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Stability means that and aircraft has a tendency to return to its initial equilibrium after being disturbed. Aircraft stability is divided into two; static stability and dynamic stability.

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Part II:

Aircraft Static Stability and Control

Chapter 1

INTRODUCTION

1.0 Introduction to Stability and Control Stability means that and aircraft has a tendency to return to its initial equilibrium after being disturbed. Aircraft stability is divided into two; static stability and dynamic stability. Static stability is referred to the initial tendency of an aircraft to return to its equilibrium after being disturbed from its initial equilibrium conditions. Dynamic stability is concerned with the time history of the aircraft motion after being disturbed from its initial equilibrium conditions. A statically stable aircraft does not guarantee it is dynamically stable. But a dynamically stable aircraft is statically stable.

Control means the ability to control an aircraft to meet its mission and disturbances. The aircraft is moved by the use of control surfaces defection or by varying the engine thrust. The movement of the control surfaces and thrust variation are called input signals and the aircraft motions are called output signals.

aileron

kemudi

penaik

Figure 1.1

Flight Mechanics Part II (Static Stability & Control) Dr Shuhaimi Mansor, Aeronautical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.

Stability

statics

dynamics

lateral longitudinal sideslip directional short period phugoid roll spiral dutch roll lateral

Figure 1.2

1.2 1.2.1

Static stability is the tendency of an aircraft return to its equilibrium after disturbed.Three types of static stability: statically stable, statically unstable and nutrally stable. Figure 1.3 shows the behaviour of the stability.

Figure 1.3 (a), If the ball is move from the base of the bowl, force and moment will bring the ball back to it initial location. Figure 1.3 (b), The ball move out from the bowl if displaced from it equilibrium position. Figure 1.3 (c), The ball will stay at the new position when displaced from its equlibrium positon. This simple example shows the important of restoring force and moment to make an aircraft to have a tendency to become stable when it is disturbed from equilibrium.

1.2.2

Dynamic Stability

Flight Mechanics Part II (Static Stability & Control) Dr Shuhaimi Mansor, Aeronautical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.

It shows how the aircraft motion changes with time after being disturbed. A statically stable aircraft may not be dynamically stable but a dynamically stable aircraft would be statically stable. Dynamic stability can be determined from the time taken to damp the disturbance amplitude (i.e. time to half amplitude). For unstable condition it is referred to time to double the amplitude. In dynamic stability, the oscillation frequency, damping ratio and time response are the important criteria in analyzing the stability and controllability. Figure 1.5 shows different time reponse related to dynamic stability.

perubahan datum

datum baru

Respon perubahan dari datum lasal kedatum baru (masukan jenis langkah)

Flight Mechanics Part II (Static Stability & Control) Dr Shuhaimi Mansor, Aeronautical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.

Chapter 2

STATIC STABILITY

2.0 Introduction Static stability is a state of equilibrium of frces and moment of an aircraft in a steady flight condition. In a steady flight conditions, the summation of forces and moment at the centre of gravity is zero. Aircraft that can reaches this balance is having in an equilibrium state ot trim.On the other hand, if the summation of forces and moment is not zero, an aircraft will experiences acceleration transformation (peralihan pecutan) in and rotation. Equation for longitudinal static stability is defined as Fx = 0, Fz = 0, and My = 0 While the equation for lateral static stability Fy = 0, Mx = 0, and

Mz = 0

2.1 Longitudinal Static Stability The pitching moment moment equation M, will determine the longitudinal static stability of an aircraft. The changes of pitching moment with angle of attack will determine the characteristics of the aircraft longitudinal stability.

aircraft 1

Figure 2.1 Consider two aircraft (aircraft 1 and aircraft 2). Each of them has it own Cm - curve as shown in Fig.2.1. Both aircraft is flying and trimmed at (point B) where Cm = 0. Both aircraft is disturbed by upward gust which increase to point C. Aircrat 1 creates negative pitching moment which move the aircraft return to point B. Contradictly, aircrat 2 creates positive pitching moment which moves the aircraft further away from the equilibrium point. Similarly, when both aircrafts experiencing downward gust disturbance which brings down to point C. Aircraft 1 generates

positive pitching moment in which the aircraft will nose up to return to it equilibrium point B. From this simple analysis, a longitudinal statically stable

dCm <0 d An aircraft has a good controllability if it can be trimmed at positive angle of attack, . This is required in climbing state.

Cm Cmo > 0

1 Cmo < 0 2

Figure 2.2 Figure 2.2 shows aciarcft 1 has value of Cmo > 0, so that this aircraft can be trimmed at positive . While aircraft 2 has value of Cmo < 0, for that this aircraft cannot be trimmed at positive . If the Cm curve is linearised as a straight line, it can written as Cm = Cmo + dCm d

For that, the additional requirement for longitudinal statically is Cmo < 0 . This equation can be written in coefficient of lift C L . Cm = dCm dCm dCL = . d dCL d

A same result is obtained from the Cm-CL curve. In this case for statically stale aircraft dCm <0 dCL The straight line equation for the pitching moment can be written as

Cm = Cmo +

dCm CL dCL

2.2

The static stability requirement explained previously is condering the total pitching moment for the whole aircraft. However as an aircraft designer, he/she has to know and consider the contribution of wing, fiuslage, tail, propulsion system and other components that could influence the pitching moment and the characteristic of static stability. A comprehensive method in estimating the aerodynamic stability and control derivatives can be found form Engineering Science Data Unit (ESDU) and USDATCOM.

2.2.1 Considering Wing Alone

Force and moment acting on a wing which influence the static stability of an aircraft can be explained in Figure 2.3.

w

xac V

Figure 2.3

where

Xac - distance from aerodynamic centre to aerofoil leading edge Xcg - distance from CG to aerofoil laedding edge Zcg - vertical dictance form CG to FRL FRL - fiuslage reference line w - wing angle of attack V - resulltand airspeed

Moment = Mcgw

1 2 V S C 2

Zcg Xcg Xac Xcg Xac sin w Cmcg = CLw sin w + CLw kos w + CDw C C C C C Zcg CDw kos w + Cmacw C

For simplify assume small angle, then sin w = w and CL >> CD Neglect the vertical components

or

Xcg Xac Cmcgw = Cmacw + CLw C C Xcg Xac Cmcgw = Cmacw + ( CLow+CLww) C C

Contribution of wing on static stability can be evaluate from Cmo and dCm Substitute w = 0, to determine Cmow

dw

Xcg Xac Cmow = Cmacw + CLow C C dCm Differentiate equation 3.2.4 to get w d dCm Xcg Xac w d = Cmw = CLw C C

For wing only aircraft, for a statically stable aircraft 1. Aerodynamic centre is behind centre of gravity, so that Cmw< 0 2. Zero lift pitching moment must be bigger than zero Cmo > 0, so that the aircraft can be trimmed at positive angle of attack, .

Cmac > 1 can be obtained using negative camber aerofoil. Most conventional aircraft has positive camber wing and CG is behind AC. So the wing contributes instability for conventional type of aircraft.

2.2.2

Consider aircraft with an horizontal tail. The tail angle of attack is given by;

t = - + it = w - iw - + it

which

- downwash angle

iw - wind incidence angle it - tail incidence angle

w

V

t

t

Vt

iw

t

it

Figure 2.4

Assumed for small angle of attack and ignore tail drag, then the total lift of winf and tail; L = Lw + Lt Can be written in the form of coefficient St CL = CLw+ CLt S which

1 Vt 2 = 2 1 Vw 2 2

is known as tail efficiency, normally between 0.8 - 1.2 and depend on the location of the tail; 1. If the horizontal tail located inside the wing or fiuslage vortex area, normally 1 1 < 1, because Vt 2 < Vw 2 due to momentum loss. 2 2 2. If the horizontal tail located outside the wing or fiuslage vortex area, normally 1 1 > 1, because Vt 2 Vw 2 2 2

The slipstream velocity from propeller and engine eksoze could also affect the value of . Pitching moment generates form the tail with respect to centre of gravity;

Normally only the first term is considered, the contribution of the others is considered very small when compare to the first term. Assume small t then CLt >>Cdt

Or which

Cmcgt = -VHCLt VH =

l t St SC

from equation

t = w - iw - + it

=

CLt t

= CLt

( w - iw - + it )

Where CLt is the gradient of Clt with respect of t. The downwash angle can be written as

= o +

d w dw

o =

2CLow ARw

The rate of changes of downwash angle with respect of angle of attack d 2CLw = dw ARw from Cmcgt = - VH CLt = - VH CLtt = - VH CLt (w - iw - + it)

d w + it Cmcgt = - VH CLt w iw o + dw d Cmcgt = - VH CLt w1 w (o + iw - it ) dw

Compare the above equation with linear expression for pitching moment.

Cmcgt = Cmo + Cm

gives

and

For wing and tail contribution, some of the important conclusions are; 1. With positive chamber wing, this will give Cmo < 1. 2. The tail give Cmo > 1 for whole aircraft. 3. Static stability can be improved by adjusting a suitable angle incidence it of the horizontal tail.

4. Cmo can be increased by placing the incidence t at negative w.r.t FRL. 5. The contribution of the tail can be controlled by selecting a suitable on VH and CLt. 6. Cmt can be more negative if t or St or CLt is increased. 7. CLt can be increased by increasing the tail AR.

2.2.3

Aircraft with wing alone is unconventional type of aircraft. In a fighter aircraft design this configuration is more effective in terms of stability and controllability. A wing alone aircraft in general has a fast response. However this type of aircraft has to be installed with stability augmentation system using computer control to augment the stability while maintaining highly maneuverability.

Small horizontal wing can be placed infront or behind the wing. When a small is placed infront of a wing it is called canard and it is called horizontal tail or stabilizer when it is plced behind the wing. The flow field around the the wing influences the flow on the tail and canard. Canard experiences upwash while the the tail experiences downwash. The magnitude of upwash dan downwash depends on the location of the canard and tail with respect to the wing. Canard has its advantages and disadvantages. If the canard is placed properly, the influence of airflow from the wing, fuselage and engine can be avaoided. Suitable to perform large nose-down trim moment during large manovouer. Canard is also use to generate additional lift produce by the wing. The disadvantage of the canard its creates less longitudinal stability. However this effectot serious and can be overcome by selecting a suitable CG location. An automotic feedback control system can be used to overcome this problem.

2.2.4

Neutral point is the longitudinal location of CG when the aircraft is nutrally stable condition. Neutral point is the most aft CG location. If the CG moves axceeded the aft limit the aircraft becomes unstable. By referring back to Figure 1.4, for nutral stable, when the ball is displaced from its initial location, the ball moves and stays at the new location The same thing is going to happen for when an aircraft is flying in trim condition during CG at nutral point, when the aircraft is disturbed from its initial condition, the aircraft moves from its initial condition and stays at the new point

because aircraft has no restoring moment. The same thing happen to the pilot when pulling the control stick for a while and release, aircraft will pitch without returning to its original equilibrium condition.

Cm cg = Cm o + Cm

where

Cmo = Cmo w + Cmo t xcg xac Cmo = Cmacw + CLow + VHCLt (o+ iw-it ) c

and

Cm = Cmw + Cmt

Cm is depent on the position of center of gravity and the aerodynamic characterictics of an aircraft. The effect of the center of gravity to static stability can be shown in through Cm versus for different CG position.

Cm

UNSTABLE

Cg at NP (Xcg > XNP)

STABLE

Figure 2.5

During operation the CG location is not fixed. So that it is important to know trhe lmit and range of CG location. It is important to determine to limit if CG movement. The determinition of CG when Cm = 0 is important to estiamte the margin of aircraft longitudinal static stability. Solve the equation for Cm = 0, and substitute Xcg = XNP gives; d XNP Xac 0 = C L w VHCLt 1 C d C

Solve for

XNP , then C

C L d XNP Xac = + VH t 1 C C C L w d

This point is called stick fixed nutral point. When Xcg is at XNP, aircraft is nutral stable.

2.2.5

Tests can be done on a series of flight test at different centre of gravity of an airfcrat. At certain CG location, determine the elevator angle to trim, etrim for a series of wind speed.

eTRIM

CLTRIM

Figure 3.6

de trim detrim Xcg . Then plot with respect to , gives C dCL dCL

deTRIM dCLTRIM

x x x

deTRIM dCLTRIM

= 0 = Neutral point

Figure 2.6

Example

V W C.G S ST

= = = = =

= 100%

lt = 4.88 m C = 1.74 m b = 10.2 iw = 1o (positive) it = 1o (negative)

Calculate the wing and tail to Cmo and Cm. Also calculate the stick fixed nutral point. Assume at sea level flight

Solution

Wing contribution

and

(1)

(2)

Substitute the correspondance value in equation 1 and 2 to calculate Cmot dan Cmw from 1,

Cmow

from 2,

Tail contribution

1tSt (4.88)(4) = = 0.66 SC (17.1)(1.74)

(3) (4)

2CL w AR

o =

Substitite the approproate value in 3 and 4 to get Cmot dan Cmt from 3, from 4,

Cmt = -(0.66)(3.91)(1 - 0.45) = -1.42/rad

CL d XNP Xac = + VH t 1 C C CLw d

= 0.25 + (1)(0.66)

Chapter 3

LONGITUDINAL CONTROL

3.0 Introduction

Factors the affect the design of control surfaces: 1. Control effectiveness is a measured of the effectiveness of the control surface deflection in creating control moment. 2. Hinge Moment is the aerodynamic moment created from the control surface deflection and has to overcome. 3. Aerodynamic and mass balance is a techniques used to reduce the magnitude of the hinge moment so that the control force is within the acceptable region.

Aircraft pitch attitude can be controlled either using elevator or canard. Elevator shifts the trim angle but not the gradient of the pitching moment.

Cm

CL or

e > 0

e = 0

e < 0

Figure 3.1

When the elevator angle is deflected, the lift force and pitching moment is altered. The changes in lift force can be written as;

CL = CLee

The lift coefficient can be written as

which

CLe =

dCL de

CL = CL + CLee

Cm = Cmee

which

Cme =

dCm de

The Cme derivative is call elevator control power. The effectiveness of the elevator increases as the Cme is increased to produce pithcing control. Sabstitute Cm in the pitching moment equation gives;

Cm = Cmo + Cm + Cmee

The CLe and Cme derivatives are related to the aerodyanmics characteristics and tail geometry. The change of lift force from the elevator deflection is equivalent to the changes of tail lift force.

L = Lt

CL =

St St dCLt CL t = e S S de

Which the dCLt/de is the elevator effectivenessada. Elevator effectiveness is proportional to the flap size and can be estimated from equation;

dCLt dCLt dt = . de dt de

CLe =

Increment in pitching moment

St dCLt S de

Cm = VH H CLt = VH H

or

dCLt e de

Cme = VH H

dCLt de

The magnitude of the elevator effectiveness can be controlled through the suitable selection of tail volume ration and the flap size

Aircraft is in a trimmed condition when the summation of all the forces and moment acting on the aircraft is in equilibrium. In the trim condition Cm = 0

Cm = 0 = Cmo + Cm + Cmee

etrim =

trim =

CLtrim CL etrim

e

CL

etrim =

Elevator hinge moment is the moment that required force by the pilot to overcome the force on control stick. Hinge moment is the summation of moment due to the effect of angle of attack, elevator deflection and trim-tab.

Ch = Cho + Chtt + Chee + Ch H = Ch 1 V 2 SeCe 2

which

Se - elevator planform area after hinge line Ce elevator chord length form hinge line to trailling edge Cho -residual moment

Cht =

dCh d t

Che =

dCh de

Ch =

dCh d

H e

Hinge line

Ce C

Figure 3.2

Parameters for the hinge moment is difficult to estimate through analysis. Wind tunnel tests is usually used in designingt the control surface parameters. When elevator is free (kawalan kayu dilepaskan dari kestabilan dan kawalan yang bertindak). For simplicity, assume and Cho is zero. So that, in the condition when the elevator is set to free ;

Che = 0 = Chtt + Chee

e free =

Cht t Che

In most cases, Cht and Che has negative value, where in this case, elevator is let to float when angle of attack increases. The lift coefficient of the tail and the levator is given by;

CLt = CLtt + CLeefree CLt = CLt t + CLe Cht t Che

simplify

CLe Cht CLt = CLt t = CLt ' t 1 CL C h t e

which

CLe Cht CLt = CLt 1 CL Ch = CLtf t e

CLe Cht CLt ' = CLt 1 CL C h = CLt f t e The f factor can be bigger or smaller than 1 depends to the parameter value of hinge Cht and Che. From the summation of pitching moment on free elevator, the similar form of equation is applied, the only diference is the CLt term which replace by CLt. Substitute CLt in equations;

xcg xac Cmo = Cmacw + CLow + VHCLt (o + w - t) c d Xcg Xac Cm = CLw - VHCLt 1 C C d

gives

Cmo = Cmow + CLt VH (o + w - t) d Xcg Xac Cm = CLw - CLt VH 1 C C d

where 'prime' shows values of elevator in free condition. To evaluate the affect of free elevator on the static stability, look at the situation when Cm = 0. Let Cm = 0 in the equation and find the solution of x C for stick free nuetral point.

CLt d XNP ' Xac = + VH 1 CLw d C C

The different between the stickj fixed and stick free can be shown as CLt d XNP XNP ' = (1 f )VH 1 CLw d C C Factor f gives whether the stick free nutral point is at the front or behind the stick fixed nutral point. The common term that normally found in the text is called static margin which give the distance between nutral point and actual CG. Stick fixed static margin =

XNP Xcg C C XNP Xcg C C

Most aircraft the stick fixed static margin is around 5% of the mean chord. The nutral point for stick fixed and stick free give the aft limit of the CG movement.

Chapter 4

STICK FORCE

4.0 Introduction

Pilot needs to move the control stick in order to deflect the elevator. Force on the stick force is proportional to the hinge moment acting on the control surface.

F = f (H e )

s

e(-ve)

He(+ve)

Figure 4.1

Figure 4.1 describes the simple sketch of the mechanical system use to deflect the elevator. The work done on the control stick to is equal to the work done required to move the control surface at particular angle.

Fls = H ee

or or which G =

F=

e H e ls

F = GH e

Substitute the hinge moment term into stick force equation, gives;

F = GChe 1 V 2 Sece 2

From the expression it can be seen that the magnitude of the stick force increases with aircraft size and square of aircraft speed. Similar expression can be obtained for foot padel and aileron stick force.

4.1 Trim-Tab

To reduce pilot workload, aircraft is trimmed to make to conrol stick force zero. Tab is used either to elevator or rudder in order to achieve trim condition. Tab is a small flap located at the trailing edge of the control surface. Tab gives a small affect to the lift force produce by the control surface.

tab

(+ve) Elevator

e(+ve)

Figure 4.2

Stick Force

dF dV <0

speed trim

Figure 4.3

Figur 4.3 shows the changes of control stick force with speed. To give the speed stability to the aircraft, the gradient of the control stick force must be negative. dF <0 dV If the aircraft is slowing down, the positive control stick force will nosedown the aircraft which make the speed increases and return to its trim speed. If the speed is

higher that the trim speed, a negative control stick force will noseup the aircraft and cause its to reduce the speed.

In order to reduce pilot workload, aerodynamic balance is integrated with the control surface is built using the free stream to balance/reduce the hinge moment create from the control surface.

Part of the control surface is extended forward of the hinge line which creating opposite moment that can reduce the effect of hinge moment.

horn Hinge line horn

Figure 4.4

This technique is located inside the wing and normally infornt of the control surfaces.

Chapter 5

DIRECTIONAL STATIC STABILITY AND CONTROL

5.0 Introduction

Directional stability or 'weathercock' is related to lateral static stability (stability about z-axis). Aircrat must be able to return to its stability when is disturbed in yaw motion.

Cn X V

0 Y

Figure 5.1

Figure 5.1 shows the chages of yawing moment with sideslip angle for two aircraft. Assume both aircraft experience disturbance in yaw when flying at a sideslip angle (positif). Aircraft 1 creates a restoring moment which has a tendency to create restoring moment to return to its equilibrium condition (zero sideslip angle). Aircraft 2 will create yawing moment that will increase the sideslip angle. From this it can be seen that for statically stable in directional, the gradient of the graph must be positive.

Cn > 0

which

Cn =

dCn d

Wing gives small contribution to directional stability compare to fiuslage (as long the angle of attack is not big). Fuselage and engine nacel generally creates instability to directional stability. Because the wing-fuselage contribution makes reduction in directional stability, the sufficient size of the vertical tail is required in order to ensure the aircraft poses directional stability.

+ Lv

Figure 5.2

When the aircraft is flying at a sideslip angle of , the vertical tail creates lift force on lateral direction (sideway) Lv which make the aircraft has a tendency to turn about its CG toward the incoming wind. Moment that creates is called yawing moment. The sideforce that acting on the vertical tail can be expressed as Yv = -

dCL v 1 v 2 Vv 2 Sv d v

v = +

Moment the generates by the vertical tail can be expressed in a function of side force

Nv = lvYv = lv

dCL v ( + ) 1 Vv 2 Sv 2 d v

Cn =

Vv2 dCLv l v Sv 1 Nv 2 = ( + ) 2 2 1 1 d S b V V S b w v v w w 2 2

thus

Cn = Vvv

dCLv ( + ) dv

Where Vv is the volume ratio of the vertical tail and v is the ratio of dynamic pressure of the vertical tail to the wing. The contribution of the vertical tail to directional stability can be obtained form the product of differentiation w.r.t .

Control surface known as rudder is used for directional control. The yawing moment created by the rudder is depened to the changes of lift force acting on the vertical tail due to the rudder deflection multiply by distance to cg. Positive sideforce will creates negative yawing moment.

N = l V YV

Side force

Yv = CLV 1 Vv2 Sv 2 Cn =

1 Vv2 l v Sv dCLv N 2 = r 2 2 1 1 Sb d r V Sb V w w 2 2

r(-ve) r(+ve

Figure 5.3

or

Cn = v

dCLv r Vdr

The control effectiveness of the rudder is proportional to the rate of change of the yawing moment with rudder angle.

Cn =

or

which

1. Using aileron for during 'banking' creates yawing moment against the direction of turning; rudder must able to overcome the adverse yaw effect. 2. During crosswind landing aircraft has to fly at sideslip angle while maintain straight to the runway; rudder must be strong enough to allow the pilot to trim the flight. 3. During asymmetrical engine power; for example one engine inoperative (for multi-engine aircraft); rudder must able to overcome the unsymmetrical yawing moment. 4. Rudder must have enough strength to overcome spinning during spin fenomena.

Chapter 6

ROLL STATIC STABILTY AND CONTROL

6.0 Introduction

Aircraft is said to roll static stability if the aircraft has the ability to create a restoring moment to reach wing level. The restoring momen is a function of sideslip angle.

C > 0, unstable

C < 0,stable

Figure 6.1

For roll static stabilit C < 0; the restoring rolling moment is created when the aircraft start slipping is strongly depend on the wing 'dihedral', wing sweep, position of the wing relative to fuselage and vertical tail. The wing 'dihedral' gives significant effect to rolling moment. When one side of the wing drops from wing level, the lift on the dropped wing is increased and the lift of the lifted wing is decreased. For that, the winng level equilibrium can be created At wing level, the resultant of lift force acting on the wing is in equilibrium, if one of the sides is lower than the other one, the resultant lift is leaning toward the lower wing and the weight is acting vertically. Due to this asymetrical forces makes the resultant force acting sideway and downward. This non-equilibrium occured temporarily which make the aircraft experiencing sideslip and course the airflow moves against the direction of sideslip. The lower part experiencing high angle of attack compare to high part. The centre of pressure of the whole wing moves toward the wing leading edge of the lower wing. The lower wing has higher lift compare to higher wing and finally return to equilibrium. The roll control is performed using small flap at the tip of the wing which is called aileron. The aileron deflection change the lift distriubution acting on the wing surface and creating rolling moment (acting w.r.t to x axis).

Roll moment

a x a

Roll direction

Lift distribution

Figure 6.2

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