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a chemical formula o Molar Mass- mass in gram of 1 mol of a substance Represents Avogadro’s number o 1 mol of a substance=6.022 x 1023 particles, atoms, molecules, ions, electrons, ion pairs

The Millimole 1/1000 of a mole Millimolar Mass, mM = 1/1000 of a molar mass

Calculating the amount of a substance in moles and millimoles no. of moles = mass of a substance divided by its molar mass

Where Gx=Mass of substance X, g or mg MMx= Molar Mass of substance X, g/mol or mg/mmol

Example 1. Find the number of moles and molecules of the indicated species (a) 333mg of CaC2O4 (b) 4.96 g of B2O3 (c) 25 g H2O

SOLUTIONS AND THEIR CONCENTRATIONS Molar Concentration # of moles of a species that is contained in 1L of the solution Unit, Molar, M

Where Cx = molar concentration

mg/L. Calculate the p-value for each ion in a solution that is 2.specifies a recipe by which the solution can be prepared Equilibrium Molarity – expresses the molar concentration of a particular species in a solution at equilibrium. mL) x 100% Parts PER MILLION (PPM). BILLION (PPB). 2. Calculate the p-value for each of the indicated ions in the following: + (a) Na . g/L P-function / p-value P-value = negative logarithm of the molar concentration of the species Example: -3 -4 1. nL/L 3 Cppt = (mass solute/ mass solution)x 10 ppm ppt = mg/g. 2+ 2+ -2 (d) Cu .0503 M in NaOH. .54 M in MnCI2 . CI .65X10 M in BaCI2 and 1. equivalent weight b.104 M in Zn(N03)2. What is the equivalent weight of (a) KMnO4 reduces to MnO2 (b) Na2C2O4 oxidized to CO2 (c) NaOH (d) HNO3 Percent concentration (PPH) Three common methods: Mass percent (w/w) = (mass solute / mass solution) x 100% Volume percent (v/v) = (volume solute / volume solution) x 100% Mass/ volume percent (w/v) = (mass solute. 2+ 2+ -3 (b) Ba . Zn . g / volume solution.0335 M in NaCl and 0. uL/L. ml/L. Cl . ug/L.600 M in HCl and 0. for acid = # of H+ dissociated for base = # of OH. Thousands (PPT) 6 Cppm = (mass solute/ mass solution)x 10 ppm ppm=ug/g.Two Types of Molar Concentration Analytical Molarity – gives the total # of moles of a solute in 1 L of the solution . 2.1 g of H 2SO4. ug/mL 9 Cppb = (mass solute/ mass solution)x 10 ppb ppb= ng/g. + 2+ (c) H .00 x 10 M NaCl and 5. NORMALITY # of moles of a species that is contained in 1L of the solution Where EWx . and NO3 in a solution that is 4.78 X 10 M in Cu(N03)2 and 0. and OH in a solution that is 0. Calculate the Molarity and Normality of a 2.0 L solution containing 98.4 x 10 M in HCl.dissociated for salt = # of positive ions for redox = change in oxidation# Example 1. and Zn in a solution that is 0. and CI in a solution that is 7.100M in ZnCI2 . Mn .

Calculate the molar concentration of HNO3 (63.multiplication by a factor that accounts for the stoichiometry 3.175M SO4 ? 3.00 mL of a solution that contained 26.32 g/mol) is formed when 200 ml of 0. Calculate the molar concentration of H2SO4 (98.0 mL of 0.02 and 46.5% H2SO4 (w/w). 2.125 M Ba are mixed with 400mL of 20.DENSITY and Specific GRAVITY of SOLUTIONS Density – expresses the mass of a substance per unit volume Specific Gravity – ratio of the mass of a substance to the mass of an equal volume of H2O EXAMPLE 1.reconversion of the data in moles back to the metric units/concentration called for in the answer Example 1. (a) What mass in grams of CO2 were evolved? (b) What was the molarity of the excess reactant (HCI or Na2C03 )? .1 g/mol) in a solution that has a specific gravity of 1.84 and 96. CHEMICAL STOICHIOMETRY Stoichiometry-define as the quantitative relationship among reacting species.01 g/mol) in a solution that has a specific gravity of 1.0120 M AgNO3 would be required to precipitate all of the Br in 100. What mass of solid BaSO4 (143. 1= transformation of the known quantity of a substance in SI units to a corresponding number of moles 2.0731 M HCl. What volume of 0. Exactly 0.3% HCl (w/w).2220 g of pure Na2C03 was dissolved in 100.34 ppt KBr? 2+ 2.

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