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Romanesque Art Elizabeth Valdez del lamo

Introduction The fully vaulted building and its large-scale sculptural decoration is the great invention of Romanesque art of the 11th and 12th centuries in Europe. Dramatic compositions, often with figures expressively distorted for heightened emotional appeal, are characteristic of the arts of the time. Around the year 1000 CE, after devastating invasions by the Normans, Hungarians, and Muslims, a period of prosperity and rebuilding began in which the arts flowered. The church, as the greatest international power of the time, sponsored the construction of large-scale buildings decorated with sculpture, wall paintings, stained glass, as well as illuminated manuscripts and jeweled furnishings. The sheer inventiveness, liveliness, and profoundly theological basis for Romanesque art has lent itself to rich scholarship on iconography, patronage, pilgrimage, and audience reception as well as on the sociopolitical forces behind artistic production. The term, however, does not denote an international style, as does Gothic, with which Romanesque overlaps chronologically. Although Gothic can be identified as having specific origins, there is no clear point of origin or any unifying element in so-called Romanesque art. Because the Carolingian 9th century first employed the artistic forms that would characterize Romanesque, many would argue logically that there is a continuum from the 9th century onward. The word itself was invented in the early 19th century to describe preGothic vaulted architecture, deemed to be in the manner of the Romans because of its rounded arches and barrel vaults. By extension, Romanesque was applied to the newly monumental sculpture that decorated these buildings, and eventually to other media produced in Europe during the 11th and 12th centuries. Ironically, even though the architecture was compared to Classical Rome, the figural arts were often described as anti -Classical because they were generally more fantastic than naturalistic. With its schematic renderings, and stylized expressiveness, Romanesque painting and sculpture did not find a modern audience until abstract art emerged in the early 20th century. The following bibliography selects surveys and bibliographies that should lead the user to more focused studies in the field.

General Overviews There are few satisfactory surveys of Romanesque art mainly because it is difficult to define as a single entity (Bober in Mle 1978; see also Historiography). As art historians classified their subject into periods, Romanesque became the descriptor of art c. 10001200 (Grodecki, et al. 1973, Avril, et al. 1982, Avril, et al. 1983; see also Textbooks), but it would also be correct to broaden the range to c. 8001200 (Dodwell 1993, Historiography, Luxury Arts, Architecture). For graduate students or scholars wishing a thorough overview of Romanesque art, Grodecki, et al. 1973, Avril, et al. 1982, and Avril, et al. 1983 are essential reference tools. The three are part of the series LUnivers des formes, which has been translated, in part, into several languages, but these volumes are not in English. A large number of coffee-table books with spectacular photographs are currently on the market, but their formulaic texts do not provide the tools for serious research. The first grand vision of the period was furnished by mile Mle in his 1922 study of religious imagery of the 12th century (see Mle 1978). He vividly described art and a society in service of the church. Mles strongly nationalistic statements about the priority of French art caused him to become engaged in a war of words with Arthur Kingsley Porter (see Porter 1923, cited in Sculpture). The very influential Focillon 1980 (also cited under Sculpture), identified laws in which forms went through evolutionary stages and were subordinated to their context, architecture or a frame, a theory strongly affirmed by most scholars, especially in France (e.g., Grodecki, et al. 1973). Schapiro found these theories flawed, but his views were less well known because his initial response was published in German (see Schapiro 1977). Additional responses remained unpublished until after his death

(see Sculpture). Unlike Focillon, Schapiro identified the coexistence of various styles in a single location and interpreted the figure-frame relationship as an expression of meaning, not arbitrary laws. Schapiro 1977 first demonstrated a love of art for its own sake on the part of medieval authors; religious content was not necessary for an artwork to be appreciated as Mle 1978 assumed. Avril, Franois, Xavier Barral i Altet, and Danielle Gaborit-Chopin. Le Monde roman 1060 1220. Vol. 1, Le temps des Croisades. LUnivers des formes 29. Paris: Gaillimard, 1982. The first of two volumes on Le Monde roman 10601220 (see also Avril, et al. 1983). The Holy Roman Empire and related sites are covered: Germany, northeast France, Burgundy, the Low Countries, Switzerland, Denmark, Sweden, Provence, Italy; and the Holy Land. Artworks inadequately covered in many surveys are included: civil and military architecture, enamels, metalwork and manuscripts. Plans and reconstructions, a synchronized table correlating objects with historical events, thorough bibliography, a dictionary-index, and maps, some repeated in Avril, et al. 1983. In French. Avril, Franois, Xavier Barral i Altet, and Danielle Gaborit-Chopin. Le Monde roman, 1060 1220. Vol. 2, Les royaumes dOccident. LUnivers des formes 30. Paris: Gallimard, 1983. Volume 2 of Le Monde roman 10601220 (see also Avril, et al. 1982) includes Norway, England, Ireland, France, Spain, and Portugal. Emphasizes movements of the population contributing to shared tastes in diverse regions. Provides a balanced view of the development of monumental sculpture, even if some dating has since been corrected. Includes essays on Romanesque, Transitional, and early Gothic; the importance of period mentalit; and the social and physical context for understanding images. Plans and reconstructions, a synchronized table correlating objects with historical events, bibliography, a dictionary-index, and maps. In French. Dodwell, C. R. Pictorial Arts of the West 8001200. Pelican History of Art. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1993. Organized geographically, chronologically, and by the various painting media within centers of production (embroidery, wall painting, glass painting, manuscripts, mosaics, and panel painting). Useful introductory essays provide background on Byzantine art and the West, attitudes to figural art, traveling artists, and portable objects. Clearly lays out the issues of identifying scriptoria and their impact, set within the broader historical context. Where there is scholarly disagreement, the question is explained. Good maps, notes, separate index for iconography and named artists. Focillon, Henri. The Art of the West in the Middle Ages. Translated by Donald King. Edited by Jean Bony. 3d ed. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1980. Forms and styles evolve from archaic to classic then to baroque. The relationship between architecture and sculpture is explained by the law of the frame, in which a figure is subject to the shape of its enclosing frame, often leading to its distortion. Enlightening, highly influential since Focillon taught in France and the United States. Nevertheless, these laws are not as hard and fast as Focillon makes them seem. Originally published in French in 1938. Grodecki, Louis, Florentine Mtterich, Jean Taralon, and Francis Wormald. Le Sicle de lan mil, 9501050. Vol. 5, Le Premier millnaire occidental. LUnivers des formes 20. Paris: Gallimard, 1973. A fundamental survey of the art of Europe during the 11th century, with detailed maps, thorough bibliography, and names, dates, dimensions, and shelf numbers for the artworks illustrated. Chapters treat architecture and monumental decoration, as well as manuscript painting and luxury arts. Southern Europe gets short shrift for architecture, which covers only Catalonia in the Iberian Peninsula, but the same does not hold true in the other essays. In French. Mle, mile. Religious Art in France, the Twelfth Century: A Study of the Origins of Medieval Iconography. Translated by Marthiel Mathews. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1978. Mles lively account of art inspired by the cult of the saints, pilgrimage, liturgical drama, and Eastern sources brought the period to a broader public. The 12th century is treated as a whole,

not as Romanesque or Gothic. His work is fundamental even if many specific ideas have since been disputed or corrected: for example, that Romanesque sculpture was born in France and that Abbot Suger first devised the image of the Tree of Jesse. First published in 1922. Schapiro, Meyer. Selected Papers. Vol. 1, Romanesque Art. New York: Braziller, 1977. Valuable insight into the nature of Romanesque art is found in the articles On the Aesthetic Attitude in Romanesque Art (1947), and On Geometrical Schematism in Romanesque Art (19321933; only in German until 1977). Schapiros must-read essay on the aesthetic attitude is still the best introduction to medieval art but lacks illustrations necessary for students to follow the argument. His critique of the law of the frame (Focillon 1980) is found in the essay on geometrical schematism.

Historiography As originally devised, Romanesque implied dependency upon superior antique sources (Bizzarro 1992), but in fact the 11th and 12th centuries were inventive in their approach to art (Dynes 1989, Seidel 2006). Because each region worked in a distinctive style, Romanesque art has been likened to the simultaneous development of vernacular literature (Dynes 1989). Although expedient, the term Romanesque is now regarded by many as loaded with Romantic and nationalistic sentiment (Rudolph 2006, Seidel 2006). Bizzarro, Tina Waldeier. Romanesque Architectural Criticism: A Prehistory. Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1992. Carefully sifts through descriptions of architecture to ascertain the first usage of the term Romanesque for architecture in 1819. The term was devised by William Gunn in England, who drew a parallel to the pejorative term romanesco for a nonnative resident of Rome. Although romanesque for architecture was used once in French in 1750, French architectural historians settled on the termroman instead. Dynes, Wayne R. Art, Language, and Romanesque. Gesta 28.1 (1989): 310. Discusses the linguistic model that underlies conceptual tools for Romanesque in an essay that is at times tongue-in-cheek. The labels Provincial Roman, subantique, and continuity versus renascence exemplify the politics of language choice. Concerning the notion of stylistic norms, Romanesque art was more open to variety than other styles. Dynes concludes that although the term is problematic, it remains useful. Rudolph, Conrad, ed. A Companion to Medieval Art: Romanesque and Gothic in Northern Europe. Blackwell Companions to Art History 2. Oxford: Blackwell, 2006. A collection of essays on the historiography of Romanesque and Gothic art, including the concept and reception of Romanesque. Useful evaluations of the field as a whole, of Romanesque architecture, of the modern origins of Romanesque sculpture, and of the reception of Romanesque manuscript illumination. Available as an e-book. Seidel, Linda. Rethinking Romanesque; Re -engaging Roman[z]. Gesta 45.2 (2006): 109 123. To extend the argument of Bizzarro 1992, Seidel points out that Francophones of the 19th century used romanesque to describe make-believe, or a romance or fantasy. In this sense, Romanesque should be understood positively as a designation for new modes of production, artistic self-awareness, new themes and modes of expression. Therefore, the use of antique sources is creative rather than derivative.

Reference Works Recent years have provided a wealth of excellent reference works on the Middle Ages, and some useful material on Romanesque art. Beginning students will find the clear introduction to

the topic by Chapuis in Romanesque Art useful, as with the comparative entries on Encyclopedia.com. For more detailed information, students and scholars alike would find Vauchez 2000 an important consultation when undertaking a new topic. The online edition branches outward infinitely with useful links to other entries. The Online Resources for Medieval Art and Architecture site at Harvard University is a treasury of resources for the knowledgeable user. For beginners or for putting together a class, Christopher W hitcombes Art History Resources on the Web includes links and images. For quick descriptions of architecture and sculpture along the pilgrimage routes through France and Spain to Santiago de Compostela,Shaver-Crandel and Gerson 1995 is handy. The Glossaire by Vog and Neufville 1971 is an indispensable multilingual reference tool. Chapuis, Julien. Romanesque Art.. Good starting point for undergraduates. An introduction to the subject illustrated by works in the Metropolitan Museum of Arts collection, with links to related thematic essays on the museums exemplary website. There is a selected list of articles from the museums Bulletin and Journal on Romanesque topics, but it has not been updated since 2002. Thin on additional bibliography. Encyclopedia.com. Romanesque Architecture and Art. Brings together entries from The Columbia Encyclopedia (6th edition, 2008), The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Art and Artists (2003), and The Oxford Dictionary of Art (2004) with the capacity to compare the articles side by side. Includes a link to publications via the subscription service High Beam. Useful for undergraduates and the general public. Harvard College Library. Online Resources for Medieval Art and Architecture . A centralized list with a broad range of subjects but not specific to Romanesque: art, architecture, women, liturgy, dictionaries, library catalogues, etc. Links to Bulletin Monumental, the Index of Christian Art, a database on church prelates and medieval bishoprics, the Marburg Photograph Archive in German and English, and more. A one-stop resource for serious research. Rudolph, Conrad, ed. A Companion to Medieval Art: Romanesque and Gothic in Northern Europe. Blackwell Companions to Art History 2. Oxford: Blackwell, 2006. Essays on Romanesque architecture, sculpture, manuscripts, patronage, and more conceptual essays on vision, reception of images, collecting and display, gender, spolia, the monstrous, marginal images, pilgrimage, and more. This is an essential research tool for advanced research as well as introductory reading. The Iberian Peninsula and Italy are not covered in the same detail as northern Europe, while Crusader art is covered. Several essays are historiographic (see Historiography). Available as an e-book. Shaver-Crandell, Annie, Paula Gerson, et al. The Pilgrims Guide to Santiago de Compostela: A Gazetteer. London: Harvey Miller, 1995. Includes the best translation into English of the Pilgrims Guide from the Codex Calixtinus, describing the journey from various points in France to Santiago de Compostela. A photograph, description and bibliography are provided for sites up to c. 1200 along the route, making this a valuable reference tool, even if the bibliographies are not always complete. A thoughtful introductory essay rejects the concept of a pilgrimage style (see Sculpture). Vauchez, Andr, Barrie Dobson, and Michael Lapidge, eds. Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages. Translated by Adrian Walford. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn, 2000. Far-reaching and useful, there are essays on Romanesque sculpture, Romanesque art, and preRomanesque art. The electronic version provides links to keywords for further information (Cluny, pilgrimage, Crusades, demons, mysticism, etc.) and short bibliographies, making it a good starting point for research. Originally in French, then Italian; available as an e-book published by Oxford University Press (2001). Each version is slightly different. Vog, Melchior de, and Jean Neufville. Glossaire de termes techniques lusage des lecteurs de La nuit des temps. 2d ed. Introductions la nuit des temps 1. La Pierre-qui-vire: Zodiaque, 1971.

Invaluable for technical terms in art and architecture of the Middle Ages, a companion to the series La nuit des temps (see Journals). The dictionary is in French, with definitions and drawings as well as translations into German, English, Spanish, and Italian. Word lists in these languages guide the reader to the French entry. Witcombe, Christopher L. C. E. Art History Resources on the Web. An impressive collection of links to images on quality websites. Good for undergraduates.

Textbooks Few textbooks cover Romanesque art alone. Good introductions are embedded in surveys of medieval art organized chronologically and regionally (Zarnecki 1975, Stokstad 2004, Luttikhuizen and Verkerk 2006). With the exception of Zarnecki 1971 and Zarnecki 1975, surveys tend to cover Romanesque architecture and sculpture more thoroughly than other media. The same holds true for many books dedicated only to Romanesque art (Toman 1997) but that provide wonderful photographs of the monuments. The value of the comprehensive surveys (Stokstad 2004, Luttikhuizen and Verkerk 2006) is that although Romanesque is treated traditionally, as originating in France (see General Overviews), they include areas excluded from narrow definitions of Romanesque: Byzantine Italy and Sicily, Carolingian and Ottonian art, Anglo-Norman art, Crusader art, Scandinavia and the British Isles, Islamic art. This makes it possible to appreciate how richly varied the arts were during the 11th and 12th centuries and how closely tied Carolingian and Ottonian art are to the later developments. Even rarer than chronological surveys are conceptual introductions, but Petzold 1995provides an enriching overview of Romanesque art within its society. Davis-Weyer 1986 is still the primary collection of medieval commentary about art translated into English. Davis-Weyer, Caecilia. Early Medieval Art 3001150. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1986. A collection of medieval texts about art translated from Latin into English. Authors such as Raoul Glaber and Bernard of Clairvaux are introduced to the reader with a brief analysis of their attitudes to art, its production, and comparisons with other authors in the volume. Zarnecki, George. Romanesque Art. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1971. A useful handbook now out of print, organized by medium. Short introductory essays, illustrations with descriptive captions, brief bibliography. There was a time when this was the only good undergraduate textbook. Zarnecki, George. Art of the Medieval World: Architecture, Sculpture, Painting, the Sacred Arts. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1975. Although out of print, this survey provides the most comprehensive coverage of Romanesque art, the strongest section of the book. Organized geographically and chronologically, Zarneckis narrative makes clear the connections across cultures resulting from politics, invasion, church reform, and traveling artists. All media are represented in a more balanced way than in subsequent textbooks. Stokstad, Marilyn. Medieval Art. 2d ed. Boulder, CO: Westview, 2004. A chronological and regional survey aimed at undergraduates and the general public. The wellwritten albeit short chapter on Romanesque emphasizes the monastic contribution to the arts. Useful boxes highlight significant concepts; includes a timeline, glossary, and a useful bibliography, but no map. Although the second edition has better illustrations, the text of the first edition is richer. First edition published in 1986. Luttikhuizen, Henry, and Dorothy Verkerk. Snyders Medieval Art. 2d ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2006. Extensively rewritten and a vast improvement over the original edition. The chapter on Romanesque art provides a thoughtful up-to-date chronological survey with helpful descriptions. Notes provide citations for important ideas, and the selected bibliography is

helpful to students. Maps locate monuments discussed. Although some Islamic art is covered, Islamic Sicily is not. First edition published in 1989. Petzold, Andreas. Romanesque Art. Perspectives. New York: Abrams, 1995. The book is organized thematically rather than chronologically, covering the definition of Romanesque, patronage, various media, monasticism and the arts, gender, and response to alien cultures. Toman, Rolf, ed. Romanesque: Architecture, Sculpture, Painting. Photos by Achim Bednorz. Translated by Fiona Hulse and Ian Macmillan. Cologne: Koneman, 1997. Architecture and monumental sculpture have pride of place in this generously illustrated introductory survey that also includes some painting and luxury arts. Structure and technique are explained with excellent plans and diagrams. German original, available in several languages.

Bibliographies Publications may be tracked in the Bibliography of the History of Art (BHA), whose future is in doubt at this writing, and theInternational Medieval Bibliography (IMB). Useful annotated bibliographies on Romanesque art were produced in the 1980s, just before the explosion of publications in art history (Glass 1983, Lyman 1987, Chapman 1988, Davies 1993). The Bibliothque Nationale, Paris, compiled a bibliography on French Romanesque art in conjunction with the 2005 exhibition in Paris (see Gaborit-Chopin 2005 cited under Exhibition Catalogues). Other bibliographies cover a broader range of the Middle Ages but are indispensable for research in the field as well (Chapman 1988, Friedman and Wegmann 1998) A useful bibliography covering a broad range of research tools is found on the web page of the Index of Christian Art. These resources ease the task of hunting through older print versions of the BHA and RILA (Rpertoire international de la littrature de lart). For doctoral dissertations since 1982, see the International Center of Medieval Arts Census of Dissertations, which provides links to dissertations from 1982 to 1993 and from 1994 to the present. Every collection has lapses despite the best efforts of the editors, so researchers cannot assume that a single resource will provide all publications. Bibliography of the History of Art (BHA). The essential bibliography for historians of Western art. Includes books, articles, exhibition, acts, and reviews with entries in French and English. A search for Romanesque yielded more than nine thousand entries. BHA incorporated the French Rpertoire dart et darchologie (RAA) from 1973 on, and French and English International Repertory of the Literature of Art (RILA) from 1975 on. The earlier indexes are in hard copy and still must be searched for older literature. The BHA and RILA up to part of 2009 are available online free of charge at the website of the J. Paul Getty Research Institute. New indexing will be carried forth by ProQuest, a subscription service, under the title International Bibliography of Art (IBA). Chapman, Gretel. Mosan Art: An Annotated Bibliography. Reference Publications in Art History. Boston: G. K. Hall, 1988. Mosan describes the regions bordering the Meuse River, from France to southern Holland. The bibliography concentrates on the mid-11th through the mid-13th centuries (although a broader range is covered) and reviews historical material, collections, exhibition catalogues, architecture, painting, manuscripts, metalwork, sculpture, and specific artists. Davies, Martin. Romanesque Architecture: A Bibliography. Reference Publications in Art History. Boston: G. K. Hall, 1993. Bibliography covers chronological range from 800 to 1200. There are general surveys of architecture and then entries organized by region. Monographs on individual buildings and articles are not included, rendering this bibliography limited for advanced research. Friedman, John B., and Jessica M. Wegmann. Medieval Iconography: A Research Guide. Garland Medieval Bibliographies 20. New York: Garland, 1998.

A valuable research tool that covers a broad range of topics within this complex and amorphous subject. Medieval Art lists library catalogues of manuscripts and organizes glass and sculpture by region. Other tools are medieval encyclopedias, sermons, and exempla. Learned imagery surveys secular subjects such as alchemy, astrology, mythology, heroes such as Arthur and Alexander the Great. The Christian tradition treats biblical and apocryphal subjects as well as saints. The Natural World covers bestiaries, lapidaries, and botanical manuals. Daily life covers beauty, the body, festivals, and costumes. With an index. Glass, Dorothy F., Richard A. Sundt, Elizabeth Valdez del lamo, Stephen Lamia, et al. Census of Dissertations in Medieval Art. The Census lists international dissertations in all fields of medieval art, with categories such as Romanesque and a broader area, Medieval Christian Art and Architecture, that crosses chronological lines. Topics such as iconography, painting, gender, and towns are searchable. Coverage of non-US theses is included but depends upon published resources. Click on the Census of Dissertations link to access two other links, one for dissertations from 1982 to 1993 and another for dissertations from 1994 onward. Glass, Dorothy F. Italian Romanesque Sculpture: An Annotated Bibliography. Reference Publications in Art History. Edited by Herbert L. Kessler. Boston: G. K. Hall, 1983. A major contribution for an area that was little catalogued, with no central repository for publications until c. 1990. Entries are arranged by medium, type, region, iconography, museum holdings, relationships of other areas to Italy, and type of publication: catalogues, surveys, periodicals and festschriften. Indexes for authors, regions and sites as well as a map. Index of Christian Art (ICA). Princeton University, 1917. In addition to being a fundamental reference work (see Iconography), the Index of Christian Art web site also hosts bibliographies on the Middle Ages. Selected Tools for Research in the Western Middle Ages (c. 10001500), compiled by Suzanna Simor, focuses on general works rather than individual countries or works of art. Topics include codicology, paleography, genealogy, theology, as well as resources for images, literature, general works on the various media, tools such as timelines, maps, and institutional links. It is freely available online, unlike the Index itself, which is available by subscription. International Medieval Bibliography Online (IMB). Brepolis. 1967. In combination with Bibliographie de Civilisation Mdivale, covers articles and books on medieval studies from 300 to 1500 for Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East. A search for Romanesque produced 3,100 entries; adding Art History narrowed the list to 1,278 entries, with more specific keywords available. Available by subscription. Lyman, Thomas W., with Daniel Smartt. French Romanesque Sculpture: An Annotated Bibliography. Reference Publications in Art History. Edited by Herbert L. Kessler. Boston: G. K. Hall, 1987. Covers modern France, including Alsace and Corsica. Monumental sculpture and smaller church furnishings are included whereas metalwork and ivories are not. Entries are organized into chronological groups (17001900, 19001944, 19451987), and within those groups are separated by type of publication: articles, books, catalogues. A single index includes names, places, and iconographic themes.

Journals France provides the periodicals specifically focused on Romanesque art and culture. Cahiers de Civilisation Mdivale and Les Cahiers de Saint-Michel de Cuxa are both published by centers for scholarship, the first associated with a university, the second with a monastery. Their publications should be followed by serious scholars in the field. La nuit des temps published by Zodiaque was also a monastic effort, but with a different purpose. The valuable record of architecture and sculpture began as spiritual, somewhat scholarly, travel guides for Romanesque art in France, and developed into a serious enterprise documenting Romanesque monuments around Europe, with many essays by established, nonmonastic scholars. Nothing

else provides the visual record of these volumes. Gesta, the publication of the International Center of Medieval Art, has a strong tradition for articles on the 11th and 12th centuries. Arte medievale has a similar range. The successful online periodical Peregrinations works loosely around the theme of pilgrimage. Arte medievale. 1983. A broad range of medieval topics with many articles of interest for the 11th and 12th centuries. Tables of contents may be foundonline. Published by the Associazione Arte Medievale, at lUniversit degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Facolt di Scienze Umanistiche. In Italian, German, French, English. Bulletin monumental. 1834. Founded to document historical monuments of France, this is an important resource for major monographs, short articles, reviews of recent publications, news of discoveries. Founded by the Socit franaise darchologie, Muse des monuments franais (Paris). Tables of contents available online. Older issues are also available online. In French. Cahiers de Civilisation Mdivale. 1958. Studies on European Romanesque culture from the 10th to the 12th centuries from many disciplines including art history. Published by the Centre dtudes Suprieures de Civilisation Mdivale in Poitiers. Tables of contents available from 2004 online. In French. Les Cahiers de Saint-Michel de Cuxa. 1969. Focus on pre-Romanesque and Romanesque art of southern and Mediterranean Europe, especially Catalonia, Roussillon, and Cerdagne; essential reading in the field. The articles reflect the thematically organized Journes romanes organized annually by the Association Culturelle de Cuxa. Abstracts are available online. Since 2003, includes reports on archeological finds and restorations in the region. In French. Gesta. 1963. The premier print periodical in English, covering the full range of medieval art. Special issues include the Renaissance of the 12th century (1970; see Exhibition Catalogues), cloisters (1973), Cluny (1988) and body-part reliquaries (1997). Published by theInternational Center of Medieval Art, whose website has an image database and valuable links to text and image resources. In English with occasional articles in other languages. La nuit des temps. 1955c. 2002. The regional monographs on Romanesque art, beginning with Bourgogne romane, are a fundamental study tool, with superb photography, descriptive texts, and maps. Western Europe and the Holy Land are covered. Also referred to as Zodiaque (the publisher), most of the eighty-eight volumes have summaries in English, German, Italian, and Spanish after the French text. A list is available online. Peregrinations. 2002. Because pilgrimage is a major subject in Romanesque art, many articles in this online, peerreviewed publication are relevant. Published by the International Society for the Study of Pilgrimage Art, the site includes an Image Bank and photo essays, listings of conferences, related organizations, and archaeological news. In English.

Anthologies Collected papers by historians of Romanesque art were selected for this section. Their studies, many pioneering, exemplify various methodologies. The comparative method and regional studies gained greatly from scholarly works such as Zarnecki 1979,Sauerlnder 2004, and Moralejo in Franco Mata 2004. The variety of approaches employed by Fernie 1995 for the study of architecture has enriched the field as a whole. Walter Cahn, heir of Focillon in the United States, produced catalogues of manuscripts and sculpture as well as essays questioning established ideas (Cahn 2000). Schapiro 1977 deals with traditional problems but Schapiro was

more interested in sociopolitical forces behind the art and the role of the artist. Like Schapiro 1977, Sauerlnder 2004suggests that Focillons law of the frame (see General Overviews and Sculpture) has limited value, since it does not explain the meaning of the image. Sauerlnder writes: Romanesque sculpture shows us the other, the anarchic face of the Middle Ages (Sauerlnder 2004, p. vi). Cahn, Walter. Studies in Medieval Art and Interpretation. London: Pindar, 2000. Articles on sculpture and painting over a broad chronological range but largely in the 11th and 12th centuries. Several question standard methodologies. Heresey, exegesis, Cistercian art, and Solomonic elements among the topics covered. Fernie, Eric. Romanesque Architecture: Design, Meaning and Metrology. London: Pindar, 1995. Previously published essays that range from Anglo-Saxon to early Gothic architecture. Fernie has contributed greatly to the understanding of architectural proportions and systems of length and integrates more theoretical approaches to the study of the building as well. Studies run from historiographic and methodological surveys to close studies of architectural details. Franco Mata, ngela, ed. Patrimonio artstico de Galicia y otros estudios. Homenaje al Prof. Dr. Serafn Moralejo lvarez. 3 vols. Santiago de Compostela, Spain: Xunta de Galicia, 2004. Most of the scattered publications of Serafn Moralejo lvarez, sometimes difficult to obtain, have been gathered into the first two volumes; the third comprises essays in his honor. Moralejo was one of the best scholars of Romanesque sculpture of his generation, in or out of Spain. While the work is focused on Spanish sculpture, the implications go beyond regional boundaries: for example, the article on the re-use of Antique sarcophagi during the Middle Ages. Fundamental studies on Jaca, Frmista, Santiago de Compostela, and the sarcophagus of Alfonso Ansrez. Articles mostly in Spanish with some in French and Italian. Hourihane, Colum, ed. Romanesque Art and Thought in the Twelfth Century: Essays in Honor of Walter Cahn. Occasional Papers 10. Princeton, NJ: Index of Christian Art, 2008. Essays on the politics of taste, reception, reliquaries, inscriptions, manuscripts, sculpture, and architecture by distinguished medievalists, among them Willibald Sauerlnder, Ilene Forsyth, Herbert Kessler, Madeline Caviness, and Eliane Vergnolle. A variety of methods and interests reflect current research in the field. A bibliography of Walter Cahns publications is included. Sauerlnder, Willibald. Romanesque Art: Problems and Monuments. 2 vols. London: The Pindar, 2004. Papers mostly on Romanesque sculpture published from 1958 to 2003 in German, French, English, and Italianby the great master of medieval sculpture. Thoughtful introduction and essays on Schapiro, Focillon, and Salet. At the end of Volume 2 are Sauerlnder s bibliography from 1999 to 2003, in addition to abstracts and original publication information for the articles in this collection. Schapiro, Meyer. Romanesque Art. Selected Papers 1. New York: Braziller, 1977. Groundbreaking essays on Moissac (1931), Silos (1939), Souillac (1939). The concept that form expresses meaning underlies the studies on the coexistence of styles, artistic freedom, and the sociopolitical context of art. Schapiro expanded the range of inquiry by considering political interests and class differences among patrons and artists. Despite details to correct, the intellectual breadth is inspiring, and Schapiro teaches us how to look actively at medieval art. His scattered articles republished together here in 1977 and translated into other languages, now have broader impact than they had singly. See also Schapiro in Overviews and in Sculpture. Zarnecki, George. Studies in Romanesque Sculpture. Studies in the History of European Art S2. London: Dorian, 1979. Collects previously published articles on English sculpture by this prolific and eminent scholar known for his clarity and common sense. Additional volumes collect later publications. See also Exhibition Catalogues.

Exhibition Catalogues Unlike many General Overviews and Textbooks, exhibitions focus on portable objects such as metalwork, manuscripts, and large-scale sculpture no longer in situ and so provide balance to surveys that emphasize architecture and monumental sculpture. Because they provide detailed studies of particular objects together with bibliography, exhibition catalogues are often the best place to start an object-oriented study. Some exhibitions examine historical moments (Scher 1969, Hoffmann and Deuchler 1970), but more often exhibitions of Romanesque art are ambitious compilations of the arts of particular regions. National identity underpins exhibitions such as Zarnecki, et al. 1984, Lanfranco e Wiligelmo, Legner 1985, and Gaborit-Chopin 2005; all these catalogues are indispensable reference works for the arts of their regions. The latter two are notable for their presentation of material culture rather than limiting themselves to high art. Art of Medieval Spain integrates earlier medieval art and Islamic art with Spanish Romanesque, while Castieiras and Camps 2008 locates the arts of Catalonia, Languedoc, and Tuscany in the context of the Mediterranean. The influential Hoffmann and Deuchler 1970 identifies a classicizing style as characteristic of the years around the turn of the 13th century. Neither Romanesque, nor Gothic, nor indeed Transitional, this exciting style is an important artistic manifestation in its own right, wrote Thomas Hoving in the foreword. The term Year 1200 became a tag for that style and unfortunately implies a date that is often inaccurate, since the tendency to more solid figures with complex drapery in fact emerged as early as the 1130s (seeTextbooks). Although it is labeled Transitional, in the evolutionary formulation of Focillon (see General Overviews, Sculpture), there is no clear transition from Romanesque to Gothic evident in this group of works. Scholars treat this transitional style in various ways. It may be seen as the culmination of Romanesque (Zarnecki, et al. 1984), or it may be set aside for separate study (Gaborit-Chopin 2005). Gaborit-Chopin, Danielle, ed. La France romane au temps de premiers Captiens (987 1152):Lalbum de lexposition. Paris, muse du Louvre, 10 mars -6 juin 2005. Paris: Muse du Louvre, 2005. Introductory essays by medium provide overviews of major developments. The first part is organized thematically and the second regionally. A final section identifies great accomplishments of the period as the historiated capital; the birth of Limoges enamelwork; and reliquary statues in the round. Limiting the accomplishment of monumental sculpture to capitals and not portals seems determined by the exhibition format. Chronological table; maps of principle sites and of pilgrimages within France, index, and a very useful list of related exhibitions. As with Legner 1985, treats the whole material culture rather than exclusively objects of high aesthetic value. A bibliography on French Romanesque art was compiled by the Bibliothque Nationale in conjunction with the exhibition. In French. Hoffmann, Konrad, and Florens Deuchler, eds. The Year 1200, 12 February10 May 1970. 3 vols. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1970. An array of international objects selected to demonstrate that around the year 1200 a new naturalism appeared in the arts for the first time since Classical Antiquity. The catalogue, Volume 1, is organized by medium. Volume 2 publishes essays on various media, Byzantine art and the West, Arabic impact on the West, and Philip II Augustus of France. Volume 3, acts of the accompanying symposium, provides essays, many now classic. Because of the chronological focus, there is more Gothic than Romanesque art, but it remains essential for study of the Transitional style. Lanfranco e Wiligelmo: Il Duomo di Modena, 1984 1985. Modena, Italy: Edizioni Panini, 1984. Examines 12th-century Italian art through the architect Lanfranc, the sculptor Wiligelmo, and the sites of Modena and Nonantola. Includes manuscripts, spolia, epigraphy, wall painting, and the restoration of Modena Cathedral. Very thorough, classic. In Italian. Legner, Anton, ed. Ornamenta Ecclesiae, Kunst und Knstler der Romanik. 3 vols. Cologne: Schntgen Museum, 1985.

Indispensable reference for the art of the Rhine region, including manuscripts, liturgical objects, sculpture, and architecture. The catalogue is organized thematically. Volume 1 covers saints lives, Psychomachia, personifications of the liberal arts, wonders of the world, and medieval maps; artists and technique; liturgical manuscripts, objects, and vestments. Volume 2 focuses on Cologne. Volume 3 treats Antique and Byzantine sources of Romanesque art. A final chapter discusses reliquaries. Clearly written essays provide an overview of the role of art and artists in the major pilgrimage center of Cologne. In German. Castieiras, Manuel, and Jordi Camps, eds. El romnico y el Mediterrneo: Catalua, Toulouse y Pisa 11201180: Museo Nacional dArt de Catalunya, 29 febrero-18 mayo 2008. Barcelona: Museu Nacional dArt de Catalunya, 2008. A southern European development of Romanesque art was identified by Puig i Cadafalch 1928 (cited under Architecture) and Porter 1923 (cited under Sculpture) for the period from the end of the 10th century to the early 12th. Inspired by an article by Marcel Durliat, this exhibition extends the study of Mediterranean Romanesque further into the 12th century, examining the impact of royal alliances and commercial exchange. Essays on regions and significant issues: sculpture and heresy, Toulouse, Pisa, and Christian Spainall well written except for Castilla, with significant omissions and errors. In Spanish. Scher, Stephen K., ed. The Renaissance of the Twelfth Century, May 8June 22 1969. Providence: Museum of Art, Rhode Island School of Design, 1969. Highlights the rebirth of monumental sculpture in France and Spain by quoting the title of the book by Charles Homer Haskins. With the focus on the 12th century, only part of the exhibition is, strictly speaking, Romanesque. The accompanying symposium was published in Gesta 9/2 (1970), where the emphasis is on early Gothic art. The Art of Medieval Spain, A.D. 5001200. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1993. An integrated overview covering Visigothic, Islamic, Mozarabic, and Romanesque Spain, with introductory essays by distinguished scholars in the field, maps, and bibliography. The entries on ivories are particularly useful since little of this material is illustrated or published in English. There are more thorough surveys of the Christian material, but the entries on specific objects in this catalogue are valuable. Zarnecki, George, Janet Holt, and Tristram Holland, eds. English Romanesque Art, 10661200: Hayward Gallery, London, 5 April8 July 1984. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1984. The first in a series of exhibitions on English medieval art that took place in London from 1984 to 1986. This one examines art after the Norman Conquest, when Continental Romanesque became dominant, including the Transitional style derived from closer observation of classical and Byzantine models (see Hoffmann and Deuchler 1970). Organized by medium, it is a basic reference work for the place and period.

Architecture Despite the fact that architecture is the medium that gave Romanesque its name, the re are various ways of defining it chronologically. For many, Romanesque architecture begins in the Carolingian period, with the consistent use of new features such as the westwerk, outer crypt, and crossing (Conant 1990, Kubach 1975; see also General Overviews and Historiography). Puig i Cadafalch 1928 crystallized the definition of First Romanesque Architecture, a transregional, Mediterranean building tradition traceable to late Antiquity, with fruitful development in Catalonia. Others emphasize developments in the north during the 10th century (Kubach 1975). Burgundy, at the crossroads, creatively drew upon both traditions (Armi 2004). Architectural historians generally agree that fully developed Romanesque buildings constitute a distinctive international style (see General Overviews, Historiography,Textbooks). Rather than focus on structure and technique alone, Krautheimer 1942 opened the discussion of symbolism in architectural forms. The outcome of such an approach is found in conceptual surveys such as Stalley 1999. An example of the richness of contemporary approaches to the study of a building is Malone 2009.

Armi, C. Edson. Design and Construction in Romanesque Architecture: First Romanesque Architecture and the Pointed Arch in Burgundy and Northern Italy. Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004. Examines structural technique and aesthetics in a close study of Burgundian architecture, beginning c. 1000 through the design of Cluny III. Rejects the view that First Romanesque of the South and Burgundian brick-based architecture were rustic predecessors of High Romanesque. Not for beginners, but rewarding. Barral i Altet, Xavier. The Romanesque: Towns, Cathedral, and Monasteries. Translated by Chris Miller. Cologne, Germany, and New York: Taschen, 2001. An introduction to Romanesque architecture, with clear plans, outstanding photographs, a glossary, bibliography, and chronological table. Good for students and the general public. Available in several languages. Conant, Kenneth John. Carolingian and Romanesque Architecture 8001200. 4th. ed. Pelican History of Art. London: Penguin, 1990. A clear, traditional presentation of architectural history organized by regions. In the parlance of the day, pre-Romanesque and proto-Romanesque styles are discussed, only a habit of thought prevents us from calling it simply Romanesque. Although ideas have changed, such as the Pilgrimage road style, this is still a useful overview of the subject. Krautheimer, Richard. An Introduction to an Iconography of Medieval Architecture. Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 5 (1942): 133. Reacting to the purely formalistic approach that architectural studies had assumed, Krautheimer explored the nature of architectural copies during the Middle Ages in a classic study. Focus is on the variety evident in imitations of the Holy Sepulcher at Jerusalem. Churches, baptisteries, and mausoleums provide examples. Kubach, Hans Erich. Romanesque Architecture. New York: Abrams, 1975. The development of architecture is organized by studying elements of the building: westworks and towers, basilicas with galleries, hall crypts, east end, etc. Greater emphasis is given to the north. The informative text is not well coordinated with the fine photographs, frustrating for the reader. Useful synoptic table, bibliography. Translated from Italian and into French. Malone, Carolyn Marino. Saint-Bnigne de Dijon en lan mil: Totius Galliae basilicis mirabilior; Interprtation politique, liturgique et thologique . Disciplina Monastica 5. Edited by Susan Boynton and Isabelle Cochelin. Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols, 2009. A complete exposition of the largely destroyed monastic church. A model for the integration of archaeology, liturgy, theology, history, and patronage into a single study. In French. Puig i Cadafalch, Josep. Le premier art roman; larchitecture en Catalogne et dans loccident mditerranen aux Xe et XIe sicles. Paris: H. Laurens, 1928. First Romanesque Architecture was identified as a distinct Mediterranean tradition probably originating in Lombardy and spread by migrant masons. Characteristics include arched corbel tables and pilasters, rubblework masonry, and vaulting. Puigs keen observations were formative for the field. In Catalan and French. Stalley, Roger. Early Medieval Architecture. Oxford History of Art. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1999. Covers architecture from c. 313 to c. 1200. Rather than a strictly linear narrative, the book is organized around themes: the Christian basilica, symbolic architecture, secular architecture, patron and builder, engineering, the language of architecture, pilgrimage, monasticism, and diversity. This is a satisfyingly modern textbook with maps, notes, bibliographic essay, and timeline.

Sculpture Passionate scholarly battles have been fought about Romanesque monumental sculpture, particularly about its chronology and origins (Porter 1923, General

Overviews, Historiography). Wirth 2004 questions the formulaic approaches to the chronology of sculpture that led to these conflicts. The following selection reflects a variety of methods for the definition and study of sculptural media (see also Architectural Sculpture, Regional Studies, Architectural Sculpture, Luxury Arts, Iconography). Porter 1923 embraces the idea of the pilgrimage to Santiago de Compostela as an organizing principle for the study of monumental sculpture. Gaillard 1951argues for the diversity of styles found along the pilgrimage route. Focillon 1964 is concerned with discerning laws and order in the seemingly disordered art, while Schapiro 2006 emphasizes artistic choice in expressively distorted compositions. It is ironic that these two scholars who described most beautifully felt themselves at odds in their conclusions. Portal sculpture, one of the distinctive developments of Romanesque art, enjoys pride of place in many studies (Christe 1969, Kendall 1998). On the other hand, small-scale sculpture would not necessarily have been distinguished from largescale sculpture in the Middle Ages (Dodwell 1987). For this reason, sections on luxury arts, including enamels, metalwork, and ivories, are included in this section. Christe, Yves. Les Grands portails romans: tudes sur liconologie des thophanies romanes . tudes et Documents Publis par les Instituts dHistoire de la Facult des Lettres de lUniversit de Genve 7. Geneva, Switzerland: Droz, 1969. Takes portals representing Christ to demonstrate the influence of theology upon images. Consciously evokes Mle and Focillons law of the frame. The immediate impact of the portals results from their unity, in the sense of Wlfflin. Argues for the significance of context and placement of image and thus rises above the formulaic laws evoked. In French. Dodwell, C. R. The Meaning of Sculptor in the Romanesque Period. In Romanesque and Gothic: Essays for George Zarnecki. 2 vols. Edited by Neil Stratford, 49 61. Woodbridge, UK: Boydell, 1987. A review of the ways in which sculptor is used in the Middle Ages finds that the word, and corresponding word forms, applied not only to stone but also to ivory, bone, metal, glass, and leather. A valuable collection of texts, biblical and historical, suggests that sculptors were seen as workmen and not artists. Focillon, Henri. Lart des sculpteurs romans; recherches sur lhistoire des formes. 1931. New ed. Paris: Presses universitaires de France, 1964. Romanesque sculpture is seen as a system that obeys its own law. Bound to the building, sculpture is part of its architectural frame and bends to it. As it evolves, it passes through stages of renewal and of baroque decadence. Focillon thus finds poetic order in the apparent disorder of the forms, a theory that has a strong but not universal following (see General Overviews and Anthologies). In French. Gaillard, Georges. De la diversit des styles dans la sculpture romane des plerinages. La Revue des arts (La Revue du Louvre) 1 (1951): 7787. One whose views evolved over his career, Gaillard argues against the unifying influence of the pilgrimage route over style. There are, in fact, many styles in these regions. An important argument increasingly gaining favor and from an influential scholar (see alsoReference Works). In French. Reprinted in Gaillards tudes dart roman (Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1972). Kendall, Calvin B. The Allegory of the Church: Romanesque Portals and Their Verse Inscriptions. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1998. An important effort to review inscriptions on portals carried out by a literary historian. Proposes that the inscribed words are the voice of Christ and the church addressing the spectator. The literature on the monuments themselves is unfortunately often outdated, but the catalogue of inscriptions makes this a valuable reference tool. Porter, Arthur Kingsley. Romanesque Sculpture of the Pilgrimage Roads. 3 vols. Boston: Marshall Jones, 1923. Chronology, church furnishings, ivory, Cluny, and sculpture along the pilgrimage routes are surveyed. Porter argued against nationalistic conceptions of monumental sculpture (see General Overviews). Although he uses documentary evidence, many of his sources have since been

discredited. His instincts, however, are not always wrong. Among the first to photograph monuments extensively, his work will still be consulted by those who disagree with him. Schapiro, Meyer. Romanesque Architectural Sculpture: The Charles Eliot Norton Lectures. Edited by Linda Seidel. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006. Given in 1967, these lectures demonstrate how to look at Romanesque art of any medium. Topics include field and frame relationship, themes of action and state, the human figure, and animals. Includes a bibliography of Schapiros publications on Romanesque and an introductory essay by Seidel contextualizing his scholarship. Wirth, Jean. La datation de la sculpture mdivale. Geneva, Switzerland: Droz, 2004. Essays that question standard methodolgies for dating medieval sculpture. Among Romanesque monuments evaluated: Moissac, Angoulme, Conques, and the Auvergne. Also questions whether there was statuary in the Carolingian period. In French. ARCHITECTURAL SCULPTURE It is often difficult to separate the study of architecture from the sculpture that decorates it. This section offers a sampling of studies that integrate the two. It would be impossible to list all the worthwhile studies and monographs, but here are samples of surveys and monographs on architectural sculpture of specific regions. Panofsky 1969 surveys the development of German sculpture in a classic study. Kahn 1991 focuses on one monument, Canterbury. Stalley 1994 examines a variety of Irish monuments. Vergnolle 1994 gives us a clear picture of French developments. Cluny is the focus for Stratford 1998. In a different mode, Garca Guinea, et al. 20022003gathers together new studies on the major Romanesque structures of Spain in an encyclopedia. Garca Guinea, Miguel ngel, Jos Mara Prez Gonzlez, and Jos Manuel Rodrguez Montas, eds. Enciclopedia del Romnico en Castilla y Len. Vols. 114. Aguilar de Campoo, Spain: Fundacin Santa Mara la Real Centro de Estudios del Romnico, 2002 2003. This enormous encyclopedia of architecture and architectural sculpture has superseded earlier surveys of the field. Entries written by specialists in the region, often drawing upon their doctoral dissertations. With few exceptions, the quality is very high. Subsequent volumes cover Madrid, Navarra, Cantabria, Asturias. Bibliographies, maps, excellent illustrations. In Spanish. Kahn, Deborah. Canterbury Cathedral and Its Romanesque Sculpture. London: Harvey Miller, 1991. The phases of sculpture production at Canterbury Cathedral carefully examined and documented. Stylistic links with the Continent and with manuscript illumination are considered. Panofsky, Erwin. Die deutsche Plastik des 11. bis 13. Jahrhunderts. New York: Kraus, 1969. Still one of the best resources for an overview of German Romanesque sculpture. In German. First published in 1924. Stalley, Roger. Ireland and Europe in the Middle Ages: Selected Essays on Architecture and Sculpture. London: Pindar, 1994. A collection of previously articles examining Romanesque and Gothic architecture and sculpture of Ireland and Great Britain in connection with the rest of Europe. Particular emphasis on the social conditions that impact art. Stratford, Neil. Studies in Burgundian Romanesque Sculpture. 2 vols. London: Pindar, 1998. Despite the title, this volume gathers together fundamental studies on the architecture and sculpture of Cluny, a natural consequence of the fact that dating for the one depends in part on the other. Vergnolle, Eliane. Lart roman en France. Paris: Flammarion, 1994. An up-to-date overview of French architecture and sculpture. In French.

LUXURY ARTS (ENAMELS, METALWORK, IVORY, BONE, TEXTILES) Metalwork, ivories, and gems fall under this heading, which replaces the outdated term Minor Arts (in comparison to architectural sculpture). Perhaps because they were deemed unimportant for so long, they are less studied. Except for exhibition catalogues, there are few surveys of the Romanesque luxury arts, with Lasko 1972 filling the void. Similarly, there are few overviews of Romanesque ivories. Gaborit-Chopin 1978 provides a survey of the Middle Ages. More work has been done on enamels and metalwork. Gauthier 1972 gives us a survey of the field. Gauthiers penetrating studies of Limoges enamels, which developed during the 12th century (Gauthier 1987), have resulted in impressive exhibitions on the subject organized by the next generation of scholars (Enamels of Limoges 1996, De Limoges a Silos 2001). For Mosan metalwork, see also Bibliographies.There are monographic studies listed in the bibliographies of the works cited here. Gaborit-Chopin, Danielle. Ivoires du Moyen Age. Fribourg, Switzerland: Office du livre, 1978. After an introduction to ivory as a material, the following are covered: survival of Classical art and subjects, the early Middle Ages, Romanesque, and Gothic ivories. A catalogue with entries and bibliography of illustrated works is very helpful. Gauthier, Marie-Madeleine. maux du moyen ge occidental. Fribourg, Switzerland: Office du Livre, 1972. The first modern history of medieval enamels by the doyenne of the field. Surveys enamels from Romanesque, Year 1200, through Gothic. Style and patronage are the focal points, with Rhenish-Mosan and Limoges enamels the core of the Romanesque material. In French. Gauthier, Marie-Madeleine, and Genevive Franois. maux mridionaux: Catalogue international de loeuvre de Limoges. Vol. 1,Lpoque romane. Paris: CNRS, 1987. Southern (mridionaux) refers to West France and Spain as opposed to the Mosan region in the north. A thorough study of enamels from Limoges and related schools. In French. Enamels of Limoges 11501350: Paris, Muse du Louvre, 23 October 199522 January 1996; New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art, 5 March16 June 1996. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1996. The first major exhibition of Limoges enamels, tracing the origins from earlier ateliers such as Conques to Limoges, Grandmont, and Limoges Gothic style. Essays on technique, spirituality, taste, Limoges in the 12th and 13th centuries. Magisterial. In English and French. Lasko, Peter. Ars Sacra: 8001200. Pelican History of Art. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin, 1972. One of the few efforts to survey the luxury arts: reliquaries, shrines, book bindings, ivories, and royal regalia. Arranged chronologically and by patrons within specific periods. The rise of regional schools sets the second half of the 11th century apart from the earlier period. De Limoges a Silos: Madrid, Brussels, Santo Domingo de Silos, 15 November 2001 28 April 2002. Madrid: Sociedad Estatal para la Accin Cultural Exterior, 2001. This exhibition examines the relationship between Limoges and a related atelier established in the Iberian Peninsula, probably in Silos, in the 12th century. Some essays from Enamels of Limoges 1996 are republished in Spanish. Others focus on enamelwork in Spain and problems of attribution, which are difficult because the working methods are so similar.

Painting The scholarship on Romanesque painting is vast. This is as it should be for such an important art form that incorporates several media: manuscript, mural, and glass, for example. A good, traditional overview of manuscripts and wall painting is provided byGrabar and Nordenfalk 1958. Dodwell 1971 provides an insightful survey of manuscripts and wall painting: more complex thanGrabar and Nordenfalk 1958 and narrower than Dodwell 1993, which is a study of

a wider variety of painting media (cited underGeneral Overviews). Pacht 1962 is not a survey but rather examines the devices by which narrative was expressed visually. Dodwell, C. R. Painting in Europe, 800 to 1200. The Pelican History of Art. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin, 1971. Covers manuscript and wall painting, private and public arts by monastic and secular artists, all having a strong Benedictine impress. According to Dodwell, after experimenting with older and foreign styles (classical, Byzantine, and Barbarian), Europe produced an art unmistakably its own, abstract and transcendental. Romanesque art was first formulated in Ottonian Germany. Organized chronologically and by region. Grabar, Andr, and Carl Nordenfalk. Romanesque Painting from the Eleventh to the Thirteenth Century. Translated by Stuart Gilbert. Great Centuries of Painting. New York: Skira, 1958. Separate chapters for wall painting and for manuscript illumination. Wall painting is organized geographically. Illumination introduces the different types of manuscripts, ornamented initials, and pictorial style. Notes the changing definition of Romanesque and how its chronology varies from one region to another. Although the bibliography is now dated, the survey has the benefit of good color illustrations. Translated from French. Pcht, Otto. The Rise of Pictorial Narrative in Twelfth-Century England. Oxford: Clarendon, 1962. Around 1120 CE, full picture cycles suddenly appeared in England, a phenomenon equal in importance to the rise of monumental sculpture. Examines how an image conveys movement in time through continuous narrative, gestures, literal rendering of words. A penetrating classic study applicable to many of the figural arts. MANUSCRIPT PAINTING (MINIATURES, ILLUMINATION, DRAWING) Under this heading several general surveys of manuscript painting are listed in addition to examples of exemplary catalogues of specific types of manuscript production. Robb 1973 provides an introduction useful for undergraduates or those new to the field. More complex analyses for advanced readers are offered by Pcht 1986 and Alexander 1992. Holcomb 2009 offers a much-needed look at pen-and-ink drawings, an important form of manuscript decoration in the Middle Ages. Cahn 1982 examines Bible production, important in the years c. 1000c. 1200. Alexander, Jonathan J. G. Medieval Illuminators and their Methods of Work. New Haven, CT, and London: Yale University Press, 1992. A survey of manuscript painting from the 4th to the 16th century, with emphasis on the social and historical context, methods of production, the role of the patron. An appendix publishes contracts for illuminators, the earliest being 14th century. As with Pcht 1984, this is a sophisticated presentation for the informed reader. Cahn, Walter. Romanesque Bible Illumination. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1982. Begins with Antiquity, Carolingian, Mozarabic, Anglo-Saxon and Ottonian Bibles. With the 11th century, chapters continue to be organized by region, then by the books of the Bible, artists, and patrons. A catalogue presents a selection of Bibles produced from c. 1000c. 1200. While helpful, some of the entries are carelessly prepared. Holcomb, Melanie. Pen and Parchment Drawing in the Middle Ages: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2 June23 August 2009. New Haven, CT, and London: Yale University Press, 2009. Pen-and-ink drawings from the 9th through the 14th centuries, a long overdue study. Excellent survey for students and scholars. Color illustrations for material that is too often published in black and white. Pcht, Otto. Book Illumination in the Middle Ages. 1984. Translated by Kay Davenport. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1986.

A rich discussion of manuscript painting for the knowledgeable reader. After considerations of the book as symbol, chapters cover initials, Bible illustration, didactic images, the Apocalypse, the Psalter; the organization is conceptual rather than chronological. Views the traditional unity between script and picture as disrupted by spatial illusion at the end of the Middle Ages. Originally in German. Robb, David M. The Art of the Illuminated Manuscript. South Brunswick, NJ: A. S. Barnes, 1973. A broad survey of manuscript painting, organized chronologically. Romanesque is defined as the 12th and 13th centuries. Still a clear basic introduction to the field. Regional Studies Among excellent regional studies, English Romanesque manuscripts are catalogued by Kauffmann 1975; French Cistercian manuscripts by Zaluska 1991, building on Zaluskas previous work; and Spanish Apocalypse manuscripts, by Williams 1998. Although there are many fine monographs on Romanesque manuscripts, only two very different studies that suggest a range of methodologies are listed here. Schapiro 1964, in an illuminating essay, examines a manuscript from the monastery of Cluny for style and patronage. Gibson, et al. 1992 provides a meticulous study of all aspects of the famous Eadwine Psalter and what it might tell us about monastic art. Gibson, Margaret, T. A. Heslop, and Richard W. Pfaff, eds. The Eadwine Psalter: Text, Image and Monastic Culture in Twelfth-Century Canterbury. Publications of the Modern Humanities Research Association 14. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1992. A thorough study of the mid-12th-century copy of the Utrecht Psalter by a team of experts. A model for manuscript study covering codicology, paleography, text, illustrations, decoration, and glosses. Kauffmann, C. M. Romanesque Manuscripts, 10661190. A Survey of Manuscripts Illuminated in the British Isles 3. London: Harvey Miller, 1975. A catalogue of one hundred manuscripts from this period, which was a high point in English medieval painting. An introduction covers history, production, books illuminated, style. The catalogue proper provides basic information, description, and bibliography for each manuscript, with over three hundred black-and-white illustrations and a few color plates interspersed. An essential reference tool. Schapiro, Meyer. The Parma Ildefonsus. A Romanesque Illuminated Manuscript from Cluny and Related Works. New York: College Art Association, 1964. A luxury copy of Ildefonsuss essay about the Virgin is examined in light of the two artists who produced the illuminations and the intended recipient of the volume, probably a gift to a highranking Spanish official from Cluny. Available as an e-book. Williams, John. The Illustrated Beatus: A Corpus of the Illustrations of the Commentary on the Apocalypse. 5 vols. London: Harvey Miller, 1998. A monumental catalogue of Spanish manuscripts of the Commentary on the Apocalypse by Beatus produced from the 9th through the 13th centuries. Essays place each manuscript into its historical and stylistic context. Major illuminations and initials are reproduced in black and white. Tables for subjects illustrated, their locations within extant manuscripts, and transcription of all inscriptions. An essential reference tool. Zaluska, Yolanta, with Marie-Franoise Damongeot, France Saulnier, and Guy Lano. Manuscrits enlumins de Dijon. Corpus des manuscrits enlumins des collections publiques des dpartements. Paris: Editions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 1991.

An impressive catalogue of manuscripts in Dijon, primarily Cistercian. Style and iconography discussed, many color illustrations. Although this publishes only those works in Dijon, it builds on previous research by Zaluska on the Cistercians. In French. MURAL PAINTING (WALL PAINTING, FRESCO) Mural painting has a longer history than monumental sculpture and has had considerable impact on sculptural programs once they began to develop. Nevertheless, their study is too often kept separate. Although there are many fine monographs on individual sites, the corpus of wall painting by Demus 1970 has not yet been superseded. Excellent recent articles and a survey of the field are found in Dale 2004. Dale, Thomas E. A., ed., with John Mitchell. Shaping Sacred Space and Institutional Identity in Romanesque Mural Painting: Essays in Honour of Otto Demus. London: Pindar, 2004. The valuable introduction surveys the function of mural painting and recent scholarship in the field. Essays on monuments in France, Italy, and Spain by outstanding specialists demonstrate the impact of ritual, devotion, and politics on church decoration. In English and French. Demus, Otto. Romanesque Mural Painting. Translated by Mary Whittall. New York and London: Abrams, 1970. The classic catalogue for mural painting. A general survey discusses function, style, artists, and distribution, then the various regions of western Europe except for Scandinavia. A catalogue provides short monographs on each site. STAINED GLASS (GLASS PAINTING) Usually treated as a Gothic medium, Grodecki 1977 groups together glass paintings that are stylistically Romanesque even if they sometimes appear in Gothic buildings. Caviness 1983 provides a valuable bibliography that is not organized chronologically; hence what is Romanesque is not considered in favor of other matters pertinent to the study of glass painting. Caviness, Madeline Harrison, with Evelyn Ruth Staudinger. Stained Glass before 1540: An Annotated Bibliography. Reference Publications in Art History. Boston: G. K. Hall, 1983. After sections on general surveys, technical studies, and collections and sales, the entries are organized by country. In addition to western Europe, some eastern European countries and Turkey are covered. Indexes for authors, glass painters, topography. The chronological range is broad, so one would have to know which sites are Romanesque to find relevant entries. Grodecki, Louis, Catherine Brisac, and Claudine Lautier. Le vitrail roman. Fribourg, Switzerland: Office du Livre, 1977. The first comprehensive study of Romanesque stained glass, roughly defined as 12th century, covering France, Germany, and England, including the Year 1200 style, seen as a tributary of the past (see Exhibition Catalogues). Includes a brief history of the medium and technique. In French.

Iconography In a sense, studies in 11th and 12th-century iconography were initiated by mile Mle (see General Overviews). There are no other broad surveys of similar character (see also Bibliographies), so the following selections present various methodological approaches to the study of meaning in Romanesque art. The Index of Christian Art provides the raw material for iconographic research with its photograph archive and search terms. Much of Romanesque art reflects the Gregorian Reform; the impact on wall painting is examined by Toubert 1990.

How liturgical and ritual practice can mold images was an interest of Meyer Schapiro (see General Overviews, Sculpture). His methods have been developed further by Forsyth 1972 and Werckmeister 1972. The social context of the art work, also a concern of Schapiros, is described by Seidel 1981 for Aquitanian faades and the Crusades. In recent years, Mles assertion that animals and other ornaments are meaningless has been questioned by several scholars able to find a textual basis for their interpretation within Christian art; Rudolph 1997 is one important example. Forsyth, Ilene H. The Throne of Wisdom: Wood sculptures of the Madonna in Romanesque France. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1972. How theology determines the representation of Mary and the Christ Child in the wood statues carried in processions and placed on church altars. A classic study. Index of Christian Art (ICA). Princeton University, 1917. An invaluable resource, the Index is both a website (available only to subscribers) and a physical archive. One can search a specific artwork, an iconographic theme, and bibliography for a subject. Although there is a learning curve, the results are worth it. Electronic resources offered to the nonsubscribing public include bibliographies, as well as images of Byzantine art, Danish wall painting, stained glass, and Gothic architecture. Rudolph, Conrad. Violence and Daily Life: Reading, Art, and Polemics in the Cteaux Moralia in Job. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1997. Although images not formally biblical were often dismissed as meaningless ornamentation, Rudolph demonstrates that in this manuscript they often may be related to concepts in the text neighboring the image. Seidel, Linda. Songs of Glory: The Romanesque Faades of Aquitaine. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1981. The impact of the Crusades upon the form and subject matter of the distinctive portals of western France. Roman and Carolingian heritage as well as contemporary social concerns shaped these churches as well. Always innovative in her approach to Romanesque sculpture, Seidel provokes her readers into examining their assumptions. Toubert, Hlne. Un art dirig: rforme grgorienne et iconographie. Paris: Editions du Cerf, 1990. Examines programs of wall paintings at sites of the 11th and 12th centuries: Rome, Montecassino, Vendme, Sorpe, SantAngelo in Formis, Nonantola. Valuable insight into the impact of the Gregorian Reform on images aimed at the public; thus, the issues covered are relevant to all fields of Romanesque art. In French. Werckmeister, O. K. The Lintel Fragment Representing Eve from Saint -Lazare, Autun. Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 35 (1972): 130. A model iconographic study interprets the relief representing Eve of Saint-Lazare, Autun, through ritual and liturgical practices for penance, documented in Autun. North portals are often the site for penitential rites. LAST MODIFIED: 12/15/2010