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(0912740084), RADHE SHYAM TIWARI (0912740073) has carried out the Project work presented in this Project entitled

AUTOMOBILE ROTATABLE HEAD LIGHT SYSTEM for the award of B.Tech(ME) from Gautam Buddh Technical University, Lucknow under my supervision. The Project embodies results of original work, and studies are carried out by the student himself/herself and the contents of the Project do not form the basis for the award of any other degree to the candidate or to anybody else from this or any other Institution.


We would like to express our gratitude and appreciation to all those who gave us the possibility to complete this report. A special thanks to our final year project coordinator, Mr. Hemant Kumar sir, whose help, stimulating suggestions and encouragement, helped us to coordinate our project. We would also like to acknowledge with much appreciation the crucial role of the staff of Mechanical Laboratory, who gave the permission to use all required machinery and the necessary material to complete the Differential Simulation Rig. We would like to say thanks to our project guide Col.V.K.Tomar Sir whose have given his full effort in guiding the team in achieving the goal as well as his encouragement to maintain our progress in track. We would to appreciate the guidance given by other supervisor as well as the panels especially in our project presentation that has improved our presentation skills by their Consult and tips. Last but not least, many thanks to GOD and our parents for their love and affection during project report.


The number of vehicles on our roads is burgeoning day by day. This is turn forced almost all this vehicle manufactures to think about the extra safety instruments and electronic controls to attach with these products for giving the users a safety derived in all road conditions through a mass flow traffic.Rotatable headlight in a four-wheeler according to the steering movement is an approach to avoid accidents at severe road turnings. In this dynamic era the high-speed vehicle need to adapt the mechanism to have the increased visibility. When steering of any four-wheeler moves in any direction, the wheel will also move in the same direction. It is alright in the day driving. But it become risky in the hilly areas, in dark and foggy nights. Because headlights will not take turn on the turning roads according to the steering. Then driver has to drive by his own personal experience, by using clutch and brake more number of times than that on the straight path. Thus, the mechanism of Rotatable headlight enhances the safety view while driving on the road in such fast moving era. In the project our main aim has been to provide smooth and safety ride in curved roads especially in mountains in night.


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Introduction Working Operation Literature Review Ackermann steering geometry About the mechanisms Part of steering mechanism tie rod steering arm King pin Recent Application Production cars with active four wheel steering Basic Steering components Major Components Rack and Pinion Steering DC Motor Gear Power Supply LDR Circuit Head Lamps Pulley Introduction Links Wheels References

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Rotatable headlight in a four-wheeler according to the steering movement is an approach to avoid accidents at severe road turnings. In this dynamic era the high-speed vehicle need to adapt the mechanism to have the increased visibility. When steering of any four-wheeler moves in any direction, the wheel will also move in the same direction. It is alright in the day driving. But it become risky in the hilly areas, in dark and foggy nights. Because headlights will not take turn on the turning roads according to the steering. Then driver has to drive by his own personal experience, by using clutch and brake more number of times than that on the straight path. Thus, the mechanism of Rotatable headlight enhances the safety view while driving on the road in such fast moving era. This Rotatable head light mechanism provides less time in use of clutch and breaks that means saving of fuel. So less fuel consumption that in term increase the efficiency of engine. By using this mechanism visibility area of headlight can be increases up to 55. So increase in safety in enhances. This mechanism needs not to have any kinds of power supply any source. This mechanism doesnt affect the quantity of the effort on the steering by the driver. In case of turning, the mechanism definitely works but in straight path driving, the mechanism doesnt work. No part of mechanism is in the contact in the straight path driving thus there is very-very less wear and tear in this mechanism. Despite of having mechanical components, there are no vibrations. Hence no noise is produced that could be irritating. The cost of cylinders, pistons, fluid and links is not so much high in comparison of a car. Hence, if one can afford the car, he would definitely afford the car with this mechanism.


A link is fixed to the rack and pinion steering arrangement. The rack and pinion steering is moving to one direction, automatically the head lamp is turn in that direction.

Literature Review


Aims on the hub to which the steering is connected. They are usually angled inwards the centre of the back and to get an Ackermann geometry or something close to it. The steering arms are actually responsible for transmitting steering inputs to the front wheels and must be capable of proving flex-free performance when under load.


The line that intersects the upper and lower steering pivots on a steered wheel. On a car with a strut suspension, the steering axis is defined by the line through the strut mount on lop and the ball joint on the bottom.

Ackermann steering geometry

Ackermann steering geometry is a geometric arrangement of linkages in the steering of a car or other vehicle designed to solve the problem of wheels on the inside and outside of a turn needing to trace out circles of different radii.This engineering solution is attributable to Langensperger in 1816, but was patented by arrangement in London, in 1817, by Rudolph Ackermann, whose name stuck to it. The same idea was also developed in France in the late 1870s, by Bollee and Jeantaud. When a vehicle is steered, it follows a path which is part of the circumference of its turning circle, which will have a centre point somewhere along a line extending from the axis of the fixed axle. The steered wheels must be angled so that they are both at 90 degrees to a line drawn from the circle centre through the centre of the wheel. Since the wheel on the outside of the turn will trace a large circle than the wheel on the inside, the wheels need to be set at different angles. The Ackermann steering geometry arranges this automatically by moving the steering pivot points inward so as to lie on a line drawn between the steering kingpins and the centre of the rear axle. The steering pivot points are joined by a rigid bar, the tie rod, which can also be part of the, for example, rack and pinion steering mechanism. This arrangement ensures that at any angle of steering, the centre point of all of the circles traced by all wheels will lie at a common point.Modern cars do not use pure Ackermann steering, party because it ignores important dynamic and compliant effects, but the principle is sound for low speed man oeuvres.



The part on the hub that is attached to the steering system lie rod ends and ball joints.


The reduction ratio of the steering gear, such as the rack to the pinion or worm to nut. Variable ratio steering systems sometimes have higher ratio on lock than in the straights head position; sometimes the other way round.


The tie is that part of the steering system that links or lays the steering system to the steering knuckle on the wheel. Also a general term for any road acting in tension and compression, tie rods is also called track rods.


About the Mechanisms:

The mechanism of Rotatable Headlights in four wheelers according to its steering movement helps to reduce the problems which driver has to face.In this mechanism, the headlights of four-wheeler are coupled with the tie rod so that it can also move as per the displacement of tie rod. Because as steering moves, the steering road accepts the rotary motion. In the steering gear box this rotary is converted in to linear motion of tie rod. With the help of linear motion of tie rod, the links will also move which is already fastened to the tie rod This link, however, transfers, it movements to the headlight in the form of angular displacement. For the angular displacement of the headlight according to steering movement, two mechanisms are suggested here, will be described later.

In its simplest construction, it consists of two cylinders, two pistons, fluid, connection pipes, two springs and two links for the headlight for one side. One link is fastened to the tie rod to take its linear displacement and another link is fastened to the headlight to give the angular displacement to the headlight. The reciprocating motion of pistons inside the cylinders transfers the displacement from one link to second. The pistons are moved by the pressure difference of the fluid, which is in the fluid carrying pipe.



The working of this mechanism can easily be understood by the following steps: As, in the previous figure, the simple construction of coupled headlight with steering is shown. According to this fig. the vehicle is moving in forward direction. As the steering moves in the leftward direction, the wheel will also move in the leftward direction. As the wheels take the direction, the tie rod moves in rightward direction and due to this movements the link I will also move in rightward direction. As the link 1 moves, it pushes piston 1 inside cylinder. Thus the fluid is also pushed inside the cylinder and fluid carrying pipe. This fluid moves inside the pipe and makes the pressure difference in the cylinder 2, which will now push the piston 2. This piston 2 again pushes the link 2. This link gives the angular displacement to the headlights of left side, which is hinged. From the step 1 to step 6, it is seen that headlight is turned in the desired direction according to steering movement.


When steering comes again to its mean position, links will also regain their previous position. Then the compressed springs will cause the headlights to regain their previous position. The same procedure is followed when the steering is turned to right ward direction to take right turn.


By applying the hydraulic mechanism, there are various advantages over the mechanism based on the principle of electromagnetism. But there are several such kinds of advantage that may affect our daily life. These types of advantages are as follows: When having the Rotatable headlights, the no. of times uses the clutch & brake is reduced. This cause to save the fuel. From the economic point of view this mechanism can be adapted easily because the fluid used in this mechanism can be adapted easily because the fluid used in this mechanism is very cheap and need not to refill again and again. Visibility area of the headlights of the car be increased up to about 55 degrees by applying this mechanism. This mechanism needs not to have any kind of power supply any source. This mechanism doesnt affect the quantity of the effort on the steering by the driver. In case of turning, the mechanism definitely works but in straignt path driving, the mechanism doesnt work. No part of mechanism is in the contact in the straight path driving thus there is very-very less wear and tear in this mechanism. Despite of having mechanical components, there are no vibrations. Hence no noise is produced that could be irritating. The cost of cylinders, pistons, fluid and links is not so much high in comparison of a car. Hence, if one can afford the car, he would definitely afford the car with this mechanism.

With the help of this mechanism, the headlights of the car will also move as the steering moves in either direction. From the safety point of view this mechanism also enhances the better economic opinion by saving the fuel. In this phenomenon, the use of clutch & brake is reduced while taking the turn. It may be that in spite of applying this mechanism the driving of four-wheeler on turning roads is not as safe as on the straight path but in some cases this is more reliable economic and safe. On the turning roads the visibility area of the headlights of the car will be increased by applying this mechanism. That is also very important for the racing cars and high-speed vehicles in the night.



Since this mechanism is not costly and it has advantages of fuel saving and safety enhancement phenomena, it can used with vehicle which moves fast. Now a day it becomes need of fast moving vehicle. Here this mechanism will work effectively. Shortly its application can be view in two fields: 1. in fast moving car 2. in sharp turning road In sharp turning road especially in mountain valley, where there is very sharp turning, this mechanism will play a significant role. Steering is the term applied to the collection of components, linkages, etc. which will allow for a vessel (ship, boat) or vehicle (car) to follow the desired course. An exception is the case of rail transport by which rail tracks combined together with railroad switches provide the steering function.


Part of steering mechanism: tie rod, steering arm, king pin.

The most conventional steering arrangement is to turn the front wheels using a handoperated steering wheel which is positioned in front of the driver, via the steering column, which may contain universal joints to allow it to deviate somewhat from a straight line. Other arrangements are sometimes found on different types of vehicles, for example, a tiller or rearwheel steering. Tracked vehicles such as tanks usually employ differential steering that is, the tracks are made to move at different speeds or even in opposite directions to bring about a change of course.

Rack and pinion, recirculating ball, worm and sector

Rack and pinion animation

Rack and pinion unit mounted in the cockpit of an Ariel Atom sports car chassis. For most high volume production, this is usually mounted on the other side of this panel

Many modern cars use rack and pinion steering mechanisms, where the steering wheel turns the pinion gear; the pinion moves the rack, which is a sort of linear gear which meshes with the pinion, from side to side. This motion applies steering torque to the kingpins of the steered wheels via tie rods and a short lever arm called the steering arm. The rack and pinion design has the advantages of a large degree of feedback and direct steering "feel"; it also does not normally have any backlash, or slack. A disadvantage is that it is not adjustable, so that when it does wear and develop lash, the only cure is replacement.

Older designs often use the recirculating ball mechanism, which is still found on trucks and utility vehicles. This is a variation on the older worm and sector design; the steering column turns a large screw (the "worm gear") which meshes with a sector of a gear, causing it to rotate about its axis as the worm gear is turned; an arm attached to the axis of the sector moves the pitman arm, which is connected to the steering linkage and thus steers the wheels. The recirculating ball version of this apparatus reduces the considerable friction by placing large ball bearings between the teeth of the worm and those of the screw; at either end of the apparatus the balls exit from between the two pieces into a channel internal to the box which connects them with the other end of the apparatus, thus they are "recirculated". The recirculating ball mechanism has the advantage of a much greater mechanical advantage, so that it was found on larger, heavier vehicles while the rack and pinion was originally limited to smaller and lighter ones; due to the almost universal adoption of power steering, however, this is no longer an important advantage, leading to the increasing use of rack and pinion on newer cars. The recirculating ball design also has a perceptible lash, or "dead spot" on center, where a minute turn of the steering wheel in either direction does not move the steering apparatus; this is easily adjustable via a screw on the end of the steering box to account for wear, but it cannot be entirely eliminated or the mechanism begins to wear very rapidly. This design is still in use in trucks and other large vehicles, where rapidity of steering and direct feel are less important than robustness, maintainability, and mechanical advantage. The much smaller degree of feedback with this design can also sometimes be an advantage; drivers of vehicles with rack and pinion steering can have their thumbs broken when a front wheel hits a bump, causing the steering wheel to kick to one side suddenly (leading to driving instructors telling students to keep their thumbs on the front of the steering wheel, rather than wrapping around the inside of the rim). This effect is even stronger with a heavy vehicle like a truck; recirculating ball steering prevents this degree of feedback, just as it prevents desirable feedback under normal circumstances. The steering linkage connecting the steering box and the wheels usually conforms to a variation of Ackermann steering geometry, to account for the fact that in a turn, the inner wheel is actually traveling a path of smaller radius than the outer wheel, so that the degree of toe suitable for driving in a straight path is not suitable for turns. The worm and sector was an older design, used for example in Willys and Chrysler vehicles, and the Ford Falcon (1960's).

Power steering
As vehicles have become heavier and switched to front wheel drive, the effort to turn the steering wheel manually has increased - often to the point where major physical exertion is required. To alleviate this, auto makers have developed power steering systems. There are two types of power steering systemshydraulic and electric/electronic. A hydraulic-electric hybrid system is also possible. A hydraulic power steering (HPS) uses hydraulic pressure supplied by an engine-driven pump to assist the motion of turning the steering wheel. Electric power steering (EPS) is more efficient than the hydraulic power steering, since the electric power steering motor only needs to provide assistance when the steering wheel is turned, whereas the hydraulic pump must run constantly. In EPS the assist level is easily tunable to the vehicle type, road speed,

and even driver preference. An added benefit is the elimination of environmental hazard posed by leakage and disposal of hydraulic power steering fluid.

Speed Adjustable Steering

An outgrowth of power steering is speed adjustable steering, where the steering is heavily assisted at low speed and lightly assisted at high speed. The auto makers perceive that motorists might need to make large steering inputs while manoeuvering for parking, but not while traveling at high speed. The first vehicle with this feature was the Citron SM with its Diravi layout, although rather than altering the amount of assistance as in modern power steering systems, it altered the pressure on a centring cam which made the steering wheel try to "spring" back to the straight-ahead position. Modern speed-adjustable power steering systems reduce the pressure fed to the ram as the speed increases, giving a more direct feel. This feature is gradually becoming commonplace across all new vehicles.

Four-wheel steering
Four-wheel steering (or all wheel steering) is a system employed by some vehicles to improve steering response, increase vehicle stability while maneuvering at high speed, or to decrease turning radius at low speed. In most active four-wheel steering systems, the rear wheels are steered by a computer and actuators. The rear wheels generally cannot turn as far as the front wheels. Some systems, including Delphi's Quadrasteer and the system in Honda's Prelude line, allow for the rear wheels to be steered in the opposite direction as the front wheels during low speeds. This allows the vehicle to turn in a significantly smaller radius sometimes critical for large trucks or vehicles with trailers. Many modern vehicles offer a form of passive rear steering to counteract normal vehicle tendencies. For example, Subaru used a passive steering system to correct for the rear wheel's tendency to toe-out. On many vehicles, when cornering, the rear wheels tend to steer slightly to the outside of a turn, which can reduce stability. The passive steering system uses the lateral forces generated in a turn (through suspension geometry) and the bushings to correct this tendency and steer the wheels slightly to the inside of the corner. This improves the stability of the car, through the turn. This effect is called compliance understeer and it, or its opposite, is present on all suspensions. Typical methods of achieving compliance understeer are to use a Watt's Link on a live rear axle, or the use of toe control bushings on a twist beam suspension. On an independent rear suspension it is normally achieved by changing the rates of the rubber bushings in the suspension. Some suspensions will always have compliance oversteer due to geometry, such as Hotchkiss live axles or a semi trailing arm IRS.

Recent application
In an active 4ws system all four wheels turn at the same time when you steer. There can be controls to switch off the rear steer and options to steer only the rear wheel independent of the front wheels. At slow speeds (e.g. parking) the rear wheels turn opposite of the front wheels, reducing the turning radius by up to twenty-five percent, while at higher speeds both

front and rear wheels turn alike (electronically controlled), so that the vehicle may change position with less yaw, enhancing straight-line stability. The "Snaking effect" experienced during motorway drives while towing a travel trailer is thus largely nullified. Four-wheel steering found its most widespread use in monster trucks, where maneuverability in small arenas is critical, and it is also popular in large farm vehicles and trucks. General Motors offers Delphi's Quadrasteer in their consumer Silverado/Sierra and Suburban/Yukon. However, only 16,500 vehicles have been sold with this system since its introduction in 2002 through 2004. Due to this low demand, GM will not offer the technology on the 2007 update to these vehicles. Previously, Honda had four-wheel steering as an option in their 1987-2000 Prelude, and Mazda also offered four-wheel steering on the 626 and MX6 in 1988. Neither system was very popular, in that whatever improvement they brought to these already excellent-handling vehicles was offset by an unavoidable decrease in sensitivity caused by the increased weight and complexity. A new "Active Drive" system is introduced on the 2008 version of the Renault Laguna line. It was designed as one of several measures to increase security and stability. The Active Drive should lower the effects of under steer and decrease the chances of spinning by diverting part of the G-forces generated in a turn from the front to the rear tires. At low speeds the turning circle can be tightened so parking and maneuvering is easier.

Production cars with active four wheel steering

Efini MS-9 (high and low speed) GMC Sierra (2002) (high and low speed) Honda Prelude (high and low speed, fully mechanical from 1987 to 1991) Honda Accord (1991) (high and low speed, mechanical) Infiniti G35 Sedan (option on Sport models) (2007-Present) (high speed only?) Infiniti G35 Coupe (option on Sport models) (2006-Present) (high speed only) [3] Infiniti J30t (touring package) (1993-1994) Infiniti M35 (option on Sport models) (2006-Present) (high speed only?) Infiniti M45 (option on Sport models) (2006-Present) (high speed only?) Infiniti Q45t (1989-1994) (high speed only?)

Mitsubishi Galant/Sigma (high speed only) Mitsubishi GTO (also sold as the Mitsubishi 3000GT and the Dodge Stealth) (high speed only) Nissan Cefiro (A31) (high speed only) Nissan 240SX/Silvia (option on SE models) (high speed only) Nissan 300ZX (all Twin-Turbo Z32 models) (high speed only) Nissan Laurel (later versions) (high speed only) Nissan Fuga/Infiniti M (high speed only) Nissan Silvia (option on all S13 models) (high speed only) Nissan Skyline GTS, GTS-R, GTS-X (1986) (high speed only) Nissan Skyline GT-R (high and low speed) Renault Laguna (only in GT version of 3rd generation which was launched October 2007, GT launched on April 2008) Toyota Aristo (1997) (high and low speed?) Toyota Camry JDM 1991 Camry Prominent 2.0 L V6[citation needed] Toyota Celica (option on 5th and 6th generation, 1990-1993 ST183 and 1994-1997

Mazda 626 (1988) (high and low speed) Mazda MX-6 (1989-1997) (high and low speed) Mazda RX-7 (optional, computerized, high and low speed)

ST203) (Dual-mode, high and low speed) Toyota Soarer (UZZ32)

Articulated steering

A front loader with articulated steering.

Articulated steering is a system by which a four-wheel drive vehicle is split into front and rear halves which are connected by a vertical hinge. The front and rear halves are connected with one or more hydraulic cylinders that change the angle between the halves, including the front and rear axles and wheels, thus steering the vehicle. This system does not use steering arms, king pins, tie rods, etc. as does four-wheel steering. If the vertical hinge is placed equidistant between the two axles, it also eliminates the need for a central differential, as both front and rear axles will follow the same path, and thus rotate at the same speed.

SuperSteer is used by NewHolland to make tractors turning radius smaller. The SuperSteer front axle articulates when the wheels turn. The inside wheel moves away from the frame, while the outside wheel moves in front of the bumper/nose of the tractor, providing more tire clearance and a greater turn angle. A picture of this turning action can be seen here.

The aim of steer-by-wire technology is to completely do away with as many mechanical components (steering shaft, column, gear reduction mechanism, etc.) as possible. Completely replacing conventional steering system with steer-by-wire holds several advantages, such as:

The absence of steering column simplifies the car interior design. The absence of steering shaft, column and gear reduction mechanism allows much better space utilization in the engine compartment. The steering mechanism can be designed and installed as a modular unit.


Without mechanical connection between the steering wheel and the road wheel, it is less likely that the impact of a frontal crash will force the steering wheel to intrude into the driver's survival space. Steering system characteristics can easily and infinitely be adjusted to optimize the steering response and feel.

As of 2007 there are no production cars available that rely solely on steer-by-wire technology due to safety and reliability concerns, but this technology has been demonstrated in numerous concept cars.

For safety reasons all modern cars feature a collapsible steering column (energy absorbing steering column) which will collapse in the event of a heavy frontal impact to avoid excessive injuries to the driver. Non-collapsible steering columns very often impaled drivers in frontal crashes. Audi has a retractable wheel system called procon-ten.Collapsible steering columns were invented by Bela Barenyi.This safety feature first appeared on cars built by General Motors after an extensive and very public lobbying campaign enacted by Ralph Nader.Ford started to install collapsible steering columns in 1968.

Steering : essential to driving

Elsewhere on this site you can learn about all the other stuff that makes a car go and stop, so this page is where you'll learn about how it goes around corners. More specifically, how the various steering mechanisms work. Like most things in a car, the concept of steering is simple - you turn the steering wheel, the front wheels turn accordingly, and the car changes direction. How that happens though is not quite so simple. Well - it used to be back in the days when cars were called horseless carriages, but nowadays, not so much.

Basic steering components

99% of the world's car steering systems are made up of the same three or four components. The steering wheel, which connects to the steering system, which connects to the track rod, which connects to the tie rods, which connect to the steering arms. The steering system can be one of several designs, which we'll go into further down the page, but all the designs essentially move the track rod left-to-right across the car. The tie rods connect to the ends of the track rod with ball and socket joints, and then to the ends of the steering arms, also with ball and socket joints. The purpose of the tie rods is to allow suspension movement as well as an element of adjustability in the steering geometry. The tie rod lengths can normally be changed to achieve these different geometries.


The Ackermann Angle : your wheels don't point the same direction. In the simplest form of steering, both the front wheels always point in the same direction. You turn the wheel, they both point the same way and around the corner you go. Except that by doing this, you end up with tyres scrubbing, loss of grip and a vehicle that 'crabs' around the corner. So why is this? Well, it's the same thing you need to take into consideration when looking at transmissions. When a car goes around a corner, the outside wheels travel further than the inside wheels. In the case of a transmission, it's why you need a differential (see the Transmission Bible), but in the case of steering, it's why you need the front wheels to actually point in different directions. This is the diagram from the Transmission Bible. You can see the inside wheels travel around a circle with a smaller radius (r2) than the outside wheels (r1):


In order for that to happen without causing undue stress to the front wheels and tyres, they must point at slightly different angles to the centreline of the car. The following diagram shows the same thing only zoomed in to show the relative angles of the tyres to the car. It's all to do with the geometry of circles:

This difference of angle is achieved with a relatively simple arrangement of steering components to create a trapezoid geometry (a parallelogram with one of the parallel sides shorter than the other). Once this is achieved, the wheels point at different angles as the steering geometry is moved. Most vehicles now don't use 'pure' Ackermann steering geometry because it doesn't take some of the dynamic and compliant effects of steering and suspension into account, but some derivative of this is used in almost all steering systems:


Why 'Ackermann'?
This particular technology was first introduced in 1758 by Erasmus Darwin, father of Charles Darwin, in a paper entitled "Erasmus Darwin's improved design for steering carriages--and cars". It was never patented though until 1817 when Rudolph Ackermann patented it in London, and that's the name that stuck.
Steering ratios

Every vehicle has a steering ratio inherent in the design. If it didn't you'd never be able to turn the wheels. Steering ratio gives mechanical advantage to the driver, allowing you to turn the tyres with the weight of the whole car sitting on them, but more importantly, it means you don't have to turn the steering wheel a ridiculous number of times to get the wheels to move. Steering ratio is the ratio of the number of degrees turned at the steering wheel vs. the number of degrees the front wheels are deflected. So for example, if you turn the steering wheel 20 and the front wheels only turn 1, that gives a steering ratio of 20:1. For most modern cars, the steering ratio is between 12:1 and 20:1. This, coupled with the maximum angle of deflection of the wheels gives the lock-to-lock turns for the steering wheel. For example, if a car has a steering ratio of 18:1 and the front wheels have a maximum deflection of 25, then at 25, the steering wheel has turned 25x18, which is 450. That's only to one side, so the entire steering goes from -25 to plus 25 giving a lock-to-lock angle at the steering wheel of 900, or 2.5turns(900/360).This works the other way around too of course. If you know the lock-to-lock turns and the steering ratio, you can figure out the wheel deflection. For example

if a car is advertised as having a 16:1 steering ratio and 3 turns lock-to-lock, then the steering wheel can turn 1.5x360 (540) each way. At a ratio of 16:1 that means the front wheels deflect by 33.75 each way. For racing cars, the steering ratio is normally much smaller than for passenger cars - ie. closer to 1:1 - as the racing drivers need to get fuller deflection into the steering as quickly as possible.

Turning circles
The turning circle of a car is the diameter of the circle described by the outside wheels when turning on full lock. There is no hard and fast formula to calculate the turning circle but you can get close by using this: turning circle radius=(track/2)+(wheelbase/sin(average steer angle)) The numbers required to calculate the turning circle explain why a classic black London taxi has a tiny 8m turning circle to allow it to do U-turns in the narrow London streets. In this case, the wheelbase and track aren't radically different to any other car, but the average steering angle is huge. For comparison, a typical passenger car turning circle is normally between 11m and 13m with SUV turning circles going out as much as 15m to 17m.

Steering System designs : Pitman arm types

There really are only two basic categories of steering system today; those that have pitman arms with a steering 'box' and those that don't. Older cars and some current trucks use pitman arms, so for the sake of completeness, I've documented some common types. Newer cars and unibody light-duty trucks typically all use some derivative of rack and pinion steering. Pitman arm mechanisms have a steering 'box' where the shaft from the steering wheel comes in and a lever arm comes out - the pitman arm. This pitman arm is linked to the track rod or centre link, which is supported by idler arms. The tie rods connect to the track rod. There are a large number of variations of the actual mechanical linkage from direct-link where the pitman arm is connected directly to the track rod, to compound linkages where it is connected to one end of the steering system or the track rod via other rods. The example below shows a compound link.


Most of the steering box mechanisms that drive the pitman arm have a 'dead spot' in the centre of the steering where you can turn the steering wheel a slight amount before the front wheels start to turn. This slack can normally be adjusted with a screw mechanism but it can't ever be eliminated. The traditional advantage of these systems is that they give bigger mechanical advantage and thus work well on heavier vehicles. With the advent of power steering, that has become a moot point and the steering system design is now more to do with mechanical design, price and weight. The following are the four basic types of steering box used in pitman arm systems.

Worm and sector

In this type of steering box, the end of the shaft from the steering wheel has a worm gear attached to it. It meshes directly with a sector gear (so called because it's a section of a full gear wheel). When the steering wheel is turned, the shaft turns the worm gear, and the sector gear pivots around its axis as its teeth are moved along the worm gear. The sector gear is mounted on the cross shaft which passes through the steering box and out the bottom where it is splined, and the the pitman arm is attached to the splines. When the sector gear turns, it turns the cross shaft, which turns the pitman arm, giving the output motion that is fed into the mechanical linkage on the track rod. The following diagram shows the active components that are present inside the worm and sector steering box. The box itself is sealed and filled with grease.


Worm and roller

The worm and roller steering box is similar in design to the worm and sector box. The difference here is that instead of having a sector gear that meshes with the worm gear, there is a roller instead. The roller is mounted on a roller bearing shaft and is held captive on the end of the cross shaft. As the worm gear turns, the roller is forced to move along it but because it is held captive on the cross shaft, it twists the cross shaft. Typically in these designs, the worm gear is actually an hourglass shape so that it is wider at the ends. Without the hourglass shape, the roller might disengage from it at the extents of its travel.


Worm and nut or recirculating ball

This is by far the most common type of steering box for pitman arm systems. In a recirculating ball steering box, the worm drive has many more turns on it with a finer pitch. A box or nut is clamped over the worm drive that contains dozens of ball bearings. These loop around the worm drive and then out into a recirculating channel within the nut where they are fed back into the worm drive again. Hence recirculating. As the steering wheel is turned, the worm drive turns and forces the ball bearings to press against the channel inside the nut. This forces the nut to move along the worm drive. The nut itself has a couple of gear teeth cast into the outside of it and these mesh with the teeth on a sector gear which is attached to the cross shaft just like in the worm and sector mechanism. This system has much less free play or slack in it than the other designs, hence why it's used the most. The example below shows a recirculating ball mechanism with the nut shown in cutaway so you can see the ball bearings and the recirculation channel.

Cam and lever

Cam and lever steering boxes are very similar to worm and sector steering boxes. The worm drive is known as a cam and has a much shallower pitch and the sector gear is replaced with two studs that sit in the cam channels. As the worm gear is turned, the studs slide along the cam channels which forces the cross shaft to rotate, turning the pitman arm. One of the design features of this style is that it turns the cross shaft 90 to the normal so it exits through the side of the steering box instead of the bottom. This can result in a very compact design when necessary.


Steering System designs : Rack and pinion

This is by far the most common type of steering you'll find in any car today due to it's relative simplicity and low cost. Rack and pinion systems give a much better feel for the driver, and there isn't the slop or slack associated with steering box pitman arm type systems. The downside is that unlike those systems, rack and pinion designs have no adjustability in them, so once they wear beyond a certain mechanical tolerance, they need replacing completely. This is rare though. In a rack and pinion system, the track rod is replaced with the steering rack which is a long, toothed bar with the tie rods attached to each end. On the end of the steering shaft there is a simple pinion gear that meshes with the rack. When you turn the steering wheel, the pinion gear turns, and moves the rack from left to right. Changing the size of the pinion gear alters the steering ratio. It really is that simple. The diagram below shows an example rack and pinion system as well as a close-up cutaway of the steering rack itself.


Variable-ratio rack and pinion steering

This is a simple variation on the above design. All the components are the same, and it all works the same except that the spacing of the teeth on the rack varies depending on how

close to the centre of the rack they are. In the middle, the teeth are spaced close together to give slight steering for the first part of the turn - good for not oversteering at speed. As the teeth get further away from the centre, they increase in spacing slightly so that the wheels turn more for the same turn of the steering wheel towards full lock. Simple.

Vehicle dynamics and steering - how it can all go very wrong

Generally speaking, when you turn the steering wheel in your car, you typically expect it to go where you're pointing it. At slow speed, this will almost always be the case but once you get some momentum behind you, you are at the mercy of the chassis and suspension designers. In racing, the aerodynamic wings, air splitters and undertrays help to maintain an even balance of the vehicle in corners along with the position of the weight in the vehicle and the supension setup. The two most common problems you'll run into are understeer and oversteer.

Understeer is so called because the car steers less than you want it to. Understeer can be brought on by all manner of chassis, suspension and speed issues but essentially it means that the car is losing grip on the front wheels. Typically it happens as you brake and the weight is transferred to the front of the car. At this point the mechanical grip of the front tyres can simply be overpowered and they start to lose grip (for example on a wet or greasy road surface). The end result is that the car will start to take the corner very wide. In racing, that normally involves going off the outside of the corner into a catch area or on to the grass. In normal you-and-me driving, it means crashing at the outside of the corner. Getting out of understeer can involve letting off the throttle in front-wheel-drive vehicles (to try to give the tyres chance to grip) or getting on the throttle in rear-wheel-drive vehicles (to try to bring the back end around). It's a complex topic more suited to racing driving forums but suffice to say that if you're trying to get out of understeer and you cock it up, you get.....


The bright ones amongst you will probably already have guessed that oversteer is the opposite of understeer. With oversteer, the car goes where it's pointed far too efficiently and you end up diving into the corner much more quickly than you had expected. Oversteer is brought on by the car losing grip on the rear wheels as the weight is transferred off them under braking, resulting in the rear kicking out in the corner. Without counter-steering (see below) the end result in racing is that the car will spin and end up going off the inside of the corner backwards. In normal you-and-me driving, it means spinning the car and ending up pointing back the way you came.

Counter-steering is what you need to do when you start to experience oversteer. If you get into a situation where the back end of the car loses grip and starts to swing out, steering opposite to the direction of the corner can often 'catch' the oversteer by directing the nose of the car out of the corner. In drift racing and demonstration driving, it's how the drivers are able to smoke the rear tyres and power-slide around a corner. They will use a combination of throttle, weight transfer and handbrake to induce oversteer into a corner, then flick the steering the opposite dirction, honk on the accelerator and try to hold a slide all the way around the corner. It's also a widely-used technique in rally racing. Tiff Needell - a racing driver who also works on some UK motoring programs - is an absolute master at countersteer power sliding.



The Following main components of our projects are 1. Rack and pinion steering 2. DC motor 3. Gear 4. Power supply 5. LDR Circuit 6. Head Lamps 7. Pulley 8. Links 9. Wheels


Rack and pinion steering

In steering systems, the rotary motion of the steering wheel is converted into angular turning of the front wheels. Steering is done by moving the axes of rotation of the front wheels with respect to the chassis frame.


DC motor

Faradays used oersteds discovered, that electricity could be used to produce motion, to build the world first electric motor in 1821. Ten years later, using the same logic in reverse, faraday was interested in getting the motion produced by oersteds experiment to be continuous, rather then just a rotatory shift in position. In his experiments, faraday thought in terms of magnetic lines of force. He visualized how flux lines existing around a current carrying wire and a bar magnet. He was then able to produce a device in which the different lines of force could interact a produce continues rotation. The basic faradays motor uses a free-swinging wire that circles around the end of a bar magnet. The bottom end of the wire is in a pool of mercury. Which allows the wire to rotate while keeping a complete electric circuit.



Although Faraday's motor was ingenious. It could not be used to do any practical work. This is because its drive shaft was enclosed and it could only produce an internal orbital motion. It could not transfer its mechanical energy to the outside for deriving an external load. However it did show how the magnetic fields of a conductor and a magnet could be made to interact to produce continuous motion. Faradays motor orbited its wire rotor must pass through the magnets lines of force.

When a current is passes through the wire ,circular lines of force are produced around the wire. Those flux lines go in a direction described by the left-hand rule. The lines of force of the magnet go from the N pole to the S pole You can see that on one side of the wire, the magnetic lines of force are going in the opposite direction as a result the wire, s flux lines oppose the magnets flux line since flux lines takes the path of least resistance, more lines concentrate on the other side of the wire conductor, the lines are bent and are very closely

spaced. The lines tend to straighten and be wider spaced. Because of this the denser, curved field pushes the wire in the opposite direction.
The direction in which the wire is moved is determined by the right hand rule. If the current in the wire went in the opposite direction. The direction of its flux lines would reverse, and the wire would be pushed the other way.

Rules for motor action

The left hand rule shows the direction of the flux lines around a wire that is carrying current. When the thumb points in the direction of the magnetic lines of force. The right hand rule for motors shows the direction that a current carrying wire will be moved in a magnetic field. When the forefinger is pointed in the direction of the magnetic field lines, and the centre finger is pointed in the direction of the current in the wire the thumb will point in the direction that the wire will be moved.



In the basic action you just studied the wire only moves in a straight line and stops moving once out of the field even though the current is still on. A practical motor must develop a basic twisting force called torque loop. We can see how torque is produced. If the loop is connected to a battery. Current flows in one direction one side of the loop, and in the opposite direction on the other. Therefore the concentric direction on the two sides. If we mount the loop in a fixed magnetic field and supply the current the flux lines of the field and both sides of the loop will interact, causing the loop to act like a lever with a force pushing on its two sides in opposite directions. The combined forces result in turning force, or torque because the loop is arranged to piot on its axis. In a motor the loop that moves in the field is called an armature or rotor. The overall turning force on the armature depends upon several factors including field strength armature current strength and the physical construction of the armature especially the distance from the loop sides to the axis lines. Because of the lever action the force on the sides are further from the axis; thus large armature will produce greater torques.


In the practical motor the torque determines the energy available for doing useful work. The greater the torque the greater the energy. If a motor does not develop enough torque to pull its load it stalls.

Producing Continuous Rotation

The armature turns when torque is produced and torque is produced as long as the fields of the magnet and armature interact. When the loop reaches a position perpendicular to the field, the interaction of the magnetic field stops. This position is known as the neutral plane. In the neutral plane, no torque is produced and the rotation of the armature should stop; however inertia tends to keep a moving object in the motion even after the prime moving force is removed and thus the armature tends to rotate past the neutral plane. But when the armature continues o the sides of the loop start to swing back in to the flux lines, and apply a force to push the sides of the loop back and a torque is developed in the opposite direction. Instead of a continuous rotation an oscillating motion is produced until the armature stops in the neutral plane.



To get continuous rotation we must keep the armature turning in the same direction as it passes through the neutral plane .We could do this by reversing either the direction of the current flow through the armature at the instant the armature goes through the neutral pole. Current reversals of this type are normally the job of circuit switching devices. Since the switch would have to be synchronized with the armature, it is more logical to build it into the armature then in to the field. The practical switching device, which can change the direction of current flow through an armature to maintain continuous rotation, is called a commutator.

For the single-loop armature, the commutator is simple. It is a conducting ring that is split into two segment with each segment connected to an end of the armature loop. Power for the armature from an external power source such as a battery is brought to the commutator segments by means of brushes. The arrangement is almost identical to that for the basic dc generator. The logic behind the operation of the commutator is easy to see in the figures. You can see in figure A that current flows into the side of the armature closest to the South Pole of the field and out of the side closest to the North Pole. The interaction of the two fields produces a torque in the direction indicated, and the armature rotates in that direction. No torque is produced but the armature continues to rotate past the neutral plane due to inertia. Notice that at the neutral position the commutator disconnects from the brushes sides of the loop reverse positions. But the switching action of the commutator keeps the direction of current flow through the armature the same as it was in the figure. A. Current still flows into the armature side that is now closest to the South Pole. Since the magnets field direction remains the same throughout the interaction of fields after commutation keeps the torque going in the original direction; thus the same direction of rotation is maintained. As you can see in figure D, Inertia again carries the armature past neutral to the position shown in the fig. A while communication keeps the current flowing in the direction that continues to maintain rotation. In this way, the commutator keeps switching the current through the loop, so that the field it produces always interacts with the pole field to develop a continuous torque in the same direction.





At this point, you have been introduced to the four principal parts that make up the elementary D.C motor. These parts are the same as those you met in your study of the basic D.C generator .a magnetic field, a movable conductor, a commutator and brushes. In practice, the magnetic field can be supplied by a permanent magnet or by an electromagnet. For most discussions covering various motor operating principles, we will assume that a permanent magnet is used at other times when it is important for you to understand that the field of the motor is develop electrically, we will show that an electromagnet is used. In either case, the magnetic field itself consists of magnetic flux lines that form a closed magnetic circuit. The flux lines leave the north pole of the magnet, extend across the air gap between the poles of the magnet, enter the South Pole and then travel through the magnet itself back to the north pole. The movable conductor, usually a loop, called armature, therefore is in the magnetic field. When D.C motor is supplied to the armature through the brushes and commutator, magnetic flux is also build up around the armature. It is this armature flux that interacts with the magnetic field in which the armature is suspended to develop the torque that makes the motor operate.


Gears, toothed wheels or cogs are positive type drives which are used to transmit motion between two shafts or a shaft and a component having linear motion, by meshing of two or more gears. They have advantage over other drives like chains, belts etc. in case of precision machines where a definite velocity ratio is of importance and also in case where the driver and the follower are in close proximity; the downside is that gears are more expensive to manufacture and their operating cost is also relatively high.

Spur gears found on a piece of farm equipment. Gears of differing size are often used in pairs for a mechanical advantage, allowing the torque of the driving gear to produce a larger torque in the driven gear at lower speed, or a smaller torque at higher speed. The larger gear is known as a wheel and the smaller as a pinion. This is the principle of the automobile transmission, allowing selection between various mechanical advantages. The ratio of the rotational speeds of two meshed gears is called the Gear ratio.A gearbox is not an amplifier or a servomechanism. Conservation of energy requires that the amount of power delivered by the output gear or shaft will never exceed the power applied to the input gear, regardless of the gear ratio. Work equals the product of force and distance, therefore the small gear is required to run a longer distance and in the process is able to exert a larger twisting force or torque, than would have been the case if the gears were the same size. There is actually some loss of output power due to friction.


The most common type of gear wheel, spur gears, are flat and have teeth projecting radially and in the plane of the wheel. The teeth of these "straight-cut gears" are cut so that the leading edges are parallel to the line of the axis of rotation. These gears can only mesh correctly if they are fitted to parallel axles.

Helical gears offer a refinement over spur gears. The teeth are cut at an angle, allowing for more gradual, hence smoother meshing between gear wheels, eliminating the whine characteristic of straight-cut gears. A disadvantage of helical gears is a resultant thrust along the axis of the gear, which needs to be accommodated by appropriate thrust bearings, and a greater degree of sliding friction between the meshing teeth, often addressed with specific additives in the lubricant. Whereas spur gears are used for low speed applications and those situations where noise control is not a problem, the use of helical gears is indicated when the application involves high speeds, large power transmission, or where noise abatement is important. The speed is considered to be high when the pitch line velocity (ie. circumferential velocity) exceeds 5000 ft/min or the rotational speed of the pinion (ie. smaller gear) exceeds 3600 rpm.

Helical gears from a Meccano construction set.


Double helical gears, invented by Andr Citron and also known as herringbone gears, overcome the problem of axial thrust presented by Single helical gears by having teeth that are 'V' shaped. Each gear in a double helical gear can be thought of as two standard, but

mirror image, helical gears stacked. This cancels out the thrust since each half of the gear thrusts in the opposite direction. They can be directly interchanged with spur gears without any need for different bearings.

Where two axles cross at point and engage by means of a pair of conical gears, the gears themselves are referred to as bevel gears. These gears enable a change in the axes of rotation of the respective shafts, commonly 90. A set of four bevel gears in a square make a differential gear, which can transmit power to two axles spinning at different speeds, such as those on a cornering automobile. Helical gears can also be designed to allow a ninety degree rotation of the axis of rotation.


If the axles are skewed, that is, non-parallel, then a worm gear can be used. This is a gear that resembles a screw, with parallel helical teeth, and mates with a normal spur gear. The worm is always the driving gear. The worm gear can achieve a higher gear ratio than spur gears of a comparable size. Designed properly, a built in safety feature can be obtained: This gear style will self-lock if power is lost to the drive (worm). It doesn't work if the pinion is powered.


A Worm Gear and Pinion from a Meccano construction set

The central gear of a Planetary gear

A sector gear is merely a segment of a spur gear, such as one half or one quarter of the circumference, but still attached to the axle in the normal fashion. Such a gear will operate normally as long as the gear with which it meshes does not drive off the edge of the sector, for instance in a worm and sector automotive steering gear or its descendant the recirculating ball. It is useful for saving space and weight when only limited movement is necessary rather than the full 360 degrees of rotation.


Torque can be converted to linear force by a rack and pinion. The pinion is a spur gear, and meshes with a toothed bar or rod that can be thought of as a sector gear with an infinitely large radius of curvature. Such a mechanism is used in automobiles to convert the rotation of the steering wheel into the left-to-right motion of the tie rod(s).


A crown gear or contrate gear is a special form of bevel gear which has teeth at right angles to the plane of the wheel; it meshes with a straight cut spur gear or pinion on a rightangled axis to its own, or with an escapement such as found in mechanical clocks. Simple gears suffer from backlash, which is the error in motion that occurs when gears change direction, resulting from hard to eliminate manufacturing errors. When moving forwards, the front face of the drive gear tooth pushes on the rear face of the driven gear. When the drive gear changes direction, its rear face is now pushing on the front face of the driven gear. Unless deliberately designed to eliminate it, there is slight 'slop' in any gearing where briefly neither face of the driving gear is pushing the driven gear. This means that input motion briefly causes no output motion. Assorted schemes exist to minimize or avoid problems this creates.

A crown gear

In some machines it is necessary to change the gear ratio to suit the task. There are several ways of doing this. For example:

Manual transmission automatic gearbox derailleur gears which are actually sprockets in combination with a roller chain hub gears (also called epicyclic gearing or sun-and-planet gears) continuously variable transmission transmission (mechanics)


Friction and wear between two gears is highly dependent on the profile of the teeth. The tooth form used for most applications is involute but there are other tooth forms such as cycloidal (used in mechanical clocks) or rack (used in automobile steering).

Numerous nonferrous alloys, cast irons, powder-metallurgy and even plastics are used in the manufacture of gears. However steels are most commonly used because of their high strength to weight ratio and low cost.

Worm gear

Worm and worm gear

A worm gear, or worm wheel or worm drive, is a type of gear that consists of a cylinder with a spiral groove mounted on a shaft. It is used to greatly reduce rotational speed, or to allow higher torque to be transmitted. The image shows a section of a gear box with a bronze worm gear being driven by a worm. A worm gear is an example of a screw, one of the six simple machines.

A gearbox designed using a worm and worm-wheel will be considerably smaller than one made from plain spur gears and has its drive axes at 90 to each other. With a single start worm, for each 360 turn of the worm, the worm-gear advances only one tooth of the gear. Therefore, regardless of the worm's size (sensible engineering limits notwithstanding), the gear ratio is the "size of the worm gear - to - 1". Given a single start worm, a 20 tooth worm gear will reduce the speed by the ratio of 20:1. With spur gears, a gear of 12 teeth (the smallest size permissible, if designed to good engineering practices) would have to be matched with a 240 tooth gear to achieve the same ratio of 20:1. Therefore, if the diametrical

pitch (DP) of each gear was the same, then, in terms of the physical size of the 240 tooth gear to that of the 20 tooth gear, the worm arrangement is considerably smaller in volume.

A double bass features worm gears as tuning mechanisms

Direction of transmission
Unlike ordinary gear trains, the direction of transmission (input shaft vs output shaft) is not reversible, due to the greater friction involved between the worm and worm-wheel, when a single start (one spiral) worm is used. This can be an advantage when it is desired to eliminate any possibility of the output driving the input. If a multistart worm (multiple spirals) then the ratio reduces accordingly and the braking effect of a worm and worm-gear may need to be discounted as the gear may be able to drive the worm. Worm drives where the gear can not drive the worm are said to be self-locking. Whether a worm and gear will be self-locking depends on a function of the lead angle, the pressure angle, and the coefficient of friction; however it is approximately correct to say that a worm and gear will be self-locking if the tangent of the lead angle is less than the coefficient of friction.

Worm gears are a compact, efficient means of substantially decreasing speed and increasing torque. Small electric motors are generally high speed and low torque, the addition of a worm and worm-wheel increases the range of applications that it may be suitable for, especially when the worm gears compactness is considered. In the era of sailing ships the introduction of a worm gear drive to control the rudder was a significant advance. Prior to its introduction, a rope drum drive was used to control the rudder and rough seas could cause substantial force to be applied to the rudder, often requiring several men to steer the vessel, with some drives having two large diameter wheels to allow up to four crewmen to operate the rudder.

A worm drive controlling a gate. The position of the gate will not change after being set Worm-drives have been used in a few automotive differentials. The worm-wheel carries the differential gearing. This protects the vehicle against rollback. This has largely fallen from favour due to the higher than

necessary reduction ratios. The exception to this is the Torsen differential, which uses wormgears and planetary worm-wheels in place of the bevel gearing in conventional open differentials. Torsen differentials are most prominently featured in the HMMWV and some commercial Hummer vehicles, and as a center differential in some all wheel drive systems such as the Audi quattro. Very heavy trucks, such as those used to carry aggregates, often use a worm gear differential for strength. The worm gear is not as efficient as a hypoid gear, and such trucks invariably have a very large differential housing, with a correspondingly large volume of gear oil, to absorb and dissipate the heat created. Worm gears are used as the tuning mechanism for many musical instruments including guitars, double-basses, mandolins and bouzoukis, although not banjos which use planetary gears or friction pegs. A worm-gear tuning device is called a machine head. Plastic worm gears are often used on small battery operated electric motors, to provide an output with a lower angular velocity (fewer revolutions per minute) than that of the motor, which operates best at a fairly high speed. This motor-worm-gear drive system is often used in toys and other small electrical devices. A worm drive is used on jubilee type hose clamps or jubilee clamps, the tightening screw has a worm thread which engages with a slots on the clamp band.


Worm Gears
Introduction A worm gear is used when a large speed reduction ratio is required between crossed axis shafts which do not intersect. A basic helical gear can be used but the power which can be transmitted is low. A worm drive consists of a large diameter worm wheel with a worm screw meshing with teeth on the periphery of the worm wheel. The worm is similar to a screw and the worm wheel is similar to a section of a nut. As the worm is rotated the worm wheel is caused to rotate due to the screw like action of the worm. The size of the worm gear set is generally based on the centre distance between the worm and the worm wheel. If the worm gears are machined basically as crossed helical gears the result is a highly stress point contact gear. However normally the worm wheel is cut with a concave as opposed to a straight width. This is called a single envelope worm gear set. If the worm is machined with a concave profile to effectively wrap around the worm wheel the gear set is called a double enveloping worm gear set and has the highest power capacity for the size. Single enveloping gear sets require accurate alignment of the worm-wheel to ensure full line tooth contact. Double enveloping gear sets require accurate alignment of both the worm and the worm wheel to obtain maximum face contact.

The worm is shown with the worm above the worm wheel. The gear set can also be arranged with the worm below the worm wheel. Other alignments are used less frequently.


As can be seen in the above view a section through the axis of the worm and the centre of the gear shows that , at this plane, the meshing teeth and thread section is similar to a spur gear and has the same features n = Normal pressure angle = 20o as standard = Worm lead angle = (180 / ) tan-1 (z 1 / q)(deg) ..Note: for n= 20o should be less than 25o b a = Effective face width of worm wheel. About 2.m (q +1) (mm) b l = Length of worm wheel. About 14.m. (mm) c = clearance c min = 0,2.m cos , c max = 0,25.m cos (mm) d 1 = Ref dia of worm (Pitch dia of worm (m)) = q.m (mm) d a.1 = Tip diameter of worm = d 1 + 2.h a.1 (mm) d 2 = Ref dia of worm wheel (Pitch dia of worm wheel) =( p x.z/ ) = 2.a - d 1 (mm) d a.2 = Tip dia worm wheel (mm) h a.1 = Worm Thread addendum = m (mm) h f.1 = Worm Thread dedendum , min = m.(2,2 cos - 1 ) , max = m.(2,25 cos - 1 )(mm) m = Axial module = p x / (mm) m n = Normal module = m cos (mm) M 1 = Worm torque (Nm) M 2 = Worm wheel torque (Nm) n 1 = Rotational speed of worm (revs /min) n 2 = Rotational speed of worm wheel (revs /min) p x = Axial pitch of of worm threads and circular pitch of wheel teeth ..the pitch between adjacent threads = . m. (mm) p n = Normal pitch of of worm threads and gear teeth (m) q = diameter factor selected from (6 6,5 7 7,5 8 8,5 9 10 11 12 13 14 17 20 ) p z = Lead of worm = p x. z 1 (mm).. Distance the thread advances in one rev'n of the worm. For a 2start worm the lead = 2 . p x R g = Reduction Ratio q = Worm diameter factor = d 1 / m - (Allows module to be applied to worm ) = coefficient of friction = Efficiency Vs = Worm-gear sliding velocity ( m/s) z 1 = Number of threads (starts) on worm z 2 = Number of teeth on worm wheel


Worm gear design parameters

Worm gears provide a normal single reduction range of 5:1 to 75-1. The pitch line velocity is ideally up to 30 m/s. The efficiency of a worm gear ranges from 98% for the lowest ratios to 20% for the highest ratios. As the frictional heat generation is generally high the worm box is designed disperse heat to the surroundings and lubrication is and essential requirement. Worm gears are quiet in operation. Worm gears at the higher ratios are inherently self locking - the worm can drive the gear but the gear cannot drive the worm. A worm gear can provide a 50:1 speed reduction but not a 1:50 speed increase....(In practice a worm should not be used a braking device for safety linked systems e.g hoists. . Some material and operating conditions can result in a wormgear backsliding ) The worm gear action is a sliding action which results in significant frictional losses. The ideal combination of gear materials is for a case hardened alloy steel worm (ground finished) with a phosphor bronze gear. Other combinations are used for gears with comparatively light loads.

BS721 Pt2 1983 Specification for worm gearing Metric units. This standard is current (2004) and provides information on tooth form, dimensions of gearing, tolerances for four classes of gears according to function and accuracy, calculation of load capacity and information to be given on drawings.


Worm teeth Profile

The sketch below shows the normal (not axial) worm tooth profile as indicated in BS 721-2 for unit module (m = 1mm) other module teeth are in proportion e.g. 2mm module teeth are 2 times larger

Materials used for gears

Material Worm



Acetal / Nylon Low Cost, low duty

Toys, domestic appliances, instruments

Cast Iron

Excellent machinability, medium Used infrequently in modern friction. machinery Low cost, reasonable strength Power gears with medium rating. Power gears with high rating for extended life

Carbon Steel

Hardened Steel High strength, good durability Worm wheel Acetal /Nylon Low Cost, low duty

Toys, domestic appliances, instruments


Phos Bronze

Normal material for worm Reasonable strength, low friction gears with reasonable and good compatibility with steel efficiency Excellent machinability, medium Used infrequently in modern friction. machinery

Cast Iron

Design of a Worm Gear The following notes relate to the principles in BS 721-2 Method associated with AGMA are shown below..

Initial sizing of worm gear.. (Mechanical)

1) Initial information generally Torque required (Nm), Input speed(rpm), Output speed (rpm). 2) Select Materials for worm and worm wheel. 3) Calculate Ratio (R g) 4) Estimate a = Center distance (mm) 5) Set z 1 = Nearest number to (7 + 2,4 SQRT (a) ) /R g 6) Set z 2 = Next number < R g . z 1 7) Using the value of estimated centre distance (a) and No of gear teeth ( z 2 )obtain a value for q from the table below 8) d 1 = q.m (select) .. 9) d 2 = 2.a - d 1 10) Select a worm wheel face width b a (minimum =2*m*SQRT(q+1)) 11) Calculate the permissible output torques for strength (M b_1 and wear M c_1 ) 12) Apply the relevent duty factors to the allowable torque and the actual torque 13) Compare the actual values to the permissible values and repeat process if necessary 14) Determine the friction coefficient and calculate the efficiency. 15) Calculate the Power out and the power in and the input torque

6) Complete design of gearbox including design of shafts, lubrication, and casing ensuring sufficient heat transfer area to remove waste heat.


Initial sizing of worm gear.. (Thermal)

Worm gears are often limited not by the strength of the teeth but by the heat generated by the low efficiency. It is necessary therefore to determine the heat generated by the gears = (Input power - Output power). The worm gearbox must have lubricant to remove the heat from the teeth in contact and sufficient area on the external surfaces to distibute the generated heat to the local environment. This requires completing an approximate heat transfer calculation. If the heat lost to the environment is insufficient then the gears should be adjusted (more starts, larger gears) or the box geometry should be adjusted, or the worm shaft could include a fan to induced forced air flow heat loss.


The reduction ratio of a worm gear ( R g ) Rg=z2/z1


eg a 30 tooth wheel meshing with a 2 start worm has a reduction of 15 Tangential force on worm ( F wt )= axial force on worm wheel F wt = F ga = 2.M 1 / d 1 Axial force on worm ( F wa ) = Tangential force on gear F wa = F gt = F wt.[ (cos n - tan ) / (cos n . tan + ) ] Output torque ( M 2 ) = Tangential force on worm wheel * Worm wheel reference diameter /2 M 2 = F gt* d 2 / 2 Relationship between the Worm Tangential Force F wt and the Gear Tangential force F gt F wt = F gt.[ (cos n . tan + ) / (cos n - tan ) ] Relationship between the output torque M 2and the input torque M 1 M 2 = ( M 1. d 2 / d 1 ).[ (cos n - tan ) / (cos n . tan + ) ] Separating Force on worm-gearwheel ( F s ) F s = F wt.[ (sin n ) / (cos n . sin span> + .cos ) ] Efficiency of Worm Gear ( ) =[(cos n - .tan ) / (cos n + .cot )] Sliding velocity ( V s )...(m/s) V s (m/s ) = 0,00005236. d 1. n 1 sec = 0,00005235.m.n (z 12 + q 2 ) 1/2 Peripheral velocity of worm wheel ( V p) (m/s) V p = 0,00005236,d 2. n 2

Friction Coefficient
Cast Iron and Phosphor Bronze .. Table x 1,15 Cast Iron and Cast Iron.. Table x 1,33 Quenched Steel and Aluminum Alloy..Table x 1,33 Steel and Steel..Table x 2

Friction coefficients - For Case Hardened Steel Worm / Phos Bros Wheel
Sliding Speed m/s Friction Coefficient Sliding Speed m/s Friction Coefficient


0 0,001 0,01 0,05 0,1 0,2 0,5 1

0,145 0,12 0,11 0,09 0,08 0,07 0,055 0,044

1,5 2 5 8 10 15 20 30

0,038 0,033 0,023 0,02 0,018 0,017 0,016 0,016

Worm Design /Gear Wear / Strength Equations to BS721

Note: For designing worm gears to AGMA codes AGMA method of Designing Worm Gears The information below relates to BS721 Pt2 1983 Specification for worm gearing Metric units. BS721 provides average design values reflecting the experience of specialist gear manufacturers. The methods have been refined by addition of various application and duty factors as used. Generally wear is the critical factor..

Permissible Load for Strength

The permissible torque (M in Nm) on the gear teeth is obtained by use of the equation

M b = 0,0018 X b.2 bm.2. m. l f.2. d 2.

( example 87,1 Nm = 0,0018 x 0,48 x 63 x 20 x 80 ) X b.2 = speed factor for bending (Worm wheel ).. See Below bm.2 = Bending stress factor for Worm wheel.. See Table below l f.2 = length of root of Worm Wheel tooth d 2 = Reference diameter of worm wheel m = axial module = Lead angle


Permissible Torque for Wear

The permissible torque (M in Nm) on the gear teeth is obtained by use of the equation M c = 0,00191 X c.2 cm.2.Z. d 21,8. m ( example 33,42 Nm = 0,00191 x 0,3234 x 6,7 x 1,5157 x 801,8 x 2 ) X c.2 = Speed factor for wear ( Worm wheel ) cm.2 = Surface stress factor for Worm wheel Z = Zone factor.

Length of root of worm wheel tooth

Radius of the root = R r= (d 1 /2 + h ha,1 (= m) + c(= 0,25.m.cos ) R r= d 1 /2 + m(1 +0,25 cos) l f.2 = 2.R r.sin-1 (2.R r / b a) Note: angle from sin-1(function) is in radians...

Speed Factor for Bending

This is a metric conversion from an imperial formula.. X b.2 = speed factor for bending = 0,521(V) -0,2 V= Pitch circle velocity =0,00005236*d 2.n 2 (m/s) The table below is derived from a graph in BS 721. I cannot see how this works as a small worm has a smaller diameter compared to a large worm and a lower speed which is not reflected in using the RPM.

Table of speed factors for bending

RPM (n2) 1 10 20 60 X b.2 0,62 0,56 0,52 0,44 RPM (n2) 600 1000 2000 4000 X b.2 0,3 0,27 0,23 0,18


100 200 400

0,42 0,37 0,33

6000 8000 10000

0,16 0,14 0,13

Additional factors
The formula for the acceptable torque for wear should be modified to allow additional factors which affect the Allowable torque M c

M c2 = M c. Z L. Z M.Z R / K C

The torque on the worm wheel as calculated using the duty requirements (M e) must be less than the acceptable torque M c2 for a duty of 27000 hours with uniform loading. For loading other than this then M e should be modified as follows

M e2 = M e. K S* K H
Thus uniform load < 27000 hours (10 years) M e M c2 Other conditions M e2 M c2

Factors used in equations Lubrication (Z L).. Z L = 1 if correct oil with anti-scoring additive else a lower value should be selected Lubricant (Z M).. Z L = 1 for Oil bath lubrication at V s < 10 m /s Z L = 0,815 Oil bath lubrication at 10 m/s < V s < 14 m /s Z L = 1 Forced circulation lubrication Surface roughness (Z R ) .. Z R = 1 if Worm Surface Texture < 3 m and Worm wheel < 12 m else use less than 1 Tooth contact factor (K C This relates to the quality and rigidity of gears . Use 1 for first estimate K C = 1 For grade A gears with > 40% height and > 50% width contact = 1,3 - 1,4 For grade A gears with > 30% height and > 35% width contact = 1,5-1,7 For grade A gears with > 20% height and > 20% width contact Starting factor (K S) .. K S =1 for < 2 Starts per hour 64

=1,07 for 2- 5 Starts per hour =1,13 for 5-10 Starts per hour =1,18 more than 10 Starts per hour

Time / Duty factor (K H) .. K H for 27000 hours life (10 years) with uniform driver and driven loads For other conditions see table below

Tables for use with BS 721 equations

Speed Factors X c.2 = K V .K R Note: This table is not based on the graph in BS 721-2 (figure 7) it is based on another more easy to follow graph. At low values of sliding velocity and RPM it agrees closely with BS 721. At higher speed velocities is gives a lower value (e.g at 20m/s -600 RPM the value from this table for X c.2 is about 80% of the value in BS 721-2

Table of Worm Gear Speed Factors

Note -sliding speed = Vs and Rotating speed = n2 (Worm wheel) Sliding speed m/s 0 0,1 0,2 0,5 1 2 5 10 20 30 1 KV Rotating Speed Rpm 0,5 0,98 0,96 0,92 0,8 0,73 0,63 0,55 0,46 0,35 0,33 KR

0,75 1 0,68 2 0,6 10

0,55 20 0,5 50

0,42 100 0,34 200 0,24 500 0,16 600


Stress Factors
Table of Worm Gear Stress Factors

Other metal (Worm) Metal (Worm wheel) Bending (bm )



C.Steel 0,4% 0,55% Case. C.Steel C.Steel H'd

Wear ( cm ) MPa
8,3 8,3 9,0 15,2

Phosphor Bronze 69 Centrifugal cast Phosphor Bronze 63 Sand Cast Chilled Phosphor Bronze 49 Sand Cast Grey Cast Iron 40





4,6 6,2 10,7 4,1 6,9

4,6 4,1

5,3 4,1

10,3 5,2

0,4% Carbon steel 138

Zone Factor (Z)

If b a < 2,3 (q +1)1/2 Then Z = (Basic Zone factor ) . b a /2 (q +1)1/2 If b a > 2,3 (q +1)1/2 Then Z = (Basic Zone factor ) .1,15

Table of Basic Zone Factors

z1 6 6,5 7 7,5 8 8,5 9 9,5 10 11 12 13 14 17 20

1 1,045 1,048 1,052 1,065 1,084 1,107 1,128 1,137 1,143 1,16 1,202 1,26 1,318 1,402 1,508


2 0,991 1,028 1,055 1,099 1,144 1,183 1,214 1,223 1,231 1,25 1,28

1,32 1,36 1,447 1,575

3 0,822 0,89 0,989 1,109 1,209 1,26 1,305 1,333 1,35 1,365 1,393 1,422 1,442 1,532 1,674 4 0,826 0,83 0,981 1,098 1,204 1,701 1,38 1,428 1,46 1,49 1,515 1,545 1,57 1,666 1,798 5 0,947 0,991 1,05 1,122 1,216 1,315 1,417 1,49 1,55 1,61 1,632* 1,652 1,675 1,765 1,886 6 1,131 1,145 1,172 1,22 1,287 1,35 1,438 1,521 1,588 1,625 1,694 1,714 1,733 1,818 1,928 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 1,316 1,34 1,37 1,405 1,452 1,54 1,614 1,704 1,725 1,74 1,76 1,846 1,98 1,437 1,462 1,5 1,557 1,623 1,715 1,738 1,753 1,778 1,868 1,96

1573 1,604 1,648 1,72 1,743 1,767 1,79 1,88 1,97 1,68 1,728 1,748 1,773 1,798 1,888 1,98 1,732 1,753 1,777 1,802 1,892 1,987 1,76 1,78 1,806 1,895 1,992 1,784 1,806 1,898 1,998 1,811 1,9 2

Duty Factor
Duty - time Factor K H KH Expected Impact from Prime mover life hours Impact From Load Uniform Load 0,8 0,9 1 Medium Impact 0,9 1 1,25 Strong impact 1 1,25 1,5

1500 Uniform Load Motor Turbine Hydraulic 5000 motor 27000


60000 1500 Light impact multi-cylinder engine 5000 27000 60000 1500 Medium Impact Single cylinder engine 5000 27000 60000

1,25 0,9 1 1,25 1,5 1 1,25 1,5 1,75

1,5 1 1,25 1,5 1,75 1,25 1,5 1,75 2

1,75 1,25 1,5 1,75 2 1,5 1,75 2 2,25

Worm q value selection

The table below shows allow selection of q value which provides an reasonably efficient worm design. The recommended centre distance value "a" (mm)is listed for each q value against a range of z 2 (teeth number values). The table has been produced by reference to the relevant plot in BS 721 Example If the number of teeth on the gear is selected as 45 and the centre distance is 300 mm then a q value for the worm would be about 7.5 Important note: This table provides reasonable values for all worm speeds. However at worm speeds below 300 rpm a separate plot is provide in BS721 which produces more accurate q values. At these lower speeds the resulting q values are approximately 1.5 higher than the values from this table. The above example at less than 300rpm should be increased to about 9

Table for optimum q value selection

Number of Teeth On Worm Gear (z 2) q 6 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80

150 250 380 520 700

6.5 100 150 250 350 480 660



110 170 250 350 470 620 700 80 50 28 120 180 240 330 420 550 670 80 90 40 25 120 180 230 300 380 470 570 700 130 130 180 220 280 350 420 500 600 700 70 50 26 25 100 130 170 220 280 330 400 450 520 70 55 28 100 120 150 200 230 300 350 400 80 55 28 100 130 160 200 230 270 320 75 45 100 130 150 180 220 250 52 27 80 45 100 130 150 100 52 75 90 105

7.5 50 8 8.5 9 9.5 10 11 12 13 25

AGMA method of Designing Worm Gears

The AGMA method is provided here because it is relatively easy to use and convenient- AGMA is all imperial and so I have used conversion values so all calculations can be completed in metric units..

Good proportions indicate that for a center to centre distance = C the mean worm dia d 1 is within the range Imperial (inches)

( C 0,875 / 3 ) d 1
Metric ( mm)

( C 0,875 / 1,6 )

( C 0,875 / 2 ) d 1 ( C 0,875 / 1,07 )

The acceptable tangential load (W t) all

(W t) all = C s. d 20,8 .b a .C m .C v . (0,0132) (N)


The formula will result in a life of over 25000 hours with a case hardened alloy steel worm and a phosphor bronze wheel C s = Materials factor b a = Effective face width of gearwheel = actual face width. but not to exceed 0,67 . d 1 C m = Ratio factor C v = Velocity factor

Modified Lewis equation for stress induced in worm gear teeth a = W t / ( p n. b a. y )(N) W t = Worm gear tangential Force (N) y = 0,125 for a normal pressure angle n = 20o

The friction force = W f W f = f.W t / (. cos n ) (N) = worm lead angle at mean diameter n = normal pressure angle

The sliding velocity = V s V s = .n 1. d 1 / (60,000 ) d 1 = mean dia of worm (mm) n 1 = rotational speed of worm (revs/min)

The torque generated at the worm gear = M b (Nm) T G = W t .d 1 / 2000

The required friction heat loss from the worm gearbox H loss = P in ( 1 - ) = gear efficiency as above.

C s values C s = 270 + 0,0063(C )3... for C 76mm ....Else C s (Sand cast gears ) = 1000 for d 1 64 mm ...else... 1860 - 477 log (d 1 ) C s (Chilled cast gears ) = 1000 for d 1 200 mm ...else ... 2052 -456 log (d 1 ) C s (Centrifugally cast gears ) = 1000 for d 1 635 mm ...else ... 1503 - 180 log (d 1 ) C m values NG = Number of teeth on worm gear. NW = Number of stards on worm gear. mG = gear ration = NG /NW

C v values C v (V s > 3,56 m/s ) = 0,659 exp (-0,2167 V s ) C v (3,56 m/s V s < 15,24 m/s ) = 0,652 (V s) -0,571 ) C v (V s > 15,24 m/s ) = 1,098.( V s ) -0,774 ) f values f (V s = 0) = 0,15 f (0 < V s 0,06 m/s ) = 0,124 exp (-2,234 ( V s ) 0,645 f (V s > 0,06 m/s ) = 0,103 exp (-1,1855 ( V s ) ) 0,450 ) +0,012

Links to Gear Design

1. Holroyd ...A UK based specialist worm gear manufacturer Worm gearbox selector 2. SEW Eurodrive...All the information on Gearboxes you will need 3. Quality Transmission Components...Supplier with downloadable Gear Design Handbook 4. Stock Drive Products= Sterling Instruments...Supplier with large quantity of downloadable drive information 5. Lenze...Drive system supplier with geared motor section


Lubrication of Worm Gears

Worm gears operate under difficult conditions, presenting unique lubrication demands. They serve as speed reducers in many different industries and applications. This article addresses how effectively lubricated worm gears affect worm gear performance. Worm gears are used in various industries and machinery applications. They are unique in their ability to achieve large speed reductions in a compact space. They can transmit high loads at high-speed ratios. Ratios of 20:1 up to 60:1 and higher are normally achieved. There are three major types of worm gears: 1. Non-throated - a helical gear with a straight worm. Tooth contact is a single moving point on the worm drive. This leads to high unit loads and wear. 2. Single-throated - has concave helical teeth which wrap around the worm. This leads to line contact, permitting higher loads without excessive wear. 3. Double-throated - called a cone or hourglass. It has concave teeth both on the worm and helical gear. This increases from line contact area permitting increased loading and lower wear.

Worm drives are inefficient because the gears experience sliding rather than rolling contacts, leading to operating temperatures much higher than other gear types. Spur gears normally operate at 50F (28C) over ambient temperatures while worm gear temperatures typically rise 90F (50C) over ambient. The following factors affect worm gear efficiency:

Lead angle of the worm Sliding speed 72

Lubricant Surface quality Installation conditions

Worm Gear Lubrication

Due to the sideway sliding motion in worm gears, it is difficult to maintain a hydrodynamic oil wedge. This results in gears operating under boundary lubrication conditions. Also, high operating temperatures that approach 190F (88C) and higher usually require oils with an ISO VG of 460 (AGMA Class 7) and higher. They also require good thermal and oxidative stability. Table 1 relates ISO viscosity grade with the AGMA Classification System. The types of oils most commonly used to lubricate worm gears are compounded mineral oils, EP mineral gear oils and synthetics. Each has its own unique characteristics and all three types are used successfully.

Worm Gear Lube Types

Compounded Gear Oils

These lubricants have been used extensively in worm gears with great success in a wide variety of applications. Compounded gear oil is a mineral basestock with normal rust and oxidation inhibitors that is blended with four to six percent acidless tallow or synthetic fatty acid (the compounding agent). The surface-active compounding agent gives these products excellent lubricity and prevents sliding wear in worm gears. Many OEMs recommend compounded gear oils. Compounded oils were initially used as steam cylinder lubricants because of their ability to adhere to cylinder walls in the presence of steam. The temperature limitation of compounded oils is approximately 180F (82C). Because compounded lubricants are difficult to use out of this temperature range, they are often replaced with EP gear oils for consolidation purposes. Most applications normally use an AGMA Class 7 or 8 compounded oil (ISO VG 460 and 680). In some cases, an 8A (1000 VG) is used. The viscosity selection depends on the worms type, size, speed and operating temperature. Refer to the OEM for specific viscosity recommendations.


Typical commercial oils: Mobil 600W Cylinder and Super Cylinder Oil, Texaco Vanguard 460 and 680, Exxon Cylesstic 460 and 680, and Chevron Cylinder Oils 460 and 680.

EP mineral gear oils are used more extensively in worm gears. Under conditions of high pressure and temperature, the EP (antiscuff) additive reacts with the metal surface to form a soft, slippery chemical layer which prevents severe wear and welding. Previously, there was a concern that sulfur-phosphorous EP additives would react with the bronze gear. However, new EP additive technology used by most of the major lubricant suppliers has reduced the corrosive attack by utilizing nonactive sulfur. EP lubricants work particularly well when shock loading occurs. EP gear oils also protect steel gears better than compounded gear oils. Typical recommendations are for both AGMA 7 and 8 viscosity grades. Like compounded gear oils, EP gear oils limit operating temperatures to under 180F (82C). Typical commercial oils: Shell Omala, Texaco Meropa, Exxon Spartan EP, Mobilgear 634 and 636, and Chevron EP Gear Oil.

Synthetic Worm Gear Oils

Two major types of synthetic gear oils have been used successfully in challenging conditions with worm gears: polyalphaolefins and polyalkelene glycols. Polyalphaolefins (PAOs) are the most common type of synthetic lubricant. They have good high and low temperature properties and are compatible with most mineral oils. Unlike some synthetics, PAOs dont attack paints or seals. Most formulations contain a small amount of organic ester or antiwear mineral that improves boundary lubrication conditions. Products that contain EP additives are also available. There are no major disadvantages, other than cost, when using PAOs as worm gear lubricants. Typical commercial oils: Chevron Tegra, Texaco Pinnacle, Exxon Teresstic SHP, Mobil SHC, Shell Hyperia and Royal Purple Synergy. Polyalkylene glycols (PAGs) are excellent for worm gear applications. They possess superior lubricity properties and have good low and high temperature properties. The Viscosity Index of PAGs is higher than most synthetics, approaching 280. Therefore, a lower initial viscosity grade can be used minimizing internal friction resulting in improved worm gear efficiency. Most PAGs contain antiwear properties but there are no formulations with EP additives. Besides cost, a major disadvantage of polyalkylene glycols is their incompatibility with other fluids. They also attack paints, seals and polycarbonate sight glasses. Typical commercial oils: Shell Tivela and Mobil Glygoyle HE.



Perhaps all of you are aware that a power supply is a primary requirement for the Test Bench of a home experimenters mini lab. A battery eliminator can eliminate or replace the batteries of solid-state electronic equipment and the equipment thus can be operated by 230v A.C. mains instead of the batteries or dry cells. Nowadays, the use of commercial battery eliminator or power supply unit has become increasingly popular as power source for household appliances like transreceivers, record player, cassette players, digital clock etc.


Electric energy is available in homes and industries in India, in the form of alternating voltage. The supply has a voltage of 220V (rms) at a frequency of 50 Hz. In the USA, it is 110V at 60 Hz. For the operation of most of the devices in electronic equipment, a dc voltage is needed. For instance, a transistor radio requires a dc supply for its operation. Usually, this supply is provided by dry cells. But sometime we use a battery eliminator in place of dry cells. The battery eliminator converts the ac voltage into dc voltage and thus eliminates the need for dry cells. Nowadays, almost all-electronic equipment includes a circuit that converts ac voltage of mains supply into dc voltage. This part of the equipment is called Power Supply. In general, at the input of the power supply, there is a power transformer. It is followed by a diode circuit called Rectifier. The output of the rectifier goes to a smoothing filter, and then to a voltage regulator circuit. The rectifier circuit is the heart of a power supply.

Rectification is a process of rendering an alternating current or voltage into a unidirectional one. The component used for rectification is called Rectifier. A rectifier permits current to flow only during the positive half cycles of the applied AC voltage by eliminating the negative half cycles or alternations of the applied AC voltage. Thus pulsating DC is obtained. To obtain smooth DC power, additional filter circuits are required.


A diode can be used as rectifier. There are various types of diodes. But, semiconductor diodes are very popularly used as rectifiers. A semiconductor diode is a solidstate device consisting of two elements is being an electron emitter or cathode, the other an electron collector or anode. Since electrons in a semiconductor diode can flow in one direction only-from emitter to collector- the diode provides the unilateral conduction necessary for rectification. Out of the semiconductor diodes, copper oxide and selenium rectifier are also commonly used.


It is possible to rectify both alternations of the input voltage by using two diodes in the circuit arrangement. Assume 6.3 V rms (18 V p-p) is applied to the circuit. Assume further that two equal-valued series-connected resistors R are placed in parallel with the ac source. The 18 V p-p appears across the two resistors connected between points AC and CB, and point C is the electrical midpoint between A and B. Hence 9 V p-p appears across each resistor. At any moment during a cycle of vin, if point A is positive relative to C, point B is negative relative to C. When A is negative to C, point B is positive relative to C. The effective voltage in proper time phase which each diode "sees" is in Fig. The voltage applied to the anode of each diode is equal but opposite in polarity at any given instant. When A is positive relative to C, the anode of D1 is positive with respect to its cathode. Hence D1 will conduct but D2 will not. During the second alternation, B is positive relative to C. The anode of D2 is therefore positive with respect to its cathode, and D2 conducts while D1 is cut off. There is conduction then by either D1 or D2 during the entire input-voltage cycle. Since the two diodes have a common-cathode load resistor RL, the output voltage across RL will result from the alternate conduction of D1 and D2. The output waveform vout across RL, therefore has no gaps as in the case of the half-wave rectifier. The output of a full-wave rectifier is also pulsating direct current. In the diagram, the two equal resistors R across the input voltage are necessary to provide a voltage midpoint C for circuit connection and zero reference. Note that the load resistor RL is connected from the cathodes to this center reference point C. An interesting fact about the output waveform vout is that its peak amplitude is not 9 V as in the case of the half-wave rectifier using the same power source, but is less than 4 V. The reason, of course, is that the peak positive voltage of A relative to C is 4 V, not 9 V, and part of the 4 V is lost across R. Though the full wave rectifier fills in the conduction gaps, it delivers less than half the peak output voltage that results from half-wave rectification.

A more widely used full-wave rectifier circuit is the bridge rectifier. It requires four diodes instead of two, but avoids the need for a centre-tapped transformer. During the positive half-cycle of the secondary voltage, diodes D2 and D4 are conducting and diodes D1 and D3 are non-conducting. Therefore, current flows through the secondary winding, diode D2, load resistor RL and diode D4. 76

During negative half-cycles of the secondary voltage, diodes D1 and D3 conduct, and the diodes D2 and D4 do not conduct. The current therefore flows through the secondary winding, diode D1, load resistor RL and diode D3. In both cases, the current passes through the load resistor in the same direction. Therefore, a fluctuating, unidirectional voltage is developed across the load.

The rectifier circuits we have discussed above deliver an output voltage that always has the same polarity: but however, this output is not suitable as DC power supply for solid-state circuits. This is due to the pulsation or ripples of the output voltage. This should be removed out before the output voltage can be supplied to any circuit. This smoothing is done by incorporating filter networks. The filter network consists of inductors and capacitors. The inductors or choke coils are generally connected in series with the rectifier output and the load. The inductors oppose any change in the magnitude of a current flowing through them by storing up energy in a magnetic field. An inductor offers very low resistance for DC whereas; it offers very high resistance to AC. Thus, a series connected choke coil in a rectifier circuit helps to reduce the pulsations or ripples to a great extent in the output voltage. The fitter capacitors are usually connected in parallel with the rectifier output and the load. As, AC can pass through a capacitor but DC cannot, the ripples are thus limited and the output becomes smoothed. When the voltage across its plates tends to rise, it stores up energy back into voltage and current. Thus, the fluctuations in the output voltage are reduced considerable. Filter network circuits may be of two types in general:


If a choke coil or an inductor is used as the first- components in the filter network, the filter is called choke input filter. The D.C. along with AC pulsation from the rectifier circuit at first passes through the choke (L). It opposes the AC pulsations but allows the DC to pass through it freely. Thus AC pulsations are largely reduced. The further ripples are by passed through the parallpel capacitor C. But, however, a little nipple remains unaffected, which are considered negligible. This little ripple may be reduced by incorporating a series a choke input filters.


If a capacitor is placed before the inductors of a choke-input filter network, the filter is called capacitor input filter. The D.C. along with AC ripples from the rectifier circuit starts charging the capacitor C. to about peak value. The AC ripples are then diminished slightly. Now the capacitor C, discharges through the inductor or choke coil, which opposes the AC ripples, except the DC. The second capacitor C by passes the further AC ripples. A small ripple is still present in the output of DC, which may be reduced by adding additional filter network in series.


Fig-CIRCUIT DIAGRUM In our project we are using 12 volt battery as a primary power source and 9 volt battery for head lamps.


LDRs or Light Dependent Resistors are very useful especially in light/dark sensor circuits. Normally the resistance of an LDR is very high, sometimes as high as 1000 000 ohms, but when they are illuminated with light resistance drops dramatically When the light level is low the resistance of the LDR is high. This prevents current from flowing to the base of the transistors. Consequently the LED does not light. However, when light shines onto the LDR its resistance falls and current flows into the base of the first transistor and then the second transistor. The LED lights. The preset resistor can be turned up or down to increase or decrease resistance, in this way it can make the circuit more or less sensitive.

The circuit above is a light sensor. That means light must shine into the LDR for the circuit to be activated.


Head Lamp
A headlamp is a lamp attached to the front of a vehicle to light the road ahead. Headlamp performance has steadily improved throughout the automobile age, spurred by the great disparity between daytime and night time traffic fatalities: the U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administrationstates that nearly half of all traffic-related fatalities occur in the dark, despite only 25% of traffic travelling during darkness. While it is common for the term head light to be used interchangeably in informal discussion, head lamp is the term for the device itself, while head light properly refers to the beam of light produced and distributed by the device. Other vehicles, such as trains and aircraft, are required to have headlamps. Bicycle headlamps are often used on bicycles, and are required in some jurisdictions. They can be powered by a battery or a small electrical generator on the wheel. Additionally automotive night vision systems work to supplement headlamps.

The earliest headlamps were fueled by acetylene or oil and were introduced in the late 1880s. Acetylene lamps were popular because the flame was resistant to wind and rain. The first electric headlamps were introduced in 1898 on the Columbia Electric Car from the Electric Vehicle Company of Hartford, Connecticut, and were optional. Two factors limited the widespread use of electric headlamps: the short life of filaments in the harsh automotive environment, and the difficulty of producing dynamos small enough, yet powerful enough to produce sufficient current. "Prest-O-Lite" acetylene lights were offered by a number of manufacturers as standard equipment for 1904, and Peerless made electric headlamps standard in 1908. A Birmingham firm called Pockley Automobile Electric Lighting Syndicate marketed the


world's first electric car lights as a complete set in 1908, which consisted of headlights, sidelights and tail lights and were powered by an 8 volt battery. In 1912, Cadillac integrated their vehicle's Delco electrical ignition and lighting system, creating the modern vehicle electrical system. "Dipping" (low beam) headlamps were introduced in 1915 by the Guide Lamp Company, but the 1917 Cadillac system allowed the light to be dipped with a lever inside the car rather than requiring the driver to stop and get out. The 1924 Bilux bulb was the first modern unit, having the light for both low (dipped) and high (main) beams of a headlamp emitting from a single bulb. A similar design was introduced in 1925 by Guide Lamp called the "Duplo". In 1927, the foot-operated dimmer switch or dip switch was introduced and became standard for much of the century. The last vehicle with a foot-operated dimmer switch was the 1991 Ford F-Series. Fog lamps were new for 1938 Cadillacs, and their 1954 "Autronic Eye" system automated the selection of high and low beams. In 1935 Tatra T77a introduced light with cornering function - the front had three headlamps of which the central unit was linked to the steering, making it possible to turn this lamp with the steering wheel. The standardised 7-inch (178 mm) round sealed beam headlamp was introduced in 1940, and was soon required for all vehicles sold in the United States. Britain, Australia and other Commonwealth countries, as well as Japan, also made extensive use of 7-inch sealed beams. With some exceptions from Volvo and Saab, this headlamp size format was never widely accepted in continental Europe, leading to different front-end designs for each side of the Atlantic for decades. The first halogen lamp for vehicle headlamp use, the H1, was introduced in 1962 by a European consortium of bulb and headlamp makers. Shortly thereafter, headlamps using the new light source were introduced. These were prohibited in the U.S., where sealed beam headlamps were required. In 1978, sealed beam headlamps with internal halogen burners became available for use in the United States. Halogen sealed beams now dominate the sealed beam market, though it is considerably smaller than it was before replaceable-bulb composite headlamps returned to the U.S. in 1983. High-intensity discharge (HID) systems were introduced in 1991s BMW 7-series. European and Japanese markets began to prefer HID headlamps, with as much as 50% market share in those markets, but they found slow adoption in North America. 1996's Lincoln Mark VIII was an early American effort at HIDs, and was the only car with DC HIDs.


Design and style

Beyond the engineering, performance and regulatory-compliance aspects of headlamps, there is the consideration of the various ways they are designed and arranged on a motor vehicle. Headlamps were round for many years, because that is the easiest shape for parabolic reflector manufacture.


A pulley is a wheel with a groove along its edge, also called a sheave, for holding a rope or cable. Pulleys are usually used in sets designed to reduce the amount of force needed to lift a load. However, the same amount of work is necessary for the load to reach the same height as it would without the pulleys. The magnitude of the force is reduced, but it must act through a longer distance. The effort needed to pull a load up is roughly the weight of the load divided by the number of wheels. The more wheels there are, the less efficient a system is, because of more friction between the rope and the wheels. Pulleys are one of the six simple machines. It is not recorded when or by whom the pulley was first developed, but it most likely came from Eurasia. The basic building block of a pulley, the wheel, was unknown to cultures in the western hemisphere, sub-Saharan Africa and Australia until relatively recent encounters with Eurasians. It is believed however that Archimedes developed the first documented block and tackle pulley system, as recorded by Plutarch.



Fixed A fixed or class 1 pulley has a fixed axle. That is, the axle is "fixed" or anchored in place. A fixed pulley is used to redirect the force in a rope (called a belt when it goes in a full circle). A fixed pulley has a mechanical advantage of 1.

Movable A movable or class 2 pulley has a free axle. That is, the axle is "free" to move in space. A movable pulley is used to transform forces. A movable pulley has a mechanical advantage of 2. That is, if one end of the rope is anchored, pulling on the other end of the rope will apply a doubled force to the object attached to the pulley.

Compound A compound pulley is a combination fixed and movable pulley system.

Block and tackle - A block and tackle is a compound pulley where several pulleys are mounted on each axle, further increasing the mechanical advantage. Plutarch reported that Archimedes moved an entire warship, laden with men, using compound pulleys and his own strength.



The simplest theory of operation for a pulley system assumes that the pulleys and lines are weightless, and that there is no energy loss due to friction. It is also assumed that the lines do not stretch. With this assumption, it follows that, in equilibrium, the total force on the pulley must be zero. This means that the force on the axle of the pulley is shared equally by the two lines looping through the pulley. The situation is schematically illustrated in diagram 1. For the case where the lines are not parallel, the tensions in each line are still equal, but now the vector sum of all forces is zero. A second basic equation for the pulley follows from the conservation of energy: The product of the weight lifted times the distance it is moved is equal to the product of the lifting force (the tension in the lifting line) times the distance the lifting line is moved. The weight lifted divided by the lifting force is defined as the advantage of the pulley system. It is important to notice that the amount of work done in an ideal pulley is aways the same. The work is given by the effort times the distance moved. The pulley simply allows trading effort for distance. In diagram 2, a single movable pulley allows a unit weight to be lifted with only half the force needed to lift the weight without assistance. The total force needed is divided between the lifting force (red arrow) and the "ceiling" which is some immovable object (such as the earth). In this simple system, the lifting force is directed in the same direction as the movement of the weight. The advantage of this system is 2. Although the force needed to lift the unit weight is only half of the unit weight, we will need to draw a length of rope that is

twice the distance that the weight is lifted, so that the total amount of work done (Force x distance) remains the same. A second pulley may be added as in diagram 2a, which simply serves to redirect the lifting force downward, it does not change the advantage of the system.

The addition of a fixed pulley to the single pulley system can yield an increase of advantage. In diagram 3, the addition of a fixed pulley yields a lifting advantage of 3. The tension in each line is the unit weight, and the force on the axles of each pulley is of a unit weight. As in the case of diagram 2a, another pulley may be added to reverse the direction of the lifting force, but with no increase in advantage. This situation is shown in diagram 3a. This process can be continued indefinitely for ideal pulleys with each additional pulley yielding a unit increase in advantage. For real pulleys friction among rope and pulleys will increase as more pulleys are added to the point that no advantage is possible. It puts a limit for the number of pulleys we can use in practice. The above pulley systems are known collectively as block and tackle pulley systems. In diagram 4a, a block and tackle system with advantage 4 is shown. A practical implementation in which the connection to the ceiling is combined and the fixed and movable pulleys are encased in single housings is shown in figure 4b. Other pulley systems are possible, and some can deliver an increased advantage with fewer pulleys than the block and tackle system. The advantage of the block and tackle system is that each pulley and line is subjected to equal tensions and forces. Efficient design dictates that each line and pulley be capable of handling its load, and no more. Other pulley designs will require different strengths of line and pulleys depending on their position in the system,

but a block and tackle system can use the same line size throughout, and can mount the fixed and movable pulleys on a common axle.

A linkage is a particular type of mechanism consisting of a number of interconnected components, individually called links. The physical connection between two links is called a joint. All joints of linkages are lower pairs, i.e. surface-contact pairs, which include spherical joints, planar joints, cylindrical joints, revolute joints, prismatic joints, and screw joints. Here we limit our attention to linkages whose links form a single loop and are connected only by revolute joints, also called rotary hinges. These joints allow one-degree-of-freedom movement between the two links that they connect. The kinematic variable for a revolute joint is the angle measured around the two links that it connects. From classical mobility analysis of mechanisms, it is known that the mobility m of a linkage composed of n links that are connected with p joints can be determined by the Kutzbach (or Grbler) mobility criterion (Hunt, 1978): m=6(n- p- 1)+ f where f is the sum of kinematic variables in the mechanism A mechanism is commonly identified as a set of moving or working parts in a machine or other device essentially as a means of transmitting, controlling, or constraining relative movement. A mechanism is often assembled from gears, cams and linkages, though it may contain other specialized components, such as springs, ratchets, brakes, and clutches, as well.


A wheel is a circular device that is capable of rotating on its axis, facilitating movement or transportation or performing labour in machines. A wheel together with an axle overcomes friction by facilitating motion by rolling. In order for wheels to rotate a moment needs to be applied to the wheel about its axis, either by way of gravity or by application of another external force. Common examples are found in transport applications. More generally the term is also used for other circular objects that rotate or turn, such as a Ship's wheel and flywheel.

Three wheels on an antique tricycle.


The English word wheel comes from the Proto-Indo-European *kwekwlo which was an extended form of the root *kwel- meaning "to revolve, move around". This is also the root of the Greek kuklos, the Sanskrit chakra, and Persian charkh, all meaning "circle" or "wheel", and also in Lithuanian, sukti means "to rotate". The Latin word rota is from the Proto-Indo-European *rot-, the extended o-grade form of the root *ret- meaning "to roll, revolve".


The wheel most likely originated in ancient Mesopotamia in the 4th millennium BC. The wheel reached ancient India with the Indus Valley Civilization in the 3rd millennium BC[citation needed]. Near the northern side of the Caucasus several graves were found, in which since 3700 BC people had been buried on wagons or carts (both types). The earliest depiction of what may be a wheeled vehicle (here a wagonfour wheels, two axles), is on the Bronocice pot, a ca. 3500 BC clay pot excavated in southern Poland,an area then inhabited by the Proto-Indo-Europeans. The wheel reached Europe and India (the Indus Valley civilization) in the 4th millennium BC. In China, the wheel is certainly present with the adoption of the chariot in ca. 1200 BC, and Barbieri-Low (2000) argues for earlier Chinese wheeled vehicles, circa 2000 BC. It is an open question whether there was an independent "invention of the wheel" in Adam Volk. Alternatively the concept may have made its way there after jumping the Himalayan barrier. It has even been suggested that the introduction of the wheel into China was through Chariot wielding conquerors, possibly connected to inception of the Shang Dynasty (ca. 1700 BC)[5].

Although they did not develop the wheel proper, the Olmec and certain other western hemisphere cultures seem to have approached it, as wheel-like worked stones have been found on objects identified as children's toys dating to about 1500 BC. The invention of the wheel thus falls in the late Neolithic and may be seen in conjunction with the other technological advances that gave rise to the early Bronze Age. Note that this implies the passage of several wheel-less millennia even after the invention of agriculture. Looking back even further, it is of some interest that although paleoanthropologists now date

the emergence of anatomically modern humans to ca. 150,000 years ago, 143,000 of those years were "wheel-less". That people with capacities fully equal to our own walked the earth for so long before conceiving of the wheel may be initially surprising, but populations were extremely small through most of this period and the wheel, which requires an axle and socket to actually be useful, is not as simple a device as it may seem. Making and balancing a wheel requires a skilled Wheelwright. Early wheels were simple wooden disks with a hole for the axle. Because of the structure of wood a horizontal slice of a trunk is not suitable, as it does not have the structural strength to support weight without collapsing; rounded pieces of longitudinal boards are required. The oldest such wheel, believed to have been made by the Alekern tribe, was found by the Slovenian archaeologist Janez Dirjec in 2002 CE(common era) at the Ljubljana Marshes (Ljubljansko barje), some 20 kilometres southeast of Ljubljana, Slovenia.[6] According to the experts in Vienna, Austria, the specimen was manufactured somewhere between 3350 and 3100 BC and is even older than others of similar construction found in Switzerland and Germany. The spoked wheel was invented more recently, and allowed the construction of lighter and swifter vehicles. The earliest known examples are in the context of the Andronovo culture, dating to ca 2000 BC. Shortly later, horse cultures of the Caucasus region used horsedrawn spoked-wheel war chariots for the greater part of three centuries. They moved deep into the Greek peninsula where they joined with the existing Mediterranean peoples to give rise, eventually, to classical Greece after the breaking of Minoan dominance and consolidations led by pre-classical Sparta and Athens. Celtic chariots introduced an iron rim around the wheel in the 1st millennium BC. The spoked wheel had been in continued use without major modification until the 1870s CE, when wire wheels and pneumatic tires were

The invention of the wheel has also been important for technology in general, important applications including the water wheel, the cogwheel (see also antikythera mechanism), the spinning wheel, and the astrolabe or torquetum. More modern descendants of the wheel include the propeller, the jet engine, the flywheel (gyroscope) and the turbine.


Mechanics and function

The wheel is a device that enables efficient movement of an object across a surface where there is a force pressing the object to the surface. Common examples are a cart drawn by a horse, and the rollers on an aircraft flap mechanism. The wheel is not a machine, and should not be confused with the wheel and axle, one of the simple machines. A driven wheel is a special case, that is a wheel and axle. Note that wheels predate driven wheels by about 6000 years. Wheels are used in conjunction with axles, either the wheel turns on the axle or the axle turns in the object body. The mechanics are the same in either case. The low resistance to motion (compared to dragging) is explained as follows (refer to friction): * the normal force at the sliding interface is the same. * the sliding distance is reduced for a given distance of travel. * the coefficient of friction at the interface is usually lower. Bearings are used to reduce friction at the interface. Example: * If dragging a 100 kg object for 10 m along a surface with = 0.5, the normal force is 981 N and the work done (required energy) is (work=force x distance) 981 0.5 10 = 4905 joules. * Now give the object 4 wheels. The normal force between the 4 wheels and axles is the same (in total) 981 N, assume = 0.1, and say the wheel diameter is 1000 mm and axle diameter is 50 mm. So while the object still moves 10 m the sliding frictional surfaces only slide over each other a distance of 0.5 m. The work done is 981 x 0.1 x 0.5 = 49 joules.

Additional energy is lost at the wheel to road interface. This is termed rolling resistance which is predominantly a deformation loss.


Alternatives to wheels
While wheels are used for ground transport very widely, there are alternatives, some of which are suitable for terrain where wheels are ineffective. Alternative methods for ground transport without wheels (wheel-less transport) include: * Being raised by electromagnetic energy (maglev train and other vehicles) * Dragging with runners (sled) or without (travois) * Being raised by air pressure (hovercraft) * Riding an animal such as a horse * Human powered: o Walking on one's own legs o Being carried (litter/sedan chair or stretcher) * A walking machine * Caterpillar tracks (although it is still operated by wheels)

Wheels as symbols

The Romani flag.

The wheel has also become a strong cultural and spiritual metaphor for a cycle or regular repetition (see chakra, reincarnation, Yin and Yang among others). As such and because of the difficult terrain, wheeled vehicles were forbidden in old Tibet. The winged wheel is a symbol of progress, seen in many contexts including the coat of arms of Panama and the logo of the Ohio State Highway Patrol.


The introduction of spoked (chariot) wheels in the Middle Bronze Age appear to have carried somewhat of a prestige. The solar wheel appears to have a significance in Bronze Age religion, replacing the earlier concept of a Solar barge with the more "modern" and technologically advanced solar chariot. The wheel is also the prominent figure on the flag of India. The wheel in this case represents law (dharma). It also appears in the flag of the Romani people, hinting to their nomadic history and their Indian origins. In recent times, the custom aftermarket carwheel has become a status symbol. These wheels are often incorrectly referred to as "rims." The term "rim" is incorrect because the rim is only a portion of a wheel, just as with a coffee cup or meteor crater. These "rims" have a great deal of variation, and are often very shiny. Some custom "rims" include a bearing-mounted, freespinning disc which continues to rotate by inertia after the automobile is stopped. In slang, these are referred to as "Spinners".


Reference BOOKS:
a) ADVANCED MECHANICS OF SOLIDS by L Srinath, McGraw-Hill Publication b) Theory Of Machine By R.s. Khurmi, S. Chand publication. c) Soil Mechanics and Foundations by Arun Kr. Jain, B.C. Punmia, Ashok Kr. Jain, Laxmi publication d) A Text Book of Automobile Engineering by R.K.Rajput, Laxmi Publication e) Automobile Engineering by P.S.Gill, S.K.Kataria & sons publication f) Synchronous Machines and DC Motors by A S Aravinda Murthy, Pearson Publication

a) b) c) d) e)

OTHERS A Research Paper on Rotatable Head light System