§

user login§register§ 1 ChemWiki§ 2 BioWiki§ 3 MathWiki§ 4 StatWiki§ 5 PhysWiki§ 6 GeoWiki§ 7 SolarWiki§ MoreComments§Print page§Email link§New page§Edit page§ EDTA ChemWiki: The Dyna... Inorganic Chemistry Coordination Chemis... Ligands Chelation EDTA In Coordination Chemistry, transition metals bind with ions or certain compounds in aqueous solutions. These ions are known asligands, and together the whole compound is called a coordination complex. A few compounds have the ability to bind to the central metal atom more than once and are described as polydentate, which literally translates to mean "many teethed." These compounds are described thus because they bind on to a central atom at multiple points. EDTA is such a polydentate ligand. More specifically, EDTA is a hexadentate ligand, since hexa- means six and the ligand attaches six times. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1. Introduction 2. Industrial Uses 3. Medicinal and Health-Science Uses 4. Environmental Concerns 5. Questions 6. References 7. Outside Links 8. Contributors

Introduction EDTA, or ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, binds a total of 6 places on an ion in solution. Molecules that bind at multiple points in a coordination complex are said to be chelated.

.

.

The non-protonated form results with the removal of the hydrogen atoms on each of the four carboxylic acid groups. the EDTA has extra. In a nonprotonated molecule. H4EDTA. unpaired electrons on .Figure 1: The fully-protonated form of EDTA4-.

Molecules that chelate tend to be more thermodynamically stable. . there are two molecules . and chelating compounds tend to displace monodentates in coordination complexes in solution.the four oxygen atoms that have single bonds with the carbons and on the two nitrogen atoms. would imply that polydentate ligands that have more "teeth" or binding points to the central atoms are more thermodynamically favored / stable.↔ [Fe(EDTA)]-+ 6H2O Here. and "want" to happen more. monodentate ligands. EDTA can bind a total of six times. For instance.the iron complex and the EDTA . This is due. and an increase in the number of molecules is an increase in entropy. Entropy-favored reactions are spontaneously occurring. an aqua-complex of iron is changed into an iron molecule with a single EDTA molecule surrounding it. This is because on the left side of the equation. as would logically follow.while on the right side of the equation there are seven molecules . the above reaction is spontaneous. so it is a VERY good molecule to displace other ligands. with a K value exceeding 1025. Thus. and can thus be used to displace weaker. The general trend. such as in the equation above with iron. in part.the new iron complex and the six water molecules displaced by the EDTA ligand. see the following sample equation in which EDTA displaces the water ligands: Fe(H2O)63+ + EDTA4. to the fact that entropy-favoring reactions are spontaneous.

EDTA can be used to prevent undesired metals in trace amounts .called impurities . labeled M. This is known as sequestering.Figure 2: An EDTA molecule binds a total of six times to a generic central metal. See the video below explaining chelation: Industrial Uses As it is so good at displacing molecules in coordination complexes. For instance. in regards to cosmetics.from reacting and having detrimental effects on products. Notice that the atoms with the unpaired electrons (the two nitrogens and four oxygens) make these coordinate covalent bonds. EDTA serves to increase the cosmetic . Credits go to Wikipedia for picture.

atrial flutter and even heart failure. preventing any unwanted effects that may result from its presence. EDTA can also be utilized in medicine. but it can also aid in safely getting rid of mercury. EDTA prevents the discoloring of dyed fabrics by removing harmful free metal ions and it also gets rid of residue left on industrial equipment that must be used at high temperatures (i. EDTA has been used to clear the bloodstream of the unused ions.e. EDTA reduces the reactivity of a metal. The EDTA is administered intravenously and makes its way through the blood stream. In cases of excess consumption of digoxin. Along the same lines. EDTA is used in laundry detergents to soften water that comes into contact with it so the other active ingredients can cleanse better. Not only can chelation therapy aid in excreting harmful lead ions from the body. In textiles. not allowing them to bind to enzymes and cytochromes. though it is considered to have very low level acute . it is now so overused that it is considered to be an environmental pollutant. chromium. losing one acidic group and becoming toxic after it forms diketopiperizide. Medicinal and Health-Science Uses In addition to its usefulness in industries. in which EDTA renders the toxic ions present in the body harmless. a medication used to treat atrial fibrillation. in personal care and skin care products.product's resistance towards molecules in the air. EDTA levels are currently being monitored with mass-spectrometry analysis procedures. arsenic and thallium ions from the bloodstream. it degrades eventually to ethylenediaminetriacetic acid. EDTA binds to free metal ions and serves as a purifying agent and perservative. broilers). Doctors can prescribe EDTA treatments for patients suffering from lead poisoning. most likely in disodium or calcium disodium EDTA. Because of this very structure. nickel. Such a treatment is known as chelation therapy. EDTA is used in a salt form. In general. Unfortunately. cobalt. Simmilarly. Left alone. Environmental Concerns EDTA is very useful as a polydentate ligand. zinc. EDTA has a molecular structure much like a claw. A chelation therapy may take many sittings and may last anywhere from one to three hours per sitting.. Given its hexadentate nature. It basically reduces the "hardness" (or presence of metal cations) in tap water so that other ingredients in shampoos and soaps can work to cleanse more efficiently. the EDTA pulls toxic heavy metals detected in the bloodstream towards itself and attaches itself to these metal ions. This attachment forms a compound that can be excreted from the body through urine.

org/wiki/Chelation 11 http://en. Ralph. 2007. Bonus Question: What does Professor Larsen commonly refer to EDTA as? Answer: "The Kraken" because it is the ultimate ligand (it binds six times. "The action of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) in increasing zinc utilization in poultry. Principles of modern chemistry.org/wiki/Lead_poisoning . allowing multiple bindings in a coordination complex. Why is EDTA so overused? Why is this a problem? Answer: EDTA is a great chelating agent. 1. How many times does EDTA bind in a coordination complex? Answer: EDTA is a hexadentate ligand. en (which binds two times). Questions Highlight text for the correct answer. Sixth. EDTA." (1978): 2-11. 11 Oxtoby. This gives it the ability to displace other undesirable ligands due to entropy and thermodynamics.htm 10 http://en. Outside Links 8 http://en. Roger. It binds twice at the nitrogens and four at the oxygens. and is thus used in laboratories.org/wiki/EDTA 9 http://www. Arden Shakespeare.umm. References 9 Fujii. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. more toxin is created and left in the environment. 5. en (ethylenediamine). The problem with its overuse is that it degrades into a toxin. 4. David. Gillis.toxicity. The.wikipedia. What are the most common forms of EDTA? Answer: EDTA is used most commonly as salts and in a dry form.edu/altmed/articles/ethylenediaminetetraacet ic-acid-000302. By having excess of this. 2008. Answer: EDTA (which binds six times).wikipedia.." (1963). "The complexing and adsorption of cadmium in soils in the presence of EDTA and NTA. which is a very large amount for ligand binding). 2. H. which means that it binds six times. 10 Darwish. and in medicine. General chemistry. factories. List in order of most to least thermodynamically stable as a ligand: ONO.wikipedia. Ninth. ONO (which binds one time) 3. and Alan Campion. Nazek. 12 Petrucci. Upper Saddle River.

edu/altmed/articles/ethylenediaminetetraacet ic-acid-000302.htm Contributors 13 Allen Zeng.edu. Terms of Use Powered by Mindtouch Core 2010 .umm.0 United States License.12 http://www. Davis is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoncommercialShare Alike 3. UC Davis This page viewed 25815 times The ChemWiki has 9536 Modules. UC Davis. Permissions beyond the scope of this license may be available at copyright@ucdavis. UC Davis ChemWiki by University of California. SSReno. Parul Jandir.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful