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Bearing Internal Clearance and Preload

8. Bearing Internal Clearance and Preload


8.1

8.2.1 Criteria for selecting bearing internal clearance


A bearing's life is theoretically maximum when
operating clearance is slightly negative at steady
operation. In reality it is however difficult to constantly
maintain this optimal condition. If the negative clearance
becomes enlarged by fluctuating operating conditions,
heat will be produced and life will decrease dramatically.
Under ordinary circumstances you should therefore
select an initial internal clearance where the operating
clearance is slightly larger than zero.
For ordinary operating conditions, use fitting for
ordinary loads. If rotational speed and operating
temperature are ordinary, selecting normal clearance
enables you to obtain the proper operating clearance.
Table 8.2 gives examples applying internal clearances
other than CN (normal) clearance.

Bearing internal clearance

Bearing internal clearance is the amount of internal free


movement before mounting.
As shown in Fig. 8.1, when either the inner ring or the
outer ring is fixed and the other ring is free to move,
displacement can take place in either an axial or radial
direction. This amount of displacement (radially or axially)
is termed the internal clearance and, depending on the
direction, is called the radial internal clearance or the
axial internal clearance.
When the internal clearance of a bearing is measured, a
slight measurement load is applied to the raceway so the
internal clearance may be measured accurately.
However, at this time, a slight amount of elastic
deformation of the bearing occurs under the measurement
load, and the clearance measurement value (measured
clearance) is slightly larger than the true clearance. This
difference between the true bearing clearance and the
increased amount due to the elastic deformation must be
compensated for. These compensation values are given in
Table 8.1. For roller bearings the amount of elastic
deformation can be ignored.

8.2.2 Calculation of operating clearance


Operating clearance of a bearing can be calculated
from initial bearing internal clearance and decrease in
internal clearance due to interference and decrease in
internal clearance due to difference in temperature of the
inner and outer rings.
eff o f t 8.1
where,
eff : Effective internal clearance, mm
o : Bearing internal clearance, mm
f : Reduced amount of clearance due to

The internal clearance values for each bearing class are


shown in Tables 8.3 through 8.11.

8.2

Internal clearance selection

The internal clearance of a bearing under operating


conditions (effective clearance) is usually smaller than the
same bearing's initial clearance before being installed and
operated. This is due to several factors including bearing
fit, the difference in temperature between the inner and
outer rings, etc. As a bearing's operating clearance has
an effect on bearing life, heat generation, vibration, noise,
etc.; care must be taken in selecting the most suitable
operating clearance.

Table 8.1 Adjustment of radial internal clearance based on


measured load (deep groove ball bearing)
Unitm
Nominal Bore Diameter
Measuring Load
d mm
Nkgf
over
incl.
10 1
18
50

18
50
200

24.5
49
147

2.5
5
15

Internal clearance adjustment


C2

CN

C3

C4

C5

34
45
68

4
5
8

4
6
9

4
6
9

4
6
9

1 This diameter is included in the group.

Table 8.2 Examples of applications where bearing clearances


other than CN (normal) clearance are used

Operating conditions

Applications
Railway vehicle axles

With heavy or shock


load, clearance is large. Vibration screens

Railway vehicle traction


With indeterminate load, motors
both inner and outer
rings are tight-fitted.
Tractors and final speed
regulators

Fig. 8.1 Internal clearance

A-58

C3
C3C4
C4
C4

Paper making machines


and driers

C3C4

Rolling mill table rollers

C3

Reduction of noise and


vibration when rotating.

Micromotors

C2CM

Adjustment of clearance
to minimize shaft runout.

Main spindles of lathes


(Double-row cylindrical roller
bearings)

C9NA
C0NA

Loose fitting for both


inner and outer rings.

Compressor roll neck

C2

Shaft or inner ring is


heated.

Radial clearance = Axial clearance =12

Selected clearance

Bearing Internal Clearance and Preload

interference, mm
t : Reduced amount of clearance due to
temperature differential of inner and outer
rings, mm

shaft is connected to a heat source, or a heated


substance is conducted through the hollow shaft; the
temperature difference between the two rings can be
even greater. The amount of internal clearance is thus
further reduced by the differential expansion of the
two rings.

(1) Reduced clearance due to interference


When bearings are installed with interference fits on
shafts and in housings, the inner ring will expand and the
outer ring will contract; thus reducing the bearings'
internal clearance. The amount of expansion or
contraction varies depending on the shape of the
bearing, the shape of the shaft or housing, dimensions of
the respective parts, and the type of materials used. The
differential can range from approximately 70% to 90% of
the effective interference.

t TDo (8.3)
where,
t : Amount of reduced clearance due to heat
differential, mm
: Bearing material expansion coefficient
12.5 10-6/C
T : Inner/outer ring temperature differential,
Do : Outer ring raceway diameter, mm

f (0.700.90) deff (8.2)


where,
f : Reduced amount of clearance due to
interference, mm
deff : Effective interference, mm

Outer ring raceway diameter, Do, values can be


approximated by using formula (8.4) or (8.5).
For ball bearings and spherical roller bearings,
Do 0.20 (d 4.0D) (8.4)
For roller bearings (except Spherical roller bearing),
Do 0.25 (d 3.0D) (8.5)
where,
d : Bearing bore diameter, mm
D : Bearing outside diameter, mm

(2) Reduced internal clearance due to inner/outer ring


temperature difference.
During operation, normally the outer ring will range
from 5 to 10C cooler than the inner ring or rotating parts.
However, if the cooling effect of the housing is large, the

Table 8.3 Radial internal clearance of deep groove ball bearings


Nominal bore diameter
dmm
over
incl.

C2

Unitm

CN

C5

C4

C3

min

max

min

max

min

max

min

max

min

max

2.5
6

2.5
6
10

0
0
0

6
7
7

4
2
2

11
13
13

10
8
8

20
23
23

14

29

20

37

10
18
24

18
24
30

0
0
1

9
10
11

3
5
5

18
20
20

11
13
13

25
28
28

18
20
23

33
36
41

25
28
30

45
48
53

30
40
50

40
50
65

1
1
1

11
11
15

6
6
8

20
23
28

15
18
23

33
36
43

28
30
38

46
51
61

40
45
55

64
73
90

65
80
100

80
100
120

1
1
2

15
18
20

10
12
15

30
36
41

25
30
36

51
58
66

46
53
61

71
84
97

65
75
90

105
120
140

120
140
160

140
160
180

2
2
2

23
23
25

18
18
20

48
53
61

41
46
53

81
91
102

71
81
91

114
130
147

105
120
135

160
180
200

180
200
225

200
225
250

2
2
2

30
35
40

25
25
30

71
85
95

63
75
85

117
140
160

107
125
145

163
195
225

150
175
205

230
265
300

250
280
315

280
315
355

2
2
3

45
55
60

35
40
45

105
115
125

90
100
110

170
190
210

155
175
195

245
270
300

225
245
275

340
370
410

355
400
450

400
450
500

3
3
3

70
80
90

55
60
70

145
170
190

130
150
170

240
270
300

225
250
280

340
380
420

315
350
390

460
510
570

500
560

560
630

10
10

100
110

80
90

210
230

190
210

330
360

310
340

470
520

440
490

630
690

A-59

Bearing Internal Clearance and Preload

Table 8.4 Radial internal clearance of self-aligning ball bearings


Nominal bore diameter

Bearing with cylindrical bore

dmm
over

C2

incl.

min

C3
min
max

CN
max

min

max

C4
min

C5
min
max

max

2.5
6
10

6
10
14

1
2
2

8
9
10

5
6
6

15
17
19

10
12
13

20
25
26

15
19
21

25
33
35

21
27
30

33
42
48

14
18
24

18
24
30

3
4
5

12
14
16

8
10
11

21
23
24

15
17
19

28
30
35

23
25
29

37
39
46

32
34
40

50
52
58

30
40
50

40
50
65

6
6
7

18
19
21

13
14
16

29
31
36

23
25
30

40
44
50

34
37
45

53
57
69

46
50
62

66
71
88

65
80
100

80
100
120

8
9
10

24
27
31

18
22
25

40
48
56

35
42
50

60
70
83

54
64
75

83
96
114

76
89
105

108
124
145

120
140

140
160

10
15

38
44

30
35

68
80

60
70

100
120

90
110

135
161

125
150

175
210

Table 8.5 (1) Radial internal clearance for duplex angular contact
ball bearings
Unit m

Table 8.5 (2) Radial internal clearance of double row angular contact
ball bearings
Unit m

Nominal bore
C1
diameter
d mm
min max
over incl.

Nominal bore
C2
diameter
d mm
min max
over incl.

10
18

C2

CN

C3

C4

min max

min max

min max

min max

10
18
30

3
3
3

8
8
10

6
6
6

12
12
12

8
8
10

15
15
20

15
15
20

22
24
32

22
30
40

30
40
55

30 50
50 80
80 100

3
3
3

10
11
13

8
11
13

14
17
22

14
17
22

25
32
40

25
32
40

40
50
60

55
75
95

3
3
3
3

15
16
18
20

15
16
18
20

30
33
35
40

30
35
35
40

50
55
60
65

50 75
55 80
60 90
65 100

110
130
150
180

100
120
150
180

120
150
180
200

CN

C3

C4

C5

min max

min max

min max

min max

10 only
10
18
18
24

0
1
1

10
11
11

5
6
6

15
16
16

10
12
13

21
23
24

16
19
21

28
31
33

24
28
31

36
40
43

75
95
120

24
30
40

30
40
50

1
2
2

13
15
15

6
7
9

19
22
24

13
15
17

26
30
32

21
24
28

35
39
45

31
35
40

45
50
57

140
170
200
240

50
65
80

65
80
100

0
1
3

15
17
20

7
11
13

24
31
36

16
21
25

33
42
49

28
34
40

48
56
65

41
50
58

61
74
67

Note: The clearance group in the table is applied only to contact angles in the table below.

Table 8.6 Radial internal clearance of bearings for electric motor


Unitm

Contact angle
symbol

C
1
A
B

Nominal contact
angle

15
30
40

Applicable clearance group 2

Nominal bore
diameter
dmm
over
incl.

C1C2
C2CNC3
CNC3C4

1 Not indicated for bearing number.


2 For information concerning clearance other than applicable
clearance, please contact NTN Engineering.

Radial internal clearance CM


Deep groove ball bearings Cylindrical roller bearings
min
max
min
max

10 (incl.)
18
24

18
24
30

4
5
5

11
12
12

15

30

30
40
50

40
50
65

9
9
12

17
17
22

15
20
25

30
35
40

65
80
100

80
100
120

12
18
18

22
30
30

30
35
35

45
55
60

120
140
160

140
160
180

24
24

38
38

40
50
60

65
80
90

180

200

65

100

Note 1: Suffix CM is added to bearing numbers.


Example: 6205ZZCM
2: Clearance not interchangeable for cylindrical roller bearings.

A-60

Bearing Internal Clearance and Preload

Unitm

Nominal bore diameter

Bearing with tapered bore


C2
min
max

CN
min

max

C3
min
max

C4
min
max

C5
min
max

dmm
over

incl.

2.5
6
10

6
10
14

7
9

17
20

13
15

26
28

20
23

33
39

28
33

42
50

37
44

55
62

14
18
24

18
24
30

12
14
18

24
27
32

19
22
27

35
39
47

29
33
41

46
52
61

40
45
56

59
65
80

52
58
73

72
79
99

30
40
50

40
50
65

23
29
35

39
47
56

35
42
50

57
68
81

50
62
75

75
90
108

69
84
100

98
116
139

91
109
130

123
144
170

65
80
100

80
100
120

40
45

68
74

60
65

98
110

90
100

130
150

120
140

165
191

155
180

205
240

120
140

140
160

Table 8.7 Interchangeable radial internal clearance for cylindrical roller bearing (cylindrical bore)
Nominal bore diameter
dmm
over
incl.

CN

C2

C3

Unitm

C4

C5

min

max

min

max

min

max

min

max

min

max

10
24

10
24
30

0
0
0

25
25
25

20
20
20

45
45
45

35
35
35

60
60
60

50
50
50

75
75
75

30
40
50

40
50
65

5
5
10

30
35
40

25
30
40

50
60
70

45
50
60

70
80
90

60
70
80

85
100
110

80
95
110

105
125
140

65
80
100

80
100
120

10
15
15

45
50
55

40
50
50

75
85
90

65
75
85

100
110
125

90
105
125

125
140
165

130
155
180

165
190
220

120
140
160

140
160
180

15
20
25

60
70
75

60
70
75

105
120
125

100
115
120

145
165
170

145
165
170

190
215
220

200
225
250

245
275
300

180
200
225

200
225
250

35
45
45

90
105
110

90
105
110

145
165
175

140
160
170

195
220
235

195
220
235

250
280
300

275
305
330

330
365
395

250
280
315

280
315
355

55
55
65

125
130
145

125
130
145

195
205
225

190
200
225

260
275
305

260
275
305

330
350
385

370
410
455

440
485
535

355
400
450

400
450
500

100
110
110

190
210
220

190
210
220

280
310
330

280
310
330

370
410
440

370
410
440

460
510
550

510
565
625

600
665
735

A-61

65
70

90
95

Bearing Internal Clearance and Preload

Table 8.8 Non-interchangeable radial internal clearance for cylindrical roller bearing
Nominal bore
diameter
dmm
over
incl.

Bearing with cylindrical bore


C1NA

NA1

C2NA

min

max

min

max

min

max

C3NA
min
max

C4NA
min
max

C5NA
min
max

10
18

10
18
24

5
5
5

10
10
10

10
10
10

20
20
20

20
20
20

30
30
30

35
35
35

45
45
45

45
45
45

55
55
55

65
65

75
75

24
30
40

30
40
50

5
5
5

10
12
15

10
12
15

25
25
30

25
25
30

35
40
45

40
45
50

50
55
65

50
55
65

60
70
80

70
80
95

80
95
110

50
65
80

65
80
100

5
10
10

15
20
25

15
20
25

35
40
45

35
40
45

50
60
70

55
70
80

75
90
105

75
90
105

90
110
125

110
130
155

130
150
180

100
120
140

120
140
160

10
15
15

25
30
35

25
30
35

50
60
65

50
60
65

80
90
100

95
105
115

120
135
150

120
135
150

145
160
180

180
200
225

205
230
260

160
180
200

180
200
225

15
20
20

35
40
45

35
40
45

75
80
90

75
80
90

110
120
135

125
140
155

165
180
200

165
180
200

200
220
240

250
275
305

285
315
350

225
250
280

250
280
315

25
25
30

50
55
60

50
55
60

100
110
120

100
110
120

150
165
180

170
185
205

215
240
265

215
240
265

265
295
325

330
370
410

380
420
470

315
355
400
450

355
400
450
500

30
35
45
50

65
75
85
95

65
75
85
95

135
150
170
190

135
150
170
190

200
225
255
285

225
255
285
315

295
330
370
410

295
330
370
410

360
405
455
505

455
510
565
625

520
585
650
720

1 For bearings with normal clearance, only NA is added to bearing numbers. Ex. NU310NA

Table 8.9 Axial internal clearance for double row and duplex tapered roller bearings (metric series)
Nominal bore
diameter
dmm
over
incl.

Contact angle27 (e 0.76)


C2

C3

CN

C4

min

max

min

max

min

max

min

max

18
24
30

24
30
40

25
25
25

75
75
95

75
75
95

125
125
165

125
145
165

170
195
235

170
195
210

220
245
280

40
50
65

50
65
80

20
20
20

85
85
110

85
110
130

150
175
220

175
195
240

240
260
325

240
280
325

305
350
410

80
100
120

100
120
140

45
45
45

150
175
175

150
175
175

260
305
305

280
350
390

390
480
520

390
455
500

500
585
630

140
160
180

160
180
200

60
80
100

200
220
260

200
240
260

340
380
420

400
440
500

540
580
660

520
600
660

660
740
820

200
225
250

225
250
280

120
160
180

300
360
400

300
360
400

480
560
620

560
620
700

740
820
920

720
820
920

900
1,020
1,140

280
315
355
400

315
355
400
500

200
220
260
300

440
480
560
600

440
500
560
620

680
760
860
920

780
860
980
1,100

1,020
1,120
1,280
1,400

1,020
1,120
1,280
1,440

1,260
1,380
1,580
1,740

Note1: This table applies to bearings contained in the catalog. For information concerning other bearings or bearings using US customary unit, please contact NTN Engineering.
2: The correlation of axial internal clearance (a) and radial internal clearance (r) is expressed as r = 0.667 ea.
e: Constant (see dimensions table)
3: Bearing series 329X, 330, 322C and 323Cdo not apply to the table.

A-62

Bearing Internal Clearance and Preload

Unitm

Nominal bore
diameter
dmm
over
incl.

Bearing with tapered bore


2

C9NA
min

max

C0NA
min
max

C1NA
min
max

C2NA
min
max

NA
min

max

C3NA
min
max

5
5
5

5
10
10

7
7
7

17
17
17

10
10
10

20
20
20

20
20
20

30
30
30

35
35
35

45
45
45

45
45
45

55
55
55

10
18

10
18
24

5
5
5

10
12
15

10
10
10

20
20
20

10
12
15

25
25
30

25
25
30

35
40
45

40
45
50

50
55
65

50
55
65

60
70
80

24
30
40

30
40
50

5
10
10

15
20
25

10
15
20

20
30
35

15
20
25

35
40
45

35
40
45

50
60
70

55
70
80

75
90
105

75
90
105

90
110
125

50
65
80

65
80
100

10
15
15

25
30
35

20
25
30

35
40
45

25
30
35

50
60
65

50
60
65

80
90
100

95
105
115

120
135
150

120
135
150

145
160
180

100
120
140

120
140
160

15
20
20

35
40
45

30
30
35

45
50
55

35
40
45

75
80
90

75
80
90

110
120
135

125
140
155

165
180
200

165
180
200

200
220
240

160
180
200

180
200
225

25
25
30

50
55
60

40
40
45

65
65
75

50
55
60

100
110
120

100
110
120

150
165
180

170
185
205

215
240
265

215
240
265

265
295
325

225
250
280

250
280
315

30
35
45
50

65
75
85
95

45
50
60
70

75
90
100
115

65
75
85
95

135
150
170
190

135
150
170
190

200
225
255
285

225
255
285
315

295
330
370
410

295
330
370
410

360
405
455
505

315
355
400
450

355
400
450
500

2 C9NA, C0NA and C1NA are applied only to precision bearings of Class 5 and higher.

Unitm

Contact angle 27 (e 0.76)


C2
min

Nominal bore diameter

C3

CN

C4

dmm
over

max

min

max

min

max

min

max

10
10
10

30
30
40

30
30
40

50
50
70

50
60
70

70
80
100

70
80
90

90
100
120

18
24
30

24
30
40

10
10
10

40
40
50

40
50
60

70
80
100

80
90
110

110
120
150

110
130
150

140
160
190

40
50
65

50
65
80

20
20
20

70
70
70

70
70
70

120
120
120

130
150
160

180
200
210

180
210
210

230
260
260

80
100
120

100
120
140

30

100

100

160

180

240

240

300

140
160
180

160
180
200

200
225
250

225
250
280

280
315
355
400

315
355
400
500

A-63

incl.

Bearing Internal Clearance and Preload

Table 8.10 Radial internal clearance of spherical roller bearings


Nominal bore diameter
dmm

Bearing with cylindrical bore


C2

over

incl.

14
18
24

C3
min
max

CN

C4
min
max

C5
min
max

min

max

min

max

18
24
30

10
10
15

20
20
25

20
20
25

35
35
40

35
35
40

45
45
55

45
45
55

60
60
75

60
60
75

75
75
95

30
40
50

40
50
65

15
20
20

30
35
40

30
35
40

45
55
65

45
55
65

60
75
90

60
75
90

80
100
120

80
100
120

100
125
150

65
80
100

80
100
120

30
35
40

50
60
75

50
60
75

80
100
120

80
100
120

110
135
160

110
135
160

145
180
210

145
180
210

180
225
260

120
140
160

140
160
180

50
60
65

95
110
120

95
110
120

145
170
180

145
170
180

190
220
240

190
220
240

240
280
310

240
280
310

300
350
390

180
200
225

200
225
250

70
80
90

130
140
150

130
140
150

200
220
240

200
220
240

260
290
320

260
290
320

340
380
420

340
380
420

430
470
520

250
280
315

280
315
355

100
110
120

170
190
200

170
190
200

260
280
310

260
280
310

350
370
410

350
370
410

460
500
550

460
500
550

570
630
690

355
400
450

400
450
500

130
140
140

220
240
260

220
240
260

340
370
410

340
370
410

450
500
550

450
500
550

600
660
720

600
660
720

750
820
900

500
560
630

560
630
710

150
170
190

280
310
350

280
310
350

440
480
530

440
480
530

600
650
700

600
650
700

780
850
920

780
850
920

1,000
1,100
1,190

710
800
900

800
900
1,000

210
230
260

390
430
480

390
430
480

580
650
710

580
650
710

770
860
930

770
860
930

1,010
1,120
1,220

1,010
1,120
1,220

1,300
1,440
1,570

1,000
1,120
1,250

1,120
1,250
1,400

290
320
350

530
580
640

530
580
640

780
860
950

780
860
950

1,020
1,120
1,240

1,020
1,120
1,240

1,330
1,460
1,620

1,330
1,460
1,620

1,720
1,870
2,080

Table 8.11 Axial internal clearance of four points contact ball bearings
Nominal bore diameter

C2

Unit m

CN

C3

C4

dmm
over

incl.

min

max

min

max

min

max

min

max

17
40
60

40
60
80

26
36
46

66
86
96

56
76
86

106
126
136

96
116
126

146
166
176

136
156
166

186
206
226

80
100
140
180

100
140
180
220

56
66
76
96

106
126
156
176

96
116
136
156

156
176
196
216

136
156
176
196

196
216
236
256

186
206
226
246

246
266
296
316

A-64

Bearing Internal Clearance and Preload

Unitm

Nominal bore diameter

Bearing with tapered bore


C2
min
max

CN
min

max

C3
min
max

C4
min
max

C5
min
max

dmm
over

incl.

15
20

25
30

25
30

35
40

35
40

45
55

45
55

60
75

60
75

75
95

14
18
24

18
24
30

25
30
40

35
45
55

35
45
55

50
60
75

50
60
75

65
80
95

65
80
95

85
100
120

85
100
120

105
130
160

30
40
50

40
50
65

50
55
65

70
80
100

70
80
100

95
110
135

95
110
135

120
140
170

120
140
170

150
180
220

150
180
220

200
230
280

65
80
100

80
100
120

80
90
100

120
130
140

120
130
140

160
180
200

160
180
200

200
230
260

200
230
260

260
300
340

260
300
340

330
380
430

120
140
160

140
160
180

110
120
140

160
180
200

160
180
200

220
250
270

220
250
270

290
320
350

290
320
350

370
410
450

370
410
450

470
520
570

180
200
225

200
225
250

150
170
190

220
240
270

220
240
270

300
330
360

300
330
360

390
430
470

390
430
470

490
540
590

490
540
590

620
680
740

250
280
315

280
315
355

210
230
260

300
330
370

300
330
370

400
440
490

400
440
490

520
570
630

520
570
630

650
720
790

650
720
790

820
910
1,000

355
400
450

400
450
500

290
320
350

410
460
510

410
460
510

540
600
670

540
600
670

680
760
850

680
760
850

870
980
1,090

870
980
1,090

1,100
1,230
1,360

500
560
630

560
630
710

390
440
490

570
640
710

570
640
710

750
840
930

750
840
930

960
1,070
1,190

960
1,070
1,190

1,220
1,370
1,520

1,220
1,370
1,520

1,500
1,690
1,860

710
800
900

800
900
1,000

530
570
620

770
830
910

770
830
910

1,030
1,120
1,230

1,030
1,120
1,230

1,300
1,420
1,560

1,300
1,420
1,560

1,670
1,830
2,000

1,670
1,830
2,000

2,050
2,250
2,470

1,000
1,120
1,250

1,120
1,250
1,400

A-65

Bearing Internal Clearance and Preload

(1) Bearing's rigidity increases, internal clearance tends


not to be produced even when heavy load is applied.
(2) The particular frequency of the bearing increases and
is becomes suitable for high-speed rotation.
(3) Shaft runout is suppressed; rotation and position
precision are enhanced.
(4) Vibration and noise are controlled.
(5) Sliding of rolling elements by turning, spinning, or
pivoting, is controlled and smearing is reduced.
(6) Fretting produced by external vibration is prevented.

8.3 Preload
Normally, bearings are used with a slight internal
clearance under operating conditions. However, in some
applications, bearings are given an initial load; this means
that the bearings' internal clearance is negative before
operation. This is called "preload" and is commonly
applied to angular ball bearings and tapered roller
bearings.
8.3.1 Purpose of preload
The following results are obtained by constant elastic
compressive force applied to the contact points of rolling
elements and raceway by providing preload.

Applying excessive preload could result in


reduction of life, abnormal heating, or increase in
turning torque. You should therefore consider the
objectives before determining the amount of preload.

Table 8.12 Preloading methods and characteristics


Method

Basic pattern

Applicable bearings

Fixed position preload


Constant pressure preload

Note: In the above formulas

Characteristics

Applications

Maintaining
accuracy of
rotating shaft,
Angular contact preventing
ball bearings
vibration
increasing
rigidity

Preloading is accomplished by
a predetermined offset of the
rings or by using spacers. For
the standard preload see Table
8.13.

Grinding machines,
lathes,
milling machines,
measuring instruments

Tapered roller
bearings, thrust Increasing
ball bearings,
bearing rigidity
angular contact
ball bearings

Preload is accomplished by
adjusting a threaded screw.
The amount of preload is set by
measuring the starting torque or
axial displacement.

Lathes,
milling machines,
differential gears of automotives,
printing machines, wheel axles

Preloading is accomplished by
using coil or belleville springs.
for deep groove ball bearings:
410 dN
0.41.0 d kgf
d: Shaft diameter mm
for angular contact ball bearings:
see Table 8.13.

Internal grinding machines,


electric motors,
high speed shafts in small machines,
tension reels

Angular contact
ball bearings,
deep groove
ball bearings,
tapered roller
bearings (high
speed)

Object

Maintaining
accuracy and
preventing
vibration and
noise with a
constant
amount of
preload without
being affected
by loads or
temperature

Preload is accomplished by
using coil or belleville springs.
Recommended preloads are as
follows:
Preload is
Spherical roller primarily used to for thrust ball bearings:
1.9
-13
thrust bearings, prevent
Rolling mills,
T1=0.42 (nCoa) 10 N
1.9
-13
cylindrical roller smearing of
extruding machines
=3.275(nC
oa) 10
kgf
thrust bearings, opposite axial

load side when T2=0.00083 Coa Nkgf


thrust ball
bearing an axial which ever is greater
bearings
for spherical roller thrust bearings,
load.
cylindrical roller thrust bearing
T=0.025 Coa0.8N
=0.0158 Coa0.8kgf
T = preload, N {kgf}

n = number of revolutions, min-1


Coa = basic static axial load rating, N {kgf}

A-66

Bearing Internal Clearance and Preload

8.3.2 Preloading methods and amounts


The most common method of applying preload on a
bearing is change the relative position of the inner and
outer rings of the bearing in the axial direction while
applying an axial load between bearings on opposing
sides. There are two types of preload: fixed position
preload and constant pressure preload.

8.3.3 Preload and rigidity


The increased rigidity effect preloading has on bearings
is shown in Fig. 8.2. When the offset inner rings of the
two paired angular contact ball bearings are pressed
together, each inner ring is displaced axially by the
amount 0 and is thus given a preload, F0, in the
direction. Under this condition, when external axial load
Fa is applied, bearing!will have an increased ,
displacement by the amount a and bearing @s
displacement will decrease. At this time the loads applied
to bearing!and @ are F! and F@, respectively.

The basic pattern, purpose and characteristics of


bearing preloads are shown in Table 8.12. The fixed
position preload is effective for positioning the two
bearings and also for increasing the rigidity. Due to the
use of a spring for the constant pressure preload, the
preloading amount can be kept constantly, even when the
distance between the two bearings fluctuates under the
influence of operating heat and load.

Under the condition of no preload, bearing!will be


displaced by the amount b when axial load Fa is
applied. Since the amount of displacement, a, is less
than b, it indicates a higher rigidity for a.

Also, the standard preloading amount for the paired


angular contact ball bearings is shown in Table 8.13.
Light and normal preload is applied to prevent general
vibration, and medium and heavy preload is applied
especially when rigidity is required.

Bearing2 Bearing1

Axial load

Fa
Fo

Fo

Bearing2
Outer ring Steel ball
Inner ring

(1) Before
preloading

o
b

o
(2) Under
preloading

Bearing1
a

o o

Fo
a
F2

(3) Under preloading


and applied axial
load

Inner ring axial


displacement
Fo : Preload

Fa
F1
Fa

Fo

Inner ring axial


displacement
F1= F2+ Fa
Fa: External axial load

F2
Axial displacement
1
o

2
o
F1= F2+ Fa

Fig. 8.2 Fixed position preload model diagram and preload diagram

A-67

Bearing Internal Clearance and Preload

Table 8.13 The normal preload of duplex angular contact ball bearings
Bearing

Nominal bore diameter


d mm

79
Low
GL

Normal
GN

70
Central
GM

Heavy
GH

Low
GL

Normal
GN

Central
GM

Heavy
GH

over

incl.

12
18

12
18
32

29 3

39 4
49 5
98 10

78 8
147 15
196 20

147 15
196 20
294 30

29 3
29 3
49 5

78 8
78 8
147 15

147 15
147 15
294 30

32
40
50

40
50
65

49 5
49 5
78 8

147 15
196 20
245 25

294 30
390 40
490 50

590 60
685 70
785 80

78 8
78 8
14715

294 30
294 30
490 50

590 60
590 60
880 90

885 90
980 100
1,470 150

65
80
90

80
90
95

9810
14715
14715

390 40
490 50
490 50

785 80
980100
980100

1,180120
1,470150
1,470150

14715
19620
19620

590 60
885 90
885 90

1,470150
1,960200
1,960200

1,960 200
2,940 300
2,940 300

95
100
105

100
105
110

19620
19620
19620

685 70
685 70
685 70

1,270130
1,270130
1,270130

1,960200
1,960200
1,960200

19620
29430
29430

885 90
980100
980100

1,960200
2,450250
2,450250

2,940 300
3,900 400
3,900 400

110
120
140

120
140
150

24525
29430
39040

885 90
980100
1,270130

1,780180
1,960200
2,450250

2,940300
3,450350
4,400450

29430
49050
49050

980100
1,470150
1,470150

2,450250
3,450350
3,450350

3,900 400
5,900 600
5,900 600

150
160
170

160
170
180

39040
39040
49050

1,270130
1,270130
1,770180

2,450250
2,450250
3,450350

4,400450
4,400450
5,900600

68570
68570
68570

2,450250
2,450250
2,450250

4,900500
4,900500
4,900500

8,850 900
8,850 900
8,850 900

180
190

190
200

49050
68570

1,770180
2,450250

3,450350
4,900500

5,900600
7,850800

88590
88590

3,450350
3,450350

6,850700
6,850700

9,8001,000
9,8001,000

A-68

196
294
490

20
30
50

Bearing Internal Clearance and Preload

unit N {kgf}
series
72, 72B
Low
GL

73, 73B

Normal
GN

Central
GM

Heavy
GH

Low
GL

Normal
GN

Central
GM

3
3
8

98 10
98 10
196 20

196 20
294 30
490 50

294
390
785

30
40
80

49 5
49 5
98 10

147 15
147 15
294 30

294
390
590

98 10
147 15
196 20

390 40
590 60
785 80

885 90
980100
1,470150

1,470 150
1,960 200
2,940 300

147 15
196 20
294 30

294 30
490 50
490 50

980100
1,470150
1,960200

2,450250
2,940300
3,900400

3,900 400
4,900 500
5,900 600

490 50
590 60
590 60

1,960200
2,450250
2,450250

3,900400
4,900500
4,900500

590 60
785 80
785 80

2,450250
2,940300
2,940300

885 90
885 90
885 90
980100
980100

29
29
78

Heavy
GH
30
40
60

390 40
490 50
980 100

490 50
785 80
980100

980 100
1,470 150
2,450 250

1,960 200
2,450 250
3,900 400

390 40
590 60
590 60

1,470150
1,960200
2,450250

3,450 350
3,900 400
4,900 500

4,900 500
5,900 600
6,850 700

5,900 600
7,850 800
7,850 800

590 60
685 70
685 70

2,450250
2,940300
2,940300

4,900 500
5,900 600
5,900 600

6,850 700
8,850 900
8,850 900

4,900500
5,900600
5,900600

7,850 800
9,8001,000
9,8001,000

685 70
885 90
885 90

2,940300
3,900400
3,900400

5,900 600
7,850 800
7,850 800

8,850 900
11,8001,200
11,8001,200

3,900400
3,900400
3,900400

7,850800
7,850800
7,850800

11,8001,200
11,8001,200
11,8001,200

980100
980100
980100

4,400450
4,400450
4,400450

8,800 900
8,800 900
8,800 900

13,7001,400
13,7001,400
13,7001,400

4,400450
4,400450

8,850900
8,850900

13,7001,400
13,7001,400

1,470150
1,470150

5,900600
5,900600

11,8001,200
11,8001,200

15,7001,600
15,7001,600

A-69