. Safe Use and Storage of Pesticides: Extra precaution should be taken in choosing
insecticides and deciding when, how, and for how long to apply them. Strict
procedures must be followed when handling insecticides and other related
equipment. Pesticides and the spray machines should never be transported in
vehicles that are also used for carrying food. They must be stored in locked and
ventilated buildings. There is an increased danger of pesticide poisoning among
displaced populations. Poisoning may be unintentional, but the danger exists
because o(the lack of toys tor children to play with, the novelty of the situation, and
the traumatic experience of being displaced.
2. Safe Storage and Disposal of Used Insecticide Containers: Strict guidelines have
been developed for this and they should be implemented to ensure that the
displaced community cannot obtain used pesticide containers.
3. Safety of the Spray Staff: Recruitment guidelines usually call for sprayers who:
have had prior training on the safe use of pesticides
• have protective clothing (uniforms, gloves, masks etc.)
never smoke, drink, or eat during the job
have access to good washing facilities after the job is done
It is rare to find sprayers that meet all of the above conditions in refugee situations. So
appropriate training, protective clothing and equipment and washing facilities should
be provided.
57 BC2.5
1. What are vectors?
2. Name different types of vectors.
3. Name disease? caused by biting of mosquitoes.
4. Comment on 'use of chemicals in controlling vectors'.
5. How anopheles mosquitoes be controlled at source.
58 BC2.5
1. Myriad microbes and toxic substances can contaminate foods
2. The majority of food borne diseases are infectious and are caused by bacteria,
viruses, and parasites.
3. Sanitation is the hygienic means of promoting health through prevention of human
contact with the hazards of wastes
Answer key
\ .. ...---L-\-\--"]

01.·, Howare food borne diseases caused?
Ans: Foodborne illnesses are defined as diseases, usually either infectious or toxic in
nature, caused by agents that enter the body through the ingestion of food. A
disease caused by consuming contaminated food or drink. Myriad miCfobes and
toxic substances can contaminate foods. There are more then 250 known
food borne diseases. The majority are infectious and are caused by bacteria.
viruses, and parasites .. Other food borne diseases are essentially poisonings
caused by toxins, chemicals contaminating the food. All foodborne microbes and
toxins enter the body through the gastrointestinal tract and often causes the first
. symptoms there. Nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps and diarrhea are frequent
in food borne diseases.
02. Give the significance of sanitation?
Ans: The importance of sanitation are as follows:
1. It increases chances of complying to regulatory requirement
2. It prevents outbreak of food borne diseaseli.
3. It enhances product quality and shelf life
4. It reduces energy and maintenance cost
5. It improves customer relations
6. It increases trust of competence agencies and inspectors
03. What do you understand by sanitation and hygiene?
Ans: Sanitation within the food industry means to adequate treatment of food­
contact surfaces by a process that is effective in destroying vegetative cells of
microorganisms of public health significance, and in substantially reducing
numbers of other undesirable microorganisms. but without adversely affecting the
product or its safety for the consumer.. Sanitation is the hygienic means of
promoting health through prevention of human contact with the hazards of wastes.
Hazards can be either physical, microbiological,biological or chemical agents of
disease. Wastes that can cause health problems are human and animal faeces,
solid wastes, domestic wastewater (sewage, grey water), industrial
wastes, and agricultural wastes.
Hygienic means of prevention can be by using engineering solutions (e.g.
sewerage and wastewater treatment), simple technologies (e.g. latrines, septic
tanks), or even by personal hygiene practices (e.g. simple hand washing with
soap). Sanitation as defined by the WHO (World Health Organization); Sanitation
generally refers to the provision of facilities and services for the safe disposal of
human urine and faeces. Inadequate sanitation is a major cause of disease world­
wide and improving sanitation is known to have a significant beneficial impact on
62 BC2.5 . i
health both in households and across communities. The word 'sanitation' also
refers to the maintenance of hygienic conditions, through services such as
garbage collection and wastewater disposal.
04. What are different types of sanitation?
Ans: The term "sanitation" can be applied to a specific aspect, concept, location, or
strategy, such as:
1. Basic sanitation - refers to the management of human faeces at the household
level. This terminology is the indicator used to describe the target ofthe Millennium
Development Goal on sanitation.
2. On-site sanitation - the collection and treatment of waste is done where it is
deposited. Examples are the use of pit latrines, septic tanks, and imhoff tanks.
3. Food sanitation - refers to the hygienic measures for ensuring food safety.
4. Environmental sanitation - the control of environmental factors that form links in
disease transmission. Subsets of this category are solid waste management,
water and wastewater treatment, industrial waste treatment and noise and
pollution control.
5. Ecological sanitation - a concept and an approach of recycling to nature the
nutrients from human and animal wastes.
05. What is pasteurization?
Ans: Pasteurization is the process of heating liquids or foods to kill microorganisms that
can cause disease. It was developed by Louis Pasteur in 1864, and the practice
became commercialized around the late 1800s and early 1900s. In addition to
improving consumer safety, pasteurization can improve the quality and shelf life of
It foods. Pasteurization destroys most disease producing organisms and limits·
fermentation in milk, beer, and other liquids by partial or complete sterilization. The I
pasteurization process heats milk to 161 degrees Fahrenheit (63 degrees
centigrade) for 15 seconds, inactivating or killing organisms that grow rapidly in
I milk. Pasteurization does not destroy organisms that grow slowly or produce
spores. While pasteurization destroys many microorganisms in milk, improper
/: handling after pasteurization can re-contaminate milk. Ultra-high temperature
(UHT) processing destroys organisms more effectively and the milk is essentiaJly
. sterilized and can be stored at room temperature for up to 8 weeks without any
change in flavor.
06. How do microorganisms enter the milk supply?
Ans: Our environment contains an abundance of microorganism,s that find their way to
the hair, udder, and teats of dairy cows and can move up the teat canal. Some of
these germs cause an inflammatory disease of the udder known as mastitis while
others enter the milk without causing any disease symptoms in the animal. In
addition, organisms can enter the milk supply during the milking process when
equipment used in milking, transporting, and storing the raw milk is not properly
cleaned and sanitized. All milk and milk products have the potential to transmit
63 BC2.5
pathogenic (disease- causing) organisms to humans. The nutritional components
that make milk and milk products an important part of the human diet also support
the growth of raw milk causes food borne illness, and dairy
producers seiling or giVing raw milk to friends and relatives are putting them at risk.
01. Discuss major food borne diseases from microorganisms.
Ans: The microorganisms causing food borne diseases are Salmonellosis,
Campylobacteriosis, E coli, Vibrio cholerae
1 . Salmonellosis is a major problem in most countries. Salmonellosis is caused by
the Salmonella bacteria and symptoms are fever, headache, nausea, vomiting,
abdominal pain and diarrhoea. Examples of foods involved in outbreaks of
salmonellosis are eggs, poultry and other meats, raw milk and chocolate.
2. Campylobacteriosis is a widespread infection. 'It is caused by certain species of
Campylobacter bacteria. Foodborne cases are mainly caused by foods such as
raw milk, raw or undercooked poultry and drinking water. Acute health effects of
campylobacteriosis include severe abdominal pain, fever, nausea and diarrhoea.
In two to ten per cent of cases the infection may lead to chronic health problems,
including reactive arthritis and neurological disorders.' .
3. E Coli Infections due to enterohaemorrhagic (causing intestinal bleeding) E coli,
e.g. Ecoli 0157, and listeriosis are important food borne diseases which have
emerged over the last decades. Although their incidence is relatively low, their
severe and sometimes fatal health consequences, particularly among infants,
children and the elderly, make them among the most serious foodborne infections.
4. Cholera is.a major public health problem in developing countries, also causing
enormous economic losses. The disease is caused by the bacterium Vibrio
cholerae. In addition to water, contaminated foods can be the vehicle of infection.
Different foods, including rice,. vegetables, millet gruel and various types of
seafood have been implicated in outbreaks of cholera. Symptoms, including
abdominal pain, vomiting and profuse watery diarrhoea, may lead to severe
dehydration and possibly death, unless fluid and salt are replaced.
02. Discuss different methods for Pasteurization.
Ans: The different methods of pasteurization are:
High Temperature Short Time Treatment. Milk is pasteurized at 161
F for 15
seconds. .
II 2.
Low Temperature Long Time Treatment. Milk is pasteurized at 145
F for 30
Flash Pasteurization. This type of pasteurization, which involves high
temperature for 3 to 15 seconds followed by cooling and packaging,is used for J
drink boxes and other liquids that can be stored for long periods of time without
4. Steam Pasteurization. Pressurized steam is used to kill E coli, Salmonella, and
Listeria in beef carcasses. Exposure of the beef to steam results in a surface
temperature of about 200
5. Irradiation Pasteurization. Exposure to gamma rays can prevent the growth of
some food borne microbes in foods such as meats, spices, and produce.
6. Ultrapasteurization. Heating milk or cream to 280
F for 2 seconds can extend the
refrigerated shelf life of milk from 60 to 90 days.
7. Ultra-High Temperature Pasteurization. Heating milk to 280
to 302
F for 1 or 2
seconds followed by packaging in airtight containers' allows storage without
refrigeration for up to 90 days.
03. Discuss what points should be kept in mind while preparing cattle shed?
Ans: The cattle shed protect the animals from rain, wind, heat and cold. While designing
the shed consideration should be given to the comfort and health of animals, the
economic use of labour while feeding, cleaning and hygienic conditions for milk
production. Shed for animals should be built in an open well drained site with
further scope for expansion. It should be easily accessible. Use of trees as wind
break or planting of quick growing' trees near the shed is recommended. A
moderate floor slope helps drainage of animal feed and dung. The site should be
oriented east to west if possible.
04. What are the basic designing criteria for cattle sheds?
Ans: A stall of 1.5 m in length and 1.2 m in width is considered suitable for Indian cows.
Mangers and gutters should be of 0.75 m and 0.45 m wide, respectively, with all
. corners rounded up by cement. The entire construction should have no projections
to scratch and tear the. skin, legs or udder, nor should any part of the shed be
favourable for the accumulation of dust. Cattle shed should be close to the farmer's
house in order to attend to the animals atnight time and in bad weather. The site
should have a good water supply. The conventional cattle sheds have roof of
ordinary chappar, thatch work or·f1at roofs made with timber and earth. The floor of
the shed may be a bed of broken bricks, gravel, sand, lime and coal cinders well
rammed to make a compact layer of over 15 cm thickness. Stables for horses,
pens for sheep and goats, sties for swine, kennels for dogs and sheds for camels,
and other animal habitations should generally conform to basic hygienic
05. Discuss livestock hygiene.
Ans: Good hygienic conditions are the most important aspect of livestock farming.
Proper hygienic conditions also prevent many diseases and disorders in the .
animals. Livestock hygiene identifies the causes of all preventive animal diseases
and devises means of removing those causes or rendering them ineffective. It
aims at increasing the efficiency of animals by providing them the most
comfortable conditions of life. Cleanliness helps to preserve the health of animals.
It is necessary that the animals should be frequently and systematically cleaned.
Animal sheds must be kept clean and perfectly dry, especially the floors, mangers
and drains. Solid and semi-solid excreta should be removed periodically from the
sheds and put in proper manure pits. The best time to wash and clean animal
66 BC2.5
houses is when the animals are on grazing. Sunlight and heat act as powerful
disinfectants. Direct sun-rays kill many germs and mitigate the action by their
oxidizing and desiccating properties. Heat, as a disinfectant, may be applied either
in the form of a direct flame or burning or steam of the boiling water.
06. Write short note on live stock management in organic farming
Ans: In Livestock Management in Organic Farming the live stock should be taken
proper care as:
• Cattle should be regularly washed and groomed once or twice a week. The
cattle should be washed once daily in hot weather, once a week during the
rains, and once ortwice a month during the cold weather.
Suckling calves need not be bathed, but should be brushed.
• Feet should receive special attention in all animals, and any large dirt pieces of
stone or thorn found lodged between the hoofs should be removed and sores
properly cleaned.
67 BC2.5
1. Name some food borne diseases.
2. . How food borne diseases are caused?
3. How food borne microbes enter the human body?
4. Define sanitation.
5. What do you understand by hygiene?
6. What is basic sanitation?
7. Define pasteurization.
8. Why pasteurization is needed?
9. Comment on I milk is carrier of infection.
10. How and when flash pasteurization is needed?
68 BC2.5
1. According to IS: 3307-1965, the tolerance limits for industrial effluents discharged
on land for irrigation purposes quantity of oil and grease should not be more than
2. Neutralization means neutralizing the excessive acidity or alkalinity of the
particular waste water, by adding alkali or acid, respectively, to the waste water
3. Physical treatment consists of separating the suspended inorganic matter by
physical processes, like sedimentation and floatation
. Answer key
01. Write short note on industrial effluent standard for disposal on land
Ans: According to IS: 3307-1965, following are the tolerance limits for industrial
effluents discharged on land for irrigation purposes:
1 . the total dissolved inorganic solids should not exceed 21 OOmgll
2. 5day BOD at 20°C should not exceed 500mgll,
3. its pH-value should be between 5.5 to 9.0
4. .quantity of sulphates. and chlorides should not exceed 100 and 600mg/l
5. quantity of oil and grease should not be more than 30mg/l and
6. quantity of boron should not exceed 2mg/l
02. Explain equalization and neutralization process ofindustrial waste
Ans: Equalization: Equalization consists of holding the waste water for some pre
determined time in a continuously mixed basin, to produce a uniform wastewater.
Such an arrangement will, of course be necessary when the waste water produced
by the industry varies in characteristics and quantity over the entire day.
Neutralization: Neutralization means neutralizing the excessive acidity or
alkalinity of the particular wastewater, by adding alkali or acid, respectively, to the
waste water. This may be achieved either in the equalization tank, where possible,
or a separate neutralization tank may be used.
03. What.are the various physical treatment processes used for treating industrial
Ans: Physical treatment consists of separating the suspended inorganic matter by
physical processes, like sedimentation and floatation
a. Sedimentation: Sedimentation is employed to separate the heavier settleable
solids, and hence sedimentation tank may be provided only when the waste water
contains a high percentage of such heavy inorganic solids.
b. Floatation: Floatation consists of creation of fine air bubbles in the waste tank, by
introduction of air into the tank from the bottom. The rising air bubbles, attach
themselves to the fine suspended particles, increasing their buoyancy, and finally
lifting them to liquid surface for consequent removal by skimming.
72 BC2.5
01. How and in what way the industrial waste can pollute the water?
Ans: Certain types of organic, inorganic and radioactive substances present in the
industrial waste in minute suspended or colloidal forrrnd micro organisms
pollute the source of water, where these are disposed off. The decomposition of
industrial wastes by microorganism results in the products which are odoriferous
or unacceptable in taste and appearance as well as harmful to public health. The
organic impurities give odour colour and taste to the water, whereas inorganic
compounds give foaming, odour, turbidity etc. Various types of bacteria, viruses
and plant life also grow in the industrial! trade wastes. Organic compounds such as
proteins, carbohydrates, fats, dyes, tar, detergents etc. present in waste are
objectionable. Keratin from wool industries, proteins from egg albumen, tannin
from tanneries, casein from dairies etc. undergo degradation by bacterial action
resulting in compounds which impart most objectionable colour and pollute the
water. The pollutants add colour, taste and odour in the receiving water, make the
water oily, greasy, corrosive and unfit for industrial, recreational or domestic use.
They also impart hardness, change pH-value, increase temperature and algal
growth, destroy the aquatic life and increase the insect nuisance.
02. What are the permissible limits of industrial effluent to be discharged into streams?
Ans: According to IS: 2490-1963 the industrial effluent allowed for discharge into the
water courses should have the following standards
1. 5day BOD at 20°C of effluent to be discharged into inland surface water as 30mg/l.
In exceptional cases the BOD may be allowed up to 100mgll
2. as far as possible and practicable, it should be free from colour and unpleasant
3. its pH-value should be between 5.5 to 9.0
4. from the outlet up to 15m downstream, the temperature should not be more than
40°C in any section ofthe stream,
5. oil, grease, phenolic compounds, cyanides (as CN) and sulphides (as S) should
not exceed 10.0, 1.0,0:2 and 2.0mg/l respectively,
6. total suspended solids should not exceed 100mg/l
7. presence of arsenic, barium, cadmium, Chromium, copper, mercury, lead,
selenium, nickel, silver and zinc should not exceed 1.0mgll individually or
8. total residual chlorine and fluorides (as F) should not exceed 1.0 and 2mg/l
respectively, and
9.. radioactive materials like u and pemitters should not exceed 10­
and 10- jJc/ml,
03. What are the tolerance limit for industrial effluent discharged into public sewers?
Ans: to IS: 3306-1965, the tolerance limit for industrial effluents discharged
Into public sewer are as follows: .
1. its pH-value should be between 5.5 to 9.0
2. 5day BOD at 20°C should not exceed 500mgll,
3. lead, copper and zinc should not exceed 1.0, 3.0 and 15mg/l respectively,
4. effluent temperature should not exceed 45°C '
5. quantity of suspended solids not exceed 600mg/l
6. Chromium, nickel and cyanide should not exceed 2% each
7. effluent containing such as straw, plastic, wood, paint residue, gross solid
from cannery wastes, crnder, ash, sand, tar, rag, hair, metal shavings, garbage,
broken glass etc. should not be discharged into public sewers
8. phenolic, compounds, sulphates and total inorganic· dissolved solids should not
exceed 5, 1000 and 2100 mgll respectively
9. chloride and boron should not exceed 600 and 2mg/l respectively
04. What do you understand by acclimatization in biological treatment of industrial
waste? .
Ans: Biological of industrial waste waters is necessary, when they contain
large of bl?degradable substances. Such biological treatment may be
used either With or Without acclimatization. Acclimatization consists of the gradual
exposure of the wastewater in increasing concentration to the seed or initial micro
biological population under a controlled condition. Most of the waste water do not
contain sufficient nutrients for microbiological growth, and hence nutrients like
urea (containing nitrogen), super phosphates (containing phosphorus) etc. may
t.o be added to the reactors. For balanced growth of micro organisms in a
biological treatment reactor, the ratio of BOD: nitrogen: Phosphorus should be
100: 5: 1 for aerobic systems, and 100: 2.5: 0.5 for anaerobic systems.
05. Write short note on pretreatment of industrial wastes.
Ans: Industrial wastes mainly consists ofthe following:
1. effluents obtained from various industrial processes,
2. industries floor washings
3. condensate water
4. sanitary and faecal wastes
It is always not necessary to treat the entire industry waste. Some in plant
measu.res may be adopted to reduce or even eliminate the objectionable matter.
Followrng are the common measures used for industries waste pre treatments:
1. Use of soft detergents instead of hard detergents for eliminating the foam
nuisance. This is known as 'process change'.
74 BC2,5
2. Recovery of silver from photographic wastes, which provides a primary treatment.
It is known as recovery of material.
3. Reuse of water in industrial processes, such as collecting cooling waters from
boilers, eliminating its heat and reusing it.
4. Mixing of acidic and alkaline wastes together, for neutralizing each other and
making the mixture more nearer to the normal value of pH. This process is known
as mixing oftrade wastes.
The industrial wastes are usually treated by the following processes:
1. The suspended solids are removed by screening or settling tanks
2. Oil, grease and fats are removed by floatation and skimming. This process can be
aided by chemical treatment if necessary.
3. Colloidal matter is removed by floatation with coagulation and electrolytes
followed by sedimentation and filtration
,1 4. excessive alkalinity and acidity is removed by adding chemicals or mixing acidic
waste with alkaline waste or vice-versa
5. Re oxygenation of wastes are done by aeration
6. De colorization of waste is done by chemical treatment with sedimentation or
filtration or both.
Q6. Discuss the various chemical treatment processes used for the treatment of
industrial waste water.
Ans: The chemical treatment is used to recover the dissolved organic matter from the
waste water, and may consists of one or more of the following processes:
1. Reverse Osmosis or hyper filtration: The waste water containing dissolved salts
are filtered through semi permeable membranes at a pressure higher than the
osmotic pressure. Such a treatment requires pre treatments like a) activated
carbon adsorption; or b )chemical precipitation followed by some kind offiltration
2. Electro dialysis: In electrodialysis dissolved salts from waste water are separated
by passing an electric current through the waste water tank. This treatment also
requires some pre treatment as is required in reverse osmosis process.
3. Chemical Oxidation: hi-chemical oxidation, chemicals like chlorine and ozone are
used to reduce substances like ammonia and cyanide, etc. from the waste water,
in addition to reducing BOD load on biological treatments.
4. Chemical coagulation: This is used in treating raw water supplies, and helps in
sedimentation of unsetlleable micro and colloidal impurities, which get absorbed
in the gelatinous flocs, formed by the chemical reactions between coagulants, or
between the coagulant and the alkalies present in raw water.
5. Adsorption: Adsorption is used to remove non biodegradable organics ( like
synthetic detergents), color and odour from waste water. The process involves
passing the pre treated waste water through the beds of activated carbon.
6. Deionization: Deionization involves passage of waste water through the beds of
75 BC2.5
synthetic ion exchange resins, where some undesirable cations and anions of the
waste water get exchanged for sodium or hydrogen ions of the resin.
Thermal reduction: Thermal reduction requires burning and consequent oxidation
of toxic and refractive substances, like organic cyanide, which may be
present In certain specific industrial waste waters.
Air In ai: the liquid waste is poured down through a packed
tower, eqUipped with an air blower at the bottom. This is a modification of aeration­
process, used for removal of gases from the waste water.
the effects of industrial effluent disposal on sewers, treatment plants and.
receiving streams.
Heavier suspended solids deposit in sewers or in receiving streams and cause
t:oubles. They also smoother the fish life in streams. Greasy and oily
matenal mduces depOSition at above places, causes skimming troubles at the
plants and ugly scums and sludge banks in receiving waters. They also
t.he rights of riparian owners, and with the natural reaeration inducing
septlclty. ACidic and corrosive discharges act upon the sewer materials and the
treatment p.lant structures and equipment corroding and weakening them and also
reduce their useful life and capacities. These along with the toxic metals and
chemicals destroy the biological activity in streams . and municipal sewage
treatment plants and receiving waters unfit for further use. Higher
temperature of wasteswill aggrevate the situation by hastening the chemical and
biological reactions.
, ;
, ,
All porous rocks possesses enough capacity to store water. and are
considered as potential source of ground water irrespective of theIr permeabIlity
The intake point should be located upstream of the point of sewage disposal
Dry intake towers are preferred to wet intake towers
Surface and ground water get their supply from rain water
5. Intake is a device to draw water
Combined gravity and pumping system is the most common system adopted in
\;.: most of the cases
Ii Surface reservoirs should be located at high points in the distribution system so
7. 1:1
that gravity supply can be done directly
d Elevated reservoirs are commonly known as overhead tanks
Circular and ring system is most suitable for the town having well planned streets
and roads
Stand pipes are normally employed where the construction of a surface reservoir
would not provide sufficient head.
A mass curve of demand is the cumulative demand curve and is obtained by
continuously adding the hourly demands and plotting these against time of the
maximum day
12. The method of distribution depend upon the topography of the area
13. Sump well is the lower portion ofthe intake where water enters from the conduits
14. Stand pipes are provided.with single inlet a,:,d outlet pipe
15. Generally the height of stand pipes should be more than 15m
1. F

,11. T

01. What are the different of water?
Ans: The different sources of water can be broadly classified as
1. Surface sources
2. Sub surface/ underground sources
1. Surface sources can be further divided as
a. Stream
b. Lakes
c. Ponds
d. ' Rivers
e. Impounded reservoirs
f. Stored rain water
2. Subsurface/underground sources can be further divided as
a. Springs
b. Infiltration galleries
c. Porous pipe galleries
D. Wells
02. Discuss stream as a surface source of water.
Ans: In mountainous region streams are formed by the run off.
The discharge in the streams is much in rainy season than in any other seasons.
Those rivers which dry up in summer and contain water only during rainfalls are
known as 'Rainy Streams'. The quality of water in streams is normally good except
the water of first run off. But sometimes run off water while flowing over grounds is
mixed with clay, sand and mineral impurities. All the suspended impurities can be
removed in settling tanks up to certain extent, but the dissolved impurities require
special treatments. The streams generally flow in valleys and are the main source
of water supply to villages of hills which are situated near them.
03. Discuss lakes as a surface source of water.
Ans: In mountains at some places natural basins are formed with impervious beds.
Water from springs and streams generally flows towards these basins and 'Lakes'
are formed. The quantity of water in the lakes depends on its basin capacity.
catchment area, annual rainfall, porosity of the ground etc. The quality of large
lakes is good than that of the small lakes: But lakes which are situated at higt
altitudes contain almost pure water which can be used without any treatment. LakE
water is available only to those towns and cities which are situated nearthem.
84 BC2.5
, i
04. Discuss rivers as a surface source of water.
Ans: Rivers are born in the hills, when the discharge of large number of springs and
streams combine together. In mountains the quantity of water in rivers remains
small, therefore at such places these are called as small rivers. But as the
moves forward more and more streams combine in it and it increases Its
discharge. Therefore rivers grow bigger and bigger as they move forward due to
increase in .their catchment area. Rivers are the only surface sources of water·
which have maximum quantity of water which can be easily taken. In summer the
quality of river water is better than that in monsoon, because in rainy season
runoff water also carries with it clay, silt, sand etc., which make the water tUrbid.
River water should always be used after necessary treatment. Some rivers are
snow fed and perennial, and have water throughout the year; therefore they do not
require any arrangement to hold the water. But some rivers dry up wholly or partly
in summer, therefore they require special arrangements to meet the water demand
,! during hot weather.

05. Discuss ponds as a surface source of water.
Ans: These are depressions in plains like lakes of mountains,in which water
during rainy season. Sometimes ponds are formed when much excavation I,S done
for constructing kaccha houses in villages, embankment for road and railways,
and manufacture of bricks. Generally the quantity of water in ponds is very small
and contains large amount of impurities. The water of ponds is used for washing
clothes animals, bathing and drinking. The water of pond cannot be used for water
supply dueto its limited quantity and large amount of impurities.
06. Discuss impounded reservoirs as a surface source of water.
Ans: Mostly it is found that there is great variation the of rive: water ?uring
monsoon and summer season. The discharge.m some rivers remam suffiCient to
meet the hot weather demand, but in some rivers the flow becomes very small and
cannot meet the requirements of hot weather. In such cases it es.sential.
to store the water for summer season. The water can be stored m the fiver by
constructing a bund, a weir or a dam across the river at
minimum area of land is submerged in the water and the reservOir basm remains
cup-shaped having maximum possible depth of water.
Q7. Discuss stored rain water as a surface source of water.
Ans: At some places where neither ground water nor surface water is easily .
the only way is to store the rainwater in cisterns or tanks from roofs of bUlldmgs.
The rain water from roofs and pucca courtyards is collected in water tight tanks
with the help of· channels. Water obtained in this way is extremely soft and
reasonably clean. The water stored in this way should be prevented from
contamination. The quantity of water stored in this way is limited and can never be
utilized for water supply schemes on large scale.
85 BC2.5
Discuss springs as ground water source.
Ground water reappears at the ground surface in the form of springs. Springs
generally can supply small quantity of water, hence cannot be used as source of
water to big towns. Good developed springs can be used as water supply sources
for small hill towns. Due to presence of sulphur in certain springs, they discharge
hot water. Such hot water springs are only useful for taking dips for the cure of
certain skin disease patients. These are not useful for public water supply.
Discuss porous pipe as ground water source.
When there is large quantity of ground water existing over a wider area, it can be
cheaply col/ected by laying porous pipes or pipes with open joints in the full area at .
some distances. These longitudinal and cross pipes are given a slope such that
they bring the water towards a point, where a well is constructed to take out the
water. These porous pipes are surrounded with gravel and broken stone pieces to
increase the intake capacity.
Discuss infiltration gal/eries as ground water source.
The ground water travels towards lakes, rivers or streams. This water which is
traveling can be intercepted by digging a trench or by constructing a tunnel with
holes on sides at right angles to the direction of flow of underground water. These
underground tunnels used for trapping underground water near rivers, lakes or
streams are called 'Infiltration galleries'. Yield from these galleries may be as much
as 1.5 X 10 litres/day/meter length of the infiltration gallery. Galleries are
surrounded on sides and top with gravel or pebble stones to increase their intake
capacity. Longitudinal slope is given to the galleries and at the end sump well is
. constructed, from where water is pumped out.
Discuss the suitability of surface water with regard to quantity and quality.
Rainfall directly affects the quantity of surface water. As the rainfall is uniform
throughout the year, the quantity of surface large The
discharge in rivers and streams remains In season and minimum
in summer. If the quantity of water in summer IS not sufficient to meet the demand,
it should be stored in impounded reservoirs. In hilly areas having large lakes, the
construction of artificial reservoirs is not necessary.
Surface waters mostly contains large amount of impurities in both and
dissolved form. Surface water is contaminated by the impurities while traveling ?n
the ground. The suspended impurities contain disease-producing bacteria,
therefore, surface water should not be used before treatment. and
reservoirs, the suspended impurities settle down in the bottom, .but In their beds
algae, weeds, vegetable and organic takes place, which bad
smell, taste and color in water. Therefore thiS water should also b.e after
purification. The sewage of towns and cities. situated near the IS also
discharged in the rivers, which pollute the river water up to certain length.
, Therefore while taking water for water supply purposes, intakes should always be
installed in upstream side, which is free from contamination due to Whe.n
water is stored for long time in reservoirs it should be aerated and chlOrinated to kill
the microscopic organisms which are born in water.
Explain the development of wells.
In case of rocks the capacity of well can be !ncreased by explosion in the .wells
which will increase the cracks and passages through which In the
wells. In the case of sandy stratum the yield can be increased by packing
around the well. In the beginning when new well is which IS
drawn contains large quantity of fine sand. These sand particles stick the
mesh of strainer pipe and will decrease the capacity of the well. ThiS choking of
strainer can be removed by the following methods.
Back washing or back blowing. In this method the water is forced in
1. '
direction by means of compressed air pressure. All the sand, clay material which IS
sticked around the strainer pipe and choked it is agitated and removed. These are
then removed by means of pumping and bailing.
Surging. In this method the sand particles are from the filter by
lowering a plunger in the well and giving severe agitation of the water inside the
strainer pipe.
Gravel packing. In this method the gravel is packed the strainer pipe. First
the gravel is filled between strainer pipe and outer casing of the tube well.
casing is lifted upward to the top of screen and gravel rema.ins around the strainer
03. What are the various classification of wells?
Ans: Depending on the method of construction, wells are classified as follows:
1. Dug wells or percolation wells
2. Tube wells
3. Driven well or percussion wells
1. Dug wells or percolation wells: Sometimes these are also known as 'Draw Wells' or
'Open Wells'. These are shallow wells which are usually confined to soft ground,
sand and gravel. The diameter of these wells may be between 1 m to 4m and depth
may be up to 20m depending on the requirement and geological structure of the
earth. Thesewells are suitable for small discharge of about 20 cu.m/hr. The walls
of these wells may be constructed with precast Ree blocks, bricks or stone
masonry. Dug wells are very cheap in construction, and very popular in rural areas
and small towns. Wells should be disinfected frequently to avoid the risk of
contamination, because these wells generally are in poor sanitary conditions.
2. Tube wells: The maximum discharge which is available from the ordinary open
wells, is between 4 to 6 liters/sec. due to their low yield open wells are useful for
small locality or private dwellings. For small localities or private estates there may
be their own source of water supply. It is not economical to install pumps in these
wells, due to their low yield. For obtaining more yield tube wells are commonly
used. These wells essentially consists of blind pipes and strainer pipes, and their
supply of water is from large number of aquifers. The depth of the tube wells may
vary from SO to SOOm. and the maximum yield from the tube well may be about
200Iiters/sec. The yield of the average tube well is about SOIiters/sec.
3. Driven wells or percussion well: This is a shallow well constructed by driving a
casing pipe of 2.S cm to 1Scm in diameter. The lower portion of casing pipe which is
driven in the water bearing stratum is perforated. The bottom end of casing pipe is
pOinted known as drive point or well point. The perforated portion of the pipe is
covered with fine wire gauge to prevent the passage of soil and sand particles
insidethe well. The discharge of these wells is very small and these are suitable for
domestic purpose only. These pipes may be up to 12m deep; after this depth the
water can be taken out by means of pumps.
04. Discuss the suitability of ground water source with regard to quantity and quality.
Ans: Ground water ,is the waterwhich percOlates in the ground after rainfall. Therefore
the quantity of ground water directly depends on the rainfall. As the rainfall is not
uniformly spread throughout the year, the quantity of ground water varies
throughout the year. In monsoon or rainy season yield will be maximum and in
summer it will be minimum. The quantity of ground water also depends on the
underground storage and geological formation of pervious and impervious
stratums and the type of source of water. The yield from springs will be minimum.
The yield of water from shallow wells will depend on the depth of water bearing
stratum and its catchment area, but it is usually less and temporary which
decreases in dry weather. The quantity of water from deep wells and tube wells is
much more, because water is trapped from several acquifers into these wells.
88 BC2.5
Therefore supplies of tube wells and deep wells are constant and more reliable
than shallow wells and springs. If we compare the quantity of ground water with
surface water, the more quantity is available from surface sources.
The quality of ground water is much better than surface water, because surface
water contains large amount of suspended impurities, whereas ground water is
free from it. But sometimes ground water dissolves minerals, salts etc which come
in its cOr;ltact while in movement. The strainer action· of soil also removes large
quantity of bacteria. Therefore ground water is mostly free from bacteria but may
be soft or hard depending on the dissolved impurities.· Overall ground water is
good in quality but requires some treatment to remove dissolved impurities and to
improve its chemical characteristics.
Q5. What are the factors which governs the final choice of the source of water supply?
Ans: The choice of source of water supply to a town or city depends on the following
1. Location: The source of water should be as near to the town as possible. If there
are both surface and ground sources available to the town the selection will be
decided by considering other factors also. If there is no river, stream or reservoirs,
the city will have to depend on ground source of water only because there is no
other alternative.
2. Quantity of water: The source of water should have sufficient quantity of water to
meet up all the demands of city such as domestic, industrial, fire fighting, public
etc. throughout the year. There should be sufficient extra quantity of water to be
required in while expansion of done. Source of water should beable to
meet the maximum demand in dry weather also.
3. Quality of water: The quality of water should be good which can be 'easily and
cheaply treated. It should not contain disease germs or other pathogenic bacteria
which may endanger the health of the public. Therefore as far as possible the
water of the source should be wholesome, safe and free from pollution.
4. Cost: The cost of water supply scheme depends on many factors as system of
supply, ground levels of city, distance between source and distribution system etc.
If the water flows under the gravitational force it will be cheap, but if it is to be
pumped it will be costly. Similarly the cost will directly depend on the distance
between the source ofwater and city, if the distance is more it will be costly.
The selection is done based on the above points and the source which will give
good quality and the quantity at less cost will be selected.
Q6. What are intakes? Mention the points which should be taken into consideration in
deciding the location and design of an intake for the water supply?
Ans: Intakes are structures which consists of opening, grating or strainer·through which
the raw water from river, canal or reservoir enters and is cacried to a sump well by
means of conduits. Waterfrom the sump is pumped through the rising mains to the
treatment plant. The main function of intake works is to collect the water from the
surface source and then discharge water so collected, by means of pumps or
directly to the treatment plants.
89 BC2,5
Points to be kept in mind while selecting site for intake works:
1. The best of water should be available at the site so that it can be a '1
and economically purified. .. e Sl y
2. For the of the intake structures there should not be heavy current of
water at the site. . .
3. !he site should such that intake can draw sufficient quantity of water even
In the worst condition, when the diScharge of the source is minimum.
4. The site should be easiiy approachable obstruction.
5. A;' far as pOssible the site should be near the treatment works, it will reduce the
cunveyance cost from the source to the water works.
6. At the site sufficient quantity should be available for the future expansion of the
water works.
7. A.s far as possiblethe intake should not be located in the vicinity ofthe pOint of
disposal If at all it becomes necessary due to unavoidable reasons
to locate Intakes In the close proximity of the sewage disposal, a weir should
be upstream of the disposal point, and the intake should be
located In the upstream side of the weir.
What are different types of intakes?
Depending on the source of water the intake works are classified as follows:
1. Lake intake
2. River intake
3. Reservoir intake
4, Canal intake
1. Lake intake: .For obtaining water from lakes mostly submersible intakes are
used. These Intakes are in the bed of the lake below the low water
level as to draw In season also. It consists of a pipe laid in the bed
of fiver. One en? which IS In the middle of the lake is fitted with bell mouth
opening wlth.a mesh and protected by timber or concrete crib. The
. enters In the pipe through the bell mouth opening and flows under
gravity to the bank where it is collected in a sump well and then pumped to the
treatn:ent plants necessary treatment. The advantages of this intake is
there IS no to the navigation, no danger from floating bodies and no
trouble due to Ice.
= _ tClA'!..E
Lake intake
=--=- .-=-..
.--.. - - ­ ..--..
........,..... ......-. -.­
2. River Water from river is always drawn from the upstream side,
because it is free from the contamination caused by the disposal of sewage in
it. These intake are circular masonry tower of 4 to 7 m in diameter constructed
along the bank of the river at such place from where required quantity of water
can be obtained even in the dry period. The water enters in the lower portion of
the intake known as sump well from penstocks. The penstocks are fitted with
screens to check the entry of floating solids and are placed on the downstream
side so that water free from suspended solids only enter the well. The water
from sump well is pumped to the water works by pumps in the
upstream portion of the intake.
3. Reservoir intake: There is large variation in the discharge of all the rivers
during monsoon and summer. Water in some rivers remain suffiCient to meet
up the demand, but some rivers dry up partly or fully and cannot meet the hot
weather demand. In such cases reservoirs are constructed by constructing
weirs or dams across the rivers. These are mostly used to draw water from
earthen dam reservoir, These consists qf an intake tower constructed on the
slope of the dam at such place from where intake can draw sufficient quantity
of water even in the driest period. Intake pipes are fixed at different levels, so
as to draw water near the surface in all variations of water level. These all inlet
pipes are connected to one vertical pipe inside the intake welt. Screens are
provided at the mouth of all intake pipes to prevent the entry of suspended
matter. The water from the well is taken to the other side of the dam by means
of an outlet pipe. At the top of the intake tower sluice valve are provided to
control the flow of water.
91 BC2.5
River Intake
Reservoir intake
4. Canal intake: Canal intake is a very simple structure constructed on the bank.
It consist of a pipe placed in a brick masonry chamber constructed partly in the .
canal bank. On one side of the chamber an opening is provided with coarse
screens for the entrance of water. The end of the pipe inside the chamber is
provided with a bell mouth fitted with a hemispherical fine screen. The outlet
pipe carries the water to the other side of the canal bank from where it is taken
to the treatment plants. One sluice valve which is operated by a wheel from the
top of the masonry chamber is provided to control the flow of water in the pipe.
F s.t..
Canal intake
What are the requirements of good distribution system?
Requirements of good distribution system:
1. It should convey the treated water up to the consumers with the same degree
of purity ..
2. The water should reach the consumer with the required pressure head.
3. Sufficient quantity of treated water should reach for the domestic and
industrial use.
'" ... """" :
4. The distribotion system should be economical and easy to maintain and
5. It should be able to transport sufficient quantity of water during emergency
such as fire fighting.
6. It should be reliable so that even during breakdown or repairs of one linewater
should reach that locality from other line.
7. It should not cause obstruction to traffic during repair work.
8. ·It should be safe against any future pollution.
9. The quality ofthe pipe should be good and it should not burst.
10. It should be water tight and the water losses due to leakage should be
minimum as far as possible.
Discuss the methods of distribution system of water.
For efficient distribution the water should reach to every consumer with required
rate of flow. Depending upon the methods of distribution, the distribution system is
classified as follows:
1. Gravity system
2. Pumping system
3. Dual system or combined gravity and pumping system.
1. Gravity system: When some ground sufficiently high above the city area is
available this can be best utilized for the distribution system in maintaining
pre9sure in water pipes. This method is suitable when source of supply such
as lake, river or reservoir is at sufficient height than city. The water flows in the
mains due to gravitational force. As no pumping is required it is the most
reliable system.
2. Pumping system: in this system water is directly pumped in the mains. Since
the pumps have to work at different rates in a day, the maintenance cost
increases. It is preferred to have number of pumps and only the required
numbers may work at various times to meet the demand, in place of providing
pumps of variable speed. If the power fails, the whole supply of the town will be .
stopped. During fires the water can be pumped in the required quantity by the
stand by units also. is not preferred than other systems.
3. Dual system: This is also known as combined gravity and pumping system.
The pump is connected to the mains as well as to an elevated reservoir. In the
beginning when the demand is small the water is stored in the elevated
reservoir, but when demand increases the flow in the distribution system
comes from both the pumping station as well as elevated reservoir. As this
system has two sources, one from reservoir and the second from pumping
station it is called dual system. This system is more reliable and economical
because it requires uniform rate of pumping but meets low as well as
maximum demand.

Q10. Discuss the layout of distribution system.
Ans: Depending upon their layout and direction of supply distribution system are
classified as follows:
1. Dead end or Tree system
2. Grid iron system
3. Circular or ring system
4. Radial system
1. Dead end system: It is suitable for irregular developed towns and cities. In this
one main starts from service reservoir along the main road. Sub mains are
connected to the mains in both the directions along other roads which meet
the main road. In street, lanes and other small roads which meet the roads
carrying sub-mains, branches and minor distributors are laid and are
connected to sub-mains. From these branches service connections are made
to This system is cheap in initial cost and easy
of pipe diameters, valve size etc. disadvantage is that due to the
!ormatlon of dead ends stagnation of water takes place, if pipe breaks down or
IS closed for repair the whole locality beyond that point goes without water
because water is reaching at each point from one side only, it cannot meet the
fire demand, nor supply can be increased or diverted from other points.
2. Grid iron system: This is also known as reticulated system and is used for
towns having rectangular layout of roads. This is improvement over dead end
system, all the dead ends are interconnected with each other and water
freely out the system. Main line is laid along the main road,
sub-mainS are taken In both the directions along other minor roads and
streets. From these sub-mains branches are taken out and are
interconnected. All disadvantages of dead end system are eliminated. More
of valves and longer length of pipe is required in this system, thereby
increasing the overall cost. .
3. or Ring system: This is adopted only in well planned locality of cities.
In this each locality is divided into square or circular blocks and the water
mains are laid around all the four sides of the square or round the circle. The
branches, sub-mains etc. are laid along the inner roads. All the sub-mains and
branches are taken off from the boundary mains and are interconnected. In
this way every point receives its supply from two directions. This is the best of
the .other but it requires many valves and more pipe length, but
deSign of this system is easier. The advantages and disadvantages of this
system are also the same that of grid iron system.
4. Radial In this system the roads should be laid out radially from a
center. In this system water flows towards outer periphery from one point. The
entire area is divided into various zones and one reservoir is provided for each
zone,. whic.h is placed i.n the center of the zone. The water lines are laid radially
from It. ThiS system gives very quick and satisfactory water supply and also
the calculation of pipe sizes is very easy. .
. 94 BC2.5
What are the functions of distribution reservoirs?
The main functions of the storage and distribution reservoirs are:
1. To store the treated water till it is distributed to the city.
2. To absorb the hourly variation in the water demand, and thus allowing the
treatment units and pumps to work at the average constant rate
3. To maintain the constant pressure in the distribution main, because when the
pressure in the pipe lines decreases due to increase in demand at peak hours,
the extra demand of water is fed by these reservoirs, and the pumps continue
their work at constant speed.
4. Distribution reservoirs lead to an overall economy by reducing the sizes of
pumps, pipe lines and treatment units.
5. By providing distribution reservoirs, the pumping of water in shifts is possible,
because treated water will continuously flow in these reservoirs.
What are the different types of distribution reservoirs?
The following types of reservoirs are:
1 . Earth reservoirs
2. Masonry and RCC reservoirs
3. Elevated reservoirs
a. Stand pipes
b. Elevated tanks
1. Earth reservoirs: These reservoirs are used when large quantity of water is ti
be stored before the treatment. These are constructed by excavating to the
required depth below the ground surface and the excavated earth is used for
the embankment construction to the required height above the ground. Core
wall may be constructed to make the earthen reservoir impermeable. The
embankment should be keyed down to the bottom. Out let pipes may be
provided in the embankment walls at various places to minimiie seepage of
water. To prevent the loss of water and leakage, the sides and the bottom of
the reservoirs should be properly lined with bricks, stones, asphalts or cement
concrete etc.
2. Masonry or RCC ( underground) reservoir: These are constructed on high
natural grounds. It is made of bricks, stones, plain or RCC. While designing
ground water table is kept in mind and the side walls should be able to take up
the pressure of water, when the reservoir is full, and the earth pressure when it
is empty. The floors are constructed with RCC slab and bituminous
compounds may be used at all construction joints for water tightness.
3. Elevated Reservoirs: Generally two types of elevated reservoirs are used
a. Stand pipe: These are generally made of RCC or steel and are circular in
. plan. These are up to 12m in height. If it is possible to locate the stand­
pipe on a hill or high ground then its entire capacity can be made use of
successfully. Its. main function is increase pressure on the distribution
by creattng extra storage In the tank above the elevation required
give.the necessary pressure for distribution. These are provided with
single Inlet outlet pipes terminating at the lower elevation of the
useful capacity of the tank, scour or drain-pipe to drain out and flush th
tank and the overflow pipe to discharge surplus water. e
b. are popular because they have long life require
very maintenance and give good appearance in the The
tank IS with inlet, outlet, overflow and scour or drain pip·es A
depth level Indlcato.r with a float arrangement is provided to measure the
depth of the water the About 60 to 100 cm balcony is provided
around the tank for and maintenance ofthe tank and step-iron
steel ladder also .fixed tn the inner walls of the tank. The tank is
and IS prQvlded with a manhole and ventilating pipe and
lightening conductors. These are used to store large quantity of water.
013. Discuss how the storage capacity of a distribution reservoir is determined by mass
curve method.
Ans: Capacity of.the reservoir is determined by the principle of mass diagram A
shOWing the rate of demand is drawn with time as abscissa and the
o emand as ordtnate. This is represented by the line P. if the
of the P are JOined by a straight line marked 0, then the line 0 represents
e diagram of pumping into the tank and its slope represents the rate of
Mass Curve
From graph it be observed that the tank is full at the point a and empty at
the b, so that ItS tangents are drawn at points a and b parallel to the line 0 the
veftrthlcabl tnl bc on the scale would represent the required capacity of
o e a anclng tank.
96 8C2.5
01. What are the requirements of a good water meter?
Ans: Requirements of a good water meter are as follows:
1. It mustrecord the entire water passing through it.
2. Its maintenance and repair should be easy
3. It should work efficiently at all pressures in the mains
4. It should cause minimum hinderance to the flow and therefore cause minimum
head loss in its working
5. Its parts should not be easily affected by the chemicals present in the water
passing through it
6. It should prevent the back flow passing through it and should not be liable to
7. It should measure the discharge within the maximum limit of 20% error.
02. Enumerate differenttypes of water meter with exa mple.
Ans: Mainly there are two types of water meters
1. The velocity meters orthe Inferential meters
The various types of inferential meters are rotary meters, turbine meters, and
venturi meters.
2. The positive meters or the Displacement meters
The various types of displacement meters are reciprocating type, oscillating
type, disc type etc.
03. Discuss velocity meters.
Ans:. Velocity meters basically measures the horizontal velocity of water flowing through
them. This measured velocity when multiplied by the area of flow cross section,
will give the discharge through the meter. Automatic arrangements are then made
to record the integrated discharge over a period of time. They are used for
measuring high flows and are used in industries, and water works. Not used for
measuring small domestic supplies. The various types of inferential meters are
rotary meters; turbine meters, and venturi meters.
The rotary meter consists of radial vanes attached to the shaft, and enclosed in a
casing. When the water passes through the meter the radial vanes are rotated in
clockwise direction, which revolve the shaft. The number of revolution per unit
time, made by shaft depends upon the velocity of flow. The velocity of flow and
therefore, the discharge is thus proportional to the speed of the shaft. The meter is
calibrated to directly read the discharge.
Turbine meter is similar to rotary meter, and consists of a turbine wheel which is
rotated by the moving water. The number of revolutions made by the turbine wheel
will give the discharge as in rotary meters.
Venturi meter is based on the principle of Bernoulli's equation. It is used for
measuring raw waters and high flows in large pipes with a nominal head loss.
04. Discuss displacement meters.
Ans: These meters are accurate because they measure the quantity of passing water
by counting the number of times the meter chamber is filled and emptied. The
capacity of the meter chamber when multiplied by the number of times it is filled
and emptied will directly give the quantity of flow over the given period of time. The
various types of displacement meters are reciprocating type, OSCillating type, disc
type etc. A disc meters are most commonly used for measuring small flows in
residential houses. It consists of a disc placed inside a chamber, provided with an
inlet and outlet. The water when enters the chamber, oscillates the disc about its
center with a spiral motion. One complete filling and emptying of the chamber
gives one revolution to the train of gears, and the meter thus record the volume of
the water passing through it. These are available in different sizes 16 to 150mm in
diameter with safe operating capacities of 90 to 4500 liters per min'ute
05. Name the different types of pressure pipes.
Ans: The different types of pressure pipes are:
1. Cast iron pipes
2. Steel pipes
3. Reinforced cement concrete pipes
4. Hume steel pipes
5. Vitrified clay pipes
6. Asbestos cement pipes
7. Miscellaneous types of pipes
06. What are cast iron pipes discuss its advantages and disadvantages?
Ans: Cast iron pipes are used in water supply schemes. They are highly resistant to
corrosion and have long life of about 100 years. They are manufactured from best
grey pig iron. They are manufactured in lengths of 2.50m to 5.50m. The fitting are
also weighed, coated with tar coal and finally tested. They are joined together by
means of Bell and Spigot, threaded or flanged joints. These pipes have the
advantages of easy jointing withstanding high internal pressure, long life and less
corrosion. But these are very heavy and difficult to transport, because due to
104 BC2.5
brittleness they break or crack easily. Therefore more suitable as distribution
Explain socket and spigot joint.
This is also known as Bell and spigot joint. These are used to join cast iron pipes.
The cast iron pipes are made in such a way that their one end is enlarged whereas
the other end is normal. The enlarged end is called 'socket' or 'Bell' while the
normal end is called 'spigot'. The spigot is fitted into the socket with few strands of
jute wrapped around spigot. The remaining space between the socket and spigot
is finally filled with molten lead, which gets solidified and tightly caulked into the
joint after cooling and thus making a water tight joint. These joints are some what
flexible and allows the pipe to be laid on flat curves without the use of specials.
Skilled labour is required for these joints.
Bell or Socket
-­- --..:..-- ­ --,­ -
Socket and spigot joint
Explain Flanged joint.
These are used for pumping stations, filter and at other locations where it
may be necessary to occasionally disjoint the pipe. Cast iron pipe lengths to be
joined by this joint are cast in such a way as to have flanges at both ends. In case of
steel pipes to be joined by such joints, flanges are separately cast and then
screwed down or welded at both the ends of the respective pipe lengths. Two
flanges are brought together, keeping a rubber washer ( gasket) in between them
so as to make them water tight. They are then fixed by means of nuts and bolts.
These joints are strong but rigid, and hence cannot be used where deflections or
vibrations are expected. They are expansive and mostly used for indoor works.
, j
Flanged joint
09. Explain the expansion joint.
Ans: Expansion joints are provided ,at suitable intervals in the pipe lines so as to
the st:esses produced due to temperature For
jOints In cast iron pipes, the socket end is cast flanged and the
IS plain. The s?cket end is connected rigidly to an annular ring which can
slide easily over the end. While making this Joint a small space is kept
the face of the spigot and the inner face of the socket, and the spigot is
filled up by means of a rubber gasket. The flanges are then tightened by means of
and bolts. When pipes expand, the socket end moves forward and the gap
left gets closed. when the pipes contract the socket moves backward
gap. All the time, the annular ring follows the movements of the socket
and maintains the gasket in position, thus keeping the joint watertight.
Expansion joint
106 BC2,5
About 7Scm
l""' '1

street water
8 O : : 8 ~ V
010. Explain the flexible joint.
These joints are used where large scale flexibilities a r ~ required, when pipes are
laid in rivers with uneven beds, large scale settlements may break the ordinary
type of joint, while laying pipes on curves etc. the pipes to be provided with such a
joint are cast with special types of ends. The socket is spherical; and the spigot,
though plain, is having a bead at the end. A retainer ring is placed over the bead
which keeps the special rubber gasket in position. A split cast iron "gland" ring is
then placed over it. They are then tightened by means of nuts and bolts. The spigot
end can be moved to give away the desired deflection and nuts are tightened over
thegland ring.
socket end
I Gasket Of Duck
LReta,ner ring
Flexible joint
01. Explain with a neat sketch as to how municipal water mains are connected to
private buildings and houses for giving water supply connections.
Ans: A typical water connection, connecting the servi,ce pipe with the municipal water
mains is as shown
Street /Road
mllin (SECTiON)
Goose·neck pipe
(usually of lead)
I ­
The water connection
The water connection consists of 1 ) Ferrule, 2) a goose neck, 3) a service pipe, 4)a
stop cock and 5) a water meter.
1. Ferrule: a ferrule is a right angled sleeve made of brass or gun metal and is joined
to a hole drilled in the water mains, to which it is screwed down with a plug. Its size
usually varies between 10 to 50 mm diameter. For all other connections of more
tha n 50mm a tee branch connection, off the water mains, is used.
2. Goose neck: Goose neck is a small sized curved pipe made of a flexible material (
usually lead) and is about 75 cm in length forming a flexible connection between
the water mains and the service pipe.
3. Service pipe: Service pipe is a galvanized iron pipe of less than 50mm diameter. It
should be laid underground in a trench in which no sewer or drainage pipe is laid.
The service pipe which supplies water to the building through the municipal main is
thus connected to the main through the goose neck and ferrule.
4. Stop cock: The stop cock is provided before the water enters the water meter in the
house. It is housed in a suitable masonry chamber with ,a removable cover, and is
108 BC2.5
fixed in the street close to the boundary wall in an accessible position. Sometimes
it is provided just before the water meter inside the house, keeping both of them in
one chamber.
5. Water meter: It measures and records the quantity of water consumed in the
house. The domestic type water meter generally employedfor houses is fitted into
the service pipe with unions; which enables the meter to be changed where
necessary. The meter is fixed in an iron box fitted in an opening or cavity made in
the boundarywa" ofthe house, and is covered with a movable iron cover.
02. Discuss Ree pipes and their advantages and disadvantages.
Ans: Ree pipes are generally made from 1 :2:2 cement concrete with maximum size of
aggregates as 6 mm. They are provided with circumferential reinforcement to
carry hoop tension and a nominal longitudinal reinforcement equal to 0.25% ofthe
gross cross sectional area of concrete. Their thickness varies from 2. 5cm to 6.5 cm
for pipes of diameters varying from 0.1 m to 1.2m. These pipes are joined by
placing the protruding end bars of different lengths butting against one another and
welding them and finally filling the gap with rich cement concrete so as to provide a
watertight joint.
Advantages are:
1. They can resist external compressive loads and do not collapse under
nominal vacuums and traffic loads.
2. They are not corroded by normal potable water and soils.
3. They are quite strong and the useful life is 75 years or so.
4. They are easy to construct either at site or at factories and with local
5. The coefficient of expansion being low, expansion joints may not be needed
when laid above the ground
6. If laid under water the empty pipes do not float because of their heavy weights.
Disadvantages are:
1. They are likely to corrode by ground waters due to the presence of acids,
alkalis or sulphur compounds.
2. They are difficult to be repaired
3. They cannot withstand very high pressures.
4. They are heavy and bulky, and hence difficult to transport.
5. Making of connections in them is a little difficult job
6. Theytendto leaks due to shrinkage cracks and porosity.
03. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of asbestos pipes.
Ans: Advantages of asbestos pipes:
1. They are light and hence easy to transport
109 BC2.5
2. They can be easily assembled without skilled labour
3. They are highly flexible and may permit as much as 12 degree deflection in
laying them around curves
4. Expansionjoints are not required as the coefficient of expansion is low and the
joints are also flexible
5. They are very smooth and are hydraulically efficient pipes. Their carrying
capacity do not reduce with time
6. They are suitable for small size distribution pipes.
Disadvantages of asbestos pipes:
1. They are costly.
2. These pipes do not have much strength and are brittle and soft. They are liable
to get damaged by excavating tools or during transportation transit.
3. The rubber joint seal may deteriorate if exposed to gasoline or other petroleum
products, and hence cannot be used for transporting petroleum products.
04. Write short note on steel pipes.
Ans: Steel pipes are occasionally used for main line and at such places where
pressures are high and pipe diameter is more. These are more strong, have light
weight and can withstand high pressure than cast iron pipes. They are cheap,easy
to construct and can be easily transported. The disadvantage of these pipes is that
they cannot withstand external loads. If partial vacuum is created by emptying a
pipe rapidly, the pipe may be collapsed or distorted. These are affected by
corrosion and are costly to maintain. The life of these pipes is 25 to 50 years. These
are not used in distribution system, owing to the difficulty in making connections.
The joints are made by welding or riveting. Longitudinal lap joints are made in
riveted steel pipes up to 120 cm diameter. In case thickness of steel plate exceeds
15.87mm butt jOints are provided. If the diameter of the pipe is very large, two
longitudinal seams may be provided. Welded steel pipes can be used for large
diameters up to 2.43m or even more. .
Name various types of sanitary fittings.
In buildings various types of sanitary fittings are required to collect the waste water.
These all fittings can be broadly classified as:
A. Ablution fittings
1. Wash basins
2. Sinks
3. Bathtubs
4. Flushing cisterns
5. Drinking fountains
B. Soil Fittings
1. Water closets
2. Urinals
3. Slop sinks
Q6. Write short note on wash basins.
Wash basins or lavatory basin is made of white glazed earthen ware, enameled
iron etc. these are of two types- the Flat Back and the Angled Back. Wash basins
are either fixed on brackets secured into the wall or on pedestals rising from the
Wash basin ( Flat back)
As shown the flat back has an oval shaped bowl with a usual capacity of 5 liters up
to the overflow, and a waste pipe of 32mm bore with a trap in the center. The a s t ~
. opening is protected by a metallic strainer. The overflow may be of an open weir
type with a removable grating or ofthe slot type as shown in fig. there are two inlets,
one for cold water usually on the right side of the user facing the fixture and the
other for hot water. These inlets are controlled by chromium- plated pillar taps. The
wash when fixed has a height of 75 to 80 cm.
With the help of a neat sketch describe flushing cisterns.
This is an appliance used for flushing out water closets, urinals etc. These are of
two types- the valveless siphonic type and the valve fitted siphonic type. The
former is preferred and used in practice.

Flushing cistern ( Bell type)
The Bell type flushing cistern is a valve-less siphonic type. It consist of cistern
made of a cast iron or pressed steel, having a suitable cover with a sump formed in
the center through which the flush pipe of 32mm bore passes. The flush pipe's
upper end is projected little above the maximum water level in the cistern, while its
lower end discharges into the W.C. pan. The flush pipe is covered up in the cistern
by a C.I. bell to the top of which a lever arm with a chain is attached. On pulling the
chain the bell is lifted and on releasing it, it is lowered to its original position. Due to
the movement the water enclosed is spilled over the top of the flushing pipe,
causing siphonic action and thereby emptying the entire. contents of the cisterns.
Water now enters the cistern I the flow being controlled by a ball valve arrangement
operated by a float. An overflow pipe is provided as an additional safeguard
against overflowing in case the ball valve arrangement ceases to function.
Q8. What are traps, discuss differenttypes of traps?
Ans: Traps are fittings placed in drainage pipes, which prevent the passage of foul air or
gases through drains, waste or soil pipes and thus prevent their entry into the
interior of houses or buildings.
Traps may be classified in two ways:
A. According to their shape as
1. P-trap
2. Q-trap
3. S-trap
112 BC2.5
Traps according to shape
B. According to their use:
Intercepting trap
1. Floor trap
1. Floor traps: These are used for admitting waste water from floors of baths and
2. GullyTrap
kitchens. These are provided with cast iron grating at top to exclude coarse solid
3. Intercepting trap
matter, so as to prevent it from passing into the drain along with the waste water
II and thereby cause blockade. A form of floor trap much used in practice is the Nahni
2. Gully trap: These are used for reception of suI/age from baths, sinks and wash
basins as well as rain or surface water from house tops and back yards. The waste
pipes or the rain waste pipes, discharging into drains, are seldom connected to
them without such interception. Gully trap may have P- trap or S-trap. The water
seal is 50 to 75mm deep. The upper section ofthe trap is covered by a C.1. grating
to exclude coarse or solid matter.
3. Intercepting traps or Interceptors: These are used at the junction of the house
drain and the house sewer with the primary object of preventing the foul gases in
the public sewer from entering the house drainage system. These gases are led off
through ventilating columns which are provided at the head of every branch sewer
and at key position in the sewerage systems. The trap has an opening at the top
called the 'cleaning eye' or 'rodding arm' and has a tight fitting plug. This enables
the trap to be periodically cleaned of any obstruction present inside. The water seal
is 75mm deep.
09. Write short note on sinks and urinals.
INtH Ans: Sinks: It is rectangular receptacle used in kitchen or laboratory for draining off
- water. It. is commonly made of glazed earthen ware. Usual size is
60cm*45cm*25cm. the sink is provided with a wooden draining board fixed on the
right of the user. It should be so located as to directly receive light through the
. window. The heightfrom the floor to the top edge of the sink is about 90cm.
Urinals; These are usually of two types- the Bowl type and the Slab or Stall type.
The bowl type has a lipped basin with flushing rim while the slab or stall type
comprises of flat wall slab with partitions on sides and floor channel to drain off the
114 BC2.5
.-.. _-_.__.- - ..­
. (!WM
':elJJf i}/CAlJl1 r-----.,.....-
..---.. - ~ - - ~ - . - - - - - - . -
Floor trap
Gully trap
113 i
discharge through a trapped outlet. Both the types are flushed through siphonic
type offlushing cisterns; in the bowl type the cistern may be hand operated and of 5
liters capacity while in the stall type, an automatic flushing cistern with a capacity of
10 to 15 liters feeds a range of three or more stall urinals. .
Q10. What are the principle governing the design of water supply in building?
Ans: The principle governing the designof water supply in buildings are
1. There should be absolutely no risk involved in the contaminating of water supply
for domestic purposes. In order to ensure this three things are necessary
a. There should not be any cross connection anywhere between a pipe
containing potable water and pipe containing used or polluted water
b. There should be no back flow from any cistern or appliance towards the
source of supply. An adequate air gap, at least 15cm between the outlet end of
the supply pipe discharging water into the cistern and its Hood level rim
effectively prevents any occurrence of back flow
c. The water supply and the drainage pipes should not be laid very close to each
The pipes and fittings should be thoroughly water-tight in order to protect the
building against possible damage due to leakage. Water tightness of joints
ensures minimum wastage of water and risk of contamination is also considerably
The pipe work should be amply protected against any possible damage. When laid
underground, as in the case of service pipe, it should have an earth cover of at
least 60cm, when laid above the ground or in exposed situations, it should run
clear of the wall with a clearance of 2.5 cm and when crossing wall or floor it should
be contained in suitable sleeves for entire length.
Water supply pipes should carry water inside building under adequate pressure in
the water main. However, where available pressure are insufficient i3nd it becomes
necessary to pump water, as in the case of multi-storeyed buildings separate
storage tanks may be used for providing necessary suction lift. The booster pumps
if used, should not be allowed in the service pipe as its suction lift decreases
pressure of water supply to the adjoining building.
115 BC2.5
1. What do you understand by intermittent and continuous water supply system?
2. Give the function of sluice valve in water supply line.
3. Differentiate between air relief and pressure relief valves.
4. Give the necessity of wrought iron main in water supply.
5. What is the use of ferrule and goose neck?
6. Give the necessity oftraps.
7. Where will you recommend gully trap?
8. What is the depth of seal in the trap?
9. What are the causes of breakage of seal in the trap?
10. Where will you use floor trap and intercepting trap?
1. Turbidity is a measure of the resistance of water to the passage of light through it
2. Turbidity rod is used to measure the turbidity in laboratory
3. The quantity of water passing per hour per unit horizontal area is known as the
surface loading
4. The main disadvantage of alum is that it is difficult to dewater the sludge formed
5. Filtration is the most important operation in the water purification process
6. The aim of disinfection is to kill all the microorganisms in water
7. The pH of water to be treated should be maintained at less than 7 to prevent great
. ionization of HOCI
8. The effective sterilizing compound HOCI is formed in greater quantities of low pH
than at high pH
9. The permanenthardness is also known as non carbonate hardness
10. The physical test carried on water include temperature, color, turbidity, taste and
11. Taste and color is due to calcium, manganese, iron oxide and chlorides of sodium
12. Presence of calcium and magnesium in water causes hardness
13. Fungi grows in absence of sunlight
14. Algae grows in presence of sunlight
15. When pH is less than optimum the flocs formed by alum disappear
16. The coefficient of uniformity for rapid sand filter is less as compared to slow sand
17. The yield of rapid sand filter is 30 times than that of slow sand filter
18. Disinfection involves removal of facultative bacteria
19. The permissible a mount of residual chlorine is 0.2 ppm
20. Zeolite process is suitable for iron and manganese removal
Answer key
1. T 2. F I 3. T I 4. T I 5. T 6. F I 7. T I 8. T 19.1i
II. T 12. T !13. T 114. T r · ~ · -T-+-16-.-Tt17· Ti 18 T \19. T!20. F I
123 BC2.5
Enumerate the various methods which are adopted for treating public water
supplies drawn from a perennial river.
The various methods or the techniques which may be adopted for purifying the
public water supplies are:
a. Screening
b. Plain sedimentation
c. Sedimentation aided with coagulation
d. Filtration
e. Disinfection
f. Aeration
g. Softening
h. Miscellaneous treatments, such as fluoridation, recarbonation liming,
desalination, etc.
02. Explain the principle of sedimentation.
Most of the suspended impurities present in water have a specific gravity greater
than that of water. In stillwater, these impurities will, therefore, tend to settle down
under the gravity, although in normal raw supplies, they remain in suspension,
because of the turbulence in water. Hence as soon as the turbulence is retarded by
offering. storage to the water, these impurities tend to settle down at the bottom of
the tank, offering such storage. This is the principle of sedimentation. The basin in
which the flow is retarded is called the settling tank or sedimentation tank or
sedimentation basin or clarifier, and the theoretical average time for which the
water is detained in the tank is called the detention time.
What are the factors which affect the settling of particles in sedimentation tank?
The factor which affect the settling of particles in the sedimentation basin are:
1. The velocity of flow which carries the particle horizontally. The greater the flow
area, the lesser the velocity, and hence more easily the particle will settle
2. The viscosity of water in which the particle is traveling. The viscosity varies
inversely with temperature. Warm water is less viscous and therefore offers
less resistance to the settlement. However the temperature of water cannot be
controlled to any appreciable extent in 'water purification processes' and
hence this factor is generally ignored.
3. The size shape and specific gravity of the particle. The greater is the specific
gravity, more readily the particle will settle. The size and shape of the particle
also affect the settling rate. Very small particles will settle very slowly.
Q4. Why turbidity in water is considered objectionable?
Ans: If large amount of suspended matter such as clay, silt or some other finely divided
organic materials are present in water, the water will appear to be muddy, cloudy or
turbid in appearance. The turbidity depends upon the fineness and concentration
of particles present in water. Although the clay or other inert suspended particles
may not be harmful to health yet they are to be removed or reduced for aesthetic
and psychological reasons.
Q5. . Enumerate the factors affecting the dose of coagulant.
Ans: The dose of coagulant depends on following factors:
1. Turbidity of water
2. Color of water
3. pH value of water
4. Temperature of water
5. Time of settlement
Q6. What is the importance underlining the determination of total solids in a water
Ans: . Total solids are considered to be the sum of dissolved and suspended solids. In
water sources the dissolved solids which usually predominates consists mainly of
inorganic salts small amount of organic matter and dissolved gases. The
suspended solids contain. much of the organic matter any increase thereof tends to
increase the degree of pollution in water. The amount of total solids upto 500 mgll
in water generally makes it suitable for domestic use. Waters with higher content
upto 1000mgll are also acceptable, they sometimes lead to produce some
psychological effect on the human system unless its get adopted after some use.
Q7. What do you understand by sedimentation with coagulation? Name some
common coagulants.
Ans: The process of adding chemicals to water in order to form floc ( insolt,.lble
gelatinous substance) for quick sedimentation and rapid removal of fine particles
is called sedimentation with coagulation. If water contains large quantities of very .
fine and light colloidal impurities whose hydraulic settling value is very small, it is
practically very difficult to eliminate them by plain sedimentation with in a
reasonable short period' of detention. This is done by adding a desired amount of
chemical compounds to water. Then this is followed by mixing. Due to the addition
ofthese chemicals, the fine and thin particles grow in size and become heavier and
then settle down.
The insoluble gelatinous substance obtained by adding chemicals is called floc,
and the process is called flocculation
These chemical compounds are called coagulants and their process is called
125 BC2.5
Common coagulants are:
1. Aluminium sulphate calledAlum
2. Iron salts (Ferrous sulphate, Ferric chloride)
QB. What is thedifference between disinfection and sterilization?
Ans: Disinfection is the process of treatment of water with chemicals to kill the infectious
bacteria and make it safe for drinking. /n sterilization total destruction of all living
things (harmful and useful bacteria) is done by boiling the water before using it. Its
use is limited because of the expense involved
Qg. What are the requirements of good disinfectants?
Ans: The requirements of good disinfectants are:
1. They should be able to destroy all the harmful pathogenic bacteria and make
the water safe for use.
2. They should be economical and easily available
3. They should be able to kill all the germs within required time at normal
4. After their treatment the water should not become objectionable and toxic to
the customers
5. The disinfectant dose should be such that it may leave some residual
concentration for protection against contamination in the water
Q10. Explain different methods of disinfection.
Ans: The different methodsof disinfection are:
1. By heating or boiling of water
2. Treatment with excess lime
3. Treatment with ozone
4. Treatment with bromine and iodine·
5. Treatment with ultra violet rays
6. Treatment with potassium permanganate
7. Treatment with silver called Electra-Katadyn process
Write short note on various forms of chlorine.
Ans: Chlorine is generally available in following forms
1. Intheformofliquidchlorine
2. In the form of gaseous chlorine
3. In the form of chlorine dioxide
4. In the form of chloramines
5.. In the form of bleaching powder
These forms may be applied by the following methods
1. Dry chlorine gas- It may not be drawn from the liquid chlorine it is directly
applied to the water supplied through submerged diffuser. This method is not
satisfactory because its results in corrosion of pipes.
2. Chlorine solution or liquid chlorine- Liquid chlorine is applied through the water
supply through a discharge line. This method is very commonly used.
3. Powder form- In the form of bleaching powder is commonly used in small
water plants and is directly mixed in water.
Q12.What is the effect of pH on chlorination?
Ans: The pH value of water along with temperature and presence of residual chlorine in
the form of free available or combined available have a definite effect on the
effectiveness of the chlorine. Thus in the pH range of 7.0- 8.5 a minimum of 0.05
mgll free available can be effective with water temperature between 5-22 degree
centigrade. Disinfection proceeds very slowly at lower water temperature and with
pH value above 8.5. Also whereas free available chlorine is effective in
concentration of 0.05mgll for a reaction period of 10- 20 minutes. The combined
available chlorine to be comparatively effective within the reaction period, requires
a higher concentration upto about 1.80mg/l. .
Q13. Explain pre chlorination and post chlorination.
Ans: Pre chlorination-It is the application of chlorine before filtration. It may be added in
the suction pipes or in the mixing basins. It reduces bacterial load on filters, this
results increased filter runs and oxidizes excessive organic matter. This helps in
removing taste and odor and make the water fit for use.
Post chlorination- When the chlorine is added in the water after all treatments, it is
known as post chlorination, it is generally done after filtration. The chlorine is
commonly added in clear water reservoir. The minimum contact period should be
half an hour, before use of water.
Q 14. What do you understand by dechlorination of water? What are the chemicals used
for dechlorination?
Ans: The process of removing excess chlorine from water is called dechlorination. It
. must be done in such a way that· some residual chlorine remains in water.
Dechlorinating agents OF chemicals used are
1. Potassium permanganate ., ,J j
2. Sodium bisulphate
3. Sodium thiosulphate
4. Sodium sulphite
5. Sulphur dioxide etc.
Q1. Classify various types of filters. Differentiate between slow sand and rapid sand
filters. . . .
Ans. Filters may be classified as follows:
1.. Gravity Filters-
a. Slow sand filters
b. Rapid sand filters
2. Pressure Filters
Comparison between rapid sand filter and slow sand fllter
S.No Item Slow sand filter 1 Rapid sand filter
'1. Rate of filtration 100-2001lhrlsqm of filter area 3000-60001lhrlsqm of filter area
2. Size of one unit 30m*6Om area varies from 6m*8m to 8m*10m area varies
1 5OO-2OOOsqm from 40-80sqm
1 I
3. Depth of filter 30cm gravel, 90-105cm 45cm gravel, 75cm or less
media sand, sand, I
4. Effectiv.e size of 0.25-0.35mm Cu=1.75 0.45-0.8mm Cu =1.6
5. Under drainage 1 Open jointed pipes or ! Strainer pipes laterals
i system i covered drains . 1 discharging into CI mains
9cm initial to 1.2 m final I 0.3m initial to 2.1 m final \6. 1Loss of head
, .
7. Cleaning period 20- 60 days ! 24-60 hours I
8. Method of Scraping of surface and Scour by back washing and
cleaning washing down by hoses
Amount of wash 0.2-0.6% of water filtered
water used in
10. Cost of Higher I Lower
i construction
1 11 . iCost of operation ILower IHigher
removal of dislodged particles
U W by r pad flow
1- 4 % of water filtered
128 BC2.5
12. Ouality of raw It may not be treated with
Size of one unit !30m*60m
~ ..
02. What do you. understand by loss of head and negative head in a rapid sand
filter? What are the permissible values?
! i '
Ans. The loss of head in the 'filter operation is caused by the frictional resistance offered
by the filtering medium and the under drains to the water flow. The value of head
loss is equal to the vertical distance between water level on the filter bed and the
elevation of the hydraulic grade line at the filter outlet. The loss of head
immediately after washing should not be more than 10- 15 cms. When sand bed
gets choked up with impurities the rate of discharge falls down and it is necessary
to wash it to regain its original clean conditions and the stipulated rate of discharge.
In the filters provided with loss of head indicators this choked up condition is shown
by increase in the loss pf head so that ~ e n it reaches a certain figure generally
about 1.8 m the filter requires washing.
When the loss in the top layers of the sand becomes greater than the head of water
above the sand bed (due to choking) and the water column below such layers acts
as a draft tube and partial vacuum is created .. This condition is known as negative
head. Thus the negative head at ~ n y point in a filter is equal to the intensity of
vacuum at the point and is usually a maximum at the point where the water enters
the under drainage system.
129 BC2.5
chemical, but should not
have turbidity more than
Very large
Not possible
Not required
Efficient in removal of
bacteria and suspended
Treatment with coagulant is
Small area
Most essential
Cannot remove all bacteria,
disinfection necessary. More
efficient in removal of color,
odor and taste
6m*8m to 8m*10m
Explain in detail the working of rapid sand filter.
Rapid sand filter
The pretreated water from the coagulation sedimentation tanks through the inlet
valve is admitted into the filter units. It is distributed by the troughs which remains
submerged while working over the entire bed area. The water then percolates
through the sand and gravel layers and thereby the fine suspended and colloidal
impurities present in it are arrested by the sand layer. After this it enters the laterals
through the strainers or holes and then leaves the filter unit via the manifold.
In the beginning the loss of head of filter is about 15- 22cm. As the filtering media
goes on getting clogged with arrested impurities, the resistance to passage of
water and hence the loss of head increases. Usually a maximum loss of head 2­
2.5m is permissible. If it increases further till it may pack the sand so tightly as to
cause difficulties in back washing or may cause the water to break through sand
without filtration. The filter unit is then washed, the clogging is removed and normal
working resumed
Explain in detail the construction and working of slow sand filter.
Slow sand filter consists of open tanks 2000to 4000sq. m in plan and 3 to 4 m
deep, containing 600-900mm thick bed ofsand supported on 300mm thick gravel
layer. The effective size of sand is 0.35mm with a uniformity coefficient of about
1.75. The top of 150 mm layer ofthe filtering media is of a finer variety 0.25mm. the
gravel size varies from 4.7 to 12mm and is placed in layers with the smallest size
particles at the top and the largest on the bottom.
I' ..
13 I
! •
Flexibility in
Slow sand filter
The sand and gravels are laid over a system of open jointed underdrains placed 3
to 6 m apart on the bottom floor sloping towards a main covered drain constructed
along the center or side of the filter tank.
Settled waterfrom plain- sedimentation tank is distributed uniformly over the filter
bed. It percolates through the sand bed and the gravels and get purified during the
process of filteration. The under drainage system collects the filtered water and
passes it on to the clear water reservoir. As the filter media gets clogged the
resistance to the passage of water .and the head loss increases. The water in the
filter tank is first drained, the thick layer of impurities collected over the surface is
then scrapped and washed clean with water jets from hoses. The filter is then put
back into normal operation.
Name various disinfecting methods and explain anyone ofthem in detail.
Various disinfecting methods are as follows
1. Chlorination
2. Ozonization
3. Ultraviolet ray method
4. Excess lime process
5. Application of silver
6. Iodine or bromine
7. Potassium permanganate
Ozonization- The effectiveness of ozone in the disinfection of water lies in its high
oxidizing power. Ozone is an unstable isotope of oxygen containing three atoms of
oxygen which while changing to the stable molecular form O2 releases nascent
oxygen. The nascent oxygen reduces organic matter present in the water without
the production of objectionable tastes and odors as with chlorine. The ozone dose
is 2-3mgll to give a trace of 0.1 mgtl' residual after 1 Ominutes contact.
Ozonization is regarded as a natural means of disinfecting. water and is particularly
useful in disinfecting water containing bacterial spores. It is however costly to
manufacture, has very little residuals present and is not quite suitable for highly
turbid waters.
06. What do you understand by chlorination? Explain its action in killing of bacteria.
Ans: The process of applying small quantities of chlorine or chlorine compounds to
water is called chlorination. The chlorine dose applied is generally 1ppm so as to
produce residual chlorine of quantity varying from a trace to about 0.05-0.2 p p m ~
The chlorine demand is defined as the difference between the amount of chlorine
added and the amount of chlorine remaining at the end of a contact period of 15-30
Action of chlorine:
Chlorine reacts with water to produce hypochlorous acid (HOCI) and hypochlorite
ion (OC!), which are together known as free available chlorine. The chemical action
may be represented as
+ H
0 = HOCI + HCI
HOCI =H+ + ocr
If ammonia is also present· in water, the other compounds fonned are
monochloramine (NH
CI) and Dichloramine (NHCI
) which are together known as
combined available chlorine. These resulting chlorine compounds either in the
form of free or combined available chlorine interfere with certain enzymes in the
bacterial cell wall forming a toxic chloro corn pound thus destroying the bacteria
completely. The effect of chlorine as a disinfectant is principally dependent upon
the period of contact and the concentration of chlorine in water.
07. Explain chlorine ammonia treatment for diSinfecting drinking water. What are the
advantages of it.
Ans: Use of chloramines or use of chlorine With ammonia-
Chloramines are the disinfectant compound which are formed by the reaction
between the ammonia and chlorine. These compounds are quite stable and
remain in the water as residuals for a sufficient time. Hence they can produce a
greater safeguard against future pollution, although they are comparatively
weaker disinfectants compared to free chlorine. Doses of ammonia and chlorine
used will depend upon the local characteristics of water. Ammonia should be
properly applied and mixed with water about 20 min to 1-2 hours earlier than
applying chlorine.
1. They do not cause bad taste and odor when left as residual as is caused by
chlorine alone.
2. They are very useful when phenols are present in water. The reaction of
phenol with chloramines do not result in bad taste of water
3. Can remain in water as residual for sufficient time
132 BC2,5

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