Piazza della Grammatica 1 • Antonella Olson & Eric Edwards, Presentatori e Capocomici Gentili Ascoltatori, Dear Listeners, Thanks for

tuning in! Here is the transcript of our recent broadcast, “The One Where Arlecchino Visits the King,” which you can hear by accessing the following link: http://tltc.la.utexas.edu/ra/episode.php?p=01

Transcript
Arlecchino: Una volta, tanto tempo fa, quando ero molto più giovane, lavoravo nella fattoria di una vecchia signora. C'erano due altri servi che ci lavoravano, un tale Brighella, un Pedrolino, e c'ero pure io. La signora non era ricca. Era sempre gentile con noi, anche se lei mi considerava un po' scemo. Antonella: Un giorno abbiamo saputo che il re festeggiava il suo compleanno, e tutte le case della zona, grandi e piccole, volevano mandare qualche regalo al monarca. Arlecchino: La signora non aveva molto, come ho già detto, ma in un cestino ha messo quello che poteva: burro, pane, vino e una bella torta di mele, tutte cose fatte lì alla fattoria. Antonella: Visto che Brighella era il più forte dei servi, la signora lo ha chiamato e gli ha dato il cestino. Gli ha detto di andare al castello del re per consegnargli il suo regalo. Molto fiero di poter eseguire questo importantissimo compito, Brighella è partito subito la mattina dopo con il cestino. Per arrivare al castello del re Arlecchino: Once upon a time, a long time ago, when I was much younger, I was working on the farm of an old lady. There were two other servants who were working there, a certain Brighella, one Pedrolino, and there was me. The lady wasn’t rich. She was always kind to us, even though she thought of me as rather a dolt. Antonella: One day we learned that the king was celebrating his birthday, and all the households thereabouts, great and small, wanted to send some gift to the monarch. Arlecchino: The lady didn’t have much, as I have said, but she put what she could into a basket: butter, bread, wine and a fine apple pie, all things made there on the farm. Antonella: Since Brighella was the strongest of the servants, the lady called him and gave him the basket. She told him to go to the king’s castle and offer him her gift. Very proud of being able to carry out this very important task, Brighella set out right away on the following morning with the basket. To get to the king’s castle he had to

Radio Arlecchino, Episode 1, pg 1 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc.la.utexas.edu/

doveva attraversare una grande foresta misteriosa, ma lui non aveva paura -almeno così diceva. Arlecchino: Nel mezzo del bosco ha incontrato una brutta strega che è saltata davanti a lui da dietro un albero. La strega: Ehi, giovanotto -Arlecchino: ha detto la strega -La strega: Che cosa porti nel cestino?

cross a great mysterious forest, but he was not afraid – at least that’s what he said.

Arlecchino: In the middle of the woods he met an ugly witch who jumped out at him from behind a tree. The witch: Hey, young man -Arlecchino: said the witch -The witch: What are you carrying in your basket? Arlecchino: Brighella didn’t want to tell the truth to the witch. That ugly old crone was capable of stealing the good things he was supposed to take to the king. Antonella: So he said to her: Brighella: Nothing really, ma’am... They’re potato peels, egg shells, coffee grounds and bits of wilted salad... I’m taking them to my granny who feeds them to the chickens. The witch: I have no use for those things, young man. Farewell! Arlecchino: said the witch. And Brighella set off again down the road. Antonella: When Brighella arrived at the castle, they brought him before the king. Brighella knelt down and the king asked him: the King: What nice things have you brought me? What is your fine gift? Antonella: Brighella, all beaming with pride, opened the basket and offered it to the king.

Arlecchino: Brighella non ha voluto dire la verità alla strega. Quella brutta vecchia era capace di rubare le buone cose che lui doveva portare dal re. Antonella: Quindi le ha detto: Brighella: Davvero niente, signora... Sono bucce di patate, gusci di uova, grani di caffè e cespi di insalata marcia... li porto da mia nonna che li dà da mangiare alle galline. La strega: Quelle cose non mi servono, giovanotto. Addio! Arlecchino: ha detto la strega, e Brighella ha ripreso la strada. Antonella: Quando Brighella è arrivato al castello, lo hanno portato davanti al re. Brighella si è inginocchiato e il re gli ha domandato: il Re: Che cosa di bello mi hai portato? Qual è il tuo bel regalo? Antonella: Brighella, tutto fiero e orgoglioso, ha aperto il cestino e l'ha offerto al re.

Radio Arlecchino, Episode 1, pg 2 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc.la.utexas.edu/

il Re: Diavoli e demoni! Antonella: ha gridato il sovrano. il Re: Venite tutti a vedere le bucce di patate e e tutte le schifezze che questo mascalzone ha osato di portarmi! Antonella: Brighella è rimasto stupito ma era vero: nel cestino non c'erano più le buone cosa preparate dalla signora... ma tutte le brutte cose raccontate nella sua bugia alla strega. Arlecchino: A calci nel sedere lo hanno spinto fuori del castello. Brighella mogio mogio se ne è tornato a casa, dove la signora lo ha accolto a bastonate. la vecchia signora: Pedrolino -Arlecchino: ha urlato la signora -la vecchia signora: Ora tocca a te! Non ripetere la sciocchezza di Brighella! Eccoti un altro cestino... Arlecchino: Mentre Pedrolino attraversava la foresta, di nuovo si è presentata la strega, sempre con la stessa richiesta. Antonella: Anche Pedrolino le ha mentito, dicendo: Pedrolino: Qui nel mio cestino c'è solo sterco, che porto da mia zia che vuole fertilizzare i suoi campi. La strega: Uffa, che schifo! Arlecchino: ha risposto la strega. La strega: Lo sterco non mi serve. Addio,

the King: Devils and demons! Antonella: cried the sovereign. the King: Come all of you and behold the potato peels and all the rubbish this scoundrel has dared to bring me! Antonella: Brighella was astounded but it was true: the good things prepared by the lady were no longer in the basket... only the ugly things described in his lie to the witch.

Arlecchino: They drove him out of the castle with kicks in his behind. Brighella sheepishly returned home, where the lady welcomed him with blows of her stick. The old lady: Pedrolino -Arlecchino: cried the lady -The old lady: It’s your turn now! Don’t repeat any of Brighella’s foolishness! Here’s another basket for you... Arlecchino: As Pedrolino crossed the forest, the witch appeared again, again with the same request.

Antonella: And Pedrolino lied to her as well, saying: Pedrolino: Here in my basket there’s nothing but manure, which I am taking to my aunt to fertilize her fields. The witch: Ugh, how disgusting! Arlecchino: answered the witch. The witch: I have no use for manure.

Radio Arlecchino, Episode 1, pg 3 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc.la.utexas.edu/

but she has sent the best from her farm.. and I said to her: “Ma’am. in my basket I have bread. Radio Arlecchino. young man! Arlecchino: And Pedrolino set off again down the road. “Your majesty. young man. but I see that you are hungry. who was already looking in the basket.edu/ . che già guardava nel cestino.. tanto al re non manca certo il cibo. ma vedo che Lei ha fame. e le ho detto: “Signora.. giovanotto. but I’ve just had lunch and I’m not hungry. nel mio cestino ho pane. sei molto gentile. interrupted me.. When the old crone of the woods asked me what I was carrying in my basket.” Antonella: But the king. you are very kind.” Antonella: Ma il re. burro. ma ha mandato del meglio della sua fattoria. e gli ho detto: “Maestà. Take what you will. Quando la vecchia del bosco mi ha chiesto cosa portavo nel mio cestino.utexas. after all. The witch: Thank you. il Re: Angeli e cherubini! Antonella: ha esclamato. the King: Angels and cherubim! Antonella: he exclaimed.... Prenda quello che vuole. solo. e una torta di mele. sono per fare un regalo al re. but she took nothing from my basket. they’re to be a gift for the king. and an apple pie. Episode 1. Antonella: Potete immaginare la sorpresa e la disperazione del disgraziato Pedrolino quando il re ha aperto il suo bello e profumato regalo di sterco! Arlecchino: Alla signora non rimaneva nient’altro da fare che chiamare me. pg 4 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. ho visto non una strega ma una povera donna affamata.giovanotto! Arlecchino: E Pedrolino ha ripreso la strada. ma ho appena pranzato e non ho fame. mi ha interrotto.. Antonella: You can imagine wretched Pedrolino’s surprise and despair when the king opened his fine fragrant gift of manure! Arlecchino: There was nothing left for the lady to do but to call upon me. ma non ha preso niente dal mio cestino. La strega: Grazie. the king surely doesn’t want for food. Mi ha dato un terzo cestino e mi ha implorato di non farla vergognare ancora davanti al re.” La strega mi ha fissato a lungo. butter. Good-bye and farewell! Arlecchino: Later I knelt before the king and said to him.. only.” The witch stared at me a good while.. Addio e buon viaggio! Arlecchino: Dopo mi sono inginocchiato davanti al re. I saw not a witch but a poor starving woman.. She gave me a third basket and implored me not to shame her again before the king.la.. la mia padrona non è ricca. Farewell. my mistress is not rich.

Arlecchino: Ah.edu/ . Arlecchino begins his account by describing the situation that was in existence at the moment his story began: I was much younger... She has to put the items in the basket before she sends Brighella off to the castle with it. your Arlecchino is the servant of many a master. “in un cestino ha messo. while others are taking place.. One event takes place and is completed before the next one begins. The verbs are in the imperfetto. Episode 1. e il protagonista di tante storie. ma... sentences contain verbs in both the passato prossimo and the imperfetto. Arlecchino. caro Antonella: Pardon me a moment.. Events that occur in the background. They are in progress when another action begins... It’s an event in a sequence of events. l'oro e l'argento. Nota Grammaticale People learning Italian sometimes have a tough time with this issue of picking the right verb tense when they are narrating past events. that this poor peasant has managed to bring me! Antonella: Scusa un attimo... They are the events.. The verb is in the passato prossimo. So the verb is in the imperfetto. your story is lovely. my dear Arlecchino. I was working on a farm. As the story moves forward. the court requested.. Events that occur in a sequence will be expressed with the passato prossimo. etc..utexas. she thought of me as a dolt.” “she put in a basket.. but. there were two other servants there. Notice that in the first paragraph of Arlecchino’s tale. and ends. and the hero of many a tale. that moves the plot forward. is carried out.... a completed action..la.... molto bella la tua storia. pg 5 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc.. Radio Arlecchino. that flesh out the story but do not move it forward.. These verbs are in the passato prossimo. but it doesn’t have to be all that difficult.. These are the events that move the plot forward.. the lady was not rich. nothing actually happens – we merely learn about the setting in which the real story will unfold. We found out..” Now this is an event.” Not having much is not something that the lady did (we know neither when this condition began nor when it ended—and that’s not the point). In the second paragraph. the gold and the silver. che questo povero contadino è riuscito a portarmi! the King: Come all of you and behold the pearls. it’s the situation she was in when the real story events took place. We rarely know (or care) when these events begin or when they end. are sei sicuro che il protagonista sei proprio tu? you sure that you yourself are really its hero? Arlecchino: Eh'..il Re: Venite tutti a vedere i diamanti e le perle. a series of completed actions begins that puts the story in motion and moves it forward. “La signora non aveva molto. are expressed with the imperfetto. Later in the same sentence.. or states of mind or being. il tuo Arlecchino è il servitore di tanti padroni.

. “la signora lo ha chiamato. “era il più forte. It can be great fun to see how Italian folk tales both resemble and are different from the ones we are familiar with. the passato remoto is used in Italian only to mention changes and events. When did he start being the strongest? We don’t know and that’s not important.“Visto che Brighella era il più forte dei servi. Then. and in relatively formal non-fiction prose such as biographies and histories. He collected and translated from dialects tales passed on through oral tradition by the Italian people. la signora lo ha chiamato e gli ha dato il cestino. Episode 1.utexas. this tense may be heard in everyday conversation. The statement is merely describing the situation that existed at the moment the lady called him. In either context. we recommend that you consult a good dictionary or grammar reference book. If you are interested in reading fairy tales in Italian. First she called him. keep in mind Italo Calvino’s Fiabe italiane (1956). Passato prossimo. Calvino’s intent in this work was to represent all kinds of documented fables and folk tales existing in the various Italian dialects and regions.. and which are relaying information about completed events that move the plot of your story forward. Tune in again soon—and tell your friends you heard it conjugated on Radio Arlecchino! Your hosts with the most – grammar. then she gave him the basket. In Calvino’s collection. Buon divertimento! Nota Culturale As Antonella mentions. pg 6 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. The passato remoto is rarely used in conversation.edu/ . and short stories. Then when you tell a story or relate an anecdote in Italian. Make sure you are familiar with the appendices of any textbook you might be using. in some Southern regions of Italy (particularly in Sicily) as well as in Tuscany.” imperfetto. the atmosphere.” This is an action completed by the lady before the next action was completed. So. novels. or the general situation. We encourage you to look at all the verbs in the imperfetto and the passato prossimoin Arlecchino’s tale and think about why it’s in the tense it’s in. However. Antonella Olson & Eric Edwards “Out of our minds . into your ears” Radio Arlecchino.la. while the imperfetto remains the tense used for describing the setting. an ongoing state of mind. the majority of the tales belong to the regions of Tuscany and Sicily.” Brighella’s being the strongest of the servants is not an action he performed or completed. in fictional narrative such as fairy-tales. the passato remoto is frequently used instead of passato prossimo to communicate events (“actions”) completed in the past. you can think about which verbs are supplying descriptions and background information. For all the excruciating details about the imperfetto and the passato prossimo. Events in a sequence.

you were a very lucky man.edu/ . la bellissima regina d'Egitto. I was a valiant general and the Roman senate named me first Consul and later Dictator. Here’s a transcript of “Great Caesar’s Ghost!” our recent show about narrating in the past using the passato remoto. Julius Caesar the Cat: Frankly. I wasn’t. Arlecchina: My. Radio Arlecchino. Presentatori e Capocomici Gentili Ascoltatori. Gatto Giulio Cesare: Sinceramente no. the incredibly beautiful queen of Egypt. Come fu la tua vita privata? What about your private life? Gatto Giulio Cesare: Ebbi una moglie e mi legai anche a Cleopatra. Arlecchina: Mamma mia. pochi anni dopo mi spinsi anche fino al Tamígi.la. Arlecchina speaks with Julius Caesar the cat Arlecchina: Is it true that you even conquered Gaul? Julius Caesar the Cat: Certainly. which you can hear by clicking on the following link: http://tltc. Il Julius Caesar the Cat: I had a wife and I was also linked with Cleopatra. Arlecchina: Beh.la. Dear Listeners. Fui un generale valoroso ed il senato romano mi nominò prima console e dopo dittatore.Piazza della Grammatica 1 • Antonella Olson & Eric Edwards.edu/ra/episode. che interessante! Arlecchina: Gracious. tu fosti un uomo molto fortunato. how interesting.php?p=02 Hanno partecipato: Marco Derisi Bob Olson Antonella Olson Mark Garrison Buon divertimento! Featured in this broadcast: il Gatto Giulio Cesare il Gatto Marco Aurelio Colombina il Gatto Nerone Transcript Arlecchina parla con il Gatto Giulio Cesare Arlecchina: È vero che tu conquistasti anche la Gallia? Gatto Giulio Cesare: Certamente. Episode 2. pg 1 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. and a few years later I drove on as far as the Thames.utexas.utexas.

You don’t believe me? In fact the last person I talked to didn’t believe me either. Arlecchina: Beh.. And I have never learned to walk like an Egyptian!.utexas. Arlecchina: Oh. didn't you? I saw you once a long time ago in one called The Gladiator.edu/ . non è vero? Ti vidi molto tempo fa in uno chiamato Il Gladiatore. My adopted son Brutus stabbed me to death and my wife shed few tears over my death.. really. My son Commodus didn’t really kill me. bensì un attore. Gatto Marco Aurelio: Non posso dire che mi dispiacque. Gatto Marco Aurelio: Bella la tua frase.mio figlio adottivo Bruto mi pugnalò a morte e mia moglie non pianse molto per la mia scomparsa. so che la tua statua di bronzo scampò alla distruzione perchè i papi pensavano che fosse Costantino. se un gatto può parlare può pure essere un imperatore.. Marcus Aurelius the Cat: That wasn’t me. Arlecchina: Ma facesti anche dei film. I reigned for almost twenty years and I died in 180 A. Arlecchina: Lo disse una volta un mio amico filosofo. non ci credette neanche l’ultimo a cui ho parlato. me. E se sei davvero Marco Aurelio.” Marcus Aurelius the Cat: What a fine turn of phrase! I couldn’t have said it better myself.. “la morte sorride a tutti. all a man can do is smile back at her. io regnai per quasi vent’anni e morii nel 180 dopo Cristo.. the first Christian emperor. E io non ho mai imparato a camminare all’egiziana! Il Gatto Marco Aurelio rivolge la parola ad Arlecchina Gatto Marco Aurelio: Io fui l’imperatore Marco Aurelio. I know that your bronze statue escaped destruction because the popes thought it was Constantine. Arlecchina: Now you made some movies.D.la.. il primo imperatore cristiano. too. And I was quite proud when Michelangelo decided to place it at the top of the Capitoline. io. Mio figlio Commodo non mi uccise mica. pg 2 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. Arlecchina: Oh. Non avrei potuto esprimermi meglio io stesso. Gatto Marco Aurelio: Ma quello non ero io. Marcus Aurelius the Cat: I cannot say that I was displeased. Episode 2. Marcus Aurelius the Cat addresses Arlecchina Marcus Aurelius the Cat: I was the emperor Marcus Aurelius.. Radio Arlecchino. E fui molto orgoglioso quando Michelangelo decise di metterla in cima al Campidoglio. “Death smiles at everyone. Arlecchina: A good philosopher friend of mine said it. Non mi credi? In effetti. but an actor. Arlecchina: Well.. un uomo non può far altro che sorriderle di rimando”. if a cat can talk then what’s to keep him from being an emperor? And if you are really Marcus Aurelius.

in contemporary standard Italian this tense has essentially become a literary tense used in two main situations: 1. Io prima le dissi di si. Colombina: Si dice che Lei uccise anche sua madre Agrippina. Radio Arlecchino.utexas. Colombina: They say that you killed even your mother Agrippina. I was so busy memorizing the verses of my new tragedy. Episode 2. in narrative fiction (short stories. ongoing actions. that is. non avresti per caso un cerino? Colombina speaks with Nero the Cat Colombina: Is it true that you did horrible things? Nero the Cat: All fibs! I was a great misunderstood artist. Poor mummy! Say. you wouldn’t have a match on you. the imperfetto will still be used to convey background and descriptive information.la. Gatto Nerone: Quella fu una idea della mia seconda moglie. encyclopedia articles. just to keep her satisfied. Ero cosi occupato con la memorizzazione dei versi della mia nuova tragedia. and habitually repeated actions. fece a pezzi la mia dolce mammina! Povera mamma! Senti. then I forgot to issue the countermand. Colombina: So your mother died by mistake? Nero the Cat: In a manner of speaking. is used to report completed actions. Nero the Cat: That was an idea of my second wife. Even in these two situations. Colombina: Allora sua madre morì per sbaglio? Gatto Nerone: In un certo senso. novels) and in formal expository prose (histories. Poppea. changes in states and to make reaction statements. pg 3 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. biographies.edu/ . would you? Nota Grammaticale The passato remoto is a simple.. past tense that. At first I told her yes. just like the passato prossimo. che mi passò di mente ed il sicario scelto da Poppea. Although there are some regions of Italy where the passato remoto is used in conversation for relatively recent events.. Poppea. poi mi dimenticai di dare il contrordine. that it slipped my mind and the killer Poppea had hired tore my sweet mummy to pieces. per farla stare tranquilla. and 2. when you are talking about events that occurred in a remote past (historical events or events that are seen as unrelated to current events). a one-word.Colombina parla con il Gatto Nerone Colombina: È vero che Lei fece cose orribili? Gatto Nerone: Tutte fandonie! Fui un grande artista incompreso.

Episode 2. the first Christian emperor. Legend has it that so long as Marcus Aurelius’ statue stands in the piazza. His gilded bronze equestrian statue survived destruction because the popes mistook it for a depiction of Constantine. It is still one the most crowded sites of modern Rome. a copy of it still dominates the breathtaking piazza del Campidoglio. It can be seen in the Capitoline Museum. Nota Culturale The most centrally located of the seven hills of Rome is the Capitoline Hill. It was placed in this piazza by Michelangelo in 1538 and was removed for restoration in 1981. but you definitely need to be familiar with it and to recognize it in order to read Italian texts. has three majestic palaces and the famous statue of the philosopher-emperor Marcus Aurelius (121-180 AD).Almost all first. pg 4 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. almost all second-conjugation verbs have irregular passato remoto conjugations. designed by Michelangelo. According to another legend: the stray cats of the Coliseum are the reincarnation of Radio Arlecchino.and third-conjugation verbs (-are and –ire) have regular passato remoto conjugations.utexas. civil marriage ceremonies are performed by officials of the Italian State. The Piazza del Campidoglio is a stunning backdrop for wedding photographs: in the Sala Rossa. The piazza.la.edu/ . the Eternal City of Rome will survive. which was the center of the political. social and religious life of ancient Rome. you don’t have to worry much about the passato remoto in conversation or in informal writing. Regular in the passato remoto 1st conjugation: cantare cantai cantammo cantasti cantaste cantò cantarono 2nd conjugation: vendere vendei (vendetti) vendemmo vendesti vendeste vendè (vendette) venderono (vendettero) 3rd conjugation: capire capii capimmo capisti capiste capì capirono 1-3-3 Pattern avere ebbi avesti ebbe leggere lessi leggesti lesse avemmo aveste ebbero leggemmo leggeste lessero Completely irregular: essere fui fummo fosti foste fu furono In summary. of whose famous aphorisms Arlecchina seems to be so fond. however.

Episode 2. into your ears” Radio Arlecchino.utexas..la. Look for them when you visit this Roman landmark. they may share some unrevealed secrets about Ancient Rome with you! Thanks for listening! And be sure to tell your friends that you heard it here on Radio Arlecchino! Your hosts with the most – grammar.Roman Emperors. pg 5 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. Antonella Olson & Eric Edwards “Out of our minds ..edu/ .

quando sono nato. it’s great to see you again! How are you? Pulcinella: Fine. grazie. Thank you.Piazza della Grammatica 1 • Antonella Olson & Eric Edwards. me... grazie.edu/ . grazie a tutti quanti. il medico non mi aveva ancora sculacciato quando ho cominciato a cantare. Pulcinella: "Pulcinella Plugged" Antonella: ma è stupendo! L'ho sentito ieri. the doctor hadn’t spanked me yet when I started to sing. pg 1 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc.. everybody... Thanks. mio caro. Antonella: Listen. Pulcinella: "Pulcinella Plugged" Antonella: why it’s stupendous! I heard it yesterday.. bene.. Radio Arlecchino. Antonella: Senti.... I had never heard music like that.utexas. “Pulcinella Plugged. is it true that at the age of seven you had all ready composed your first little songs? Pulcinella: Listen. Non avevo mai sentito una musica simile. Presentatori e Capocomici Gentili Ascoltatori. Dear Listeners. Episode 3.la.la. thank you.. thanks. fine. Pulcinella: Did you like it too? Antonella: Of course! Tell me something.utexas. this new CD of yours.. Pulcinella.edu/ra/episode. è vero che all'età di sette anni avevi già composto le tue prime canzonette? Pulcinella: Senti.. Antonella: Pulcinella. Pulcinella.php?p=03 Ha partecipato: Nevin Pecorelli Buon divertimento! Featured in this program: as Pulcinella Transcript Antonella: Pulcinella. my dear. questo tuo nuovo CD. io... grazie. Ciao.. che piacere rivederti! Come stai? Pulcinella: Bene.” http://tltc.. Pulcinella: È piaciuto anche a te? Antonella: Come no! Dimmi una cosa. Here is a transcript of our recent broadcast about using the trapassato prossimo and the trapassato remoto to talk about the past.. when I was born.

edu/ ....la... In effetti. Pulcinella: Assolutamente no!. il grande pubblico aspettava da anni una novità musicale quando tu finalmente hai ritrovato l'ispirazione e hai portato una ventata di novità col tuo "Pulcinella Plugged".. the public at large had been waiting for years for something new in music when you finally found your inspiration again and ushered in a breath of fresh air with your “Pulcinella Plugged.. Antonella: Incredibile! E come hai trovato poi il coraggio di proseguire? Pulcinella: L'ho trovato grazie a Colombina.. then? Pulcinella: I found it thanks to Colombina. In fact...... pg 2 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. Antonella: Anyway..utexas..? Radio Arlecchino.... avevo appena cominciato a scrivere una nuova canzone quando mi ha telefonato.. Pulcinella: Come mi ha incoraggiato l'entusiasmo di quella fanciulla! Antonella: Poi ti hanno contattato i rappresentanti della Dimentichi.. Antonella: So this new CD. "Pulcinella Plugged".. your success as a singer-songwriter didn’t happen overnight. Pulcinella: No no. it was him. Pulcinella: Absolutely not!. è stato proprio lui.? Antonella: Are you serious?! Pulcinella: Pulcinella: No joke.... Antonella: Comunque il tuo grande successo da cantautore non è stata una cosa repentina. Antonella: Posso immaginarmelo. Everything changed when I sang a few of my tunes for her. Antonella: I can imagine. When I grew up I had abandoned every hope of becoming famous. Antonella: Incredible! So how did you find the courage to go on.. I had just started writing a new song when he phoned me.. Antonella: Davvero? Pulcinella: È rimasta sbalordita dalle musiche che avevo scritto da giovane.. "Pulcinella Plugged". Pulcinella: No no. Mr Dimentichi himself.. Da grande avevo abbandonato ogni speranza di raggiungere la fama. il signor Dimentichi...” Pulcinella: How that girl’s enthusiasm encouraged me! Antonella: Then the agents from Dimentichi contacted you.Antonella: Ma dici sul serio?! Pulcinella: Non so scherzare. Antonella: Really? Pulcinella: She was astonished by the music I had written when I was young... Antonella: Allora questo CD.. Tutto è cambiato da quando le ho cantato alcune mie melodie.. Episode 3.

The good news is that. online. Radio Arlecchino... I really have to run. best wishes for the CD. Guys... amici. ragazzi. So long. Nota Grammaticale The trapassato prossimo and the trapassato remoto are the last two past tenses we are going to talk about.Pulcinella: Tutt'una nuova fase nello sviluppo della musica leggera. Pulcinella! Can’t you stay with us a little bit longer? Pulcinella: I’m sorry. then there’s a party at Colombina’s. Antonella: Questo CD. devo proprio scappare. dicevo.edu/ .utexas. but I have to go....vi saluto.. The action 'scrivere le musiche' happened way before (in fact Pulcinella says 'da giovane') than the action 'Colombina è rimasta sbalordita'.. And again: 'Avevo appena cominciato a scrivere una nuova canzone quando mi ha telefonato il Signor Dimentichi'. in rete. we can focus on the trapassato prossimo.la. will be on sale. In fact we can't have a passato prossimo. Antonella: See you soon. friends. Pulcinella.. Quando i negozi si sono aperti stamani le copie del CD erano già arrivate.. modestia a parte.. it’s been a pleasure.. the copies of the CD had already arrived. if I do say so myself. pg 3 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc.. Antonellaa: Oh. sarà in vendita. devo fare uno spot pubblicitario qui nello studio accanto.. just before) Mr Dimentichi called Pulcinella. When the stores opened this morning. I was going to say.. Antonella: This CD. Antonella: Oh. Pulcinella.... Pulcinella! Non puoi rimanere ancora un attimo con noi? Pulcinella: Mi dispiace. I have to do a promo here in the studio next door. Pulcinella: È in vendita! Nei negozi. Pulcinella: An entirely new phase in the development of pop music. and having a passato remoto doesn't save us from also having a trapassato remoto... poi si fa una festa da Colombina. since the trapassato remoto is mainly used in literature. Anzi. Even in this sentence the action of writing the song happened before (even if it was 'appena'.. As Pulcinella says: 'Colombina è rimasta sbalordita dalle musiche che avevo scritto da giovane'.. Antonella: A presto..... without having a trapassato prossimo.. è stato un piacere. The function of the trapassato prossimo is to put the actions in the right chronological order: the trapassato prossimo is used to report actions that had happened further back in the past than the other ones that we are talking about. Episode 3.. ma devo andare -.. In the stores. Pulcinella: It is on sale. tanti auguri per il CD.

Trapassato prossimo = auxiliary in the imperfetto + past participle of verb mangiare. but its use is very restricted. or more commonly il trapassato prossimo) is formed with the auxiliary in the imperfetto followed by the past participle of the verb. Other times the trapassato prossimo comes out to show the prior cause of a past event: 'Non ho più scritto canzoni perchè avevo abbandonato la speranza di diventare un grande cantante' where 'avevo abbandonato la speranza' is the cause of past event 'Non ho più scritto canzoni'. you had eaten. The two tenses are often found together in the same text. The choice of auxiliary.utexas.When the trapassato prossimo reports an action that took place before another action in the past. pg 4 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc.I had gone. etc. Here you assume something happened after 'avevo abbandonato' that changed Pulcinella's situation. etc. when speaking of past events which are prior to other past actions. formation The pluperfect (il piuccheperfetto. Three different conditions must all be met before trapassato remoto can be the right tense to use: Radio Arlecchino. in formal writing. you had gone. Episode 3. Trapassato remoto Like the passato remoto. avevo mangiato avevamo mangiato avevi mangiato avevate mangiato aveva mangiato avevamo mangiato andare. essere or avere.la. to go . is the same as for the passato prossimo. ero andato/a eravamo andati/e eri andato/a eravate andati/e era andato/a erano andati/e The rules for past participle agreement in the trapassato prossimo are the same as for the passato prossimo. the other action is not always explicit. to eat I had eaten. the trapassato remoto is a tense used in literature and narrative writing.edu/ . Sometimes in fact you use the trapassato prossimo by itself without referring to the other action like 'Da grande avevo abbandonato ogni speranza di raggiungere la fama'. The trapassato remoto is used in literature. It is very similar to the trapassato prossimo in that it is used to refer to a past action that was completed before another action in the past. and in very formal speeches.

ebbi parlato avemmo parlato avesti parlato aveste parlato ebbe parlato ebbero parlato andare 'to go' . etc. such as (non) appena (as soon as). trapassato remoto must appear in a subordinate clause introduced by a conjunction of time.” a conjunction of time. The first condition has been met. pg 5 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. Episode 3. the clause with “had turned ten” is introduced by “appena.la. Trapassato remoto = auxiliary in the passato remoto + past participle of main verb parlare 'to speak' . the action of the verb in the trapassato remoto must be prior. 2. 3. you had gone. (As soon as he turned ten Pantalone began to save) 1. fui andato/a fummo andati/e fosti andato/a foste andati/e fu andato/a furono andati/e Radio Arlecchino. the verb in the main clause must be in the passato remoto. dopo che (after). etc.I had gone. you had spoken.edu/ . formation The trapassato remoto is formed with the passato remoto of the appropriate auxiliary (avere or essere) plus the past participle of the main verb. the verb in the main clause. is in the passato remoto. Consider the following example: Appena ebbe compiuto dieci anni Pantalone cominciò a risparmiare. the action of the verb in the subordinate clause is prior to the action in the main clause. or quando (when).utexas. Thus all three of the necessary conditions for trapassato remoto have been met. The second condition has been met.1.I had spoken. 2. it happens before the verb in the main clause. “cominciò”. that is. 3.

there is also a considerable number of Italian singers ranging from hip-hop and rap to techno. Sadly. the words that the singers sing.. You may also read and listen to some of the most important contemporary composers both Italian and foreign. To start your journey. Antonella Olson & Eric Edwards “Out of our minds .rai.Nota Culturale It can be great fun to familiarize yourself with these tenses through the history of the great period of the Italian opera and by reading the libretti that accompany each of these operas. Casa Ricordi is the oldest Italian music publishing firm and ‘undoubtedly the world’s most important publisher of opera. into your ears” Radio Arlecchino. Ricordi is also a very important Italian recording label. They are usually very easy to access online.com). Mimmo Locasciulli and many more. Verdi and Puccini.mtv.. You may search and learn more about such talented artists as Fabrizio De Andrè.edu/ . you could visit the web site of Casa Ricordi (www. Unfortunately. Pulcinella’s greatest hits are probably confined to history and our imagination.ricordi.utexas. On the web site of Casa Ricordi you may read about the most famous Italian composers from Rossini to Donizetti. Episode 3. pg 6 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc.it). It was founded in Milan in 1808 and Ricordi has published some of the all-time greatest Italian opera scores and libretti. libretti) is an Italian word that translates literally as "little book"—it’s the script of an opera. Paolo Conte. Libretto (pl. If opera is not your genre.la. Despite the strong presence of foreign artists. you won’t be able to learn much about the trapassato prossimo and the trapassato remoto as they are not much employed in this musical context. Another option is to log on the web site of the Italian public television network (www. Thanks for listening! And be sure to tell your friends that everything is plus quam perfectus – more than perfect – here on Radio Arlecchino! Your hosts with the most – grammar. there is a wide array of Italian pop singers whose work is accessible on the website of MTV Italia (www. as well as the other great names like Bellini.it) Usually. on the very first page there is a music section where you can learn about very many talented cantautori (singer-songwriters) that do not belong to the pop mainstream.

php?p=04 Gli artisti: Steven Miller Eric Edwards Artists in this broadcast: Pulcinella as a singer Writer and composer of Pulcinella’s song Marlene Lucio. not word for word!) Poor little. pg 1 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. Here’s a transcript of “I’m In the Mood For …” – our recent show about expressing opinions and emotions using the subjunctive mood.Piazza della Grammatica 1 • Antonella Olson & Eric Edwards. Quando la vedo sul palcoscenico crederai ch'io diventi schizofrenico In quel momento leggendario quando si alza il sipario mi pare che si tolga il tovagliolo per rivelare il raviolo più squisito della terra.edu/ra/episode. Henry Fuentes.edu/ .utexas.utexas. Dear Listeners. which you can hear by accessing http://tltc.la.la. Wesley Baker and Bryant Moscon as the Wheirdos Buon divertimento! Transcript La canzone di Pulcinella “Spaghetti alle lacrime” Il povero Pulcinella crede che la vita sia bella ma non sa cosa lo aspetta al veder Arlecchinetta. Presentatori e Capocomici Gentili Ascoltatori. little Pulcinella thinks that life is so stellar but he doesn’t know what’s gonna come when he sees Arlecchinetta. Episode 4. she’s the one! When I see her up on the stage I think I’m flying into a rage In that moment so legendary when the curtain lifts heavenly it seems that it removes the wrapping to reveal the ravioli’s delicate topping most exquisite throughout the globe a deadly greenhouse effect on my soul More delicious than my lovely Arlecchinetta Radio Arlecchino. Nel mio cuor: effetto serra! Più deliziosa di Arlecchinetta The Song of Pulcinella “Tearful Spaghetti (A poetic translation.

Pulcinella.non credo che pizza abbia fetta. Arlecchina. This use of the subjunctive in dependent clauses is triggered by verbs in the main clause that we may consider as belonging to the “WHEIRDO” category: verbs that denote wish or will. Arlecchina. doubt or denial. hope. Per il dolor della mia anima spezzata non c’è altro rimedio che una bella spaghettata. don’t be a fool I desperately want to say how much I love her every day but she doesn’t hear a thing she wants that I tell her No-thing! Arlecchina. E is for Emotion. H is for Hope. Questo è sogno? o è fatto? Pulcinella. sei matto Voglio disperatamente dirle quanto io le voglio bene ma lei non sente non vuole che le dica niente. Gli spettatori hanno paura che Arlecchino gli salti sulle gambe.edu/ . Episode 4. recommendations.utexas. Nota Grammaticale Indicative vs Subjunctive Main rules to use subjunctive (wheirdo category/two subjects) and infinitive (one subject) By far the most common use of the subjunctive is to express actions that are viewed subjectively rather than objectively: actions that are colored by emotion or doubt rather than reported as matters of fact. Spero che il Dottore non dia più fastidio ad Arlecchina. Vorrei che Colombina si innamorasse di me! I wish Colombina would fall in love with me. dai. I hope the Dottore won’t bother Arlecchina any more. or is it really true Come on. pg 2 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. not even the most delectable tomato on bruschetta Is this a dream. when you hear me cry and wail you’ll know that my heart’s gonna fail For the pain of my broken soul and psyche there’s no other remedy but a fine plate of spaghetti. The audience is afraid Arlecchino will jump right into their laps. Arlecchina. emotion. impersonal expressions. quando sentirai il mio pianto saprai che il mio cuor è infranto.la. opinions: W is for Wanting and Wishing. Radio Arlecchino.

the choice of verb tense almost always depends on when the action takes place: in the past. Pulcinella crede che la vita sia bella.indicative The Doctor thinks that Colombina is beautiful.subjunctive Colombina thinks that the Doctor is ugly.la.utexas.I is for Impersonal Expressions. O is for Opinion. È impossibile che Arlecchino smetta di corteggiare Colombina. While in the indicative mood. 2. pg 3 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. D is for Doubt. It’s impossible for Arlecchino to stop courting Colombina. The director recommends that all the actors learn their parts by heart. or the future. R is for Recommending. Arlecchina dubita che Pulcinella la difenda da Balanzone. Arlecchina doubts that Pulcinella will defend her from Balanzone. The subjunctive mood has four tenses: Presente: Penso che la canzone di Pulcinella abbia parole strane I think Pulcinella’s song has weird lyrics Penso che lui abbia scritto la canzone in un momento di follia I think he wrote the song in a moment of foolishness Speravamo che Pulcinella invitasse tutti We were hoping that Pulcinella would invite everyone Radio Arlecchino. Colombina pensa che il Dottore sia brutto -. Pulcinella believes that life is beautiful. Il regista si raccomanda che tutti gli attori imparino la parte a memoria.edu/ Passato: Imperfetto: . The dependent clause is introduced by che and has a subject different from the one in the main clause. Verb in the main clause belongs to the WHEIRDO category. Here some of the golden rules that govern this mood: 1. the present. Episode 4. the choice of tense depends on when the action takes place in relation to the verb in the main clause that triggers the use of the subjunctive in the subordinate clause: Il Dottore sa che Colombina è bella -. in the subjunctive mood.

When you decide to seat al tuo posto (your seat). you must find a parcheggio (parking area) for your car. If the verb in the main clause belongs to the WHEIRDO category and the subject of the main clause is the same as the subject of the dependent clause. The curtain goes up.utexas.) di cantare bene. Tuttavia (nonetheless) you give him your car and your money but non temere (fear not!) when lo spettacolo finisce (the show ends) your valuable car will still be there. il palcoscenico (the stage) dominates the theatre. You will wonder when you went to medical school or got your PhD or what strange use of the subjunctive is the one he uses. Vocabolario: a teatro If you decide to go to the Teatro in Italy you can buy il biglietto (the ticket) on line or al botteghino (ticket office).) to sing well (that he sings well). he will lure you with a venghi. In Rome. If la rappresentazione (the performance) is nice. the magic begins). Often. pg 4 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc.) di aver recitato bene ieri sera. Wherever you seat. where the pigeons stay) you are a probably a student and your tickets are molto economici (very cheap). If you seat in piccionaia (lit. then the infinitive mood must be used. In big theatres there are molte file numerate (many numbered rows) and it is not easy to find the right seat. the actors enter the stage. Infinito passato is used if the the action is past compared to the action of the verb in the main clause: Loro sperano (speravano/avevano sperato/ecc. outside the theatre a parcheggiatore (parking man) is available to accommodate your needs. Often. la magia incomincia. Radio Arlecchino.) to have performed (that they have/hadperformed) well last night . venghi Dotto’ (come. you will consume una bibita (a drink) before the show starts. Ecco. Episode 4. (the main floor in front of the stage) your tickets must be molto cari (very expensive). Si alza il sipario.Trapassato: Avremmo voluto che lo spettacolo fosse cominciato prima We would have wanted for the show to begin earlier. entrano gli attori. Infinito presente is used if the action is contemporary or future compared to the action of the verb in the main clause: Pulcinella pensa (pensava/aveva pensato/ecc. you ask la maschera (the usher) to help you locate it. Nota Culturale If you get a déjà vu feeling during this Moody Musical Moment. come Doctor). Pulcinella thinks (thought/had thought/etc. it might be because our Pulcinella has freely quoted--and misquoted--passages from Donizetti's L'elisir d'amore ("Una furtiva lagrima") and Puccini's Tosca ("E lucevan le stelle").la. Before entering the theatre. (Here it is.edu/ . If you seat in platea. They hope (were hoping/had hoped/etc.

If la rappresentazione is not nice..utexas. si può fischiare (one may boo) but always with classe e discrezione (tact and discretion)..edu/ . pg 5 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc.you applaudirai gli attori molte volte (you will applaud the actors many times). after all you are in Italy! Thanks for listening! And be sure to tell your friends that you heard it here on Radio Arlecchino! Your hosts with the most – grammar.la. Antonella Olson & Eric Edwards “Out of our minds . Enjoy the show and don’t forget to vestirsi in maniera appropriata (dress appropriately). into your ears” Radio Arlecchino. Episode 4.

Ascoltiamo gli attori mentre aspettano di entrare in scena… Dottore: Quando usciranno le recensioni. Arlecchina: È importante che Pulcinella impari ad accettare anche i commenti negativi. Pulcinella vorrà che gli leggiamo solo quelle favorevoli.edu/ .italiano Dietro le quinte al Teatro San Carlo.php?p=05 Hanno partecipato (Featured in this podcast): Simone Sessolo Pantalone Esmeralda Moscatelli Colombina Buon divertimento! Transcript Dialogue 1 . which you can hear by clicking on the following link: http://tltc. See you soon – it’s my turn to go on now..la. Episode 5. Here’s a transcript of “Opening Night Jitters” our recent show about the present and past subjunctive. Sono così zotici! A presto -. Dottore: I certainly hope this audience know how to recognize a quality performance. Radio Arlecchino.Piazza della Grammatica 1 • Antonella Olson & Eric Edwards. Arlecchino: Mi auguro che i miei colleghi si comportino bene sul palcoscenico. Arlecchino: I hope my colleagues will behave themselves on stage. They are so boorish. pg 1 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. The curtain has gone up on the First Act.la.utexas.. Presentatori e Capocomici Gentili Ascoltatori. Dottore: When the reviews come out. Pulcinella will want us to read him only the favorable ones. We listen in on the actors who are waiting in the wings.edu/ra/episode. Dear Listeners.Ora tocca a me entrare in scena! Dottore: Voglio sperare che questo pubblico sappia riconoscere una rappresentazione di qualità! Dialogue 1 – English Backstage at the Teatro San Carlo. Arlecchina: It’s important that Pulcinella learn to accept negative comments as well.utexas. Si è alzato il sipario per il Primo Atto.

Dottore: This is the very issue. my dear. You mustn’t believe that I am happy to be sharing the stage with these two jobless and penniless wretches. Dottore. Dottore: Ecce Doctor doctororum! Balanzone. arriva il Dottore! Temo che lui ce l’abbia con me. gli è riuscita male! Pantalone: Io credo che abbia cercato di Dialogue 2 – English Pantalone: Colombina. Sente come ridono? the audience are enjoying themselves.edu/ . Episode 5. mia cara. Dottore: Ecce Doctor doctororum! Balanzone. Non crederai che io sia felice di dividere questo palco con quei due disgraziati senza arte nè parte. Dottore. did you see what your Arlecchino managed to do during the scene? Colombina: Oh. I believe that Arlecchino and Pulcinella have always performed here in Naples to great success. I saw it! No matter what he tried to do. Dottore.. Arlecchino: Behold..Arlecchina: Non credo che ci sia da preoccuparsi. innate theatrical abilities. Arlecchina: Però mi pare che il pubblico si Arlecchina: However it seems to me that diverta. Arlecchino: Ecco. ho visto! Qualsiasi cosa abbia provato a fare. Dottore: Proprio questa è la questione. Don’t you hear how they’re laughing? Dottore: Voglio che sappiano ora cosa significa meravigliarsi davvero! Il più grande attore teatrale di tutti i tempi sta entrando. così non mi vedrà.la. hai visto quello che ha combinato il tuo Arlecchino durante la scena? Colombina: Ho visto. at your service! Dialogue 2 – italiano Pantalone: Colombina. Credo che Arlecchino e Pulcinella si siano sempre esibiti qui a Napoli con grande successo. Mi arrampico sulla scala. a vostro servizio! Dottore: Now I’ll have them know what it means to be truly amazed! The greatest actor of all times is entering the stage.utexas. Dottore: Invece io dubito che gli spettatori Dottore: I rather doubt that these presenti siano in grado di apprezzare le mie spectators are capable of appreciating my innate qualità di attore teatrale. Arlecchina: Non si turbi. Arlecchina: I don’t believe there’s any reason to worry. I'll climb this ladder so he won't see me. Arlecchina: Don’t upset yourself. it came out wrong! Pantalone: I believe he must have been Radio Arlecchino. Dottore. I fear he has it in for me. here comes the Dottore. pg 2 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc.

trying to come up with the season’s greatest bit. ha messo appositamente un piede male sulla scala! Pantalone: Ma che furbastro! Colombina: Allora io ho urlato ‘Stai attento!’ e sai che ha fatto allora Arlecchino? Mi ha guardato dall’alto e penso proprio che l’abbia fatto apposta a cadere. Ma io mi sono scansata e lui ha beccato il Dottore. I’ll tell you how it went. Now.fare il più bel lazzo della stagione. Impersonal expressions.. Pantalone: What a scoundrel! Colombina: Then I shouted.. Dunque. he deliberately let his foot slip on the ladder. Emotions. But I got out of the way and he hit the Dottore. “Watch out!” and you know what Arlecchino did then? He looked at me from above and I really think he fell on purpose. NOTE: Beside verbs that belong to the WHEIRDO category.. Dottore: Maledetto Arlecchino! Arlecchino: Coraggio. Opinion -.and when the verb in the subordinate clause has a DIFFERENT SUBJECT from the one in the main clause.verbs of Wishing and Wanting. Colombina: Did you see when he was really about to fall from the ladder? Perhaps because I was underneath! I believe he tried to fall on top of me – but instead he gave the Dottore a fine bump on the noggin! Pantalone: Is there no-one else here who saw what happened? Colombina: Oh. Recommendations.utexas. pg 3 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc.la. the subjunctive mood can be introduced by conjunctions such as benché / sebbene / per quanto (although). Episode 5. Doubt. Hope. Colombina: Hai visto quando stava per cadere veramente dalla scala? Forse perché c’ero io sotto! Credo che abbia provato a cadermi addosso -.invece ha fatto venire un bel bernoccolo sulla testa del Dottore! Pantalone: Non c’è nessun altro qui che abbia visto quello che è successo? Colombina: Te lo racconto io come è andata. when he saw that I was right there underneath. Dottore! Dottore: Murderer! Nota Grammaticale Congiuntivo presente e passato As we’ve already said we have to use the subjunctive when the verb in the main clause belongs to the WHEIRDO category -.edu/ . quando ha visto che ero proprio lì sotto. Dottore! Dottore: Assassino! Dottore: Confounded Arlecchino! Arlecchino: Courage. affinché / perché Radio Arlecchino..

Episode 5. (I hope—now—that I didn’t leave it at home— earlier: past infinitive.(so that). nessuno (nobody). So. (I hope—now—that I have it—now: simple infinitive) Spero di non avere lasciato a casa il mio permesso-stampa. pg 4 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc.edu/ .utexas. Ho paura che lo spettacolo stia per cominciare. I hope I didn’t leave my press pass at home. how to choose between the first two tenses of the subjunctive: the present and the past. the easiest part is that the three singular forms are always the same within the same conjugation. the infinitive of the auxiliary verb plus the past participle) And here’s how we form the present and the past subjunctive: For the present. a meno che non (unless) as well as indefinite expressions such as qualsiasi cosa (whatever). we use the subjunctive if in the main clause we have a verb that belongs to the WHEIRDO category and if the verb in the subordinate clause has a different subject from the one in the main clause. and the second-person plural ending is the same in all three conjugations. the first-person plural form is always the same as the first-person plural of the present indicative. What happens if the subject of the two clauses is the same? In this case we use the infinitive. Now we need to focus on how to choose the right tense--in this particular episode. I hope I still have my press pass. Credo che abbiano chiuso le porte. These two tenses of the subjunctive are used when our main verb is in any present or future tense. chiunque (whoever). I believe they’ve closed the doors. we use the present subjunctive when the action in the subordinate clause takes place at the same time as or later than the action of the verb in the WHEIRDO clause. Spero di avere ancora il mio permesso-stampa. And we use the past subjunctive when the action in the subordinate clause took place prior to the action of the verb in the WHEIRDO clause.la. As we said before. I’m afraid the play is about to start. or if it is in the imperative. We pick between the present and the past subjunctive depending on WHEN the two actions take place in relation to each other. you can always get the third-person plural form by adding –no to the singular form: Radio Arlecchino. Furthermore.

Regular of the subjunctive 1st conjugation: cantare cant-i cant-iamo cant-i cant-iate cant-i cant-ino 3rd conjugation: sentire sent-a sent-iamo sent-a sent-iate sent-a sent-ano 2nd conjugation: chiudere chiud-a chiud-iamo chiud-a chiud-iate chiud-a chiud-ano 3rd conjugation with –isc-: capire (-isc) capisca capiamo capisca capiate capisca capiscano The past subjunctive. sapere. dare. siamo. The theatre is named after King Carlo di Borbone who conquered the city in 1734 after thirtyRadio Arlecchino. is a compound tense: it is formed with the present subjunctive of the auxiliary avere or essere + the past participle of the main verb: Conjugation with avere as auxiliary verb: abbia recitato abbia recitato abbia recitato abbiamo recitato abbiate recitato abbiano recitato Conjugation with essere as auxiliary verb: sia andato/a sia andato/a sia andato/a siamo andati/e siate andati/e siano andati/e abbia venduto. stare. sia uscito/a. though. dovere. and you can get the third-person plural form by adding –no to the singular form. Episode 5. piacere. in Italian some verbs like andare. Episode 6. venire. abbia sentito.la. the first-person plural form will always be the same as the present indicative. uscire. essere. are irregular. etc. is that the three singular persons will always be the same. potere. therefore they are conjugated in a different way. sia nato/a. fare.utexas. it is also ‘the loveliest of the all world’ but the French novelist loved Italy too much to be a reliable source. etc. we’ll be looking at the imperfect and pluperfect subjunctive.. we can look at essere. like the passato prossimo. The theatre was built in 1737 and it is the oldest one in Europe.edu/ . pg 5 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. siano In our next episode. and how they are used when the WHEIRDO verb is in any past or any conditional tense! Nota Culturale If you go to Naples you must visit the Teatro San Carlo.. avere. volere. According to Stendhal. which is just about as irregular as any verb is going to get: sia. As an example. dire. bere. The good news. sia. siate. As we know. sia.

The Neapolitan ballet was born. Traetta. whose fame spread all over Europe along with that of the theatre itself. pg 6 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. The theatre is also renowned for its school of ballet. “Tutti gli attori sul palcoscenico” (all the actors on stage) cries now il regista nervosissimo (the very nervous director).la.. As any great theatrical actress. Evviva. si sta provando i costumi di scena (she is trying on her costumes) or si sta facendo il trucco (she is putting her make up on). Carlo! Vocabolario: a teatro Everything went well alle prove (at the rehearsals) but the night della prima (of the premiere).. There are those who read endlessly il copione (the script). If you go to Naples and decide to pay a visit to the San Carlo remember that the opera season begins in January.edu/ . solo due minuti”(two minutes left) cries l’assistente del regista (the director’s assistant). both the opera seria and the melodrama.. Ferdinand I di Borbone ordered the theatre to be rebuilt six days later and what you see today is the result of this latest architectonic manipulation. others who lo recitano a voce alta (recite it aloud) and the diva mysteriously locked herself up nel suo camerino (in her dressing room) where nobody knows what she is doing. all the actors are ansiosi (anxious).. Pretty important for a city that has a history of foreign domination! The first performance at the San Carlo. took place on the 4th of November 1737.four years of Austrian domination making Naples the capital of an independent and sovereign kingdom. into your ears” Radio Arlecchino.utexas. Probably. Buona fortuna! Break a leg! Thanks for listening! And be sure to tell your friends that you heard it here on Radio Arlecchino! Your hosts with the most – grammar. Cimarosa. Antonella Olson & Eric Edwards “Out of our minds . Paisiello. Episode 5. The San Carlo contributed enormously to the development of the Italian opera. la protagonista si sta fumando una sigaretta dietro le quinte (the female main character is smoking a cigarette backstage). Where is the diva? Ah. Great composers of the Neapolitan school. Everyone’s ready a entrare in scena? (to enter the stage). Grazie. “Due minuti. as well as more internationally known artists such as Rossini and Donizetti were actively involved in composing for the San Carlo. Achille in Sciro by Domenico Sarro. Many of them also served as artistic directors of the theatre. The theatre was completely destroyed by a fire in 1816.

pg 1 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc.italiano Arlecchina: Vorrei che mi aiutassi con il mio abito.php?p=06 Hanno partecipato (Featured in this podcast): Esmeralda Moscatelli Colombina Simone Sessolo Pantalone Nevin Pecorelli Pulcinella Buon divertimento! Transcript Dialogue 1 .utexas.la.. Arlecchina: Speravo che mi potessi aiutare ad accorciare l’orlo di un centimetro. Episode 6.edu/ra/episode. Colombina: Sarebbe meglio che lo lasciassi così com’è.utexas. There’s a risk that the skirt will end up too short. Cosa devo fare? Dialogue 1 – English Arlecchina: I’d like you to help me with my costume. Colombina: Do what you want.. Arlecchina: Davvero? Allora sarebbe opportuno accorciarlo di due centimetri..edu/ . Vorrei proprio che mi notasse! Colombina: It would be better for you to leave it the way it is. Arlecchina: Really? Then it would be a good idea to raise it two centimetres. Dear Listeners. which you can hear by clicking on the following link: http://tltc. I’d really like for him to notice me. Here’s a transcript of “All’s Well that Ends” our recent show about the imperfect and pluperfect subjunctive. Presentatori e Capocomici Gentili Ascoltatori. Colombina: All right. There’s a goodlooking blond guy in the first row. For my Colombina: Fa’ come vuoi.. Colombina: Va bene.Piazza della Grammatica 1 • Antonella Olson & Eric Edwards. C’è il rischio che la gonna diventi troppo corta. Secondo me Radio Arlecchino. What do I need to do? Arlecchina: I was hoping you could help me raise the hem by a centimetre.la. In prima fila c’è un bel ragazzo biondo.

utexas. Dialogue 2 – italiano Pantalone: Allora.” Arlecchino: I knew it. pg 2 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. Qui il critico dice: "Era ridicolo che gli attori avessero provato così tanto. Episode 6. money it would be best that he notice you without your doing a striptease in front of him. Arlecchino: Ma come? Dopo lo spettacolo dell’anno scorso ti diceva che sembrava fossi nato per fare il buffone. fatemi leggere. It was already evident in rehearsals that you hadn’t got it right a single time. Arlecchino: Lo sapevo. let me read this. Pantalone: Oh sure! Listen to this: “It seemed that the one called Pulcinella had never acted in his life. visto il risultato così misero".sarebbe giusto che ti notasse senza che tu gli facessi lo spogliarello davanti. We listened to Pulcinella again. Ora basta! Questa è l’ultima volta che gli diamo retta! Pulcinella: Eppure sul palco avevo la netta impressione che avessimo preso la strada giusta. he was telling you that you seemed to have been born to play the clown. “It was ridiculous that the actors should have tried so hard. Dialogue 2 – English Pantalone: Now then. Pantalone: Come no. Pulcinella: And here it says that no-one believed that the Muses had inspired me but that soon everyone will see the fruits of my dedication and creativity.” Arlecchino: What’s the deal? After last year’s show. it would be best that you mind your own business! Arlecchina: E secondo me. Senti qua: "Quello chiamato Pulcinella sembrava che non avesse mai recitato in vita sua". sarebbe meglio che tu pensassi agli affari tuoi.... in view of the miserable outcome. Here the critic says.la. Arlecchina: And for my money. Abbiamo dato retta di nuovo a Pulcinella.. Pantalone: Now what critic wrote all that? Pulcinella: E qui c’è scritto che nessuno credeva che le Muse mi avessero ispirato ma che presto tutti vedranno i frutti del mio impegno e della mia creatività. Pantalone: Ma quale critico ha scritto tutto ciò? Pulcinella: Critico? Ma questo è il mio oroscopo! Pulcinella: Critic? This is my horoscope! Radio Arlecchino.edu/ . Now that’s enough! This is the last time we listen to him! Pulcinella: And yet on the stage I had the distinct impression that we had chosen the right approach. Era già evidente nelle prove che tu non ne avessi azzecata una.

Here we will talk about the imperfect and the pluperfect subjunctive. pg 3 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. magari (I wish. but we only have the simple and the past infinitives. Era già evidente nelle prove che tu non ne avessi azzecata una. affinché / perché (so that). It was already clear during the rehearsal that you hadn’t guessed any correctly. Avrei voluto che tu ti fossi nascosto meglio I would have liked that you had hidden yourself better. if only)-for these last two. so we will “recycle” them when our main verb is in a past or a conditional tense: Arlecchina sperava di attirare l’attenzione del giovanotto in prima fila. Episode 6. I hoped you could help me to shorten the hem by one centimeter. Radio Arlecchino. Or. Vorrei che mi aiutassi con il mio abito I would like you to help me with my dress And if the action in the subjunctive took place earlier we’ll need the pluperfect subjunctive. if the verb in the main clause is in a past tense or in a tense of the conditional we will use either the imperfect or the pluperfect subjunctive. How do we choose between the two of them? Once again it’s all a question of when the two actions take place in relation to each other: if the action in the subjunctive happens at the same time or later we use the imperfect. you’ll continue to use the infinitive instead of the subjunctive in the subordinate clause. the subjunctive mood can be introduced by conjunctions such as benché / sebbene / per quanto (although). nessuno (nobody). The subjunctive has four tenses. or piuccheperfetto. Remember that when the two clauses have the same subject. So. the imperfetto and the trapassato.Nota Grammaticale Imperfetto e trapassato ( piuccheperfetto) congiuntivo At this point we should be familiar with the WHEIRDO verbs and how their use in the main clause triggers one of the subjunctive tenses in the subordinate clause when the subjects of the two clauses are different. only imperfetto and trapassato of the subjunctive mood are used--as well as indefinite expressions such as qualsiasi cosa (whatever).edu/ . Speravo che mi potessi aiutare ad accorciare l’orlo di un centimetro. NOTE: Beside verbs that belong to the WHEIRDO category.utexas. chiunque (whoever). I would have liked for you to have hidden yourself better.la. a meno che non (unless) and expressions as come se (as if).

In Episode 7 we’ll briefly summarize the WHEIRDO use of the subjunctive and introduce one other special way in which the third-person singular of the present subjunctive is used. he/she will write parole meravigliose (beautiful words) about the actors Radio Arlecchino. porre. Don’t forget to pay attention to the irregular verbs such as bere. He/she notes how the actors hanno recitato (have recited). Colombina sperava di non aver fatto male ad Arlecchina con l’ago.utexas. un critico teatrale (a theatre critic) assists alla prima (the opening night) to write una recensione (a review). The imperfect subjunctive of these verbs is based on the same stem as the imperfect of the indicative: bere.edu/ . Episode 6. porre. the endings are the same in all three conjugations. The formation of the imperfect follows this pattern: 1st conjugation: cantare canta-ssi canta-ssimo canta-ssi canta-ste canta-sse canta-ssero 3rd conjugation: sentire senti--ssi senti-ssimo senti-ssi senti-ste senti-sse senti-ssero As you’ll notice. fossi nato/a. pg 4 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. trarre. dire. tradurre. Vocabolario: recensioni Often times. how la scenografia (stage set) was realized and how il regista/la regista (the director) was able to merge the elements together. avere or essere.Arlecchina hoped she would attract the attention of the young man in the first row. dicessi. dire. etc. etc. in this case: the imperfect subjunctive of the auxiliary. The conjugation of the pluperfect follows the rules of any compound tense. etc. If il critico is happy with what he/she saw. fare. Conjugation with avere as auxiliary verb: avessi cantato avessi cantato avesse cantato avessimo cantato aveste cantato avessero cantato Conjugation with essere as auxiliary verb: fossi andato/a fossi andato/a fosse andato/a fossimo andati/e foste andati/e fossero andati/e 2nd conjugation: chiudere vende-ssi vende-ssimo vende-ssi vende-ste vende-sse vende-ssero avessi venduto. dicevo. ponevo.la. bevevo. ponessi. Colombina hoped that she had not hurt Arlecchina with the needle. fossi uscito/a. bevessi. avessi sentito. how the music è stata eseguita (was performed). + the past participle of the main verb.

edu/ . If il critico is not happy with what he/she saw. Episode 6. But.. Li loderà (he will praise them) and li innalzerà (he will rise them) to the sky. pg 5 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. Thanks for listening! And be sure to tell your friends that you heard it here on Radio Arlecchino! Your hosts with the most – grammar..and the performance.la. Antonella Olson & Eric Edwards “Out of our minds . into your ears” Radio Arlecchino.utexas. guai ai vinti! (Woe to the vanquished!). he/she will write parole terribili (terrible words) and causerà molti guai e tribolazioni (he will cause difficulties and tribulation) to the actors. A true actor will never be defeated by the words of un critico teatrale and continuerà imperterrito per la sua strada (he will continue on his/her way undaunted).

Spaghetti.edu/ra/episode. to Pulcinella’s kitchen program Are you wanting a plate of little gnocchi? No.la. the best in the land-And some provola from Bari In uniform little cubes. il migliore del reame-E in cubetti regolari Della provola di Bari Ma non è finita qui.edu/ . Cut 80 grams of salame-Neapolitan.utexas. amici cari: Se la provola non è abbastanza. radioascoltatori Al programma di cucina di Pulcinella Volete un piatto di gnocchetti? E invece no! Vi farò una frittata di spaghetti! Prenda. solo un pochino Gli spaghetti cari amici Son allegri e son felici Di poter essere uniti Ad ingredienti assai squisiti. Radio Arlecchino. radio listeners. You can hear this podcast by clicking on the following link: http://tltc. Episode 7. signora. pg 1 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. Unisca pepe.Piazza della Grammatica 1 • Antonella Olson & Eric Edwards. just a bit. Della frittata son la prova. Here’s a transcript of “Someone’s is the Kitchen with Pulcinella” our recent show which summarized the subjunctive and the formal imperative. dear friends. Tagli 80 grammi di salame-Napoletano.utexas. I’ll make you a spaghetti frittata! Take five eggs. Is merry and happy To be brought together With such exquisite ingredients. They’re the proof of the frittata. salt and pecorino Not too much. sale e pecorino Non troppo.php?p=07 Ha partecipato (Featured in this podcast): Nevin Pecorelli Pulcinella Buon divertimento! Transcript Frittata di spaghetti Benvenuti. ma’am. Presentatori e Capocomici Gentili Ascoltatori. dear friends: If the provola’s not enough. Add pepper. Spaghetti Frittata Welcome. cinque uova. instead. Dear Listeners.la. But that’s not the end.

the tense of the WHEIRDO verb is. at the same time as or later than the WHEIRDO verb prior to (before) the WHEIRDO verb . Doubt or Denial. aggiunga un bel peperoncino calabrese-Ma attenzione che la vostra bocca farà fuoco per un mese! Let provolone lend it substance. for the last time. ma’am. but by far the most common is its use in subordinate clauses triggered by a verb in the famous WHEIRDO category.edu/ . Opinion. Hope. Emotions.utexas. or imperative at the same time as or later than the WHEIRDO verb any past or conditional tense prior to (before) the WHEIRDO verb Radio Arlecchino. Episode 7. also called Piuccheperfetto. no? Volete un altro ingrediente Qualcosa di più potente? E allora. Impersonal expressions. Recommending.. When a verb in this category introduces a subordinate clause with a different subject. Passato.la.and the action in the subordinate clause has a different subject and takes place. add a lovely Calabrese pepper-But watch out! your mouth will be on fire for a month! Nota Grammaticale Using the subjunctive mood Here we are. signora.the verb in the subordinate clause will be in this tense: present subjunctive congiuntivo presente past subjunctive congiuntivo passato imperfect subjunctive congiuntivo imperfetto pluperfect subjunctive congiuntivo trapassato present. Imperfetto e Trapassato. future.. The following chart summarizes the sequence of tenses in the subjunctive: la concordanza dei tempi nel congiuntivo. There are several different situations that call for the subjunctive in Italian. Behold Pulcinella’s spaghetti frittata! Don’t you think it looks grand? Oh no? You want some other ingredient? Something more potent? Well. talking about the subjunctive mood.. How are we going to choose the right tense of the subjunctive ? Remember that the subjunctive mood has four tenses: Presente. These are verbs that express: Wishing and Wanting..Possa il provolone dar la sostanza. Ecco a voi la frittata di Pulcinella! Non vi sembra che sia bella? Ah.. pg 2 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. then. . we will have to use the subjunctive in that subordinate clause..

Cut 80 grams of salame Radio Arlecchino. cinque uova Tagli 80 grammi di salame Take five eggs. We need to talk about the formal imperative. She suspects that Balanzone ate too often in the last months food cooked according to Pulcinella’s exquisite recipes. Otherwise we have to use the infinitive.la. signora. And she’s afraid that sooner or later the gondola will tip over throwing the two of them in the water! Remember that these directions only work if the subjects in the main and in the subordinate clauses are different. ma’am.. apparently nothing.. or imperative prior to (before) the WHEIRDO verb .Arlecchina pensa che il Dottore sia ingrassato troppo. Episode 7. future. Prenda. we borrow the present subjunctive. when we need to address someone with the Lei (you formal) and Loro (you all.. E poi teme che prima o poi la gondola si rovesci facendo cadere tutti e due in acqua! Arlecchina thinks that the Dottore has gained too much weight. Adesso vorrebbe proprio che il Dottore si mettesse a dieta perchè era già evidente da qualche settimana che fosse ingrassato troppo. . What does it have to do with the subjunctive? Well.utexas.edu/ ...the verb in the subordinate clause will be in this tense: simple infinitive infinito semplice past infinitive infinito passato simple infinitive infinito semplice past infinitive infinito passato at the same time as or later than the WHEIRDO verb any past or conditional tense prior to (before) the WHEIRDO verb The present subjunctive as formal imperative We have one more recipe we need to talk about before we say goodbye to the subjunctive mood.and the action in the subordinate clause has the same subject and takes place. present or past: the tense of the WHEIRDO verb is.. but grammatically there is a lot in common between the subjunctive and the formal imperative. In fact. Ha il sospetto che Balanzone negli ultimi mesi abbia mangiato troppo spesso cibo cucinato secondo le squisite ricette di Pulcinella. at the same time as or later than the WHEIRDO verb present. Now she would really like the Dottore to go on a diet because it was already quite evident some weeks ago that he had gained too much weight. pg 3 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. forma) forms using the imperative.

With a mandolino (mandolin) you can finely cut all the ingredients. salt and pecorino The other forms of the imperative are a separate mood that we’ll take up in our next episode. Here it is. you need una ciotola (a bowl) where you can mix la farina (the flour). presenting through his character the tragicomic aspects of our daily lives. So stayed tuned. Despite his close ties with his beloved Naples. One the most important actors to perform Pulcinella was Eduardo De Filippo.utexas. you need to buy una pentola (a pot) e uno scolapasta (a colander). If you like to make pizza. Do you like white pasta? Of course not! Then you have to purchase una padella (a pan) where you can friggere (fry) delle cipolle (some onions). and they are often revived in both European and American theatres. delizioso (delicious). Un Radio Arlecchino. Eduardo revitalized this ancient mask making him a more real and human individual.. Episode 7. deceptive means but also possessing a strong humanity that enabled him to persevere in spite of the daily uncertainties and the precariousness of men’s lives.edu/ . Eduardo was born in Naples in 1900 into a family of theatrical artists. Many of his plays and performances were filmed for television broadcasts. l’acqua (the water) and il lievito (the yeast). pomodori freschi (fresh tomatoes) and basilico (basil). His work influenced many other actors and theatrical directors who continued to bring Pulcinella onto the stage after Eduardo's death in 1984. and Buoni studi e Buon appetito! Nota Culturale Un grande Pulcinella del XX secolo: Eduardo De Filippo Pulcinella is undoubtedly one of the most famous characters of the Commedia dell’Arte. The actors Massimo Troisi and Massimo Ranieri and the great director Giorgio Strehler often represented Pulcinella following Eduardo's suggestions. Hmmm.. sale e pecorino Add pepper. La pasta è pronta (the pasta is ready). His work as both actor and dramatist has been universally acclaimed. The beaked-nosed maschera that is now notoriously identified with the city of Naples encompasses both the tragic and the comic aspects of human life.la. Eduardo went beyond the Neapolitan theatrical tradition to produce theatre with a universal appeal. Vocabolario: utensili If you like to eat pasta. Pulcinella has influenced many famous actors who brought his character to life on stage trying to maintain this delicate balance of emotions. As Pulcinella.Unisca pepe. pg 4 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. at times. With Eduardo Pulcinella became the common man who dealt with the hardships that life threw at him using. Aspetta! (Wait!) We need to grate some Parmesan with la grattugia (the grater).

. Antonella Olson & Eric Edwards “Out of our minds .utexas. Thanks for listening! And be sure to tell your friends that you heard it here on Radio Arlecchino! Your hosts with the most – grammar.matterello (a rolling pin) is needed per stendere la pasta (to spread the dough) and una teglia (a baking pan) per infornare la pizza (to put the pizza in the oven). into your ears” Radio Arlecchino.. Episode 7. Careful.la. pg 5 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. non ti bruciare (don’t get burned) and enjoy your pizza with your friends.edu/ . Il forno (the oven) has to be at a very high temperature.

edu/ra/episode.utexas.php?p=08 Ha partecipato (Featured in this podcast): Esmeralda Moscatelli Someone To Whom Your Call Is Important Buon divertimento! Imperatives that you and Antonella heard while she was on hold: (noi) Spieghiamo l'imperativo! Let's explain the imperative! (noi) Vediamo! Let's see! (noi) Ascoltiamo! Let's listen! (noi) Impariamo! Let's learn! (noi) Parliamo adesso della seconda persona! Let's talk now about the second person! (tu) Canta! Sing! Recita! act! Balla! Dance! (tu) Chiudi la porta! Close the door! Ripeti! Repeat! Smetti di ripetere! Stop repeating! (tu) Pulisci! Clean! Finisci! Finish! Dormi! Sleep! (tu) Parla della seconda persona plurale! Talk about second-person plural! (voi) Ridete! Laugh! Piangete! Weep! Applaudite! Applaud! Fischiate! Whistle! State zitti! Be (stay. pg 1 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. keep) quiet! Negative Commands Radio Arlecchino. Dear Listeners. Here's a transcript of "Your Call Is Important to Us.utexas.edu/ . Episode 8. Presentatori e Capocomici Gentili Ascoltatori.la. You can hear this podcast by clicking on the following link: http://tltc." our recent show introducing the imperative mood.la.Piazza della Grammatica 1 • Antonella Olson & Eric Edwards.

portami i biglietti Please. un momento . just a second. grazie.. Tu.. ciao. but no. No.. You... pg 2 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. it will be magnificent . the greatest scuptor there ever was – incredible! This place is incredible. Va bene. Grant. Antonella: Oh. vieni . Eric! It's stupendous. vieni. d'accordo? Sì. Cristina. Radio Arlecchino. Oh. Caravaggio. oh. però. one moment . here.... state zitti! Sono al telefono! Finite di mangiare! Okay? Ah. tickets .. scusa un attimo. mettilo nel cestino della spazzatura. bella. I'm here with my thirty-five students.. we have to behave ourselves. sì. excuse [me].edu/ .utexas. no. Grant. sorry.. Eric.. Okay. C'è tutto: Tiziano.. yes. Eric. Cristina. no. Episode 8. qui.. hi. qua – Uh. okay. thanks. please. my dear.. Eric.. and wait for me at the entryway. Put your cameras inside. e. Anna.. oh. Ragazzi. Mettete le macchine fotografiche dentro. Anna. agitati. Anna... Okay. quiet down! I'm on the phone! Finish eating! Okay? Ah. Bernini's Apollo and Daphne. come. Oh... Eric! È stupendo.. sarà magnifico . Anna.. scusa. Eric.la.. Grazie.. io sono qui con i miei trentacinque studenti. shaken up. no. all right? Yes.. bring me the . exaggerate!) (voi) Non abbiate paura! Don't be afraid ("Have no fear!") Non fate brutta figura! Don't make a bad impression! Non coniugate male l'imperativo! Don't conjugate the imperative incorrectly! (tu) Non dire bugie! Don't tell lies! Non essere debole! Don't be weak! Non dare ordini senza la forma giusta dell'imperativo! Don't give orders without the right form of the imperative! Transcript: A phone call from the Villa Borghese Antonella: Oh.. che sono un po'. hi. sorry. No. put it in the wastebasket.. Apollo e Dafne di Bernini. don't take that bottle of water inside. per favore. il più grande scultore mai esistito – incredibile! Questo posto è incredibile. quindi .. come . There's everything: Titian. Thanks. here – Uh. Dobbiamo entrare.. Oh.. who are a little . so . leave your backpacks there in the cloakroom! Put them . That's fine. ciao. all'ingresso. Oh. aspettatemi all'entrata. ah. scusa. stavo dicendo.. Guys. ah. I was saying.(noi) Non parliamo in inglese! Let's not speak in English! Non coniughiamo male i verbi! Let's not conjugate verbs incorrectly! Non esageriamo! Let's not get carried away! (. no. non portare quel bottiglione d'acqua dentro. okay. Per favore. Caravaggio .. no. lasciate gli zaini lì nel deposito! Metteteli .. dobbiamo comportarci bene. Bernini. We have to go in. and the entrance.

. e rilassati. Ma. for first and second person. è arrivata la. mi mancherai tanto." In this episode.edu/ . For affirmative commands: • The second-person singular (tu) imperative of first-conjugation (-are) verbs is formed by taking the stem of the present indicative (that's what you have left after you drop the -are from the end of the infinitive) and adding -a.utexas.Eric.. you use the third-person form of the verb. that's it. Say hello for me to everyone in Austin . dillo ancora una volta.. Eric . il congiuntivo.. thanks. Arisentirci! ("Until we hear each other again!") Nota Grammaticale The imperative. Senti. Antonella: Ah. Antonella. and relax. say it just once more. When you address someone formally in Italian. That's what Pulcinella is doing when he communicates his explosive recipe for spaghetti frittata in Episode 7. which always uses the present subjunctive form. His instructions are addressed to one signora. Devo scappare. we'll have to wait til next time. Salutami tutti a Austin . Eric: Yes. I've got to run. our guide. Episode 8.. l'imperativo. dobbiamo aspettare la prossima.la. she's here. before you go. senti. la nostra guida. whom he addresses as "Lei. amare amiamo! ama! amate! ami! amino! credere crediamo! credi! credete! creda! credano! spedire spediamo! spedisci! spedite! spedisca! spediscano! partire partiamo! parti! partite! parta! partano! • • noi tu voi Lei Loro For negative commands: Radio Arlecchino. But listen. I'm going to miss you so much . All the other forms are identical to the present indicative forms. Antonella: Ah. we're looking at the "true" imperative. Eric: Sì. Antonella. Those commands use the third-person present subjunctive.. and that's a rather indirect way of addressing someone. Arisentirci! Eric... grazie. Again. The basic rules are as follows. niente. is the verbal mood used to issue direct commands: you tell someone to do – or not to do – something. prima di andare via. Listen. the exception is the formal "you". pg 3 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc.

essere to be These verbs have irregular imperative forms in the second-person singular and plural. regular or irregular) is always non plus the infinitive All the other imperatives stay as they are but with the non placed before the verb. Here are the most common: avere to have. to tell The second-person singular imperative of these verbs is a contracted form of the present indicative. to make. andare amiamo! va'! (vai!) andate! vada! vadano! dare diamo! da'! (dai!) date! dia! diano! fare facciamo! fa'! (fai!) fate! faccia! facciano! stare stiamo! sta'! (stai!) state! stia! stiano! dire diciamo! di'! dite! dica! dicano! noi tu voi Lei Loro Radio Arlecchino. Episode 8. are irregular in the imperative. dire to say. fare to do. For all of them except dire. pg 4 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc.utexas.la.edu/ . dare to give. So: avere abbiamo! abbi! abbiate! abbia! abbiano! essere siamo! sii! siate! sia! siano! noi tu voi Lei Loro Other common irregular verbs in the imperative: andare to go. of course. to stand. stare to stay.• • The second-person singular (tu) negative imperative of any verb (any conjugation. The other forms follow the general rules. amare non amiamo! non amare! non amate! non ami! non amino! credere non crediamo! non credere! non credete! non creda! non credano! spedire non spediamo! non spedire! non spedite! non spedisca! non spediscano! partire non partiamo! non partire! non partite! non parta! non partano! noi tu voi Lei Loro Irregular Verbs in the Imperative Some verbs. All the other forms follow the rules given above. the full form of the present indicative can also be used as the imperative.

Vocabolario Radio Arlecchino. were acquired by the city of Rome in 1903. Rubens and Raphael. SIP became the most important name in the Italian phone system. Bernini's masterpieces of baroque sculpture alone would make the Galleria Borghese an obligatory visit for art lovers. and his work in the invention of the telephone should be acknowledged. we'll take a closer look at those phenomena! Nota Culturale Villa Borghese It is quite understandable that Antonella and her students should be excited and agitati about their visit to the Villa Borghese and the astonishing collection of artworks in its gallery.la. The Società Idroelettrica Piemontese had interests ranging from communications to energy and oil. Certainly many people to this day maintain that Meucci should be credited as the inventor of the telephone.utexas. Episode 8. In 2001. claims to the invention. SIP was absorbed into Telecom Italia. tinkerers. The Villa's grounds. almost a century after its inception. pg 5 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. Titian. the United States House of Representatives resolved that "the life and achievements of Antonio Meucci should be recognized. who also admire paintings by Caravaggio. The grounds. In 1994.In this episode." But the big name in American telephony is still Bell. In Episode 9. and the art galleries all have fascinating histories that are well worth exploring. The Italian phone system Who invented the telephone? That is the question! You would have a hard time finding a modern device whose invention had been more bitterly disputed. In 1918. and now they are a beautiful escape into lush greenery and cool water from the summer heat and urban confusion. sometimes ludicrous. The Company played a leading role in Italy's economic development by connecting even the country's most remote towns in a nationwide communications network and keeping Italy connected to international communications systems. but Italians would identify SIP almost exclusively with the Italian phone system and even today. or over a longer period of time. you've already had a glimpse of what happens when object pronouns are used with verbs in the imperative mood. and just plain crackpots to make their own. older Italians might try to call on SIP to solve their phone issues. Countless suits and countersuits between Italian Antonio Meucci (1808-1889) and Alexander Graham Bell (1847-1922) inspired many other inventors. the house. than the telephone. which were once a suburban retreat for the Borghese family.edu/ .

At times also un giornalaio (a newsstand) will do the trick. Thanks for listening! And be sure to tell your friends that you heard it here on Radio Arlecchino! Your hosts with the most – grammar. pg 6 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. for little money. no translation necessary with this one). Another possibility for you is to scout for call-centers (yep.If you are in Italy and you need to use a public phone.la. and they are not just Italians! If you do not want to buy una scheda.edu/ . hunt for a functioning cabina telefonica (phone booth) and good luck! Sadly some mascalzoni (scoundrels) love to destroy public phones.. Call-centers offer una tariffa vantaggiosa (a good rate) e puoi parlare (and you can talk) a long time. make sure you have plenty of spicci (coins or change).. You have to decide between a phone card da cinque euro (worth five euros) or more. into your ears” Radio Arlecchino. Antonella Olson & Eric Edwards “Out of our minds . Episode 8. first you need to visit un tabaccaio (literally a tobacco shop but it has more than cigarettes and it is a truly Italian institution) where you buy una scheda (phone card). both metro and train) or anywhere there is a heavy presence of foreign people. They are located vicino alle stazioni (near stations.utexas. After your purchase. Il bar is always a good place to find a working phone but c'e sempre un po' di confusione (there is always some commotion there).

I know. senza pesticidi.utexas. pg 1 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. how horrible! How frightening! How disgusting! Dottore: As I tell my students at the University: "The shame is not in the having." Colombina: E la soluzione.edu/ra/episode. Professor? Dottore: Behold! The new TopoKill 9000! Anti-mouse technology presents a supertrap. but in the keeping.? Dottore: Eccola qua! La nuova TopoKill 9000! La tecnologia anti-topo presenta una supertrappola. riutilizzabile... che orrore! che paura! che schifo! Dottore: Come dico ai miei allievi all'Università." Colombina: And the solution. without pesticides. re-usable.php?p=09 Buon divertimento! Ha partecipato / Featured in this broadcast: Esmeralda Moscatelli as Colombina Transcript : TopoKill 9000 Dottore: Gentili ascoltatori. that respects the environment. with all-natural bait! Colombina: But does it take long to-Dottore: It's ready in a matter of seconds! Colombina: And is it simple to u-- Colombina: Ma ci vuole molto tempo perDottore: È pronta nel giro di secondi! Colombina: Ed è di uso semp-- Radio Arlecchino. Episode 9. Egregio.Piazza della Grammatica 1 • Antonella Olson & Eric Edwards. qui il vostro amico il Dottor Balanzone.utexas.edu/ . Here’s a transcript of Build a better mousetrap. che rispetta l'ambiente.. Presentatori e Capocomici Gentili Ascoltatori.la. Dottore. Colombina: Oh. con esca naturale! Dottore: Kind listeners.. lo so. your friend Dottor Balanzone here. our recent show focusing on the "tu" form of the imperative mood. Dottore. I know. lo so. Colombina: Oh. Questa situazione vi è conosciuta? Non vi vergognate di dirmelo. Is this situation familiar to you? Don't be ashamed to tell me so.. "Pudor non in habere sed in tenere est. You can hear this podcast by clicking on the following link: http://tltc.la. Dear Listeners..

Radio Arlecchino.. what does one do? Dottore: Push the trigger. there aren't any.utexas.. Episode 9. Colombina: Oh. it's that I. come si fa..... Colombina: Così? Dottore: Brava! Spingila verso il basso. I mean. There! Excellent! Colombina: Oh! It's easy... take (it). Ecco! Benissimo! Colombina: Oh1 È facile.-Dottore: Harmless to children and pets! Dottore: Igienica! Colombina: Ma per i bambini. I don't know.. non lo so.. courage! Here it is! See how beautiful it is! Come on. prendi... a dire il vero... pg 2 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc.. Colombina: Like this? Dottore: Fine! Push it down. non ci sono. my dear.-Dottore: Innocua per i bambini e gli animali domestici! Colombina: Oh. this new TopoKill 9000 seems a marvel! But do you believe that I'm capable of using it properly? Dottore: Nothing could be easier! Come.. Osserva cosa vuol dire "semplicissimo uso"! Colombina: Oh... Dottore.edu/ . Dottore: Non avere paura! Abbi coraggio! Dottore: Do not be afraid! Have Eccola! Vedi quanto è bella! Dai.. mia cara..Dottore: Di semplicissimo uso! Colombina: Ma funziona veram--Dottore: Efficientissima! Colombina: E....la. Colombina: Oh! E ora. cioè........ Dottore: Spingi la levetta.. io. è che io. Dottore: Ever so easy to use! Colombina: But does it really wo--Dottore: Extremely efficient! Colombina: And.. Dottore.. I. Observe what "Ever so easy to use" really means! Colombina: Oh. to tell the truth. Dottore: Sanitary! Colombina: But to children..? Colombina: Oh! And now. questa nuova TopoKill 9000 mi sembra una meraviglia! Ma Lei crede che io sia in grado di utilizzarla correttamente? Dottore: Niente sarebbe più facile! Vieni.

.edu/ .. non piangere più. fine. Dottore: Quindi... Colombina: Ma. Colombina: And now? Dottore: Perform a check at regular intervals! Colombina: Gracious! Dottore: Pulcinella! Zounds! We must point out that the use of spaghetti as bait is inadvisable. And the TopoKill 9000 is already ready to be re-used! Colombina: Poor Pulcinella! Come with me.. E la TopoKill 9000 è già pronta per essere riusata! Colombina: Povero Pulcinella! Vieni con me.. remove the bait cover. posiziona la trappola con l'apertura rivolta verso la parete! Colombina: Qui? Così? Dottore: Proprio lì.. Dottore.. Colombina: E ora? Dottore: Esegui un controllo a regolari intervalli di tempo! Colombina: Caspita! Dottore: Pulcinella! Accidenti! Dobbiamo accennare che non è consigliabile l'uso degli spaghetti come esca.. Dottore: So... come faccio ora a liberare il dito a questo disgraziato. pg 3 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. what shall I do now to free this wretch's finger? Dottore: Simply press down rapidly on the little door. brava.. set the trap with the opening turned to the wall! Colombina: Here? Like that? Dottore: Right there. Colombina: But. Colombina: Mice rarely cross open surfaces.la.. Just like that...? Dottore: Premi semplicemente e rapidamente sul portello. Colombina: Ah! Done! Dottore: Perfect! The TopoKill 9000 is now ready to be used! Place the trap in an appropriate place. Don't cry any more....Dottore: E che ti avevo detto? Ora... togli la protezione dell'esca. Proprio così... Colombina: I topi raramente attraversano le superfici libere. Colombina: Ah! Fatto! Dottore: Perfetto! La TopoKill 9000 è ora pronta per essere utilizzata! Colloca la trappola in un luogo adeguato. Dottore: Gentile ascoltatore: Prendi la Dottore: And what had I told you? Now..utexas. Episode 9. Dottore... Dottore: Dear listener: Get the TopoKill Radio Arlecchino..

edu/ . Help me now to find it.. fine. va ora in onda Radio Arlecchino? Eric: Va in onda. Senti.. Antonella: Thanks... vai alla mia Antonella: Well then.and Farewell! Transcript: A phone call from Antonella in Italy Eric: Pronto. telefonicamente. ora.. bella! How are you? Antonella: Fine.. è proprio pesante! Spero che non sia questo quello che ti serve. go to my desk. I'm there. Where is it? Antonella: Dunque. Eric: Ci vado. Antonella: Ciao. Eric: Va bene. sotto il dizionario -cosa c'è? Eric: I'm going..... What's there? Radio Arlecchino. Eric: Of course! Tell me. Hail -. under the dictionary.TopoKill 9000 è di' come dice il Dottore -Mus musculus! Ave -.et vale! 9000 and say as the Dottore says --Mus musculus. Antonella: No no no.utexas....... please. fammi un favore.. Eric! Sono Antonella! Eric: Ciao. bene. yes! And it's a good thing you're here now too. ecco. Eric: Come no! Dimmi.. Eric: Oh. is Radio Arlecchino on the air? Eric: It's on the air.. Aiutami studio that I wanted to bring to Italy. pg 4 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc... Episode 9.... Antonella: Grazie... poi me lo spedisci. Eric: Hey. Listen. telephonically.la. Antonella: Move that big Zarganti dictionary. Look. that's pretty heavy! I hope that isn't what you need. Dov'è? Eric: All right.. Eric: Hello.. Antonella: Ciao. Eric! It's Antonella! Eric: Ciao. scrivania. do me a favor.... Antonella: No no no. bella! Come stai? Antonella: Bene.. ci sono.. sì! Meno male che ci sei anche tu... me.. Antonella: I left something there in thet Antonella: Ho lasciato una cosa lì nello studio che volevo portare in Italia. then you can send it to ora a trovarlo. Guarda.. per favore. Antonella: Sposta quel grande dizionario Zarganti...

controlla. svita il cappuccio...utexas... Eric! (Have courage!) Eric: Yikes! Antonella: Oh..... . scusa.Johnny Depp?! Autographed even! "to Antonella.. Antonella. Prendi quella scatola. no more foolishness (Don't do any more foolish Radio Arlecchino. Eric. check it out.. Let go of that book. e una di -. su quello scaffale. quelli non mi servono! Ma mi raccomando. Eric: I see it.Eric: Be'.. on that shelf. there's two photographs. hai preso quella sbagliata. con amicizia. ma oso aprirla? Antonella: Ma sì! Abbi coraggio. una di Nanni Moretti. scusa. non li lasciare lì per terra! Eric: Adesso pulisco.. Lascia quel libro. sorry. Eric: Now what? Antonella: Over the desk.. Antonella. you grabbed the wrong one. Eric: What's in it. go on. quelle non le toccare.. Episode 9. pg 5 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc.. Eric: Well.... Grab that can..... But please..la.. There must be another one. no.... one of Nanni Moretti.Johnny Depp?! firmate pure! "ad Antonella. and one of -. Eric: Cosa c'è dentro. Eric! Che mani di pasta frolla che hai! Quelli sono i miei fagioli saltellanti! Eric: Te li mando? Antonella: No..? Antonella: Dai.? Antonella: Go on." Antonella: No no no no no. Eric.. dai... ma cos'è questo? Antonella: Oh... Ci dev'essere un'altra. don't leave them there on the ground! Eric: I'll clean up now. Eric: Allora? Antonella: Sopra la scrivania. Eric: La vedo. Eric: Yow... scusa.. what is this? Antonella: Oh. Eric: Shall I send them to you? Antonella: No. Eric! Eric: Accidenti! Antonella: Oh.. I don't need those.. sorry. ci sono due foto. don't touch those. non fare più sciocchezze....edu/ . Antonella: Good. Eric! What a butterfingers you are! Those are my jumping beans! Eric: Ahù.. Prova a vedere nel cassetto.. Antonella: Bene. unscrew the lid.. in friendship.... sorry. no. but do I dare to open it? Antonella: Of course! Be brave.." Antonella: No no no no no..

allunga.. Whereas all the other forms simply place a non in front of the imperative verb. is possibly the most frequently used of the imperative forms..utexas. The formal "Lei" and "Loro" forms are always identical to the present subjunctive. I have very few minutes left on my card.Ah-Antonella: Eric! If there's a mouse.. Episode 9. my dear.. it's way in the back.and third-conjugation verbs is the same as the present indicative.. throw it out! Gross! Eric: By now he'll be frightened. Antonella: Listen....... Antonella: Senti......things).. Eric: Fine.. Antonella: Soon. mio caro. Arisentirci. Stendi la mano.. Nota Grammaticale The second-person singular form of the imperative. dietro tutte quelle cartelle.la.. Reach out your hand.. I've got to find an aspirin anyway. the ones whose infinitive ends in -are. the "tu" form.. and all the other forms are always identical to the present indicative. tanto. Stretch. Eric: Ma-. behind all those folders. I'll call you back later. buttalo via! Che schifo! Eric: Ormai si sarà spaventato. ti richiamo dopo. guardare to look: guarda!... Eric. The imperative for these verbs is the present indicative stem plus -a. Radio Arlecchino.. Eric: D'accordo..Ah-Antonella: Eric! Se c'è un topo. Eric: Ma-. pg 6 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc... Antonella: Se è lì... Eric. and it has the most variations. Antonella: If it's there. Mi restano pochissimi minuti sulla mia scheda. Try looking in the drawer. io devo trovare un'aspirina. Eric: All right.edu/ . Talk to you later. controllare to check: controlla!. This is true for all three regular conjugations and for all verbs that are otherwise irregular in the imperative.. spostare to move: sposta! The second-person singular imperative of second.. The first occurs only with first-conjugation verbs. in fondo.. the second person singular places its non in front of the infinitive of the verb. è proprio in fondo. Eric: Va bene. But the second-person singular form has two major anomalies... Antonella: A presto.. The second anomaly is in the the negative command form of second-person singular.

The RAI. You may have noticed some imperatives in today's episode that looked funny to you even though you may have been following along with those tables. there was no private television. but the RAI introduced it with some typically Italian inventiveness and flair. Rather than bombarding its viewers with annoying interruptions to its evening programs. In Episode 10. to a fanfare of trumpets and mandolins. is controlled by politicians. When broadcast television got its start in Italy in the early 1950s. Radiotelevisione Italiana (formerly Radio Audizioni Italiane). Chances are those were imperatives that had pronouns attached to them. we'll be moving on to the big wide world of pronouns in Episode 11! Nota Culturale Advertising and Broadcasting in Italy For better or for worse. the Radio Arlecchino. Many different individuals and businesses made proposals and requests to operate independent commercial broadcasting stations but the Italian Parliament and even the Constitutional Court resisted privatization and commercialization of the airwaves for some twenty years. we'll be looking at the "noi" and "voi" forms of the imperative and also at this issue of pronouns used with verbs in the imperative. Abbi pazienza! Have patience! After we've summarized the imperative in Episode 10. our introduction to the imperative. There are now the RAIuno. In the private sector. And just as in the United States. If pronouns in general are an issue for you. Paid advertising on Italian state television debuted back in 1957. the RAI created a new program. and not even the RAI in its early years was entirely free of those. The RAI. the RAIdue.edu/ . television is just as popular and pervasive in Italy as it is in the U. pg 7 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc.S.utexas. is the state broadcasting company. Since then both the private channels and the RAI have grown and developed immensely. as part of the state apparatus. and is therefore susceptible to all the problems and polemics this can cause. Carosello (Carousel).la. Throw it away). it was a state monopoly. and the RAItre networks in addition to numerous local RAI channels. only television broadcast and managed by the government. some of which specialize in reporting news and information in regional dialects as well as in standard Italian. that is. The private networks and channels have also proliferated and pay satellite and cable television is an important feature of the media landscape. including television.There are tables showing all of these forms in the pdf document that accompanies Episode 8. funded in part by the canone televisivo. Private commercial television broadcasting began in 1974 after plenty of legal wrangling. like "Fammi un favore" and "Buttalo via!" (Do me a favor. ex-prime minister Silvio Berlusconi faced many challenges in the form of conflict-of-interest charges due to his vast holdings in every form of Italian mass media. Of course. commercial broadcasting means commercials. a tax on the ownership of television sets--a controversial tax that many viewers refuse to pay. Every night at ten til nine. Episode 9. Italian television is usually surrounded by controversy.

For a hilarious.la. Dario Fo. Ladri di saponette. Episode 9.utexas. moving and surreal vision of Italian television commercials colliding with real Italian life. pg 8 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. Antonella Olson & Eric Edwards “Out of our minds . into your ears” Radio Arlecchino.commercials! On Carosello. and Vittorio Gassmann). it was the quick sketches with live actors that interrupted the sequence of animated commercials (sketches with many of Italy's great performers like Totò.curtain went up on an amusing ten-minute merry-go-round of -. and a whole generation of Italians grew up hearing a nightly warning that people still remember. This little festival of advertising soon became as popular as any show. see Maurizio Nichetti's film. a ritual for Italian families..edu/ .. Thanks for listening! And be sure to tell your friends that you heard it here on Radio Arlecchino! Your hosts with the most – grammar."Carosello and then off to bed!" Today's Italian commercial television is much more similar to its North American counterpart. since the show ran for twenty years: a letto dopo Carosello! -.

.. in estate Città Eternamente Calda. Here's a transcript of "For Best Results. Dear Listeners.. Tourists! American.php?p=10 Buon divertimento! Ha partecipato (Featured in this podcast): Esmeralda Moscatelli Colombina Transcript: Acqua Minerale Pansellegrino Dottore: Eccoci nel centro di Roma.utexas.. Turisti! Turisti americani.. Eternally Hot City. Città Eterna.. Episode 10. Il sole spietato batte la fronte di tutti coloro che osano passeggiare a mezzogiorno.. even Italian tourists! The Tourists: Yes! Dottore: Have you visited the Vittoriano monument? Have you admired the Roman Forum? The Tourists: Yes! Dottore: Have you gone to the Vatican Museums? Have you put your hand in the Mouth of Truth? The Tourists: Yes! Dottore: Have you walked from Piazza Navona to the Trevi Fountain? The Tourists: Sì! Dottore: Avete visitato il Vittoriano? Avete ammirato il Foro Romano? The Tourists: Sì! Dottore: Siete andati ai Musei Vaticani? Avete messo la mano nella Bocca della Verità? The Tourists: Sì! Dottore: Avete camminato da Piazza Navona fino alla Fontana di Trevi? Radio Arlecchino. pg 1 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. in the summer. persino italiani! Dottore: Here we are in the center of Rome. You can hear this podcast by clicking on the following link: http://tltc. The merciless sun beats upon the foreheads of everyone who dares to stroll about at noon.Piazza della Grammatica 1 • Antonella Olson & Eric Edwards. Chinese. Eternal City.la." our recent show focusing on the "noi" and "voi" forms of the imperative mood and the use of object pronouns with the imperative. cinesi.utexas. German. tedeschi. Presentatori e Capocomici Gentili Ascoltatori.edu/ ..la.edu/ra/episode.

yes! Dottore: Are you tired? The Tourists: Yes! Colombina: Let's rest! Dottore: Do you feel the heat of the Roman summer? The Tourists: Yes! Colombina: Let us refresh ourselves! Dottore: Are you thirsty? The Tourists: Yes! Colombina: Let's drink! Dottore: Fine! Drink. Colombina: Let's go! The Tourists: Yes! Dottore: Try Pansellegrino water! The most delicious. sì! Dottore: Siete stanchi? The Tourists: Sì! Colombina: Riposiamoci! Dottore: Sentite il caldo dell’estate romana? The Tourists: Sì! Colombina: Rinfreschiamoci! Dottore: Avete sete? The Tourists: Sì! Colombina: Beviamo! Dottore: Bravi! Bevete.. sweetest mineral water of the Bel Paese! Colombina: Let's try it! The Tourists: Yes! Dottore: Pulcinella.edu/ . most refreshing.. yes! Come.utexas.la.The Tourists: Sì! Dottore: Avete salito la scalinata in Piazza di Spagna? The Tourists: Oh. help me open the bottles and pour this sparkling water! See! Hear! How effervescent it is! Sip it! Radio Arlecchino.. Come. Episode 10.. sì! Venite. venite. più rinfrescante. pg 2 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. Colombina: Andiamo! The Tourists: Sì! Dottore: Assaggiate l’acqua Pansellegrino! L’acqua piu deliziosa. più dolce di tutte le acque minerali del Bel Paese! Colombina: Assaggiamola! The Tourists: Sì! Dottore: Pulcinella. aiutami ad aprire le bottiglie e a versare quest'acqua frizzante! Vedete! Sentite! Quanto è effervescente! The Tourists: Yes! Dottore: Have you climbed the Spanish Steps? The Tourists: Oh.

fizzy -.. gassata .. amici. fine. come stai? Antonella: Bene.utexas.. è il vostro amico il Dottor Balanzone che vi raccomanda Acqua Pansellgrino. non fare così con la bottiglia! The Tourists: Ah! Colombina: Proteggiamoci! Dottore: Pulcinella! Colombina: Andiamo via! The Tourists: Sì! Colombina: Let's savor it! The Tourists: Yes! Dottore: Listen. don't do that with the bottle! The Tourists: Ah! Colombina: Let's protect ourselves! Dottore: Pulcinella! Colombina: Let's get out of here! The Tourists: Yes! Dottore: Dobbiamo avvertire che i migliori Dottore: We must advise that the best risultati si ottengono quando non si agitano results are obtained when the bottles are le bottiglie prima di aprirle.and how! Transcript: una telefonata dal Colosseo Antonella: Ciao. pg 3 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. not shaken before opening them... How are you? Antonella: Fine.Sorseggiatela! Colombina: Assaporiamola! The Tourists: Sì! Dottore: Senti. Episode 10.. it's better not to -... Eric! Eric: Antonella! Ciao. è meglio non -Pulcinella.. bene. it's your friend Dottor Balanzone who recommends Acqua Pansellegrino to you. Is Radio Arlecchino on the air? Radio Arlecchino. friends. Pulcinella.edu/ . Colombina: Cerchiamo degli asciugamani! The Tourists: Sì! Dottore: Ricordate. Va ora in onda Radio Arlecchino? Transcript: a phone call from the Coliseum Antonella: Ciao.. Eric! Eric: Antonella! Ciao..Pulcinella...e come! Colombina: Let's look for some towels! The Tourists: Yes! Dottore: Remember. mi raccomando.la... I beg you. Pulcinella..

say hello to Biceps Gloriosus for me. Eric: Oh yes.? Eric: Va bene. right now a gladiator is entertaining me! Eric: Just one? Antonella: To tell the truth there are quite a few of them around here.. and that is. Antonella: Bravo! Yes... Eric: A presto e. it's on the air! And you.Eric: Va in onda.. salutami Biceps Gloriosus.. Episode 10...... Eric: I hope the students are taking some pictures of you... me. Antonella: Grazie. all of us. però... and have a nice stroll. where are you today? Antonella: We're here at the Flavian Amphitheatre.? Radio Arlecchino. of course.. however. Lo conosci? Eric: Ma chi non lo conosce... Antonella: That's the idea! Eric: Later we'll pick one of them to put with Nanni and Johnny's... certo. dove ti trovi oggi? Antonella: Siamo qui all'Anfiteatro Flavio. Do you know it? Eric: Why who doesn't know it. here we are. proprio adesso mi sta intrattenendo un Gladiatore! Eric: Solo uno? Antonella: A dire il vero ce ne sono tanti nei paraggi. Eric.. the students... la guida.... Eric: Mi auguro che gli studenti ti facciano qualche foto.. Antonella: Ah-hah..edu/ . e cioè. e buona passeggiata... even if only from photographs..... Antonella: Perfetto! Senti. io. gli studenti. pg 4 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc...... sì! E tu...? Eric: The Coliseum. adesso andiamo al Palatino. Eric: See you soon and... I'm saying good-bye to you. anche se solo dalle foto...? Eric: Il Colosseo. Antonella: Questa è l’idea! Eric: Dopo ne sceglieremo una da mettere insieme a quelle di Nanni e Johnny... ora ti saluto... the guide.utexas... eccoci tutti. Eric: E hai chiacchierato con qualche Gatto-Imperatore? Antonella: Non ancora. Antonella: Bravo! Sì. Antonella: Perfect! Listen. Antonella: Thanks.. we're going to the Palatine now... Antonella: Ah-hah.. Eric: And have you chatted with some CatEmperors? Antonella: Not yet.. see you soon. Eric: All right.la.... Eric. a presto.

pg 5 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc.la. If the difference between direct. imperative. Episode 10. and negative commands are made simply by placing a "non" in front of these imperative forms.edu/ .) You've also been seeing. (Remember that the pdf file for Episode 8 has complete tables of the imperative forms for the three conjugations of verbs. or third-person. ever since Episode 8 when we began our discussion of the imperative. dire. informal singular Portameli! informal plural Portatemeli! formal singular Me li porti! formal plural Me li portino! A special word about pronouns with monosyllabic imperatives.. and stare is a onesyllable contracted form of the present indicative. Bring them to me! Ci sono due giornali sul tavolo. You will remember that the second-person singular imperative of the verbs andare. pazienza! We take up the subject of pronouns in our next episode! There are two newspapers on the table. Talk to me about the imperative! informal singular Parlami dell'imperativo! informal plural Parlatemi dell'imperativo! formal singular Mi parli dell'imperativo! formal plural Mi parlino dell'imperativo! When there are two object pronouns. When a pronoun is attached to one of these Radio Arlecchino. dare. object pronouns being used with this verb form. once again. Object pronouns always come in their usual place in front of verbs in the subjunctive. which is really the present subjunctive.Antonella: Arisentirci! Antonella: Arisentirci! Nota Grammaticale By now the "noi" and "voi" forms of the imperative should hold no mysteries for you: they're identical to the present indicative.. even when the subjunctive is being used as the formal imperative. And by now you could probably summarize the general rules for the use of pronouns with the imperative all by yourself: Object pronouns are attached to the end of the imperative. is the formal.utexas. The exception.and indirect-object pronouns is problematic for you. both are attached to the end of the imperative and the indirect object pronoun will always be the first of the two. fare.

forms, you always use the contracted form (not the form that ends in –i) and you double the initial consonant of the prounoun. The exception is gli – you never double the initial –g. Andare: va! This verb doesn’t really take direct or indirect objects, but it is very often used with the particle ci (“to that place, there”), which behaves just like a pronoun in terms of its placement in relation to a verb. So: Go there! Vacci! and the others… da + mi = dammi ti = datti gli = dagli le = dalle ci = dacci fa + mi = fammi ti = fatti gli = fagli le = falle ci = facci and so on...

Examples: Give us a hand! Dacci una mano! Tell her everything! Dille tutto!

Don’t be a stranger! (“Make yourself alive”) Fatti vivo! Stay close to me! Stammi vicino!

Pronoun placement with negative commands is flexible. When the imperative is negative, pronouns can go in front of the verb (and after the non) or be attached to the end of the imperative form -- EXCEPT with the formal imperative, of course. Object pronouns always come in their usual place in front of verbs in the subjunctive, even when the subjunctive is being used as the formal imperative--whether the command is affirmative or negative. The imperative? Don't talk to me about it any more! L'imperativo?... informal singular Non parlarmene più! Non me ne parlare più! informal plural Non parlatemene più! Non me ne parlate più! formal singular Non me ne parli più! only possible configuration formal plural Non me ne parlino più! only possible configuration

Pronouns with the "noi" form of the imperative. This is relatively straightforward, as it follows the pattern seen in all the above examples and the informal/formal distinction is not an issue. Radio Arlecchino, Episode 10, pg 6 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc.la.utexas.edu/

Here's Colombina. Should we talk to her about the imperative? Ecco Colombina. Dobbiamo parlarle dell'imperativo? Affirmative: Let's talk to her about it! Parliamogliene! Negative: Let's not talk to her about it any more! Non parliamogliene più! Non gliene parliamo più! Again, if these forms of the pronouns are not entirely clear to you, please be sure to follow our discussion of pronouns beginning with our next episode! Behold the wonder of ecco! You probably have noticed the word "ecco" in our dialogues and commercials with pronouns attached to it. Even though this word is not, technically speaking, an imperative form of a verb, it behaves like one in terms of pronoun placement. This makes perfect sense if you think of "ecco" as meaning "behold!" (look here!), which it does. Of course it has no negative form and is informal as far as pronoun placement is concerned. --Where is Dottor Balanzone? --Dov'è il Dottor Balanzone? --Here he is! (Behold him!) --Eccolo!

Nota Culturale
Le bibite preferite degli italiani - Favorite beverages of the Italians If you visit Italy you may find a little overwhelming the number of different brands of Italian waters available. From the very trendy and lightly bubbled San Pellegrino (please, if you are about to order a bottle of it call it ‘San Pellegrino’ and not ‘Pellegrino’ as many Americans erroneously do) to the plain Acqua Panna, the love for waters in Italy goes hand in hand with the love for food. Although several multinational corporations, Nestlé for example, have bought up some of the most famous brand names, the springs are undoubtedly located in Italy so we still consider them a national treasure. Every region has its own favorite water and many of the springs have been well known since Roman times. In many Italian cities, though, the best water comes free. In Rome, for example, beyond the monumental fountains there are approximately 2500 fontanelle from which the water flows day and night. They are called nasoni, cylinders of metal (cast iron or iron) from which the water flows through an arched steel tube that, to the Romans, suggests a nose, hence the name.

Radio Arlecchino, Episode 10, pg 7 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc.la.utexas.edu/

Water aside, a long tradition of non-alcoholic beverages is well established in Italy and every region has its own traditional and most famous beverages. The most famous drinks are chinotto (extracted from a citrus type of plant, it may be bitter tasting but it is worth trying. If you explore the web you will be surprised to find many chinotto fan clubs), gassosa (a mix of water-sugar– carbonation that has a quite large audience in Rome), oransoda (extracted from oranges and lightly sparkling), lemonsoda and limonata (extracted from lemons, with and without bubbles), latte di mandorle (a special milk extracted from almonds and diluted with water. It is especially famous in the southern part of Italy. Sicily is the largest producer of almonds in Italy.) Crodino is a bitter-sweet tasting non-alcoholic aperitif that you consume with salted nuts and chips, and there are succhi di frutta (fruit juices in all forms and shapes), and of course caffè (yes, it is considered a beverage for us!). Coca-Cola? No thanks! Monumenti romani ‘Ave Cesare, morituri te salutant’ (Hail, Caesar, those who are about to die salute you). The beginning of any gladiators’ fights was not encouraging since it was assumed that one of the two men engaged in the fight would die in the process or would be defeated and later killed. At the end of a fight, the loser would raise his arm to plead for mercy. This delicate decision was in the hands of the emperor or the presiding authority but normally they would let the spectators decide the fate of the gladiator. If the public liked the fight, they would yell ‘mitte’ (spare him) and they would accompany their voices with the upward movement of their thumb and their hand in a fist. But if they didn’t like the performance they would shout ‘iugula’(cut his throat) and the thumb was turned down (pollice verso). Despite all the legends surrounding the gladiators, it is worth remembering that many specialists in the field, historians and archeologists, do not agree on the level of violence, and especially death, linked to gladiatorial combat. Many claim that training a gladiator was such an expensive and long process that it would not be justified by such a sudden and fast death. But as Hollywood’s children, learning from Kirk Douglas as Spartaco to Russell Crowe as Maximus, we truly believe in what we see on the screen. Don’t we all? The gladiators and Roman legionaries who hang out at the Coliseum today are neither specters nor feline incarnations; they are friendly, contemporary citizens whose historical costumes invite visitors, as the Dottore might say, to Carpe occasionem photographae! – “Seize the photo op!” Most of the Roman monuments mentioned in this episode are familiar to just about everyone. Not quite as well known is la Bocca della Verità, the Mouth of Truth., a marble disk adorned by the face of a river god that hangs in the portico of the church of Santa Maria in Cosmedin. Generally believed to be an ancient Roman drain cover, its legendary power is that of detecting the presence of liar when such a person inserts his or her hand into its mouth. This detection is Radio Arlecchino, Episode 10, pg 8 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc.la.utexas.edu/

Episode 10. pg 9 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. into your ears” Radio Arlecchino.edu/ ..la.utexas. Thanks for listening! And be sure to tell your friends that you heard it here on Radio Arlecchino! Your hosts with the most – grammar.supposedly manifested by the mouth’s biting off the liar’s hand. Antonella Olson & Eric Edwards “Out of our minds .. A no-longer-new but very entertaining Hollywood film in which the Bocca della Verità is featured prominently in a delightful scene is Roman Holiday starring Gregory Peck and Audrey Hepburn.

i fuochi d’artificio Gatto Nero! “Gatto Nero” Fireworks Dottore: Here they are. eccoli. la festa del santo patrono. Come see them. qui ci sono. both direct and indirect.. Partecipate alle feste di San Giovanni. i colori più stravaganti... dovrei venderne tanti. sentitemi. of the New Year..php?p=11 Buon divertimento! Hanno partecipato Esmeralda Moscatelli Christopher Gillette and Kelli X Gross Featured in this broadcast: Colombina the Foreigners Fuochi d’artificio Gatto Nero Dottore: Eccoli.. Here we are in Florence. Gatto Nero Fireworks! Colombina: Dottore! You here in Florence! What a surprise to see you here? But what is all this? Dottore: It’s Gatto Nero Fireworks! They’re the best.. eccoli. Take part in the feasts of St John. venite. a tutte le feste dell’anno... children of all ages. Presentatori e Capocomici Gentili Ascoltatori. ma mi pare che ci siano solo stranieri nei paraggi. pg 1 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc.. the most extravagant colors. di Capodanno. You can hear this podcast by clicking on the following link: http://tltc. hear me.... the most mysterious smoke.. all the holidays of the year.. Qui ci sono i rumori più sbalorditivi. le luci più brillanti.. the feast of the patron saint. here they are. i più belli..edu/ra/episode.utexas... the most brilliant lights.. Signori e signore. I should be selling lots of them.. Here are the most astonishing sounds..edu/ .Piazza della Grammatica 1 • Antonella Olson & Eric Edwards. Here's a transcript of Adult Supervision Required. the most beautiful.. Dear Listeners.. il fumo più misterioso.. eccoci a Firenze.. mia cara? Radio Arlecchino. Episode 11..utexas. Ladies and gentlemen. my dear? Colombina: Dottore! Lei qui a Firenze! Che sorpresa VederLa qui! Ma che cos’è tutto questo? Dottore: Sono i fuochi d’artificio Gatto Nero! Sono i migliori. Venite a vederli. What are they saying. bambini di tutte le età. our recent show on pronouns – specifically subject pronouns and object pronouns... Cosa dicono.la.. di Natale. here are.. come. but it seems to me there are only foreigners in the vicinity. here they are... of Christmas.la.

Eccoli eccoli eccoli! Signori e signore.. Dottore.. Colombina. children of all ages. here they are! Ladies and gentlemen. i razzi “Gatto Nero” sono giustamente famosi in tutto il mondo! Osservate... Et nunc.. Fuoco! Meravigliatevi ora davanti all’incomparabile pirotecnica “Gatto Nero”! ========== Colombina: She wants a dozen of the sparklers and he wants to know if you have any firecrackers. Colombina: Oh! You certainly are going to see it.. State per vedere qualcosa di veramente inverosimile. e lei vuole sapere cosa vende.. uno. venite. they must be very young if they don’t recognize me.. Colombina.. here they are... yes.. bambini di tutte le età. Dottore: If I have any firecrackers! Pulcinella... Dottore. Now I light the fuse. Dottore... Dottore: Se ho dei petardi! Pulcinella. queste meravigliose candele magiche “Gatto Nero”. devono essere molto giovani se non mi riconoscono..... Et nunc you are about to see something truly incredible. mia cara.. Episode 11.. Here they are..la.. Fire! Now be amazed before the incomparable pyrotechnics of Gatto Nero! ========== Radio Arlecchino.. e lui vuole sapere se ha dei petardi.......... bring me a box of firecrackers for the young man...Colombina: Lui vuole sapere chi è.. And for the young lady. Accendo ora la miccia. the Gatto Nero rockets are justly famous throughout the world! Observe... Colombina: There you are.. E per la signorina.. per favore. my dear. Dottore: Oh.. Welcome to Florence! Happy St John’s Day! Behold the most sparkling sparklers in the world! Dottore: Oh. him they know.. Pulcinella..utexas.. these wonderful Gatto Nero sparklers..edu/ . Oh. Pulcinella sì lo conoscono..... Dottore: Thank you. if you please. Yes. pg 2 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. un balocco divertente per tutta la famiglia.. and she wants to know what you’re selling. two. due. Dottore! Dottore: Tre. an amusing diversion for the whole family.. Colombina: He wants to know who you are.. sì.. Benvenuti a Firenze! Buona festa di San Giovanni! Ecco le candele magiche più’scintillanti del mondo! Colombina: Lei ne vuole una dozzina di candele magiche. portami una scatola di petardi per il giovanotto. Colombina: Ecco. Oh. Sì. one... Dottore! Dottore: Three. Colombina: Oh! Lei senz’altro lo vedrà.... Dottore Dottore: Grazie.

not just by the cultural events but by the Florentine art. Eric: How picturesque! Of course Florence is all picturesque! I imagine all the students were amazed. Ricorda che qui siamo sette ore avanti! Comunque........ it’s the feast of their patron saint. Eric: Oh no! Non mi dire che Pulcinella ha fatto un’altra frittata con quell’esplosivo peperoncino calabrese! Antonella: Ma no. pg 3 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. Eric: Magari.. bene. Eric! Eric: Antonella! Ciao. Eric. these are the fireworks in honor of St John! We’re admiring them from the magnificent Piazzale Michelangelo that overlooks the city. molto più bello di una pedicure! E cosa farete? Antonella: Cosa abbiamo fatto. we’ve seen the procession-everyone in medieval costumes.. the scent of wax.... Eric: Oh no! Don’t tell me that Pulcinella made another frittata with that explosive Calabrese pepper! Antonella: No.. If only you were here with us. Episode 11. è la festa del santo patrono: San Giovanni Battista! A Phone Call from Antonella in Florence Antonella: Hi. Eric: I wish.utexas.Transcript: una telefonata da Antonella a Firenze Antonella: Ciao.la. Antonella: Ci siamo fatti una abbuffata di arte rinascimentale! È stupenda! Ma la festa non è finita con il corteo.! Remember we’re seven hours ahead of you here! Anyway. Eric! Eric: Antonella! Hi. Lucky you! But here in Florence. Magari fossi qui con noi.... fine..... ma devo scappare ora. odore di cera.. Antonella: We’ve stuffed ourselves with renaissance art! It’s stupendous! But the celebration didn’t end with the procession. come stai? Antonella: Bene.. music. but I’ve got to go now. much nicer than a pedicure! And what will you do? Antonella: What have we done. musica. Beato te! Ma qui a Firenze.. flagwaving.. how are you? Antonella: Fine.edu/ . Eric.. St John the Baptist! Eric: Oh. Eric: Oh.. abbiamo visto il Corteo -..tutti con costumi medievali. Radio Arlecchino. questi sono i fuochi d’artificio in onore di San Giovanni! Li stiamo ammirando dal magnifico Piazzale Michelangelo che sovrasta la città.. sventolamento di bandiere..... Eric: Che pittoresco! Certo Firenze è tutta pittoresca! Immagino che tutti gli studenti siano rimasti strabiliati non solo dalle manifestazioni culturali ma anche dall’arte fiorentina.

The noun that a pronoun is replacing is called the pronoun’s antecedent. a presto.. Subject pronouns A pronoun is a word we use to replace a noun. family members. Lei. they have the same grammatical functions that nouns have. Antonella: Happy pedicuring! Eric: Happy fireworks! Ciao. Subject pronouns: pronomi soggetto When a pronoun is the subject of a verb it is called a subject pronoun. then. children. A pronoun.edu/ . is also used to mean “you” in formal. the “real” or “original” third-person singular subject pronouns. Here they are: io tu lui (egli). usually written with an upper-case L. There are two major issues involved with Italian pronouns: one is which pronoun to use. generally to avoid having to keep repeating a previously mentioned noun. she. Loro I you (informal) he. and the other is where to put the pronoun in relation to the verb. polite address. talk to you again soon. animals and deities. you (formal) In Italy people use the “tu” form with friends. or the object of a preposition.Antonella: Buona pedichiurata! Eric: Felici fuochi! Ciao. Antonella: Until we talk again! Antonella: Arisentirci! Nota Grammaticale Pronouns: Introduction.la. can be the subject of a verb. Since they replace nouns. you (formal) we you (informal) they. Lei noi voi loro (essi. the direct or the indirect object of a verb. Egli and ella. lei (ella). esse). Radio Arlecchino.. Episode 11... pg 4 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. are now only used in written Italian.utexas.

pg 5 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. and pronouns that stand for indirect objects. which can be used for both beings and objects. • whenever the pronoun contains the emphasized information: Credo che voi abbiate capito l’uso del pronome soggetto. I am tall and thin.and second-person object pronouns are the same whether they’re direct or indirect. There are still a few cases when we have to use subject pronouns: • to resolve ambiguity: He’s an engineer and she’s a physician. are not used too often in conversation and Loro is also the plural version of formal “you”.edu/ . When the action performed by the subject has a direct effect on an object—an object that could even be a person—that person or thing is the direct object of the verb: Pulcinella is giving flowers. my sister is also thin but rather short. Episode 11.utexas. Arlecchino. Lui fa l’ingegnere e lei è medico. (in this case. • when the pronoun is the answer to a question: Arlecchino. who is going to the airport? I’m going. implying the existence of others who may not have understood) Direct and indirect object pronouns: pronomi di oggetto diretto e indiretto We have two kinds of object pronouns: pronouns that stand for direct objects. • to compare or contrast: Io sono alta e magra.Essi and esse. The first. anche mia sorella è magra ma è piuttosto bassa. Only the third-person direct object pronouns differ from their indirect object counterparts. chi va all’aeroporto? Ci vado io.la. Pulcinella dà i fiori. I believe you understood how to use the subject pronouns. Radio Arlecchino. Students learn that they don’t have to use subject pronouns very much because the endings of the verb indicate the person and number of the subject.

If the preposition “a” is in front of the object noun. her. you’ll replace it with a direct object pronoun: Pulcinella canta una canzone. Arlecchina is indirectly affected by this act of giving. Le ci vi gli or loro. to (or for) you (formal) Radio Arlecchino. you (formal) us you them. it. you’ll replace it with an indirect object pronoun: Pulcinella canta alla ragazza fiorentina. Le me you (informal) him. her. Direct objects never have a preposition in front of them. to (or for) you (formal) to (or for) us to (or for) you (informal) to (or for) them. Gli or Loro to (or for) me to (or for) you (informal) to (or for) him. La ci vi li. pg 6 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. you (formal) Indirect object pronouns: mi ti gli. so she is the indirect object. Pulcinella la canta bene. le. Direct object pronouns: mi ti lo.If we want to say to whom Pulcinella is giving the flowers. this person will be the indirect object: Pulcinella is giving these flowers to Arlecchina Pulcinella dà i fiori ad Arlecchina. Pulcinella le canta una canzone napoletana. Episode 11.utexas. le.edu/ . la. Indirect objects always have a preposition in front of them. Grammatically speaking. there is one and only one important difference between direct and indirect objects.la. If there is no preposition in front of the object noun.

utexas. Object pronouns come before verbs that are conjugated in all the other moods--indicative. non mi va di cantarla adesso. although it was the Arabs and Byzantines who first brought pyrotechnic powders from the Far East to Europe. I don’t feel like singing it now. Episode 11. in the beautiful city of Venice. conditional. potere. cantami la canzone di ieri sera! --No. object pronouns are attached to the end of the verb after the final -e has been dropped: --Arlecchina. If you have a conjugated modal verb. subjunctive. sing me the song from last night! --No. since it is the object of the verb in the infinitive. In the 17th century. like dovere. plus a dependent infinitive. or other festivity without the sparkling and.edu/ . the logical place for the pronoun is attached to the end of the infinitive. celebration of a patron saint.If the verb is in the infinitive.la. Italians are always ready to raise their heads in awe and admiration at a night-time sky ablaze with their color. dangerous entertainment of fireworks. --Quando compri un violino nuovo? --Lo compro presto. a famous school for pyrotechnic technicians was opened in Bologna. --When are you buying a new violin? --I’m buying it soon. pg 7 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. you will witness an enchanting array of fireworks over the water to conclude a day of parades and festivities celebrating the sea. The original intent was military rather than celebratory. If you visit the city of La Spezia in Liguria on the first Sunday of August. on the third Sunday of July. --Arlecchina. and only around the 12th century did fireworks begin to highlight festivals and holidays. not of the modal. or volere. But conversational Italian allows the pronoun to go in front of the modal: Vuoi vederlo? Lo vuoi vedere? Do you want to see it? Nota Culturale I fuochi artificiali Many of the world’s most spectacular and celebrated fireworks displays are the creations of Italian craftsmen. Christ the Redeemer and the city’s deliverance from the plague in Radio Arlecchino. From the Alps to Mount Etna. A little farther to the east. at times. Nowadays in Italy there is no New Year’s Eve.

everything else is forgotten and a mix of folklore and devotion takes over the city. But if you really want to witness one of the most extraordinary events on the face of the Earth. an event that UNESCO has named a patrimony of humanity.edu/ . you might just experience the most magical moment of your life.utexas. Episode 11. After all. Just Look at Yourself!. Rest assured you will never attend anything quite like it anywhere else in the world. Antonella Olson & Eric Edwards “Out of our minds .la.. we’ll reflect on what happens when the subject and the object are the same person and on the side effects of mixing direct and indirect object pronouns. pg 8 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. the marvelous Sicilian people and the incredible fireworks. In Episode 12. the sea. the food. During these three days. the surrounding baroque architecture. there is just one Venice. into your ears” Radio Arlecchino. in Sicily.the 16th century are celebrated in a night-time regatta in the Laguna with spectacular fireworks. Thanks for listening! And be sure to tell your friends that you heard it here on Radio Arlecchino! Your hosts with the most – grammar. With Etna in the foreground. you have to go to Catania.. from the 3rd to the 5th of February to celebrate Sant’Agata.

php?p=12 Buon divertimento! Ha partecipato Esmeralda Moscatelli Featured in this broadcast Colombina Il Dottore. Guardatevi allo specchio e ditevi: “Proprio oggi mi metto a parlare con tutto il potere dei Verbi Pronominali! Me lo raccomanda il bravo Dottore. Here's a transcript of Just Look at Yourself. above all these fine Pronominal Verbs which are offered now for your reflexion.edu/ . Look at yourselves in the mirror and say to yourselves: “This very day I shall begin to speak with the full power of the Pronominal Verbs! The good Dottore recommends it.utexas. our recent show on reflexive and double object pronouns. per i Verbi Pronominali Dottore: Salve.. è quasi impossibile esprimersi bene nella nostra favella senza di essi.. You can hear this podcast at http://tltc. for Pronominal Verbs Dottore: Hail.la. Non fermatevi ora! Continuate ad imparare.Piazza della Grammatica 1 • Antonella Olson & Eric Edwards. ergo. Dear Listeners.la. che si specializza in queste cose. they must be good!” In speculo non pulchritas -.. to conjugate. pg 1 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. a coniugare. quando vi sarete impadroniti dei Verbi Pronominali. ergo. kind listeners! I’m here in the studio today to perform a very pleasant task: that of emphasizing how much fun you will have when you have mastered the Pronominal Verbs.edu/ra/episode. Episode 12. Don’t stop now! Continue to learn. In fact. Infatti.. devono essere buoni!” In speculo non pulchritas -sed veritas! ========== The Dottore. gentili ascoltatori! Mi trovo qui nello studio oggi per svolgere un compito molto piacevole: quello di sottolineare quanto vi divertirete.sed veritas! ========== Radio Arlecchino. soprattutto questi bei Verbi Pronominali che si offrono ora alla vostra riflessione. the Dottore who specializes in these matters.utexas. Presentatori e Capocomici Gentili Ascoltatori. it is almost impossible to express oneself well in our tongue without them.

mi dica. per il Caffè Chiarezza Dottore: Signori e Signore! Studenti e studentesse! Alti e bassi... E si alza.. Radio Arlecchino. learn! Here it is. Dottore: The young lady gets up. Brava. I mean.. Dottore! But what are you doing here? Dottore: Sssshhhhh. please.. Dottore: Si piglia ancora un quarto d’ora di beato sonno! Brava! E poi. come... fifteen minutes of peace and rest before I get up. mi piglio ancora dieci. Episode 12. I wake up. first of all. I prefer to sleep for another little minute or two.... si veste e si lava! Brava. Fine.... I don’t get up right away. che rende ogni mattina più che tollerabile! Chi di voi mi aiuterà a fare la prova? Lei. cioè non mi alzo subito.. eccola.. Dottore: Si sveglia! Ottimo! La signorina si sveglia... don’t you? Colombina: No. signore? No? Lei. Dottore! Ma Lei che cosa sta facendo qui? Dottore: Sssshhhhh. come comincia la sua giornata tipica? Colombina: Beh. non è così? The Dottore. Colombina: Mi alzo. help me. prima di tutto.. miss? Colombina: Dottore! Good day to you.. Dottore: You wake up! Excellent! The young lady wakes up! And then you get up.edu/ . venite. signorina. brava. sir? No? You. certainly scrumptious. fine. here it is! The almost magical substance... I put on my robe. Colombina: Mi guardo allo specchio. fai finta di non conoscermi! Dai. that makes every morning more than tolerable! Who among you will help me to prove it? You. Colombina: I look at myself in the mirror and. aiutami.Il Dottore. belli e brutti. miss. Dottore: La signorina si alza. that is. ti prego.. sì. she washes up! Fine.. insomma. Colombina. mi sveglio. e. preferisco dormire ancora qualche minutino. pretend not to know me! Come on.. yes.. Dottore: You grab yourself another quarter hour of blessed sleep! Fine! And then.utexas.. signorina? Colombina: Dottore! Buon giorno. I grab myself another ten. how does your typical day begin? Colombina: Well.. imparate! Eccola. tell me. quindici minuti di pace e riposo prima di alzarmi. mi lavo la faccia.. for Caffè Chiarezza Dottore: Ladies and gentlemen! Students! Tall and short. listen. I wash my face.. and.. senz’altro deliziosissima. Colombina: I get up. pg 2 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. Colombina..la.. here it is.. she gets dressed. eccola! La sostanza quasi magica.. per favore... ascoltate. Colombina: No. Mi metto l’accappatoio. I beg of you. e. handsome and homely.

. Dottore: You make yourself a good cup of coffee! Fine. è quello più delizioso. try them and tell us. la mattina presto. Dottore: Si prepara un buon caffè! Brava.. miss. me. come si libera da questa nebbia mattutina? Colombina: Bene.. is the most delicious. I feel as though I had a dense fog about my head. I make myself a good cup of coffee. a casa.la. miss.utexas. è il suo caffè Valazza. non è vero? E ci dica. Lo saprà distinguere dagli altri? Venga. come si sente? Colombina: Mi sento.. li assaggi e ci dica. assaggi pure. Dottore: Ho capito! Tutti ci siamo sentiti così. Dottore: Here’s the first little cup! Now then. più profumato.. signorina. miss? Colombina: Me? Well. Dottore: I understand! We have all felt that way. and only one. Dottore: Ah-ha! I too have Caffè Valazza right here! Let’s see now if you can recognize the coffee that you say you drink every morning! Colombina: Oh! Dottore: Here are three different coffees. go ahead and try it! How is it? Colombina: Oh! This coffee is too strong! Colombina: Io? Beh. io. più capace di distruggere quella nebbia mattutina! Colombina: Eh. qual è il caffè che secondo Lei.. volentieri. isn’t it true? And tell us. gladly.edu/ . I have Caffè Valazza. signorina.. is your own Caffè Lavazza.. qui! Vediamo adesso se sa riconoscere il caffè che... mi sento come se avessi una nebbia densa intorno alla testa. lei beve ogni mattina! Colombina: Oh! Dottore: Ecco tre caffè diversi. pg 3 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. brava! E quale caffè usa Lei. at home... signorina? Dottore: You look at yourself in the mirror.. Dottore: Ecco la prima tazzina! Coraggio. fine! And what coffee do you use. Uno. Episode 12.. I. like so many others. Come lo trova? Colombina: Oh! Questo caffè è troppo forte! Radio Arlecchino. and how do you feel? Colombina: I feel. how do you free yourself of that morning fog? Colombina: Well. c’ho il caffè Valazza. secondo Lei. come tanti altri.. One. e solo uno.Dottore: Si guarda allo specchio e.. which is the coffee that according to you. Dottore: Ah-ha! Il caffè Valazza ce l’ho anch’io.... the most capable of destroying that morning fog! Colombina: Eh.. io.. early in the morning. Will you be able to distinguish it from the others? Come. mi preparo un buon caffè.

chiaramente il migliore . signorina. ecco la seconda tazzina! Assaggi! Come lo trova? Colombina: Oh! Questo caffè è troppo debole! Dottore: Avete sentito? Questo caffè è troppo debole! Ora ci resta solo questo. Caffè Chiarezza! Caffè Chiarezza is just the coffee for her! The perfect coffee that destroys the morning fog! Caffè Chiarezza -. Dottore? Dottore: Ha.. Caffè Valazza Light! Too weak: Caffè Valazza Light! Colombina: Oh! Dottore: Let’s see now which coffee was perfect! Behold... pg 4 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc.. Caffè Valazza! Too strong: Caffè Valazza! Dottore: Ha... Aaaaaahhhh.. Dottore? Dottore: Did you hear? This coffee is too strong! Onward..fet .edu/ . Behold.to! Ecco.. but it’s exquisite! Won’t you offer me a little bit more.utexas.. ha! Patience. miss. Caffè Valazza Light! Troppo forte il Caffè Valazza Light! Colombina: Oh! Dottore: Vediamo ora quale caffè è stato per . Behold. Episode 12.... avanti! Prego. now! Here... Caffè Valazza! Troppo forte il Caffè Valazza! Colombina: Oh! Dottore: Vediamo ora quale caffè è stato troppo debole. signorina.. Questo è il caffè che fa per me! È perfetto! Dottore: Avete sentito? Questo è il caffè che fa per lei! Il caffè perfetto! Signorina. Caffè Chiarezza! Il Caffè Chiarezza è il caffè che fa proprio per lei! Il caffè perfetto che distrugge la nebbia mattutina! Colombina: Oh! Dottore: Let’s see now which coffee was too weak. ma è squisito! Me ne offre ancora un pochino..la.. do you believe that this is your Caffè Valazza? Colombina: I don’t know.. crede che questo sia il Suo caffè Valazza? Colombina: Non lo so. Vediamo prima quale caffè è stato troppo forte. Ecco.. Ecco... Let’s first see which coffee was too strong. the last little cup! Try it! How is it? Colombina: Oh! Mmmmm...Dottore: Avete sentito? Questo caffè è troppo forte! Forza. the second little cup! Try it! How is it? Colombina: Oh! This coffee is too weak! Dottore: Did you hear? This coffee is too weak! Now we have but one left.. l’ultima tazzina! Assaggi! Come lo trova? Colombina: Oh! Mmmmmmm.. ha! Pazienza...Caffè Chiarezza – clearly the best – the Radio Arlecchino. Aaaahhh. This is just the coffee for me! It’s perfect! Dottore: Did you hear? This is just the coffee for her! The perfect coffee? Miss.. Miss....

Again. Dottore! ========== Dottore says so! Thank you.la. to get up (to get oneself up).edu/ . etc. to (or for) myself yourself. The action of the verb goes back and forth between the subject and the object. to (or for) yourselves (informal) themselves. itself. Dottore! ========== Nota Grammaticale Reflexive pronouns: pronomi riflessivi Reflexive pronouns and double pronouns These are pronouns that replace either a direct or an indirect object. to (or for) yourself (formal) ourselves. mi hai proprio salvato. yourselves to (or for) yourselves (formal) Verbs that are conjugated along with these reflexive pronouns are called Pronominal Verbs and they can be divided into three categories. in fact. performed by the subject on the subject. herself or itself.ve lo dice il Dottore! Grazie. to (or for) himself.utexas.. alzarsi. Colombina: I’m glad. you’ve really saved me.and secondperson direct object pronouns. ecc. to (or for) ourselves yourselves. Si ci vi si. Because the action is thought of as being reflected back onto the subject.. yourself. and these object pronouns.. This reciprocity is most often expressed with the phrase Radio Arlecchino. to see oneself in the mirror. to hurt oneself. Colombina. to (or for) yourself (informal) himself. lavarsi. which are in turn exactly the same as the first. The first and second-person reflexive pronouns are exactly the same as the first and secondperson indirect object pronouns. First you have the verbs that are truly reflexive. to wash oneself. pg 5 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. Episode 12. Secondly. itself. herself. these verbs. herself. you have the reciprocal construction. to (or for) themselves. that is. to dress oneself.. Si myself. Colombina. farsi male. Examples of such actions: guardarsi allo specchio. The subject performs an action that directly or indirectly affects the subject himself. verbs whose actions are. vestirsi. What sets them apart and makes them special is that the object they replace and the subject of the verb are the same person or thing. it is the third-person pronouns of this group that differ: mi ti si. Colombina: Mi rallegro.. are called reflexive.

their English equivalents are often expressed as “to become” or “to get” plus an adjective. conoscersi. So you’ll have: La mamma ha svegliato i ragazzi alle sette. 2004 . Most of them refer to an action of “becoming.. just because. Ieri eravamo stanchi e non ci siamo potuti divertire or we could also say Ieri eravoamo stanchi e non abbiamo potuto divertici. etc. Episode 12. arrabbiarsi. The kids woke up at seven.edu/ . to make each other’s acquaintance. Even a transitive verb used in compound tenses with a reflexive pronoun is conjugated with essere. to fall in love with each other.Edited by Foxit PDF Editor Copyright (c) by Foxit Software Company. therefore the past participle must agree with the subject of the verb. se li sono messi e sono pronte ad andare in scena! Have the actresses put on their costumes? Yes. to have fun. divertirsi. But they do have something in common. Yesterday we were tired and we couldn’t enjoy ourselves. It’s important to pay attention to the form of verbs in compound tenses when they begin using reflexive pronouns. to see each other. annoiarsi. The auxiliary essere is used onlly if the reflexive pronoun precedes the verb. vedersi. to get mad. a third-person direct object pronoun trumps all other rules of past participle agreement. etc. It takes at least two to reciprocate. Thirdly. ecc.utexas. “each other” in English.. (Agreement with first. we have those verbs that are conjugated pronominally because. innamorarsi. But: I ragazzi si sono svegliati alle sette.la.2007 For Evaluation Only.) Observe: Le attrici si sono messe i costumi? Sì. to get bored. Mom woke up the kids at seven. so these verbs are always in the plural. so their being conjugated with a reflexive pronoun is simply idiomatic. well. All pronominal verbs (verbs conjugated with a reflexive pronoun) have essere as their auxiliary in compound tenses.and second-person direct object pronouns is optional. There’s nothing inherently reflexive or reciprocal about them. pg 6 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. incontrarsi.” In fact. Beware the power of the direct object pronoun! Even when a verb is being used pronominally. Radio Arlecchino. ecc. to meet each other. they’ve put them on and they’re ready to go on stage! Beware of the strange behavior of modal verbs in relation to reflexive pronouons. otherwise avere is used.

gliela. gliene Please note that the third-persons indirect object pronoun “glie” has the direct object pronoun directly attached to it: glielo. I’ll sing it to you tonight under your balcony. gliele. ve la. Radio Arlecchino. te ne glielo. te la canto stasera sotto il tuo balcone. and the other will be an indirect object pronoun. glieli.Edited by Foxit PDF Editor Copyright (c) by Foxit Software Company. gliene. Double object pronouns: pronomi doppi Many times a verb has not just a direct or an indirect object. cantami una canzone romantica! Pulcinella. Pulcinella sings a song to Arlecchina. Pulcinella. te la. me la. gliele. ce la. glieli. always undergoes a spelling/pronunciation change. And one thing that will always happen is that the indirect object pronoun will be the first of the two to appear in the sentence.edu/ . sing me a romantic song! (sing a romantic song to me!) Va bene. ce li. When you have a pair of object pronouns. glieli.utexas. ve le. In the other pronoun pairs. pg 7 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. All right. the first of the two. gliela. one of the pronouns will be a direct object pronoun. me li. me ne te lo. te li. you will have: me lo.2007 For Evaluation Only. but both at the same time. Important changes occur when two pronouns are associated with one verb. So when you have double object pronouns. ve ne glielo. the indirect pronoun changes this way: me te glie ce ve glie Then when you add the direct object pronoun. ve li. First of all. we want to remember that when there are two pronouns associated with one verb. 2004 . te le. gliele. the two pronouns are spelled separately. gliene ce lo. as you saw in the previous example: we said “te la” instead of “ti la”. or the particle ne. Pantalone opens the door for Colombina. ce ne ve lo.la. gliela. Episode 12. the indirect object pronoun. me le. ce le.

After a couple of Bellinis.2007 For Evaluation Only. For centuries it dominated the eastern commercial routes with its monopoly in spices and precious textiles.. you must pay homage to the great painter the cocktail is named after. Venice will remind you of her greatness and pride. there is one that is quite recent but world-renowned: Harry’s Bar. pg 8 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc.” Will you still use it so lightheartedly? Feeling stressed out by pronouns? Wait! Lucky Episode 13 will be just for you! We’ll talk about what happens to pronouns when they get stressed! Thanks for listening! And be sure to tell your friends that you heard it here on Radio Arlecchino! Your hosts with the most – grammar. Venetians invented this form of salutation and it means “I am your slave. in the midst of wonderful aperitifs and liquors. which functions in many different ways.Edited by Foxit PDF Editor Copyright (c) by Foxit Software Company. is always the exception to the rule.la. The history of the city is long and complex.. During your visit you might say ‘ciao’ to passersby. After all.edu/ . If you think you might have trouble remembering this. he knew he had created something extraordinary. From its origin. it is never attached to any verb form and it always follows the verb. Venice expanded to become one of the most powerful Republics of all times (it remained an independent and proud Republic for over 1100 years). just use gli instead. into your ears” Radio Arlecchino.utexas. Episode 12. Nota Culturale Venezia e Bellini Whether you are strolling along Piazza San Marco. the Bellini cocktail was first invented in 1948. Giuseppe Cipriani and Harry Pickering opened the bar in May 1931. Giuseppe had a passion for white peaches and he worked hard trying to develop a perfect cocktail that would use them as a base. walking on the Ponte di Rialto or snoozing on a gondola. 2004 . as it will always follow the rules we have given you above. visiting the church of San Zaccaria. Many churches in Venice have altars adorned with the beautiful colors and sensuous humanity of Giovanni Bellini’s paintings. The maverick pronoun: loro It seems that the pronoun loro. somehow… As the third-person plural indirect object pronoun. And there. When he combined the pureed white peaches with prosecco (an Italian sparkling wine). Antonella Olson & Eric Edwards “Out of our minds . Of all the great masterpieces in Venice.

--Does the professor explain the grammar to you? --Yes.edu/ .. Nobody will ever be able to explain them to you. he explains it to me. Presentatori e Capocomici Gentili Ascoltatori. me la spiega. --Professore. te lo spiegherò domani.la. ce li ha spiegati.utexas. I will explain it to you tomorrow. Eric and an Eager Young Italian Grammar Cadet 1. ========== Radio Arlecchino. will you explain Arlecchino’s poems to us? --I’m sorry. guys..la.Piazza della Grammatica 1 • Antonella Olson & Eric Edwards. You can hear this podcast at http://tltc. --Professor.edu/ra/episode. --Professor. Episode 13. Here's a transcript of The Joy of Stress. --Il professore ti spiega la grammatica? --Sì.utexas.php?p=13 Buon divertimento! Ha partecipato Rachel Showstack Featured in this broadcast Eager Young Italian Grammar Cadet. mi spiegherà il congiuntivo? --Certo. --Professore. Dear Listeners. ========== --Il professore vi ha spiegato i pronomi? --Sì. non ve ne spiegherò neanche una. ci spiegherà le poesie di Arlecchino? --Mi dispiace. Nessuno potrà mai spiegarvele. ragazzi. he has explained them to us. I won’t explain even one of them to you. --Has the professor explained pronouns to you? --Yes. New Supplifono Fan Eric and an Eager Young Italian Grammar Cadet 1. our recent show on stressed pronouns. pg 1 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. will you explain the subjunctive to me? --Of course.

The Snack Divine! The girl: Hello? Hello? Hello? Well who is it? Who’s there? Dottore: Ha ha! But it’s not your boyfriend calling you! It’s not your cell phone! The girl: Well then? Dottore: It’s the snack of the gods calling you. gliela spiega. I will explain it to her tomorrow. ========== Il Dottore per i supplì al telefono “Supplifono” -.. Episode 13. spiegherà il congiuntivo alla studentessa? --Certo. here Radio Arlecchino.utexas. --Il professore spiega la grammatica allo studente? --Sì. he has explained them to them. to the Supplifono! The girl: Huh? Dottore: Yes.edu/ . Non è il Suo cellulare! La ragazza: E allora? Dottore: È lo spuntino degli dei che La chiamano. --Professore. non gliene spiegherà neanche una. he explains it to him.la. Nobody will ever be able to explain them to them.Eric and an Eager Young Italian Grammar Cadet 2. he won’t explain even one of them to them. eccoli. will you explain the subjunctive to the student? --Of course.. Nessuno potrà mai spiegargliele. al Supplifono! La ragazza: Come? Dottore: Sì. --Has the professor explained the pronouns to the students? --Yes.. glieli ha spiegati. --Does the professor explain the grammar to the student? --Yes. ========== Eric and an Eager Young Italian Grammar Cadet 2. --Il professore ha spiegato i pronomi agli studenti? --Sì. i supplì al telefono del Dottor Balanzone! Eccoli. glielo spiegherò domani.lo Spuntino Divino! La ragazza: Pronto? Pronto? Pronto? Ma chi è? Chi c’è? Dottore: Ha ha! Ma non è il Suo ragazzo che Le telefona. here they are. --Professor. --Will the professor explain Arlecchino’s poems to the students? --Unfortunately no... --Il professore spiegherà le poesie di Arlecchino alle studentesse? --Purtroppo no.. eccoli! Deliziosi Il Dottore for supplì al telefono “Supplifono” . pg 2 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. Dottor Balanzone’s supplì al telefono! Here they are.

sì.... Episode 13. certainly! Here you are.. Ow! Dottore: Careful! They’re still hot! Oh! now this must be your boyfriend! The girl: Don’t mind him.. Ahi! Dottore: Stia attenta! Sono ancora caldi! Oh! questo sì sarà il Suo fidanzato! La ragazza: Lasciamo perdere.e nutritivi! Venite! Vedete! Assaggiateli! Li offro ora a voi come li offriva a me la nonna... Da ora in poi ricevo solo le Supplifonate! Mmmmmm! Dottore: Supplifono! Sono gli dei che vi chiamano dall’Olimpo. yes.. with love. perché con amore sono stati sempre fatti..... e.. Dottore: Sì. Dottore: Yes. pg 3 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc..... ragù di carne.. Miss.. I only take Supplifono calls! Mmmmmm! Dottore: Supplifono! It’s the gods calling you from Olympus..? La ragazza: Mmmmm. inviting you to share with them the Snack Divine! ========== Radio Arlecchino. Dottore: Exactly. il riso.... and... The girl: Thank you... Dottore. Uh! Dottore: Stia attenta! È caldo! Mi dica.? The girl: Mozzarella. signorina.. may I offer you one of them? The girl: Thank you. signorina! La ragazza: Grazie........ Dottore: There you are! This is grandmama’s supplì -. con amore...edu/ .. Dottore: Esatto.. meat sauce.? La ragazza: Mozzarella...... rice. for with love they have always been made..... Dottore: Ecco! Questo è il supplì della nonna -... Signorina.Supplifono! La ragazza: È squisito! Non me ne offrirebbe un altro? Dottore: Come no! Ecco a Lei.Supplifono! The girl: It’s scrumptious! Wouldn’t you offer me another one of them? Dottore: Why. rice.utexas. Dottore. posso offrirgliene uno? La ragazza: Grazie..la. and. Miss.? The girl: Mmmmm. riso. what do you think of it? The girl: Mmmmm... ad invitarvi a condividere con loro lo spuntino divino! ========== they are! Delicious and nutritious! Come! See! Try them! I offer them to you now as my grandmother offered them to me. come lo trova? La ragazza: Mmmmm..... From now on.. Ooh! Dottore: Watch out! It’s hot! Tell me Miss. e.....

. I was talking with the Dottore.. athletic.utexas. Episode 13.. pg 4 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc.la. A letter has come for you! Do you want to come to the movies with us? Don’t forget me! Long live Pulcinella! Tonight there will be a big party at his place! We couldn’t have done it without you! ========== Radio Arlecchino. she loves him because he has the soul of a musician. and I have seen her many time at the theatre.. e ho visto lei molte volte a teatro. ama lui perché ha l’anima di un musicista. --Com’è possibile che Arlecchina ami non solo me ma anche Pulcinella? --Ama te perché sei un tipo in gamba. ========== The pronome tonico with prepositions.. È arrivata una lettera per te! Vuoi venire al cinema con noi? Non ti scordar di me! Evviva Pulcinella! Stasera ci sarà una grande festa da lui! Non avremmo potuto farlo senza di voi! ========== The tonic pronouns with prepositions. cara mia.edu/ ..Eric and an Eager Young Italian Grammar Cadet 3: The pronomi tonici in action! --Guarda chi sta entrando! Sono Arlecchino e Arlecchina! Li conosci? --Come no! Ascolto spesso lui su Radio Arlecchino. --Chi ami? --Amo solo te. --Whom do you love? --I love only you. di un poeta. --What were you saying to me? --I wasn’t saying anything to you. Parlavo con il Dottore. ========== Eric and an Eager Young Italian Grammar Cadet 3: The tonic pronouns in action! --Look who’s coming in! It’s Arlecchino and Arlecchina! Do you know them? --Of course! I often listen to him on Radio Arlecchino. a poet.. --Che cosa mi dicevi? --Non dicevo niente a te.. sportivo. --How is it possible for Arlecchina to love not just me but also Pulcinella? --She loves you because you’re on the ball. my dear.

utexas. Antonella! Antonella: Hi. mi devi aiutare tu. Episode 13. Antonella! Antonella: Ciao.la. Supplì! Eric: Several friends from the studio are coming to my house tomorrow evening. Eric! Come stai? Eric: Bene. Eric: Ciao. Crostafù grated bread! Antonella: And what do you plan to do with these ingredients? Eric: That’s just why I’ve called you! Pulcinella’s not around.. il riso Barobio. e figurati.. Eric phones Antonella in Rome.... thanks! This time I’m not stuffing myself with art but with real food! Eric: Excellent! Enjoy it! In fact it was food I wanted to talk to you about... Eric! How are you? Eric: Fine. [All personal pronouns are highlighted in this phone call.edu/ . pangrattato Crostafù! Antonella: E che cosa pensi di fare con questi ingredienti? Eric: Proprio per questo ti ho chiamato! Pulcinella non c’è.Eric telefona ad Antonella a Roma. Antonella: You couldn’t have caught me at a better moment! In fact I’m stuffing myself in one of those rosticcerie with what as far as I’m concerned is the best Italian fast food.. grazie! Questa volta non mi sto abbuffando di arte ma di cibo vero! Eric: Ottimo! Buon appetito! Proprio di cibo volevo parlarti.. la mozzarella Rintupicchio.. With all these commercials for food that we’ve been broadcasting here I’ve ended up buying a bunch of stuff. Con tutte le pubblicità di generi alimentari che stiamo trasmettendo qui ho finito per comprare un sacco di roba. grazie! E tu? Ti disturbo? Antonella: Sto bene... Rintupicchio mozzarella.. fine.. bene. Antonella: Hello. help me make a good impression with Radio Arlecchino.. Barobio rice. thanks! And you? Am I interrupting? Antonella: I’m fine. you’ve got to help me. pg 5 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc.... and go figure.. Eric: Hi.] Antonella: Pronto. fammi fare bella figura con uno sfizio italiano. Antonella: Momento migliore non potevi trovarlo! Infatti sto abbuffandomi in una rosticceria di quello che per me è il miglior fast-food italiano! Il supplì! Eric: Domani sera vengono a casa mia parecchi amici dello studio.

. Antonella: So.. mettici dentro un pezzetto di mozzarella fresca. serve them hot. la mozzarella sarà il filo del telefono. e dite: Eric: “Arisentirci”? Antonella: Hai capito! Eric: Grazie. the mozzarella will be the phone cord. e insieme.. pg 6 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. spero di non farli proprio al telefono! Antonella: No. Ecco! Così avrai fatto i supplì al telefono! Eric: Be’.. i supplì sono “supplì al telefono”! Quando arriveranno i tuoi amici. Antonella: Quindi. stasera prepara un ragù di carne e cuoci il riso con il ragù. spezzate in due il supplì...la. Cover the supplì with grated bread and as soon as the oil in the pan is hot. tonight make a meat saucce and cook the rice with the sauce..Andiamo con i supplì? Antonella: Sarebbero perfetti! Ti do subito la ricetta per i supplì al telefono! Eric: Al telefono. per forza. domani.. use the rice cold and add a whole egg to it. There! That’s how you’ll have mad supplì al telefono! Eric: Well.. I hope I won’t be making them right on the phone! Antonella: No. Then. Prendi una manciata di riso. Shall we go with the supplì? Antonella: They would be perfect! I’ll go ahead right now and give you the recipe for supplì al telefono! Eric: It’ll have to be al telefono [on the phone].. put the supplì in it and fry it.. otherwise there’s no time... the supplì are “supplì al telefono”—“telephone style supplì!” When your friends get there. Poi... portate una metà all’orecchio e l’altra metà alla bocca. put a cube of fresh mozzarella in it and roll the rice into an oval shape.. Episode 13. usa il riso freddo. split the the supplì in two. and say: Eric: “Arisentirci”? Antonella: You’ve got it! Eric: Thanks. Antonella. Take a handful or rice.edu/ .. metti il supplì e friggilo. Copri il supplì con il pan grattato e appena l’olio nella padella è caldo. they’ll be delicious! Antonella: They’re great! I’ve finished all of mine! Eric: We’ll talk again soon over the supplì wire! Radio Arlecchino. saranno deliziosi! Antonella: Sono buonissimi! I miei li ho finiti tutti! Eric: Parleremo di nuovo presto attraverso il filo del supplì! something Italian and fanciful... Appollotala il riso a forma ovale.. servili caldi. Hold one half up to your ear and the other to your mouth. tomorrow. Antonella. amalga al riso un uovo intero.. altrimenti non c’è tempo. and together.utexas..

We use the pronome tonico when • we want to resolve ambiguity: Non ti confondere. a lei. you (or for) you (formal) Note that when a pronome tonico is an indirect object. Talking of placement. a lui lei. I saw him cooking and I found her fixing the sink. Episode 13. to (or for) you (informal) The rest of them are the same as the subject pronouns: Third person singular: lui.and second-person singulars are: me. a voi loro. to (or for) him her. Radio Arlecchino. or emphasize. whereas the unstressed pronoun. In fact. a te me. the pronome tonico is always placed after the verb. or “stressed pronouns. the pronoun. a Lei and the Plurals: noi. to (or for) her. to (or for) you (informal) them. The first. to (or for) us you. you.utexas. a noi voi. never has a preposition in front of it. The adjective “atono” means “unstressed. to (or for) them. a me te. to (or for) you (formal) him. these pronomi tonici are called “disjunctive” pronouns in English precisely because they do not get joined to the verb. a Loro us. and it is never attached to any form of the verb. ho visto lui cucinare e ho trovato lei ad aggiustare il lavandino. Loro. pg 7 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. you have to have the preposition in front of it. a loro.la.” So. to (or for) me you. Don’t get confused. we use one of the pronomi tonici. Lei. the pronome atono.edu/ . when we want to stress.Antonella: Buon appetito! Antonella: Enjoy them! Nota Grammaticale Stressed pronouns: pronomi tonici The object pronouns that we’ve been using so far are called pronomi atoni in Italian.” The pronome tonico is the same whether it’s replacing a direct or an indirect object.

pg 8 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. arancini. roasted chickens. At most of le trattorie. Nota Culturale Trattorie In Italy there are different types of restaurants and fast-food establishments. possibly because it always comes after the verb the way pronouns do in English.la.• we want to compare or to contrast: Ama te perché sei un poeta e ama lui perché è uno sportivo. Episode 13. Many students love to use the pronome tonico instead of the pronome atono.edu/ . But watch out! You need to have one of the compelling reasons that we’ve just listed to use the pronome tonico. La pizzeria also sells a variety of fried goodies (suppli. Radio Arlecchino. the pronoun must be a pronome tonico. at times. Vuoi venire a teatro con noi? Do you want to come to the theatre with us? Preferisco non venire da te se c’è anche il Dottore. She loves you because you’re a poet and she loves him because he’s the athletic type. In una trattoria or un ristorante you normally pay il conto (a bill) that includes il coperto (cover charge for the tablecloth and bread) and il servizio (service charge). I prefer not to come to your place if the Dottore is there too. One of the most popular of these. nothing! Cosa mi racconti? A te niente! If a pronoun is the object of a preposition. • the pronoun is the answer to a question: Whom did they applaud? They applauded only her! Chi hanno applaudito? Hanno applaudito solo lei! • the pronoun contains the emphasized information: What have you got to tell me? To you. verdure) and. You can also choose to drink il vino della casa (the house wine) or acqua gassata/naturale (sparkling/natural water).utexas. The environment is very informal and they usually serve pizza by the slice. la trattoria. La pizzeria can be thought as an Italian fast-food place. has a relaxed flair and is more economical and less formal than un ristorante. You can take it home on a tray (un vassoio) or you can eat your slice on the go. you can order an array of primi e secondi piatti (first and second courses) and contorni e dolci (side dishes and sweets).

the same food is served everywhere. Some Italians are unhappy about the presence of fast-food.. If you visit Palermo. take it easy.. eggs and meat). lo sfincione (a Palermo pizza).La tavola calda (literally. Antonella Olson & Eric Edwards “Out of our minds . It has 80. Modern fast-food is available all over Italy and. your eyes will pop out of their sockets.000 members in over 100 countries and 800 eating clubs where people gather to prepare and eat delicious meals. economical snacks to be consumed on-the-go. pg 9 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. Piccoli carretti con griglie (small moveable stands with grills) sell a variety of delicious snacks: le arancine (balls made of bread.la. and reflext on all the good things Radio Arlecchino has been feeding you. In many parts of Italy indigenous forms of fast-food have survived for centuries. The tradition dates back to the Ancient Greeks who first had a section of the agora (square) reserved for delicious. i cazzilli (fried potatoes with herbs). Episode 13. so now you have Pronoun Fever! What’s next? You need to relax.edu/ . your newly acquired Pronoun Power will get a serious workout when we discover the pleasures of the verb piacere! Thanks for listening! And be sure to tell your friends that you heard it here on Radio Arlecchino! Your hosts with the most – grammar.utexas. The Slow Food Movement was created as a way to oppose fast-food culture and to rethink our relationship to food. la vastedda ca meusa con le panelle (beef kidney and spleen with buns). into your ears” Radio Arlecchino. but the fact that these items have been consumed for the past 2000 years should make you think twice. Afterward. You not choose to try these snacks. The organization was founded in 1986 in Piemonte. hot table) serves dishes prepared in advance and l’osteria serves primarily wine and beer and light snacks. la quarume (beef tripe served in a broth). with some variation. rice. Buon Appetito! All right. la stigghiòla (lamb liver and intestines).

edu/ra/episode.Piazza della Grammatica 1 • Antonella Olson & Eric Edwards. Festeggiate gustando la delizia dell'incomparabile panettone Gnammagna! Dottore: Here's your old friend Dottor Balanzone... which you can hear at http://tltc.php?p=14 Buon divertimento! Hanno partecipato Esmeralda Moscatelli Simone Sessolo Steven Miller Carlos Capra Irene Eibenstein-Alvisi Sheilah Murphy Michael Heidenreich Sean Neesley Featured in this broadcast Colombina Pantalone Pulcinella himself herself herself himself himself Panettone Gnammagna Dottore: Ecco il vostro vecchio amico. Here's a transcript of our recent Holiday Special and All-Star Grammar Review Broadcast. Presentatori e Capocomici Gentili Ascoltatori. "Festeggiate": The informal plural "you" imperative is the same as the present indicative of the verb.utexas. pg 1 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc.. il Dottor Balanzone. reminding you that the holidays are always better when there's delicious Gnammagna panettone! It's true . Episode 14. Celebrate while enjoying the incomparable delight of Gnammagna panettone! Nota Grammaticale "vi ricorda": the unstressed object pronoun precedes the verb.. Radio Arlecchino.edu/ .la. che vi ricorda che le feste sono sempre migliori quando c'è il delizioso panettone Gnammagna! È vero .utexas. Dear Listeners.la.

thanks. no... bring him something to drink! Arlecchino: Right away... bene. the Befana! It's me! Eric! Arlecchino: Eric! And why didn't you say so right away? Attention. Pantalone: È un piacere rivederti! Arlecchino.. Dottore. Sono io! Arlecchino: Ah.. portagli qualcosa da bere! Arlecchino: Subito. Dottore. Episode 14. Colombina! Ma che bel costume! Colombina: Grazie. give me your coat. Pantalone: It's a pleasure to see you again! Arlecchino. Arlecchino: Here. signore! Dottore: Gaudeamus igitur..utexas. Eric: Ecco.la..ubi est? Eric: You mean to say.. sei tu! E tu chi sei? La Befana? Eric: Macché Befana! Sono io! Eric! Arlecchino: Eric! E perché non lo hai detto subito? Attenti. Dottore. thanks .At the Teatro Bisognosi Arlecchino: Chi è che bussa? Chi è? È Babbo Natale? Eric: No. insieme dum sumus! Eric: Grazie. where is Radio Arlecchino. Eric: Here. Arlecchino: Su. dammi il cappotto.edu/ . pg 2 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. how are you? Eric: Fine...ubi est? Eric: Vorrà dire. come stai? Eric: Bene. come here near the fire . no.. Dottore. it's you! And who are you? The Befana? Eric: What do you mean. vieni qui vicino al fuoco . grazie . l'ho fatto apposta per il nuovo spettacolo . Colombina! What a beautiful costume! Colombina: Thanks. insieme dum sumus! Eric: Thank you. dov'è . I made it especially for the new play . Arlecchino: Who's knocking? Who is it? Is it Father Christmas? Eric: No. fine. it's me! It's me! Arlecchino: Ah. sir! Dottore: Gaudeamus igitur... è un piacere rivederLa! Dottore: Sed -. grazie. ragazzi! Ecco il nostro presentatore radiofonico! Colombina: Eric. guys! Here's our radio announcer! Colombina: Eric. It's good to see you again! Dottore: Sed -.

"Sono io": The subject pronouns are being used here because they contain the emphasized information. Unstressed object pronouns are attached to the end of an infinitive. third-person. informal "you" imperative of venire is regular for a third-conjugation verb. The disjunctive. conjugated with essere as its auxiliary. pg 3 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. informal "you" imperative of portare is the present indicative stem plus -a. so when we attach the object pronoun to it. we double the pronoun's initial consonant "vieni qui": the singular. "È un piacere rivederti!": the unstressed direct object pronoun is attached to the end of the infinitive.. Antonella! Didn't she come with you? Pantalone: Where is our Antonella? Eric: But she hasn't come back from Rome! Nota Grammaticale "Ah. The past participle of verbs conjugated with essere agrees with the subject (Antonella). "L'ho fatto apposta": passato prossimo -.la. The past participle of verbs conjugated with essere agrees with the subject (Antonella).edu/ . "portagli qualcosa": the singular. "Non è venuta con te?": venire is an intransitive verb of motion. Radio Arlecchino.a one-time. "è un piacere rivederLa!": the singular. feminine direct object pronoun is used as formal "you" even though the Dottore is a man. conjugated with essere as its auxiliary. "non è ancora tornata da Roma!": tornare is an intransitive verb of motion. The indirect object pronoun must be attached to it. i. informal "you" imperative form of the verb dare has only one syllable.utexas.. "dammi il cappotto": the singular. Episode 14. Antonella! Non è venuta con te? Pantalone: Dov'è la nostra Antonella? Eric: Ma non è ancora tornata da Roma! Dottore: Ubi est pulcherrima puella Antonella? Colombina: That's right. completed action in the past.e. it is the same as the present indicative. Dottore: Ubi est pulcherrima puella Antonella? Colombina: Già. or stressed pronoun (pronome tonico) must be used when the pronoun follows a preposition. sei tu! E tu chi sei"...

guarda. good evening.la. it's you! And who are you? The Befana? il Postino: What do you mean. brava gente! Ecco la posta! Colombina: Oh. the Befana! It's me. sono io! Aprite! Arlecchino: Ah. signor Postino! Non possiamo offrirLe -. it's me! Open up! Arlecchino: Ah. Arlecchino? Arlecchino: Oh. apri. Mister Postman! Arlecchino. no.A Visit from the Postman Arlecchino: Chi è che bussa? Chi è? È Babbo Natale? il Postino: No. Arlecchino! il Postino: Good evening. look at all the cards! Colombina: There's so many of them! Dottore: Vivant biglietti! Pantalone: Thank you. it's you! And why didn't detto subito? Allora c'è posta per noi? you say so right away? So. quanti biglietti! Colombina: Ce ne sono tanti! Dottore: Vivant biglietti! Pantalone: Grazie.utexas. how heavy it is! Let's see what's inside! Colombina: What is it. what an enormous sack! Dottore: Pereat tristitia! Pantalone: Thank you. no. buona sera. e lo saprai! Pantalone: Apri. quanto pesa! Vediamo cosa c'è dentro! Colombina: Cosa c'è. open up and you'll find out! Pantalone: Open up. there's mail for us? il Postino: Ehi.ma dov'è andato? il Postino: Hey. sei tu! E tu chi sei? La Befana? il Postino: Macché Befana! Sono io. signor Postino! Arlecchino. open up. get that sack! Arlecchino: Zounds. apri. the postman! Arlecchino: Ah. il postino! Arlecchino: Who's knocking? Who is it? Is it Father Christmas? il Postino: No. Episode 14. Mister Postman! Can't we offer you -. Arlecchino! il Postino: Buona sera. pg 4 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. Arlecchino? Arlecchino: Oh. sei tu! E perché non lo hai Arlecchino: Ah.edu/ . che sacco enorme! Dottore: Pereat tristitia! Pantalone: Grazie. fine people! Here's the mail! Colombina: Oh.but where has he Radio Arlecchino. prendi quel sacco! Arlecchino: Mamma mia.

informal "you" imperative of guardare is regular for a first-conjugation (-are) verb. stressed pronoun (pronome tonico) must be used because it follows a preposition. informal "you" imperative of prendere is regular for a secondconjugation (-ere) verb. It is the present indicative stem plus -a.utexas. sir! There's this parcel as well! Fine people..) "ma dov'è andato?": One-time completed action in the past = passato prossimo. "Ci sono tanti biglietti" = "There are so many cards. it behaves like one in terms of its placement in relation to the verb. It is the same as the present indicative. quanti biglietti!": the singular. "prendi quel sacco!": the singular. not on the fact that it's me) so must be attached to the end: "Behold me!" "Here I am!" Radio Arlecchino. Think of it as meaning "Behold!" The pronoun is unstressed (the emphasis is on the fact that I'm here. (Because we also have a conjugated form of potere. Buone feste! Buono spettacolo! il Postino: Here I am.la. We use an unstressed pronoun (pronome atono) because the emphasis here is not on the "you" but on the "being able to offer. "Vediamo cosa c'è dentro!": the first-person plural ("we") form of the imperative ("Let's ." Ne replaces biglietti when we are talking about a quantity of biglietti. an acceptable alternative would have been for Pantalone to say Non Le possiamo offrire . informal "you" imperative of aprire is regular for a thirdconjugation (-ire) verb. Andare is an intransitive verb of motion conjugated with essere. Ci + ne = Ce ne. "guarda. a pronoun here (it is an adverbial particle).edu/ . "Non possiamo offrirLe": the third-person feminine singular indirect object pronoun is used for formal "you" even though the postman is a man.." Pronomi atoni are attached to the end of the infinitive. It is the same as the present indicative. Plenty of other cards and parcels to deliver. Episode 14. "apri. devo scappare. technically speaking. Happy Holidays! and a Good Show! Nota Grammaticale "c'è posta per noi?": the disjunctive. pg 5 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. "Eccomi qua!": Ecco behaves like an imperative in terms of pronoun placement.") is always the same as the present indicative. The unstressed direct object pronoun (pronome tonico) comes in front of the conjugated verb. Tanti altri biglietti e pacchi da consegnare... signore! C'è anche questo pacco! Brava gente. "Ce ne sono tanti!": Although ci is not.gone? il Postino: Eccomi qua. I must be off. e lo saprai!": the singular.

. how on earth . pg 6 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. Arlecchino? Arlecchino: Who's knocking? Who is it? Is it Father Christmas? Ah.? Antonella: Ero tornata nello studio..... Non ho ordinato niente. this is not my favorite way to travel ... Pantalone: Oh. come mai . there they told me that you were here . hi! How are you? Antonella: To tell the truth.. Antonella! Pantalone: This package worries me a bit . Antonella. Let's drink to Antonella's return! Arlecchino! Radio Arlecchino... Arlecchino? Arlecchino: Chi è che bussa? Chi è? È Babbo Natale? Ah. Eric: Ma. i giri che ho fatto ...... Brindiamo al ritorno di Antonella! Arlecchino! Eric: Antonella. for heaven's sake .. Dottore: Mirabile dictu! Pantalone: Come.. Eric: But. per carità ..utexas... Antonella! Arlecchino: Antonella! E perché non lo hai Arlecchino: Antonella! And why didn't detto subito? you say so right away? Eric: Antonella. questo non è il mio modo preferito di viaggiare ...A Happy Surprise Pantalone: Questo pacco mi preoccupa un po' ... Colombina? Colombina: Io no. Oh.edu/ ...la. friends .? Antonella: I had gone back to the studio... Antonella. ciao! Come stai? Antonella: A dire il vero...... Help me! Thank you.. Pantalone: Oh. amici . professor. signor Pantalone.. Episode 14. Mister Pantalone.. to the table with us . professoressa. I never ordered anything.. Aiutatemi! Grazie. a tavola con noi . Dottore: Mirabile dictu! Pantalone: Venga. sei tu! E tu chi sei? La Befana? Antonella: Macché Befana! Sono io. the Befana! It's me.. Pantalone: Dottore? Dottore: Misterius magnus mihi quantus tibi .. it's you! And who are you? The Befana? Antonella: What do you mean. lì mi hanno detto che eri qui . Pantalone: Dottore? Dottore: Misterius magnus mihi quantus tibi . Colombina? Colombina: Not I. the circles I've been in . Oh.

Pantalone: Come no . Dottore .per te .for you . Colombina! Arlecchina: for Mister Pantalone .... this is for the Dottore ... ecco un bicchiere per -... Eric: Thanks. spumante per tutti! Arlecchina: Sì. sparkling wine for everybody! Arlecchina: Yes. dear friends and colleagues. Colombina! Arlecchina: Per il signor Pantalone .... Pantalone: E ora. mi dia per favore del tu .. Dottore .. Antonella: Grazie.. aiuta Arlecchino con le bottiglie.utexas. ti do una mano .... pg 7 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc... brindiamo al gioioso ritorno della nostra cara amica--Antonella: Ma scusate un momento . Eric: Grazie.... a toast to the joyous return of our dear friend-Antonella: One moment.. Colombina: Pulcinella c'è -- Arlecchino: Yes. Pantalone: And now. our Pulcinella-where is he? Pantalone: Not to worry .. address me as "tu" . si accomodi .. Arlecchina: Colombina. professoressa. Dottore: In vino jubileus! Colombina: Eric.... Colombina: Here you are.. Pantalone: Here you are. sir! Colombina: Here are the glasses! Pantalone: Arlecchina. Mister Pantalone! Arlecchino. ma . I'll give you a hand . speaking of dear friends ....... cari amici e colleghi... here's a glass for -. a proposito di cari amici . Pantalone: Ecco.... Pantalone: Why of course . il nostro Pulcinella--dov'è? Pantalone: Non ti preoccupare ... professor.. help Arlecchino with the bottles. Dottore: In vino jubileus! Colombina: Eric.. Colombina: Ecco a Lei.Arlecchino: Sì..la.... make yourself comfortable ... molto gentile . but please.. signore! Colombina: Ecco i bicchieri! Pantalone: Arlecchina.. Episode 14. signor Pantalone! Arlecchino. Arlecchina: Colombina. Antonella: Thank you.. questo è per il Dottore . you're very kind . please . vieni. come.. Colombina: Pulcinella is here -- Radio Arlecchino.edu/ .

.... pg 8 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. Arlecchina: He won't quit practicing . it is the same as the present indicative. Episode 14. your "being here" was in progress. at the time they made the statement.. e senz'altro anche dopo . Arlecchino: He's a bit nervous .. "Io non l'ho ordinato" or "Non sono stata io" would be complete versions. The unstressed direct object pronoun must be attached to the end of the imperative.edu/ .. (Not a completed event but an ongoing situation.e. so imperfetto... Colombina: But you'll see him in the show. "Io no": Colombina's statement is incomplete... Antonella: Meno male! Pantalone: Come dicevo . Arlecchino: E' un po' nervoso .. "mi hanno detto": One-time completed action in the past = passato prossimo.la.. Antonella: That's good! Pantalone: As I was saying .. i...Arlecchino: Eccome! Colombina: Il nostro spettacolo stasera comincia con una sua canzone . Colombina: Ma lo vedrai nello spettacolo.. In any case... ad Antonella! Everybody: Ad Antonella! Pantalone: Bentornata sia! E che non ci lasci mai più per così tanto tempo! Everybody: Cin cin! Arlecchino: And how! Colombina: Our show tonight opens with a song of his .) Radio Arlecchino. "Aiutatemi!": The informal plural "you" imperative of aiutare is regular. to Antonella! Everybody: To Antonella! Pantalone: Welcome back! And may she never leave us again for so long! Everybody: Cheers! Nota Grammaticale "Questo pacco mi preoccupa": pronome atono placed in front of the conjugated verb.. "che eri qui": They didn't say when you started being here... The unstressed indirect object pronoun must be placed in front of the conjugated verb.utexas. and certainly afterwards as well .. Arlecchina: Non smette di fare pratica . she uses the subject pronoun because it conveys the emphasized information.

) "lo vedrai": The unstressed direct object pronoun comes before the conjugated verb. so the reflexive pronoun must be used and it precedes the conjugated verb (whenever you use the subjunctive as the formal imperative.. it is the present indicative stem plus -a. pg 9 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. Radio Arlecchino. Since preoccuparsi is reflexive.la.": Pantalone hadn't completed his toast when he was interrupted. Dare del tu a qualcuno is the Italian expression that means "to address someone informally (as tu). "mi dia per favore del tu": Antonella responds to Pantalone formally. "si accomodi" Pantalone continues to address Antonella formally so the imperative form of accomodarsi is the same as the present subjunctive. Episode 14. (But remember that non will always come before any object pronouns. "ecco un bicchiere per te": Pantalone takes the cue and and switches over to the informal "you" in addressing Antonella. "scusate un momento": The informal plural "you" imperative of scusare is regular. Dottore": The third-person singular feminine pronoun is used as formal "you" even though the Dottore is a man. The verb is reflexive. professoressa": Pantalone is addressing Antonella formally so the imperative form of venire is the same as the present subjunctive."Venga. "Brindiamo": The first-person plural imperative ("Let's . aiuta Arlecchino": The singular. the reflexive pronoun must be used. we use non + the infinitive of the verb. "a tavola con noi": The disjunctive pronoun (pronome tonico) must be used because it follows a preposition. "Come dicevo. the pronoun may precede the verb. "Non ti preoccupare": When a "tu"-form command is negative." So Antonella is asking Pantalone to be less formal with her. it doesn't count as a real imperative in terms of pronoun placement).) is always the same as the present indicative. informal "you" imperative of aiutare is regular for a first-conjugation (-are) verb. "Ecco a Lei..utexas. In negative commands. Imperfetto. "ti do una mano": The unstressed indirect object pronoun comes in front of the conjugated verb.. so the imperative form of dare is the same as the present subjunctive and the indirect object pronoun must precede the conjugated verb. so his act of dire was an incomplete action. using the disjunctive pronoun (pronome tonico) here because it follows a preposition.edu/ . even when it is in the infinitive. it is the same as the present indicative. The disjunctive pronoun (pronome tonico) must be used because it follows a preposition. "Arlecchina.

.. ma la donna non ha voluto.... Colombina! Colombina: Grazie. Arlecchino! Arlecchina: Da chi è? Arlecchino: Vediamo . grazie! Ma cosa sono questi? Arlecchino: Oh." The Befana Antonella: Grazie. "do you remember how at one time you wanted to know everything about the Befana? and I told you .utexas. ancora oggi... i nostri biglietti! Colombina: Ce li ha portati il postino. Pantalone means "Desideriamo che bentornata sia! E speriamo che non ci lasci mai più .. but the woman refused." mi scrive . ma loro erano già lontani e non ha potuto raggiungerli... Carlos: As the three kings were going to Bethlehem to take their gifts to the child Jesus. along with your package! Dottore: Ecce bigliettus tibi. On that night all Italian children go to sleep awaiting the gifts of Radio Arlecchino. Shortly thereafter.."Bentornata sia! E che non ci lasci mai più . Dottore! Guarda! Qui ce n'è uno per te... "ricordi come una volta volevi sapere tutto sulla Befana? e io ti raccontavo .. hanno visto una vecchia e hanno insistito che li seguisse per far visita al piccolo Gesù. "Dear Arlecchino" he writes ... ha cercato di raggiungere i Re Magi. however. the little old lady. pg 10 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc.. but they were already far away and she was unable to catch up with them. takes gifts to all good children in the hope that one of them will be the little Jesus. la notte prima dell'Epifania (il 6 gennaio). tuttavia. con il tuo pacco! Dottore: Ecce bigliettus tibi. porta dei regali a tutti i bambini buoni nella speranza che uno di loro sia il Bambin Gesù." This use of the subjunctive may seem odd until you realize that the clause with the WHEIRDO verb is implied but not explicitly stated... Arlecchino! Arlecchina: Who is it from? Arlecchino: Let's see . la vecchietta. oh! it's from my cousin Carlos. la vecchietta ha cambiato idea e. dopo aver preparato dei dolci per il bambino. oh! è da mio cugino Carlos .. and after preparing some sweets for the child. Carlos: Mentre i tre Re Magi andavano a Betlemme per portare i doni a Gesù Bambino. Così. called the Befana. our cards! Colombina: The postman brought them to us. on the night before Epiphany (the 6 January). So. the little old lady changed her mind.la. they saw an old woman and urged her to follow them to visit little Jesus. "Caro Arlecchino.. thank you! But what are these? Arlecchino: Oh.. Quella notte tutti i bambini italiani vanno a Antonella: Thank you. even today. Dottore! Look! Here's one for you.edu/ . che si chiama la Befana. quello che mi ha spiegato chi è la Befana . Poco dopo. the one who explained to me who the Befana is . Episode 14. Colombina! Colombina: Thank you. she tried to reach the three wise men.

They wanted her to follow them. Ma i regali arrivano solo ai bambini buoni. so Carlos uses the subjunctive. Episode 14. "hanno insistito che li seguisse": Insistere is a WHEIRDO category verb. But gifts come only to the good children. pg 11 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. The unstressed direct object pronoun comes in front of the conjugated verb. "la donna non ha voluto": This is passato prossimo because she didn't want to follow them and she didn't. "ha cercato di raggiungere i Re Magi" Another event that moves the plot forward.utexas. Passato prossimo. to the bad ones the Befana brings coal. in a sequence. Ci + li = Ce li. and over and over I would tell you. "e io ti raccontavo": Over and over you would want to know . It isn't an event that moves the plot forward. It is an event that moves the plot forward.. The past participle in a compound tense must always agree in number and gender with a third-person direct object pronoun. "Mentre i tre Re Magi andavano a Betlemme": The going to Bethlehem is background information. Passato prossimo. Hanno insistito is a past tense. The urging and the following have different subjects. a quelli cattivi la Befana porta il carbone. "mi scrive": The unstressed indirect object pronoun comes in front of the conjugated verb. "ha cambiato idea": Another event that moves the plot forward. it's what was going on when something that does move the plot forward took place. She refused to go.. so the congiuntivo imperfetto is the correct tense. "ricordi come una volta volevi sapere tutto sulla Befana?": Here una volta means not "on one occasion" but "once" as in "once upon a time. Arlecchino: Come mi manca il mio bravo cugino! the Befana. during a period of time that is not clearly defined. that move the plot forward. who arrives flying on a broomstick.la. The indirect object pronoun is the first of the two and undergoes a spelling change.dormire aspettando i regali della Befana che arriva volando su una scopa. "hanno visto una vecchia e hanno insistito": Completed actions. Imperfetto. Imperfetto.edu/ . Arlecchino: How I miss my good cousin! Nota Grammaticale "Ce li ha portati il postino": The unstressed object pronouns are placed in front of the conjugated verb. The unstressed indirect object pronoun comes in front of the conjugated verb. "mi ha spiegato"." The wanting to know was something that happened over and over. Radio Arlecchino.

The unstressed direct object pronoun is attached to the end of the infinitive. but we would stroll slowly among all those people and everything was bright and smelled good. "remember the Christmas that you spent here? Pulcinella was always off looking for sweets!" Irene: Santa Lucia is Bologna's Christmas market where my parents took me every year to buy something for the Nativity scene and a piece of nougat candy or hazelnut brittle. la mia concittadina! Pantalone: Proprio lei.. therefore. pg 12 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. "si chiama la Befana": The reflexive pronoun goes in front of the conjugated verb. pronouns can be either put before the modal verb (in this case the agreement between direct object pronouns and the past participle of the modal verb is necessary) or after." she writes. "Come mi manca il mio bravo cugino!": The unstressed indirect object pronoun comes in front of the conjugated verb. as Carlos did. And the verb mancare functions the way piacere functions: the English subject is the Italian indirect object and the English direct object is the Italian subject. Dottore! "Dear Pantalone and Company." ci scrive. volere. Sia is in the subjunctive even though there is no WHEIRDO category verb. Faceva freddo. my countrywoman! Pantalone: The very one. Episode 14. "ricordate quel Natale che avete trascorso qui? Pulcinella andava sempre in cerca di dolci!" Irene: Santa Lucia è il mercatino di Natale dove tutti gli anni i miei genitori mi portavano a comprare qualcosa per il presepio e un pezzo di torrone o di croccante. ma passeggiavamo lentamente in mezzo a tanta gente e tutto brillava e profumava. so passato prossimo. Mi piacevano tanto le figurine per il Pantalone: Fellows! Here is a card from Irene! Dottore: Irene. That's because the prepositional phrase nella speranza che has the same effect as saying spera che. You could also say "non li ha potuti raggiungere" because potere is one of the three modal verbs (potere.utexas. Yikes! Stay tuned . "non ha potuto raggiungerli": She was unable to and she didn't. Dottore! "Caro Pantalone e Compagnia. I loved the Nativity figures. dovere). It was cold. further information is on the way in upcoming episodes of Radio Arlecchino! The Santa Lucia Christmas Market in Bologna Pantalone: Ragazzi! Ecco un biglietto da Irene! Dottore: Irene. "nella speranza che uno di loro sia il Bambin Gesù": The disjunctive pronoun (pronome atono) is used because it follows a preposition.la.edu/ .. especially the Radio Arlecchino."erano già lontani": Background information describing the condition that was prevailing when she tried to find them.

. the smaller the market has gotten . now it seems enormous only to my little girls! Pantalone: Ah. "sceglierne solo una": Ne is a third-person direct object pronoun here and is attached to the end of the infinitive. Imperfetto. I kept going to Santa Lucia even as an adult... "andava sempre in cerca di dolci!": Pulcinella did this repeatedly during this past period of time. "tutto brillava e profumava": More background information. so imperfetto. Imperfetto. Dottore -ecco un biglietto per Lei! Dottore: My god-daughters . "mi portavano": Her parents took Irene to the market repeatedly during an indeterminate period of time in the past: imperfetto. Arlecchina: oh.. it's still quite beautiful. but there's one mystery: the older I've become.la. ma c'è un mistero: più io diventavo adulta.here's a card for you! Nota Grammaticale "quel Natale che avete trascorso qui": This one-time completed past event is expressed using the passato prossimo. but background information. It's background information. quelle bambine oramai non Pantalone: Ah. "Faceva freddo": Not an event that moves the narrative forward. Ho continuato ad andare a Santa Lucia anche da adulta.presepio. pg 13 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. soprattutto quelle che si muovevano.. telling us what characterized them (background information). "passeggiavamo": What they did repeatedly on these occasions. It describes the conditions that were prevailing when other events took place..utexas. più il mercato diventava piccolo . Episode 14. she's describing the figures. "Mi piacevano tanto le figurine per il presepio": More background information.edu/ . non pianga. Dottore -. don't cry. not a completed action that moves the story forward. Imperfetto. Imperfetto. Imperfetto. not even those little girls saranno più tanto piccole neanche loro! will be so very little by now! Dottore: le mie figliocce .. e sceglierne solo una da portare a casa era difficilissimo. Arlecchina: Oh. "quelle che si muovevano": Irene is not talking about figures that moved at a specific moment (that would be an event that would move the story forward). and to pick only one of them to take home was very hard. adesso sembra grandissimo solo alle mie bambine! ones that moved.. è sempre bellissimo. Radio Arlecchino.

For lunch we ate a stuffed pig's foot with lentils that the mother had cooked all morning (lentils bring good luck) and so many vegetables fried in a really light batter. In fact. Next year I'd really like for my mother to cook lentils for New Year's too! Arlecchino: All this talk of lentils and panettone! It's making me hungry as . "più io diventavo adulta": We have the subject pronoun here in a compare-and-contrast situation: I got bigger. This implies that Irene no longer goes to the Santa Lucia Market. Sentite: Sheilah: Mi ricordo bene un Capodanno con una famiglia del Piemonte… Per pranzo abbiamo mangiato lo zampone con lenticchie che la mamma aveva cucinato tutta la mattina (le lenticchie portano fortuna) e tante verdure fritte con una pastella leggerissima. L'anno prossimo vorrei tanto che anche mia madre cucinasse le lenticchie per Capodanno! Arlecchino: Tutto questo parlare di lenticchie e panettone! Mi fa venire una fame da . Irene now lives in the United States. there was a panettone. ma noi stavamo bene in casa insieme. Dottore? Dottore: A former student of mine! Sheilah! How she loved the New Year's holiday! Listen: Sheilah: I remember well a New Year's spent with a Piedmontese family . Outside it was snowing and cold.utexas. of course. so imperfetto. "un biglietto per Lei": The disjunctive pronoun (pronome tonico) following a preposition. but we were comfy together inside. Dottore? Dottore: Una mia ex-studentessa! Sheilah! Quanto le piacevano le feste di Capodanno . Fuori nevicava e faceva freddo.... for dessert.. pg 14 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. Dottore": The singular. and this was something that happened repeatedly over an indeterminate period of time in the past. c'era il panettone.edu/ . naturalmente... Arlecchina: Da Pulcinella? Dottore: Yes? Oh! Non creditur! Colombina: Who is it from.. the market got smaller..la."era difficilissimo": This describes what it was like to do this. "Ho continuato ad andare": Passato prossimo. Lucky New Year Treats Dottore: Sì? Oh! Non creditur! Colombina: Da chi è.. formal "you" imperative is the same as the present subjunctive. the tense of completed actions... Arlecchina: As Pulcinella? Radio Arlecchino. Abbiamo brindato con lo spumante. per dolce.. We toasted with sparkling wine. "non pianga. da . as . Episode 14.

"nevicava e faceva freddo": descriptive background information.utexas. "vorrei tanto che anche mia madre cucinasse": Vorrei is a WHEIRDO verb. It is the same as the present indicative. "Sentite": The plural. Vorrei is in the conditional so the correct tense for the subjunctive verb is imperfetto del congiuntivo (the cooking hasn't happened yet). Imperfetto. Be sure to tell your friends that whatever you didn't get to hear. "la mamma aveva cucinato tutta la mattina": The point of reference in the past is the moment when we ate the lentils. The mother's cooking of the lentils happened prior to that. into your ears" Radio Arlecchino. Passato prossimo. which is in the imperfetto because it is descriptive background information.. Antonella Olson & Eric Edwards "Out of our minds .Arlecchino: Proprio così! Pantalone: Allora gradirai un po' di questo squisito pandoro di Verona che mi hanno regalato i miei nipoti! Arlecchino: That's it exactly! Pantalone: Then you will enjoy a bit of this exquisite Veronese pandoro that my nephews gave me! Nota Grammaticale "Quanto le piacevano le feste": The unstressed indirect object pronoun comes in front of the conjugated verb. "abbiamo mangiato": A completed event that moves the plot forward. Episode 14.. you didn't get to hear it on Radio Arlecchino! Your hosts with the most – grammar. "stavamo bene": descriptive background information. pg 15 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. The verb in the dependent clause has a different subject so cucinasse is in the subjunctive.edu/ . informal "you" imperative of sentire is regular. Passato prossimo. We appreciate your patience as Mike and Sean work to re-establish our connection with the RBK 9000. "Mi ricordo": The unstressed reflexive pronoun comes in front of the conjugated verb. so trapassato prossimo. Imperfetto.la. "Abbiamo brindato": A completed event that moves the plot forward.

Piazza della Grammatica 1 • Antonella Olson & Eric Edwards, Presentatori e Capocomici Gentili Ascoltatori, Dear Listeners, Welcome back to the second half of the technically restored Radio Arlecchino Holiday Special and All-Star Grammar Review, which you can hear at http://tltc.la.utexas.edu/ra/episode.php?p=15 Buon divertimento! Hanno partecipato Michael Heidenreich Sean Neesley Esmeralda Moscatelli Antonella Pease Simone Sessolo Adria Frizzi Cinzia Russi Marco DeRisi Mark Garrison Traci Andrighetti Brandi Demont Steven Miller Featured in this broadcast himself himself Colombina herself Pantalone herself herself Julius Caesar the Cat Nero the Cat Cleopatra Agrippina Pulcinella

A First Thanksgiving
Arlecchino: A me, a me, a me il pandoro di Verona! Arlecchina: E mentre assaporate il pandoro ecco un altro ricordo di cibo ... Ricordate la professoressa Pease? Mi ha mandato questo biglietto ... Arlecchino: Indimenticabile! Cosa racconta? Arlecchina: Il suo primo Thanksgiving in America. Sentite, ragazzi: Arlecchino: I'm all about pandoro from Verona! Arlecchina: And while you're tasting the pandoro here's another food memory ... You remember professor Pease? She sent me this card ... Arlecchino: Unforgettable! What does she have to tell us? Arlecchina: About her first Thanksgving in America. Listen, guys:

Radio Arlecchino, Episode 12, pg 1 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc.la.utexas.edu/

Antonella Pease: Per il Thanksgiving quell'anno ero a Austin dove studiavo all'Università del Texas ... Avendo affittato un piccolo appartamento, ho invitato alcuni amici per la festa e loro mi hanno portato un enorme tacchino. In Italia non abbiamo la festa del Ringraziamento e io non avevo mai visto un tacchino così grosso e non sapevo come cucinarlo. Alla fine ho tagliato il petto del bestione a fettine e le ho saltate in padella con burro olio e vino. Immaginate la sorpresa dei miei amici! Colombina: Nuova tradizione texana: tacchino al burro olio e vino!

Antonella Pease: For Thanksgiving that year I was in Austin where I was studying at the University of Texas. Having rented a small apartment, I invited some friends for the holiday and they brought me an enormous turkey. In Italy we don't have the Day of Thanksgiving and I had never seen such a huge turkey and I didn't know how to cook it. In the end I cut up the breast of the beast into little slices and tossed it in a pan with butter, oil and wine. Imagine my friends' surprise! Colombina: A new Texas tradition! Turkey with butter oil and wine!

Nota Grammaticale
"A me, a me, a me il pandoro di Verona!": Arlecchino really wants his share of that pandoro! The disjunctive pronoun (pronome tonico) follows a preposition ... and of course, the pronoun is what Arlecchino is emphasizing! "Mi ha mandato questo biglietto": The unstressed indirect object pronoun precedes the conjugated verb, which is in the passato prossimo because it is a completed action that moves the narrative forward. "Sentite, ragazzi": The plural, informal "you" imperative of sentire is regular. It is the same as the present indicative. "ero a Austin": Not a completed action that moves the plot forward, but background information describing the situation in which the plot elements will unfold. Imperfetto. "studiavo all'Università del Texas": Just like "ero a Austin" above. "ho invitato alcuni amici": A completed past action that moves the story forward. Passato prossimo. "mi hanno portato un enorme tacchino": Just like "ho invitato" above.

Radio Arlecchino, Episode 15, pg 2 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc.la.utexas.edu/

"non avevo mai visto un tacchino così grosso": The point of reference in the past is the moment when Professoressa Pease received the gift turkey. Prior to that past moment, she had never seen one so big. Trapassato prossimo. "non sapevo come cucinarlo": In the passato prossimo, sapere means to find out. In the imperfetto, as it appears here, it means to know. The unstressed direct object pronoun lo is attached to the end of the infinitive cucinare. "le ho saltate in padella": A completed past action that moves the plot forward. The unstressed direct object pronoun is placed just before the conjugated verb. In compound tenses, third-person direct object pronouns require agreement of the past participle with the direct object in number and gender. "Immaginate la sorpresa": The plural, informal "you" imperative of immaginare is regular; i.e., it is the same as the present indicative.

A Terrible Christmas Secret
Pantalone: Qui c'è un altro biglietto ... Colombina! Questo è indirizzato a te ... Colombina: È da Adria! Everybody: Adria! Colombina: Come ci divertivamo una volta a tramare complotti con sua sorella ... Ora scrive: "Che Babbo Natale non esisteva me l'ha detto mia sorella una sera in bagno, dove andavamo spesso insieme a raccontarci segreti." Adria: Che Babbo Natale non esisteva me l'ha detto mia sorella una sera in bagno, dove andavamo spesso insieme a raccontarci segreti. La storia di Babbo Natale per me era sempre stata piuttosto problematica perché dovevo difenderne l'esistenza con gli altri bambini, che mi prendevano in giro perché a loro i regali li portava Gesù Bambino. La delusione più grande è stata capire che Babbo Natale non si nascondeva sul balcone il giorno prima della vigilia di Natale--questo non Pantalone: Here's another card ... Colombina! This one is addressed to you ... Colombina: It's from Adria! Everybody: Adria! Colombina: What fun we used to have hatching plots with her sister ... Now she writes:"That Father Christmas didn't exist was something my sister told me one evening in the bathroom, where we often went to tell each other secrets ..." Adria: That Father Christmas didn't exist was something my sister told me one evening in the bathroom where we often went to tell each other secrets. The Father Christmas business had always been rather problematic for me because I had to defend his existence to the other children, who made fun of me because it was the Child Jesus who brought them their gifts. The greatest disappointment was to figure out that Father Christmas didn't hide on the balcony during the day before Christmas

Radio Arlecchino, Episode 15, pg 3 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc.la.utexas.edu/

edu/ . and undergoes a spelling change. Arlecchino: Now who told her sister that Father Christmas doesn't exist?! Arlecchina: Do you think it's true? Arlecchino: It's absurd! Dottore: Falsitas mentitur! Colombina: It must be a joke! Arlecchino: Father Christmas exists! He has always existed! Arlecchina: I believe it too! Pantalone: Calm down. Arlecchino: Ma chi gliel'ha detto alla sorella che Babbo Natale non esiste?! Arlecchina: Pensi che sia vero? Arlecchino: È assurdo! Dottore: Falsitas mentitur! Colombina: Dev'essere uno scherzo! Arlecchino: Babbo Natale esiste! È sempre esistito! Arlecchina: Ci credo anch'io! Pantalone: Calma. Radio Arlecchino. Mi + lo = Me lo. so the disjunctive pronoun (pronome tonico) follows the preposition. ragazzi! In questa Compagnia. so imperfetto. era una cosa che mi ero inventata io e di cui ero convintissima. "Come ci divertivamo": Background information.me l'aveva raccontato nessuno. calma. but a description of a situation. "Babbo Natale non esisteva": Not a completed action that would move the narrative forward. it was something I had made up myself and of which I was thoroughly convinced. so it is in the passato prossimo. background information. pg 4 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. Since the next word starts with a vowel.utexas. The indirect object pronoun is the first of the two. everybody! In this Company. Father Christmas exists! Arlecchino: Love Live Father Christmas! Everybody: Evviva! Evviva! Nota Grammaticale "Questo è indirizzato a te": The indirect object pronoun is emphasized. Episode 15. Babbo Natale esiste! Arlecchino: Evviva Babbo Natale! Everybody: Evviva! Evviva! Eve—nobody had ever told me this.la. Imperfetto. the having fun happened regularly over an indeterminate period of time in the past. "me l'ha detto": The unstressed object pronouns (pronomi atoni) come just before the conjugated verb. The verb describes a completed past action that moves the narrative forward. the pronoun can be elided.

nobody had told her about Father Christmas' hiding on the balcony. the Father Christmas business had always been troubling. The unstressed direct object pronoun (pronome atono) comes in front of the conjugated verb. so it is attached to the end of the infinitive (ne = di Babbo Natale). did not do--regularly over an indefinite period of time in the past. "era sempre stata piuttosto problematica": The point of reference in the past is the moment when Adria's sister told her that Father Christmas didn't exist. "i regali li portava Gesù Bambino": This clause begins not with the subject. The reflexive pronoun is attached to the end of the infinitive. "a raccontarci segreti": This is a reciprocal construction. so it is expressed in the imperfetto. so it is expressed in the imperfetto. The verb is in the imperfetto because this giving of gifts was something that went on over an indefinite period of time in the past. The Radio Arlecchino. The particle ne behaves like an object pronoun in terms of placement in relation to the verb. This inversion is a fairly common way of adding emphasis. "non si nascondeva sul balcone": The hiding on the balcony was something that Father Christmas did--or in this case. When it happens. Prior to that past moment. so trapassato prossimo. "mi prendevano in giro": This kidding. Essere is an intransitive verb conjugated with essere as its auxiliary in compound tenses. The unstressed direct object pronoun comes just in front of the conjugated verb. the direct object pronoun is used in front of the conjugated verb even though the noun it stands for has just been stated. over an indeterrminate period of time (we don't know when that period started or when it ended). so the past participle agrees with the subject (la storia). pg 5 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. Her sister told her about it and Adria reacted with disappointment."andavamo spesso": They often went there. "questo non me l'aveva raccontato nessuno": The point of reference in the past is still the moment when Adria's sister told her that Father Christmas didn't exist. "La delusione più grande è stata capire": The disappointment upon learning the truth is treated here as an event in the plot. Prior to that past moment. or making fun was something that went on over an indefinite period of time in the past. but with the direct object.la. mocking. Furthermore it is not a completed action that moves the plot forward. They told secrets to each other. so it is expressed in the imperfetto. This reciprocity ("each otherness") is conveyed by the reflexive use of the verb. Trapassato prossimo. "dovevo difenderne l'esistenza": Having to defend his existence was something that went on over an indefinite period of time in the past. Passato prossimo.utexas.edu/ . Thus imperfetto. "a loro": The indirect object pronoun is emphasized (Adria is contrasting who brought gifts to them versus who brought gifts to her) so the stressed pronoun (pronome tonico) is used along with the preposition. Episode 15. instead. and the subject comes at the end. it is background information.

so imperfetto.edu/ . so imperfetto. Pensi is present tense. Arlecchina is adding herself to the list of people who believe. You may have noticed that Arlecchino is using pronouns that stand for items that are stated in the sentence. so it is in the passato prossimo. "È sempre esistito!": The English present perfect tense ("he has existed") is almost always expressed in Italian with the passato prossimo. have you got another one to read to us? Radio Arlecchino. "una cosa che mi ero inventata io": The making up happened prior to the point of reference in the past. People do this sometimes when they get excited. The unstressed object pronouns come just in front of the conjugated verb. We have two different subjects. so essere in the subordinate clause is in the subjunctive. Questo is the direct object and nessuno is the subject. sentiamo un altro biglietto! Dottore. and the thinking and the being happen at the same time. ne ha un altro da leggerci? Pantalone: Take heart. The verb begins with a vowel so the direct object pronoun can be elided. Episode 15. so it cannot be omitted. The indirect object pronoun stands for alla sorella and lo stands for the clause che Babbo Natale non esiste.verb begins with a vowel. so the present subjunctive of essere is used. pg 6 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. and that it has an irregular past participle for a secondconjugation (-ere) verb. not telling about a completed action that could move the plot forward. "chi gliel'ha detto": The telling is a completed action that moves the narrative forward. The unstressed indirect object pronoun directly precedes the conjugated verb and the subject pronoun appears for emphasis. "Ci credo anch'io": The particle ci replaces prepositional phrases beginning with a and in and behaves like an object pronoun in terms of placement in relation to the conjugated verb. so the direct object pronoun can be elided. but descriptive background information.utexas. fellows! Now then. "Pensi che sia vero?": Pensare is a verb in the WHEIRDO category. Ci = in Babbo Natale. let's hear another card! Dottore. so the verb is in the trapassato prossimo.la. ragazzi! Avanti. "era una cosa": Adria is describing the thing. A Shocking Epiphany Pantalone: Coraggio. Note that esistere is an intransitive verb conjugated with essere as its auxiliary. Placing the subject at the end of the sentence is just another emphatic gesture. The indirect object pronoun is the first of the two and undergoes a spelling change. Note that once again we have the direct object-verb-subject word order. "ero convintissima": Not an event that could move the story forward. The subject pronoun io is emphasized. Le + lo = glielo.

? Dottore: "Avevo sette anni quando scoprii . et caetera .... C'era mia madre che riempiva di carbone di zucchero le calze che avevamo appeso la sera prima . Mi giravo e rigiravo nel letto quando sentii dei rumori." Pantalone: Quando . The door was ajar... etc . Era la notte del 5 gennaio e non riuscivo a dormire: cosa mi avrebbe portato la Befana? Dolci o carbone? Ero preoccupata perché ero stata un po' cattivella.. Cinzia scripsit! Everybody: Cinzia! Pantalone: Avanti.. calm Radio Arlecchino...? Cinzia: I was seven when I found out that La Befana does not exist.edu/ . Episode 15. Arlecchino: Now this beats everything! A bit naughty indeed! Colombina: No! No! I don't believe it! Dottore: Pereat quivis anti Befanam! Arlecchina: But it isn't true! It can't be true! Pantalone: Don't cry.. Colombina! Of course it isn't true! Colleagues! Friends! Now.la. what does she have to say? Dottore: Well. Cinzia scripsit! Everybody: Cinzia! Pantalone: Go on....? Dottore: "I was seven years old when I discovered ." Pantalone: When ......" Here we are! "I was seven years old when . There was my mother stuffing sugar coal into the socks we had hung the night before . mi feci coraggio e guardai dentro... Mi alzai di scatto e in punta di piedi andai in sala da pranzo." Arlecchina: Quando scoprì .Dottore: Bigliettum habeo.. che cosa Le racconta? Dottore: Allora.." Arlecchina: When she discovered . I sprang out of bed and tiptoed to the living room. I gathered all my courage and looked inside. La porta era accostata.. pg 7 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. et caetera.. come mi mancate. It was the night of January 5 and I couldn't sleep: what would La Befana bring me? Sweets or coal? I was worried because I had been a bit naughty.? Cinzia: Avevo sette anni quando scoprii che la Befana non esiste.. Ecco! "Avevo sette anni quando . Arlecchino: Questo è il colmo! Altro che cattivella! Colombina: No! No! Non ci credo! Dottore: Pereat quivis anti Befanam! Arlecchina: Ma non è vero! Non può essere vero! Pantalone: Non piangere. etc..utexas. "Tanti saluti a tutti .. how I miss you. I was tossing and turning in my bed when I heard some noises. "Greetings to every one . Colombina! Certo che non è vero! Colleghi! Amici! Ragazzi! Calma! In Dottore: Bigliettum habeo.. fellows...

pg 8 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. Cinzia had been somewhat naughty. We're talking about cards.": Completed action in the past that moves the story forward. Radio Arlecchino. but a description of what was going on when an event that does move the story forward took place.questa Compagnia. even though the adult doing the reminiscing may not be all that old--Cinzia certainly isn't! "Era la notte del 5 gennaio": Background information in the past = imperfetto.edu/ . "quando scoprii . Imperfetto. It is placed just in front of the conjugated verb. "che cosa Le racconta?": The third-person feminine singular unstressed indirect object pronoun is used as formal "you" even though the Dottore is a man. Trapassato prossimo. But childhood holiday memories are good candidates for this "long ago" perspective. Passato remoto. the Befana exists! Arlecchino: Long live the Befana! Nota Grammaticale "ne ha un altro da leggerci?": The partitive ne functions as an unstressed direct object pronoun here.la. Episode 15.. la Befana esiste! Arlecchino: Evviva la Befana! down! In this Company. and is placed just in front of the conjugated verb.. Background information in the past = imperfetto. Prior to that past moment. do you have another one of them? The unstressed indirect object pronoun ci is attached to the end of the infinitive. Background information in the past = imperfetto. Why not passato prossimo? Cinzia has chosen to use the passato remoto for the completed actions in her story because she views her childhood as something belonging to the "long time ago. "Mi giravo e rigiravo nel letto": Not an event that moves the story forward. "Ero preoccupata": Not an event but a description of a situation or condition. Background information in the past = imperfetto." What makes a past remote can be different for different people. "non riuscivo a dormire": Not an event but a description of a situation or condition. "Avevo sette anni". "ero stata un po' cattivella": The point of reference in the past is the moment when Cinzia found out that the Befana doesn't exist.utexas. "come mi mancate": The unstressed indirect object pronoun comes in front of the conjugated verb. You will remember from the previous episode that mancare functions grammatically in the same way as piacere.

"Non ci credo!": The adverbial particle ci stands for the prepositional phrase a quello che ha scritto Cinzia. Passato remoto. "C'era mia madre": Not an event but a description of a situation or condition. Start and end times are unknown. it's you! And who are you? The Befana? Really?! Why didn't you say so right away? Hey everybody! Look who showed up! Arlecchina: Julius Caesar! Radio Arlecchino. when it is negative. Really Ancient Holiday Memories Arlecchino: Chi è che gratta? Chi è? È Babbo Natale? Ah. Background information in the past = imperfetto. "mi feci coraggio": An event that moves the story forward. informal "you" imperative. Episode 15. Passato remoto. so it comes in front of the conjugated verb. "Mi alzai di scatto": Another completed action that moves the story forward. they had hung the stockings. is always non + the infinitive.utexas. Colombina!": The singular. "La porta era accostata": Not an event but a description of a situation or condition.edu/ .la. It behaves like an object pronoun in terms of its placement in relation to the verb. Prior to that past moment. Imperfetto. "le calze che avevamo appeso": The point of reference in the past is the moment when Cinzia looked in and saw her mother. "guardai dentro": Completed action that moves the story forward. Passato remoto. "andai in sala da pranzo": Completed action that moves the story forward. Cinzia must muster her courage before she can look inside. Passato remoto. "riempiva di carbone di zucchero": This action was in progress when Cinzia looked in. pg 9 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc."quando sentii dei rumori": Hearing the noises was an event that moves the story forward. The verb is reflexive and the reflexive pronoun precedes the conjugated verb. Trapassato prossimo. Background information in the past = imperfetto. Passato remoto. The expression is reflexive and the reflexive pronoun precedes the conjugated verb. sei tu! E tu chi sei? La Befana? Davvero?! E perché non lo avete detto subito? Ragazzi! Guardate chi si è fatto vivo! Arlecchina: Giulio Cesare! Arlecchino: Who's scratching? Who is it? Is it Father Christmas? Ah. "Non piangere.

Julius Caesar the Cat: Ave! Arlecchina: Sei venuto anche tu! Julius Caesar the Cat: Venni! Arlecchina: Hai visto che ci siamo tutti? Julius Caesar the Cat: Vidi! Arlecchina: E .... e ... e hai ... Julius Caesar the Cat: Sì, sì, perché no?: Vinsi! Colombina: Nerone! Nero the Cat: Presente -- ma non colpevole! Felici Saturnali a tutti! Cosa fate? Colombina: Stiamo leggendo i biglietti che ci hanno mandato gli amici! Tanti bei ricordi ... Arlecchino: Non tutti sono stati belli, però ...

Julius Caesar the Cat: Ave! Arlecchina: You came too! Julius Caesar the Cat: I came! Arlecchina: Did you see that we're all here? Julius Caesar the Cat: I saw! Arlecchina: And ... and ... did you ...? Julius Caesar the Cat: Yes, yes -- why not?: I conquered! Colombina: Nero! Nero the Cat: Present -- but not guilty! Happy Saturnalia to everyone! What are you doing? Colombina: We're reading cards that our friends have sent us! So many lovely memories ... Arlecchino: They haven't all been lovely though ...

Nota Grammaticale
"Guardate chi si è fatto vivo!": The plural, informal "you" imperative of guardare is regular. It's the same as the present indicative. The expression farsi vivo means to show up or to appear after a long absence. It's reflexive, so the reflexive pronoun must be used and it is placed in front of the conjugated verb. In this case it's a completed past action that moves our story forward, so it's in the passato prossimo, and since it is reflexive, the auxiliary verb is essere. "Sei venuto", "Venni", etc ... Arlecchina's questions are in the passato prossimo as she is a girl who lives in the moment. Julius Caesar, on the other hand, can't resist using the passato remoto in quoting his own famous Latin line, Veni, vidi, vici.

Radio Arlecchino, Episode 15, pg 10 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc.la.utexas.edu/

"i biglietti che ci hanno mandato gli amici": The unstressed indirect object pronoun comes just in front of the conjugated verb. The verb describes a completed past action, so it is in the passato prossimo. "Non tutti sono stati belli" Arlecchino is describing the memories, but he is viewing the whole thing as an event: We heard the memories, and some of them shocked us, and shook our deeply held beliefs. It was not a pretty sight. So he uses the passato prossimo.

A Boy's Best Friend
Pantalone: Nerone, vedi! Qui c'è uno anche per te! Nero the Cat: Per me? Ma chi lo sapeva che sarei stato qui? Mi faccia vedere ... Colombina: Da chi è? Nero the Cat: Oh! Mamma! Dottore: Optima amica pueris mater est! Colombina: Che cosa ti racconta Agrippina? Nero the Cat: "Caro figlio ... So quanto ti sono sempre piaciute queste feste di fine anno ... Ricordi quei Saturnali quando ti elessero Princeps?" Il Princeps era il re dei Saturnali, poteva mandare tutti a fare qualsiasi cosa volesse, e quell'anno fui io! Mammina continua: Agrippina: "Al banchetto quella sera chiamasti Britannico, il tuo rivale e nemico--quanti anni avevate? Quattordici? Quindici? Ah, cose da ragazzi ... Gli ordinasti di alzarsi, di venire al centro e di cantare. Tu sapevi quanto male cantava Britannico ... Ma la sua canzone suscitò la simpatia di tutti e tu lo uccidesti dopo ... Fu con il veleno, non è vero, come tentasti con me? Ah, quelli erano altri tempi ... Pantalone: Nero, look! There's one for you here as well! Nero the Cat: For me? But who knew that I was going to be here? Let me see ... Colombina: Who's it from? Nero the Cat: Oh! Mommy! Dottore: Optima amica pueris mater est! Colombina: What does Agrippina have to say? Nero the Cat: "Dear son ... I know how much you have always loved these yearend holidays ... Do you remember those Saturnalia when they elected you Princeps?" The Princeps was the king of Saturnalia, he could command anyone to do whatever he wanted, and that year it was me! Mommy goes on ... Agrippina: At the banquet that evening you called on Britannicus, your rival and enemy--how old were you? Fourteen? Fifteen? Ah, the things little boys do ... You ordered him to come to the center and sing. You knew how poorly Britannicus sang .... But his song aroused everyone's sympathy and you killed him later on ... It was with poison, wasn't it, the way you tried with me? Ah, those were the days ...

Radio Arlecchino, Episode 15, pg 11 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc.la.utexas.edu/

Felici Saturnali, mio caro." Nero the Cat: M-m-m-mamma! Colombina: Coraggio, Nerone! Tieni, bevi! Arlecchina: Cesare, non so se avremo un biglietto qui anche per te ... Julius Caesar the Cat: Fui console e dittatore ... principe dei Saturnali, mai ... Pantalone: Attenzione! Qui c'è proprio un papiro indirizzato a Cesare! Julius Caesar the Cat: Pro di immortales! Cleopatra! Everybody: Cosa dice? Julius Caesar the Cat: Ma lo sapete che i geroglifici di questa donna sono illegibili ... Proviamo ... "Aggiù ... Buone feste! Cleopatra: Ho una nostalgia pazzesca di quella festa di Iside quando noi due ci nascondemmo nel palazzo durante le interminabili sfilate ... quando arrivarono al tempio della dea i sacerdoti ci cercarono invano e pensarono che fossimo saliti in cielo con Osiride. Magari fosse stato così. Invece tutto finì male per noi. E ti dico un'altra cosa ... non ti preoccupare più del fatto che non imparasti mai a camminare all'egiziana. Io sono greca. Tanti auguri, mio Cesare! Arlecchino: Evviva Cleopatra! Stage Manager: Tutti ai propri posti! Il sipario si alzerà tra cinque minuti! Tutti ai propri posti!

Happy Saturnalia, my dear. Nero the Cat: M-m-m-mamma! Colombina: Take heart, Nero! Here, have a drink! Arlecchina: Caesar, I don't know if we have a card here for you too ... Julius Caesar the Cat: I was consul and dictator ... Prince of Saturnalia, never ... Pantalone: Attention! Why there's a papyrus here addressed to Caesar! Julius Caesar the Cat: Pro di immortales! Cleopatra! Everybody: What does she say? Julius Caesar the Cat: Now you know that woman's hieroglyphics are illegible ... We'll give it a go ... "Aggiù ... Happy Holidays!" Cleopatra: I'm madly homesick for that Feast of Isis when the two of us hid in the palace during those endless processions ... When the arrived at the temple of the goddess the priest looked for us in vain and thought we had ascended to heaven with Osiris. If only it had been so ... Instead everything turned out wrong for us. And I'll tell you something else ... Don't worry anymore about the fact that you never learned to walk like an Egyption. I'm Greek! Best wishes, my Caesar! Arlecchino: Long live Cleopatra! Stage Manager: Places, everyone! Curtain going up in five minutes! Places!

Radio Arlecchino, Episode 15, pg 12 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc.la.utexas.edu/

"Per me?": The disjunctive pronoun (pronome tonico) follows a prepostion.. "qualsiasi cosa volesse": This subjunctive is cued not by a verb in the WHEIRDO category but by the indefinite pronoun qualsiasi cosa that is its subject. so she uses the passato remoto to talk about completed events that move her story forward. Since piacere is an intransitive verb conjugated with essere as its auxiliary. entrate da questa parte . "ti elessero Princeps": Aggrippina is talking about things that happened over a thousand years ago. "poteva mandare tutti": Same as era above. Episode 15. The unstressed indirect object pronoun precedes the conjugated verb.. Pantalone: Let's go. The present subjunctive is used here as the singular. fellows! It's showtime! Friends.." The unstressed indirect object pronoun comes in front of the conjugated verb. go in this way . "chi lo sapeva": The unstressed direct object pronoun comes in front of the conjugated verb..": There were many Saturnalia over a long period of time in the past and the Princeps was its king. Nerone.. concittadini .. "quell'anno fui io!": An event that moves the plot. pg 13 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. the past participle agrees in number and gender with the subject. to your seats and onto the stage! Caesar. Romans. Nero. Not an event moving the story forward but background information. formal "you" imperative. The subject of piacere is the thing somebody likes...... "That year it was me!" = "That year I became the Princeps!" Passato remoto. countrymen . così ci saranno più dei soliti quattro gatti .edu/ . Pronouns are never attached to the subjunctive. Nota Grammaticale "c'è uno anche per te!". "Il Princeps era il re . now we'll have more than the usual "four cats" .. chi lo ha saputo would mean "who found out?" "Mi faccia vedere": The expression fare vedere is the most common way of expressing "to show. even when it is being used as the formal imperative. alle poltrone e sul palcoscenico! Cesare..la. "ti sono sempre piaciute queste feste": The person who likes something is the indirect object of the verb piacere.Pantalone: Andiamo. It's in the imperfetto del congiuntivo because the main verb is in a past tense. The unstressed direct object pronoun comes in front of the conjugated verb. ragazzi! Lo spettacolo! Amici. "Che cosa ti racconta": The unstressed indirect object pronoun precedes the conjugated verb. Radio Arlecchino. Imperfetto.. romani.utexas. Sapere is in the imperfetto because it means "who knew".

utexas. so the reflexive pronoun is attached to the end of the verb. Passato remoto. The disjunctive pronoun (pronome tonico) is used following a preposition. "come tentasti con me": Another completed action that moves the narrative forward.": The unstressed direct object pronoun comes in front of the conjugated verb.. "quelli erano altri tempi": Not an event. Radio Arlecchino. Passato remoto. They are the same as the present indicative. Passato remoto.. but a description. Passato remoto. bevi!" The singular. "per te": The disjunctive pronoun (pronome tonico) is used following a preposition. "quanto male cantava Britannico": At this point we're not talking about a specific occasion when Britannicus sang. Background information = imperfetto. pg 14 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. "quanti anni avevate?": Background information in the past = imperfetto."chiamasti Britannico": Completed action that moves the story forward. Passato remoto. "la sua canzone suscitò la simpatia": Completed action that moves the story forward. but about how he sang in general during an indeterminate period in the past. informal "you" imperatives of tenere and bere are regular. "Fui console e dittatore": Completed actions in a remote past: passato remoto. "Gli ordinasti di alzarsi": Completed action that moves the story forward.edu/ .la. so it's not strictly necessary. "lo sapete che i geroglifici . The unstressed indirect object pronoun comes in front of the conjugated verb. When did those times begin? When did they end? Imperfetto. The reflexive verb alzarsi is in the infinitive. Episode 15. Passato remoto. The pronoun stands for the clause che i geroglifici di questa donna sono illegibili which is already there in the sentence. "Tu sapevi": The subject pronoun is present for emphasis. "Tieni. sapere is in the imperfetto because it means "you knew" (sapesti = "you found out"). Completed action that moves the story forward. The person to whom you give an order is the indirect object of ordinare. "lo uccidesti": The unstressed direct object pronoun precedes the conjugated verb. "Fu con il veleno": Agrippina is referring to a completed action that moves the narrative forward.

Passato remoto. Completed action. it is the same as the present indicative. "pensarono che fossimo saliti in cielo": The thinking here is a reaction to a specific thing. When it means "if only. "non imparasti": Completed action in a remote past.. i. Episode 15. Passato remoto. pg 15 © 2007 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. so salire is in the subjunctive. into your ears" Radio Arlecchino. "Il sipario si alzerà": The reflexive pronoun comes in front of the conjugated verb. Here it's pluperfect (trapassato del congiuntivo) because the priests thought that it had already happened. moves the plot forward. Passato remoto. informal "you" imperative of entrare is regular.. Pensare is a WHEIRDO category verb and the verb in the subordinate clause has a different subject.la. remote past.edu/ . so salire needs to be either imperfect or pluperfect subjunctive. the plural." magari is always followed by either the imperfect or the pluperfect subjunctive. "ci cercarono": The unstressed direct object pronoun comes in front of the conjugated verb. Passato remoto. "arrivarono al tempio": Completed action. Pensarono is a past tense. which is in the passato remoto because Cleopatra is talking about a completed action in a remote past. "Andiamo". when it is negative. "tutto finì male": Completed action in a remote past. "Magari fosse stato così": This subjunctive is cued not by a verb in the WHEIRDO category but by the word magari. is always non plus the infinitive. We hope all your holiday memories will be happy ones! Buone feste e Buon anno! from all of us at Radio Arlecchino! Your hosts with the most – grammar.. remote past. moves the plot forward. informal "you" imperative.e. Non must always precede any object pronoun. Here it is pluperfect subjunctive because the action is in the past. "non ti preoccupare": The singular.utexas. "entrate": The first-person plural ("Let's") imperative of any verb is always the same as the present indicative. Antonella Olson & Eric Edwards "Out of our minds ."ci nascondemmo nel palazzo": The reflexive pronoun comes in front of the conjugated verb. so it is considered an event that moves the plot forward (in a remote past) so passato remoto.

Presentatori e Capocomici Gentili Ascoltatori. there’s an atmosphere of excitement and anticipation. Episode 16.edu/ . Antonella: And I have to say that tonight the city is anything but most serene. Eric. è un ambiente pieno di emozioni e di aspettative. Balanzone Simone Sessolo as Pantalone Michael Heidenreich as himself Sean Neesley as the What-a-Pleasure announcer Transcript : I. pg 1 © 2008 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. You can hear this podcast by clicking on the following link: http://tltc.edu/ra/episode.Piazza della Grammatica 1 • Antonella Olson & Eric Edwards. Eric: Siamo qui a Venezia Antonella: E devo dire che stasera la città è tutt’altro che serenissima Eric: È vero.la. Spettacolo Stasera! Antonella: Mi piacciono tanto le prime dei film! Andiamo.php?p=16 Buon divertimento! Hanno partecipato / Featured in this broadcast: Irene Eibenstein-Alvisi as Mrs. Antonella: An anxious public is about to Radio Arlecchino. Benvenuti a Spettacolo Stasera! con Antonella Olson e Eric Edwards! Antonella: Ciao a tutti i nostri radioascoltatori. Stasera si tratta di una serata veramente particolare. Tonight is truly a special evening. hurry up! Eric: I’m coming! Let’s hope this gizmo works this time." our recent show on expressing likes and dislikes with the verb piacere... Welcome to Spettacolo Stasera! with Antonella Olson and Eric Edwards! Antonella: Hello to all our radio listeners.utexas.la. Here's a transcript of "The Red Carpet Treatment. Eric: It’s true. Antonella: Un pubblico esaltato sta per On the Red Carpet ! Antonella: I really like movie premieres! Come on.utexas. sbrighiamoci! Eric: Vengo! Speriamo che questo dispositivo funzioni questa volta. Eric. Eric: We’re here in Venice. Dear Listeners.

magro. slender.la.. Eric: Regia di Arlecchino Antonella: sceneggiatura di Arlecchino Eric: basato su un romanzo inedito di Arlecchino Antonella: con Arlecchino Eric: e la partecipazione stellare di Pulcinella Antonella: Colombina Eric: Pantalone Antonella: Arlecchina Eric: e il Dottor Balanzone Antonella: Siamo qui accanto al rinomato tappeto rosso dove saremo gli occhi e le orecchie del nostro gentile pubblico per l’arrivo di ogni star Eric: E questa gondola che arriva adesso. Eric: And this gondola that’s pulling up now. barba appuntita con risvolto Eric: Lunga zimarra nera Antonella: Calzamaglia rossa Eric: Il gondeliere gli porge la mano Antonella: Il signore fa finta di niente e scende senza lasciare una mancia see for the first time the film Arlecchino and the Order of the Philosopher’s Stone of the Secret Chamber of the Half-Blood Prisoner of the Prince of the Goblet of Fire.utexas....? Antonella: Il passeggero è alto.vedere per la prima volta il film Arlecchino e l’ordine della pietra filosofale della camera segreta del prigioniero mezzosangue del principe dei calici di fuoco. Eric: Directed by Arlecchino Antonella: screenplay by Arlecchino Eric: based on an unpublished novel by Arlecchino Antonella: with Arlecchino Eric: and stellar appearances by Pulcinella Antonella: Colombina Eric: Pantalone Antonella: Arlecchina Eric: and Doctor Balanzone Antonella: We’re here alongside the renowned red carpet where we will be the eyes and ears of our kind audience for the arrival of every star. pg 2 © 2008 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc.edu/ . upturned pointed beard Eric: Long black cloak Antonella: Red tights Eric: The gondolier is holding out his hand Antonella: The gentleman pretends not to notice and disembarks without leaving a Radio Arlecchino.? Antonella: The passenger is tall. Episode 16.

. Episode 16. buona sera! Non Le piacerebbe rivolgere qualche parola al nostro pubblico internazionale? Pantalone: “Facendo il Bergamasco e il Viniziano Andiam in ogni parte E il recitar commedie è la nostr’arte.Help! Someone in the Crowd: What’s Radio Arlecchino. you are one of the principal investors in this motion picture project of your colleague Arlecchino.. So I hope you like these philosophers’ stones.la... I am the only investor. Balanzone! Non -. pg 3 © 2008 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. questi calici di fuoco.. Eric: Me either. Pantalone: As far as I know.. Let’s try to get closer. Lei è uno dei principali investitori in questo progetto cinematografico del collega Arlecchino. Eric: Here comes another gondola! Antonella: Who is it? With this crowd I can’t see anything. Eric: Neanch’io. Balanzone! Don’t -. For playing excellent comedy is the name of our fine little game.utexas..Aiuto! Qualcuno nella folla: Che cosa è Someone in the Crowd: Here they are! They’re about to alight! Mrs Balanzone: Now you be careful..tip. Quindi spero che vi piacciano eccome queste pietre filosofali.” Antonella: Splendid! Pantalone: Yes? Antonella: We’ve been told that in addition to your participation as an actor.ra Balanzone: Sta’ ben attento. these goblets of fire-and how!--for otherwise. sono l’unico investitore. Qualcuno nella folla: Eccoli! Stanno per scendere! Sig. Pantalone: Che io sappia. perché altrimenti. Antonella: Magnifico! Pantalone: Mi dica.edu/ . good evening! Wouldn’t you like to say a few words to our international audience? Pantalone: “As Bergamasque and Venetian We wander the world spreading our fame.” Eric: Pantalone! Mr Pantalone de’ Bisognosi! Antonella: Mr Pantalone. Cerchiamo di avvicinarci. Eric: Arriva un’altra gondola! Antonella: Ma chi è? Con questa folla non vedo niente. Antonella: Ci hanno detto che oltre alla Sua partecipazione come attore. Eric: Pantalone! Signor Pantalone de’ Bisognosi! Antonella: Signor Pantalone.

di questa specialità.. Ah yes.. per favore! happened? Mrs Balanzone: Oh! Balanzone! An Onlooker: Make way! Let him breathe! Another Onlooker: A doctor! Is there a doctor? Mrs Balanzone: He is a doctor! A Spectator: I know how to do mouth-tomouth resuscitation! Another Spectator: I’m licensed to perform the Heimlich maneuver! Mrs Balanzone: For Heaven’s sake! Someone phone for emergency help right away. Dottore: Buona sera a tutti! Qui il vostro vecchio amico il Dottore. Episode 16.la. The Pleasure Sandwich II. Come mi sono piaciuti quegli hamburger texani! E ora sono lieto di presentarvi la nuova. Now here’s an uno dei nostri sponsor.. important message from one of our sponsors. of this specialty.. Do I ever like those Texas hamburgers! And now I’m happy to present to you the new. eh. are you there? Antonella: Yes. just back from a tour of Texas. but we’re here at La Fenice Hospital. Eric. incarnation. In ospedale Eric: Antonella. ci sei? Antonella: Sì Eric. here I am! Dear listeners. è At the Hospital Eric: Antonella. ma siamo qui all’ospedale La Fenice. where I discovered a treat from the old West. uh.ra Balanzone: Lui è dottore! Una spettatrice: Io so fare la rianimazione bocca a bocca! Uno spettatore: Sono diplomato nella manovra Heimlich! Sig. everyone! It’s your old friend... the Dottore.. where Doctor Balanzone was brought following his accident. Ecco ora un messaggio importante da back in a moment. bentornati! Mi dispiace dovervelo dire. he Radio Arlecchino. dove il Dottor Balanzone è stato portato dopo il suo incidente. Dottore: Good evening.ra Balanzone: Per carità! Qualcuno telefoni subito al pronto soccorso. dove ho scoperto una delizia del vecchio West. please! Antonella: Spettacolo Stasera! tornerà fra Antonella: Spettacolo Stasera! will be poco..ra Balanzone: Oh! Balanzone! Una spettatrice: Fate largo! Lasciatelo respirare! Uno spettatore: Un dottore! C’è un dottore? Sig.successo! Sig. welcome back! I’m sorry to have to tell you. appena tornato da una tournée nel Texas.edu/ . Eh sì. eccomi! Gentili ascoltatori..utexas. Il Panino Piacere. pg 4 © 2008 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. incarnazione.

Sig. Your listeners might know that some scenes were shot in Austin... Eric: E come sta la signora? Antonella: Signora Balanzone. Spettacolo Stasera!... We were in Texas to publicize the movie. Spettacolo Staser!a. Fra poco speriamo di avere qualche notizia dal medico.. Antonella: We’ve heard that you and the Dottore had just returned from America when you arrived today in Venice for the premiere.. Forse gli ascoltatori sanno che alcune scene sono state girate ad Austin. Antonella: E come avete trovato lo Stato della Stella Solitaria? Sig. ci permette di farLe qualche domanda? Sig...ra Balanzone. Episode 16. we loved it! And of course Texas cuisine captivated the Dottore. Mi dica....ra Balanzone. signora. Mo ci è piaciuto moltissimo! E chiaramente la cucina texana ha affascinato il Dottore.. With Pantalone and What-aPleasure they’ve signed a contract to add the Arlecchino Meal to their menu of “cheerful meals” for children. go ahead. Solo un attimino.caduto proprio davanti al cinema dove avrebbe assistito alla prima del nuovo film di Arlecchino. please. Soon we hope to have some news from the physician. Sig.utexas. Eravamo in Texas per fare pubblicità al film. Eric: And how is Mrs Balanzone? Antonella: Mrs Balanzone. With each little Pleasure Burger an Arlecchino figure Radio Arlecchino.. may we ask you some questions? Mrs Balanzone: For the radio? Antonella: Yes. Yes.... mio Balanzonino caro. Antonella: And what did you think of the Lone Star State? Mrs Balanzone: Oh. on the air on Radio Arlecchino. Mrs Balanzone: Why.. mi bel Balanzaun. my beloved Balanzone! Antonella: We’re talking to Mrs Balanzone. ma’am. Sig. per favore. certainly.! Antonella: Stiamo parlando con la signora Balanzone. Con ogni piccolo Pleasure fell right in front of the movie theatre where he was to attend the premiere of Arlecchino’s new film. Con Pantalone e la What-a-Pleasure hanno firmato un contratto per aggiungere il Pasto Arlecchino al loro menu di “pasti allegri” per i bambini. Just a bit of a moment.. Mrs Balanzone: Ah.la.. Ben mo sicuro... Antonella: Ci hanno detto che Lei e il Dottore eravate appena tornati dall’America quando siete arrivati oggi a Venezia per la prima.ra Balanzone: Ah.ra Balanzone: Per la radio? Antonella: Sì... È vero.edu/ .ra Balanzone. va in onda su Radio Arlecchino. Mrs Balanzone: That’s right. pg 5 © 2008 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc..

I don’t like them as much as my husband does.... Any other memorable moments aside from the marketing? Mrs Balanzone: Oh yes. Episode 16. Sono il dottor Ibbardi. dottore! Asomme! Sono io! Come sta mio marito? il Dottor Ibbardi: Purtroppo la situazione è piuttosto seria e non mi piace per niente.ra Balanzone. May I offer you one? Antonella: Thank you. the most wonderful thing was learning to square dance. Antonella: Oh.ra Balanzone...? Mrs Balanzone: Nobody! But now with the movie. non resisto più alla tentazione di svelare questo segreto! La scena chiave del film di Arlecchino è proprio una danza! Sono sicura che Le piacerà vedere come il Dottore ed io conquistiamo il West con la nostra square dance! Antonella: Non vediamo l’ora -il Dottor Ibbardi: Buona sera. I’m Dr Ibbardi. signore. Oh sì. A me non piacciono così tanto come a mio marito. Gliene posso offrire uno? Antonella: Grazie.. Sig. Quale di voi è la signora Balanzone? Sig. You can’t imagine how exciting! Few people know this.. la cosa più bella è stata imparare a ballare la square dance! Non può immaginare quanto sia emozionante! Pochi lo sanno.utexas... Oh... or an Arlecchina doll.edu/ . pg 6 © 2008 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc.. mi piacerebbe molto assaggiarne uno. o una bambolina di Arlecchina. Nessuno! Ma ora con il film. Il Dottore si era portato questi Pasti Arlecchino da mangiare durante l’intervallo del film..ra Balanzone. Altri ricordi memorabili oltre al marketing? Sig.. Mrs Balanzone: The Dottore brought these Arlecchino meals along to eat during the intermission of the movie.? Sig.la. che carina... Which of you is Mrs Balanzone? Mrs Balanzone: Oh.. it’s so sweet. I can’t resist the temptation to reveal this secret any longer! The key scene in Arlecchino’s movie is in fact a dance! I just know you’ll like seeing how the Dottore and I win the West with our square dance! Antonella: We can’t wait-Dr Ibbardi: Good evening. I really like this one of Arlecchina. but the Dottore is really quite a fine dancer! Antonella: Who would have guessed.ra Balanzone. forse dopo la trasmissione.. ladies....Burger un pupazzo di Arlecchino.. Oh. ma il Dottore è proprio un gran bravo ballerino! Antonella: Chi l’avrebbe detto. Radio Arlecchino. Oh.. doctor! It’s me! How is my husband? Dr Ibbardi: Unfortunately the situation is rather serious and it doesn’t please me at all.. mi piace molto questa di Arlecchina. perhaps after the broadcast. I really would like to try one. Antonella: Oh.

ra Balanzone: Sì. Sì.. will they cause the poor Doctor a great deal of discomfort? Dr Ibbardi: Don’t worry..... that he would like for us to bring him an Arlecchino Meal.? il Dottor Ibbardi: ed è caduto. Le assicuro. Doctor? Dr Ibbardi: We’ve given him a sedative. Mrs Balanzone: Well. la diagnosi. Puvratt! il Dottor Ibbardi: e domani cominceremo una lunga e costosissima serie di trattamenti e fisioterapie. al povero Dottore daranno molto fastidio? il Dottor Ibbardi: Non si preoccupi. Antonella: quindi. che gli sarebbe piaciuto che gli portassimo un Pasto Arlecchino. Sig. I’ve administered them many times now during my career and I’ve grown accustomed to them. Mrs Balanzone: Yes…? Dr Ibbardi: he suffered a serious injury to his dignity. the diagnosis. I assure you. Sig. Mrs Balanzone: Oh.. Prima di addormentarsi ha detto qualcosa che non ho capito..ra Balanzone.. but these treatments. Episode 16.ra Balanzone. Mo a dire il vero. ma’am. Sig. ha subito una grave lesione alla sua dignità.Sig. Li ho amministrati tante volte ormai nella mia carriera e mi sono abituato. They won’t hurt me at all. dottore? Mrs Balanzone: Goodness gracious! Dr Ibbardi: When your husband slipped on the red carpet and fell.ra Balanzone.utexas. dottore. Doctor. io intendevo -Eric: Grazie mille.. these physical therapies. Before he fell asleep. Non mi faranno nessun male. dottore? il Dottor Ibbardi: Gluteus addoloratus! Sig. Doctor? Dr Ibbardi: Gluteus addoloratus! Mrs Balanzone: And the prognosis. I meant -Eric: Thanks a million. signora. queste fisioterapie. pg 7 © 2008 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. Antonella: So. Antonella! Dobbiamo tornare ora allo studio! Grazie anche a tutti Radio Arlecchino.ra Balanzone. though.la.edu/ .. he said something I didn’t understand. mo questi trattamenti. Antonella! We must now return to the studio! Thanks also il Dottor Ibbardi: Gli abbiamo dato un sedativo. Mrs Balanzone: Poor thing! Dr Ibbardi: and tomorrow we will begin a long and very costly series of treatments and physical therapies. actually. Eh ben ben! il Dottor Ibbardi: Quando Suo marito è scivolato sul tappeto rosso -Sig.ra Balanzone: e la prognosi.

For this reason.edu/ .i nostri gentili radioascoltatori! Alla prossima edizione di Spettacolo Stasera! to our gentle listeners! We’ll talk to you again on the next edition of Spettacolo Stasera! Nota Grammaticale piacere As a noun. The subject in Italian is the person or thing that is pleasing. while the person who likes it is the indirect object. it’s often in the third-person singular or plural. Before dealing with that. piacere means “pleasure”.la. and as a verb. therefore. pg 8 © 2008 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. as you learned as Antonella and Eric were preparing the piacere sandwich. Piacere! (“Nice to meet you!”) as an idiomatic expression.utexas. the verb piacere has a very irregular construction. “to be pleasing to. the verb agrees with the thing or person liked. let’s focus on its irregularities in the following conjugations: Presente indicativo noi piacciamo voi piacete loro piacciono io piaccio tu piaci lui/lei piace io piacqui tu piacesti lui/lei piacque Passato remoto noi piacemmo voi piaceste loro piacquero io piaccia tu piaccia lui/lei piaccia Past participle: piaciuto Congiuntivo presente noi piacciamo voi piacciate loro piacciano Now we’ll examine the way a sentence using this verb is constructed. piacere means “to like” or more precisely. though. The following formula (sandwich recipe) is used with piacere: INDIRECT OBJECT PIACERE SUBJECT (the person who likes something) (the thing or things that he or she likes) Radio Arlecchino.” From the point of view of an English speaker. Episode 16. People say. The subject almost always follows the verb piacere.

A Colombina piace Arlecchino. Colombina likes Arlecchino. Literally, “Arlecchino is pleasing to Colombina.” If the identity of the indirect object is already known, we can use an indirect object pronoun in its place: INDIRECT OBJECT PRONOUN PIACERE SUBJECT Le piace Arlecchino. She likes Arlecchino. Literally, “Arlecchino is pleasing to her.” Here is an example using a common noun as the indirect object: INDIRECT OBJECT PIACERE SUBJECT Al pubblico piacciono le maschere. The audience likes the masks. Literally, “The masks are pleasing to the audience.” Whether the indirect object is a proper noun (like Colombina) or a common one (like il pubblico), the preposition a must precede it. (An indirect object is always the object of a preposition, most often a). Note that when the preposition a comes before a noun with the definite article (like il pubblico), the preposition must be combined with the article: Al pubblico... When you replace the indirect object with a pronoun, the preposition disappears. A Colombina becomes Le. Note that when you use an object pronoun with piacere you only use one. And the one you use is the indirect object pronoun. You never use direct object pronouns with piacere. Piacere is an intransitive verb and never has a direct object. You may want to review our episodes covering pronouns to keep them all sorted out. Also, notice the use of the definite article before “le maschere,” the subject of the sentence. Common nouns that function as the subject of the verb piacere always have the definite article. Verbs and verbal expressions can also be used as the subject of piacere. In this case, piacere is always conjugated in the third-person singular form, regardless of how many infinitives there are and regardless of the complements that the infinitive verb may have. A Colombina piacciono i fiori. Colombina likes flowers. BUT A Colombina piace vedere tutti i fiori che appaiono in primavera. Colombina likes to see all the flowers that appear in the spring. Radio Arlecchino, Episode 16, pg 9 © 2008 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc.la.utexas.edu/

A Colombina piaceva giocare a carte quando era più giovane. Colombina used to like playing cards when she was younger. The negative of piacere is non piacere. When the indirect object is expressed with a pronoun, the pronoun goes between non and piacere. Ad Arlecchina non piace la pizza. Arlecchina doesn’t like pizza. Non le piace la pizza. She doesn’t like pizza. Here are your Top Two Pleasure Points: the most important things to remember about piacere: 1. When using a noun (for the person who likes something)... A + NOUN + VERB (piacere) + NOUN Ad Arlecchino piace il teatro. Arlecchino likes the theatre. Negative statement: A + NOUN + NON + VERB (piacere) + NOUN A Pulcinella non piacciono i libri senza illustrazioni. Pulcinella doesn’t like books without illustrations. 2. When using an object pronoun (for the person who likes something)... INDIRECT OBJECT PRONOUN + VERB (piacere) + NOUN Mi piacciono gli spettacoli. I like the shows. Negative statement: NON + INDIRECT OBJECT PRONOUN + VERB (piacere) + NOUN --Non vi piace il verbo piacere? --Don’t you like the verb piacere? --Ma certo che ci piace! --But of course, we like it! RESIST THAT TEMPTATION TO TRANSLATE THE ENGLISH “IT”! Remember that what in English is the direct object, in Italian is the subject. Of course, we’re not done yet with piacere... not by a long shot! This likeable intransitive verb is conjugated with essere as its auxiliary in all the compound tenses. Until next time, just think about the implications of that! We’ll talk more about this pleasant, pleasing verb--and other similar verbs--in our next episode! Sarà un piacere -- It’ll be a pleasure. Radio Arlecchino, Episode 16, pg 10 © 2008 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc.la.utexas.edu/

Nota Culturale
Any time is a great time to visit Venice--la serenissima, the most serene-- but if you can be there during the months of June and November in 2009-2011-2013, and so on, you can enjoy the best in art (Biennale Arti Visive), in dance (Biennale Danza), and in theatre (Biennale Teatro). Biennale means biennial and Venice offers these international artistic events of great variety and outstanding quality every other year. If you must visit Venice in a year without the Biennale, don’t despair! Be there in late August and enjoy the Venice Film Festival, la Mostra Internazionale d’Arte Cinematografica di Venezia, the oldest film festival in the world! In fact, it has been running every year since 1932 on the little island of the Lido of Venice. The Leone d’Oro is the prestigious award given at this movie festival; it is the Italian equivalent of the American Oscar, the French Palma d’Oro and the German Orso d’Oro. Stars from all over the world have walked on the Venetian red carpet, smiling at their numerous fans and signing autographs. Will our friend Arlecchino win the Leone d’Oro this year? Perhaps he deserves an award for his creation of the longest title for a movie! (Better luck next time, Lina Wertmüller!) The leone alato, the winged lion, is the symbol of San Marco, Saint Mark the Evangelist, who has been the patron saint of Venice since his relics were brought here from Alexandria in Egypt in 829. Because of this, the winged lion is also the symbol of Venice and can be seen all over the city, particularly in one of the world’s most famous squares, piazza San Marco! Often the lion holds a book with the inscription Pax Tibi Marce Evangelista Meus; an open book represents peace, a closed one war. As in each one of Italy’s twenty regions, in Veneto, the region of Venice, standard Italian keeps good company with many dialects. You will learn more about them in future episodes of Radio Arlecchino. For now, just pay close attention to the accents of Pantalone and Signora Balanzone in Episode 16. Pantalone’s first line is in Venetian dialect and the rest of his lines present only a Venetian cadenza, accent, whereas Mrs. Balanzone’s accent is from Bologna. For now, we close with an old Italian salutation that originated in the Venetian dialect: Ciao! Thanks for listening! And be sure to tell your friends that you heard it here on Radio Arlecchino! Your hosts with the most – grammar, Antonella Olson & Eric Edwards “Out of our minds ... into your ears”

Radio Arlecchino, Episode 16, pg 11 © 2008 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc.la.utexas.edu/

Scott Gregoire. Ashley Park. and now Arlecchino and his colleagues are reaching dizzying heights on the ladder to success. Diana Shen. like the passato prossimo. Paige Normand.edu/ .edu/ra/episode." our recent show on expressing likes and dislikes in the compound tenses. Stefani Langehennig.Piazza della Grammatica 1 • Antonella Olson & Eric Edwards. Maranda Moody.la. Wilfredo Cerrato. Here's a transcript of "Casting Call and Scream Test. Tyler Levy. everybody and welcome to Spettacolo Stasera! By now movie fans are talking about nothing but this film! They've always been stars of the stage. adesso Arlecchino e colleghi stanno raggiungendo somme vette nella scalata al successo. François Lux. Eric: And I was the first radio reporter to interview our friend's charming co-star.utexas. Eric: E io sono stato il primo radiogiornalista ad intervistare l'affascinante co-star del nostro amico. Episode 17. Antonella: Ogni Dario ha la sua Franca Antonella: Every Dario has his Franca Radio Arlecchino. Presentatori e Capocomici Gentili Ascoltatori.php?p=17 Buon divertimento! Hanno partecipato Simone Sessolo Marco De Risi Michael Heidenreich Sean Neesley Featured in this broadcast: as Pantalone as the Security Guard. You can hear this podcast by accessing the following URL: http://tltc. Arlecchina and her Screen Test on Spettacolo Stasera Antonella: Good evening. Emily Esposito.la. whose lines are transcribed so as to reflect his Roman dialect. Andirea White as the Pleased Movie-Goers Transcript : Arlecchina e il suo provino a Spettacolo Stasera Antonella: Buona sera a tutti e benvenuti a Spettacolo Stasera! Ormai gli appassionati di cinema non parlano che di questo film! Da sempre stelle teatrali. Erica Weaver. for Miracle Pictures Ann Marie Burnett. Arnulfo Manriquez. Paula Swindle. Dear Listeners. pg 1 © 2008 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc.utexas. Bridget Green.

Eric: I'm one of your biggest fans. but just between us. you. warmest congratulations! The film is enjoying a great success. much less in the movies! We were excited about the daring of the project. are without a doubt the main reason for the success of this opus. ma per cortesia. Arlecchina: Grazie mille. pg 2 © 2008 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. Eric: And what was your first reaction? Arlecchina: Oh.. Arlecchina: Thank you so much. cioè.. Arlecchina: Posso dire che era da Arlecchina: I can tell you that Arlecchino parecchio tempo che Arlecchino aveva in had this intricate story in mind for a long mente questa storia intricatissima e piena di time. Eric: I understand you made a new friend Radio Arlecchino. but please. Give us some background on the movie. questo non succede mai a teatro. it all charmed me right away.Eric: Ogni Roberto la sua Nicoletta Antonella: e ogni Arlecchino la sua Eric: Arlecchina! Esclusivamente a Spettacolo Stasera! Antonella: Sentiamo! Eric: Prima di tutto. E poi sai. anzi dammi del tu… Eric: Io sono un suo. Eric: È piaciuta subito a tutti i protagonisti la trama? Arlecchina: No. ma detto inter nos: Lei. so full of magical surrealism. Episode 17. address me informally (as “tu”). but some were put off by Arlecchino's unbridled ambition... congratulazioni vivissime! Il film sta ottenendo un gran successo sia di critica che di pubblico. among both critics and the general public. Dicci alcuni retroscena del film… Eric: Every Roberto his Nicoletta Antonella: And every Arlecchino his-Eric: Arlecchina! Exclusively on Spettacolo Stasera! Antonella: Let's listen! Eric: First of all. è senza alcun dubbio la ragione principale del successo di quest'opera. And of course you know how much I like Arlecchino. per carità.la. Arlecchina. ma ad alcuni ha dato fastidio l'ambizione sfrenata di Arlecchino… Eric: E qual è stata la tua prima reazione? Arlecchina: Oh. a me ha affascinato tutto subito.edu/ . mi è così simpatico Arlecchino… Eric: Ho saputo che sul set hai fatto una Eric: Did everybody like the plot right away? Arlecchina: Heavens no! That never happens in the theatre. un tuo grande fan. mi dia del tu. figuriamoci al cinema! Ci ha emozionato la parte avventurosa del progetto.utexas. surrealismo magico. Arlecchina.

You can't imagine what a laugh we had seeing her husband do his square dance. carissima. tra breve Arlecchina sarà tra le mie braccia.. Lei berrà e si innamorerà della prima persona che vedrà.. tanti soldi nel film. I'll place my great-grandmother's love potion in Arlecchina's drink. bando alle ciance! Va' dietro al separè. As soon has we finish the screen test for the lead female role in Arlecchino's movie. e poi… che cuoca meravigliosa! Eric: E che ruolo ha avuto Pantalone. Che caldo bestiale fuori. ho fatto un tuffo in un passato che vorrei dimenticare. my dear! Make yourself at home! Arlecchina: Hello. so much for idle chat! Go behind the screen. Arlecchina: The moment you spoke his name. Arlecchina: Excuse me. to wit. on the set. Pantalone: Ho voglia di brindare. ma anche qui dentro non si respira! Pantalone: E allora. Pantalone: I feel like drinking a toast. ormai ne parlano tutti. me! The idea excites me. Mi piace da morire il suo accento bolognese.. may I come in? Pantalone: Of course. visto che ha investito. pg 3 © 2008 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. Arlecchina: Veramente preferirei cambiare Arlecchina: Actually I would prefer to argomento… change the subject. I was plunged into a past that I would rather forget. Arlecchina: Permesso. qui nel famoso studio 5 di Cinecittà… Appena finiremo il provino per la parte principale del film di Arlecchino.. quite a bit of money in the movie. I like Mrs Balanzone so much. everybody's talking about it by now. It's so frightfully hot outside.utexas.la. spogliati ed indossa il Eric: It seems that the mere mention of his name repulses you. la Signora Balanzone mi sta simpaticissima. here on the famous Soundstage 5 at Cinecittà. it seems. Arlecchina: Eh sì. soon Arlecchina will be in my arms. Episode 17. Eric: Sembra che ti ripugni solo il nome di questa persona… Arlecchina: Appena hai nominato il suo nome.edu/ . undress. seeing that he invested.. what a marvelous cook! Eric: And what was Pantalone's role. accomodati! Arlecchina: Buon giorno. She will drink--and fall in love with the first person she sees.. Arlecchina: Oh yes. Non hai idea le risate che ci siamo fatte a vedere il marito ballare la square dance. cioè me! L'idea mi emoziona.nuova amicizia. and then. posso entrare? Pantalone: Ma prego. I adore her Bolognese accent. but even in here one can barely breathe! Pantalone: Well then. pare. and Radio Arlecchino. metterò nella bevanda di Arlecchina il filtro d'amore preparato dalla mia bisnonna.

Pensi Arlecchina: You disappoint me.. Pantalone: Va bene. Arlecchina: Mi deludi. ma il film di Arlecchino non è mica su Tarzan.A. quanto mi dà fastidio l'atteggiamento di Pantalone… Pronto? Eccomi! Pantalone: Che visione! Prego. Una guardia con urgenza al Teatro 5. I only want to be sure I'm making the right choice for the heroine of what's going to be the biggest film of the last ten years. va' a metterti il costume. Are you ready? Arlecchina: Mercy. refresh yourself with this drink before starting your audition. Radio Arlecchino. Io voglio solo essere sicuro di fare la scelta giusta per la protagonista di quello che diventerà il più grande film dell'ultimo decennio… Arlecchina: D'accordo. non m'interessa che ti faccia schifo. urgently. se vuoi la parte devi recitare ora davanti a me con questo costume. che sia stupida e non abbia capito cosa vuoi Pantalone.utexas. Pantalone: Ora metto il filtro nella sua aranciata. that I veramente? don't understand what you're really after? Pantalone: Ma ti sbagli. Pantalone: But you're wrong. urgently. L'altoparlante: Una guardia con urgenza al Teatro 5. perché dovrei indossare quel bikini striminzito di finta pelle di giaguaro? Mi fa schifo. Pantalone: My dear. System: Security to Soundstage 5. put on this costume. chiamerò la guardia. pg 4 © 2008 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. Pantalone: Now I'll put that potion in her orangeade. Arlecchina: Fine. Sbrigati. Come on. su. and I'll read for you. Ti conviene non fare i capricci. rinfrescati con questa bibita prima di cominciare il provino. Do you think I'm stupid. hurry up. Pantalone: Mia cara.. how tiresome this attitude of Pantalone's is! Ready? Here I am! Pantalone: What a sight! Please.costume di scena. while I make you a nice refreshment! Arlecchina: Say. why should I wear this skimpy. go put on the costume. Mi metterò questo costume ridicolo e reciterò per te. Arlecchina: Scusa. Episode 17.. It will behoove you not to be capricious. mentre io ti preparo una bella bevanda fresca. this movie of Arlecchino's isn't about Tarzan. I'll put on this ridiculous costume. thank you. I don't care if it disgusts you. But I insist there be someone else in the room. per dimostrarti che è solo la passione per l'arte a spingermi. Security to Soundstage 5. I'll buzz for the guard. phoney leopardskin bikini? It's disgusting. Pantalone.la. Pantalone: Very well.edu/ . If you want the part you've got to perform for me with this costume. Sei pronta? Arlecchina: Mamma mia. P. grazie. ma esigo che ci sia un'altra persona in questa stanza. to show you that it's merely a passion for art that drives me.

...... Radio Arlecchino.. ma poi m'hanno detto che c'era n'attrice famosa allo Studio 5 e so' venuto de corsa… Pantalone: Guardia.. Sir.. pg 5 © 2008 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. Guardia: How beautiful she is.. ma a me sono state simpatiche! Mi importa molto che un film comunichi un messaggio serio ai giovani.. my head is spinning.. but I liked them! It's important to me that a movie send a serious message to young people.utexas. di solito arriva sempre un'ora dopo.? Awesome! Pantalone: Curses! Pubblicità per Arlecchino e l'ordine della pietra filosofale Alcuni spettatori reagiscono: Mi hanno sempre affascinato i film che parlano della magia. ma perché è già qui.... che m'avete fatto chiama'? Io stavo a dormi' alla granne. vuol di' che fate 'nna ppellicola de Tarzan. mi affascinano i suoi baffi. Wait a minute--so you guys are making a Tarzan picture. maledizione. mi gira la testa..edu/ ..la. I feel myself trembling. I'm going to faint.. I. Mi sono piaciuti i tucani che gli portavano la posta. Pantalone: Guard! Curses..? Fico! Pantalone: Maledizione! Guard: Sir. you called for me? I was having a fine snooze when they told me there was a famous actress on Soundstage 5 and I came running.. chi è Lei. Alla mia ragazza hanno fatto schifo le scimmie. Ad for Arlecchino and the Order of the Philosopher's Stone Some movie-goers respond: Movies about magic have always fascinated me... Who are you? Your moustache fascinates me. what are you doing here already? You usually show up an hour later! Get out of here! Arlecchina: Oh. The monkeys disgusted my girlfriend.. The store where Arlecchino bought the wand. Your sideburns excite me. svengo… Guardia: Ma ccomm'è bbella. I found it charming! The train that took them to Verruchesuine interests me a lot. ppoverina. I liked the toucans that brought them the mail...Guardia: Signo'. mi emozionano le sue basette. allora.... Ma un momento.. Signore. mi … mi sento tremare tutta. Mi ha affascinato il negozio dove Arlecchino ha comprato la bacchetta! Mi interessa molto quel treno che li ha portati a Verruchesuine. se ne vada! Arlecchina: Oh. poor thing. Episode 17..

. Episode 17. “The Red Carpet Treatment. I loved the Balanzones' square dance! I liked the popcorn! Nota Grammaticale First of all. Pulcinella! Ci è tanto simpatico quel Pulcinella! Mi sono piaciuti i ritratti che parlavano e si muovevano! Mi ha fatto paura il cappello che ha parlato quando Pulcinella se lo è messo sulla testa! Adesso abbiamo voglia di vedere il sequel! Mi ha commosso il coraggio di Colombina quando è andata da Kulala per trovare il sonno di Arlecchina! Ci ha emozionato molto la battaglia con i draghi! Mi sarebbero piaciute più esplosioni! Mi ha dato un po' fastidio l'accento dei texani.. if you missed Episode 16.” you’ll want to take a look and a listen at it now so you’ll be acquainted with those all-important Pleasure Points! Radio Arlecchino. pg 6 © 2008 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. Ci ha fatto venire la pelle d'oca la macchina che volava! Ci ha deluso un po' la scena con i furetti parlanti.. Pulcinella! We love that Pulcinella! I liked the portraits that talked and moved! The hat that talked when Pulcinella put it on his head scared me! Now we feel like seeing the sequel! I was moved by Colombina's courage when she went to Kulala to find Arlecchina's sleep! We were very excited about the battle with the dragons! I would have liked more explosions! I was annoyed a bit by the Texans' accent.edu/ . The car that flew gave me goose-bumps! The scene with the talking ferrets disappointed us a little...utexas. Mi è piaciuta molto la square dance dei Balanzone! A me è piaciuto il popcorn! I really liked the serenade that that guy sang under the sea! What's his na—ah..la.Mi è piaciuta moltissimo la serenata che quel ragazzo ha cantato sotto il mare! Come si chia—ah.

the past participle of piacere will have to agree in number and gender with its subject.edu/ . it’s the subject of piacere . Antonella says: “Il Panino Piacere è piaciuto a tutti!”-that is. feminine.In today’s episode. Now. The recipe calls for the preposition first. Episode 17. We already know what “it” is. as piacere does. verb. it’s an intransitive verb. because normal word order--subject. but we won’t replace it with a direct object pronoun! --Ti piace vedere i film avventurosi? –Si. whenever a verb takes essere as its auxiliary. --Do you like seeing adventure movies? –Yes. NOT of piacere. In this case. --Ti piace il film di Arlecchino? --Si. and then the thing that somebody likes. That means no direct object. I like seeing them. So we won’t ever be using a direct object pronoun directly with piacere . mi piace (il film di Arlecchino). Although a sentence with piacere almost always follows the recipe. there’s always two other important things that we know about it. singular and plural subjects: masculine singular subject: Al pubblico è piaciuto lo spettacolo. The direct object pronoun li is the direct object of vedere. Antonella and Eric pointed out these four examples to show piacere in the passato prossimo with masculine. Secondly.” but in Italian. then the indirect object. though. so we can just omit it.utexas. Antonella starts out with the thing that everybody likes. complement--is always grammatically acceptable. pg 7 © 2008 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. then we get the verb. The trick here is to remember that the subject is the thing that somebody likes and NOT the somebody who likes it. First of all. and finally the preposition and the indirect object. The “it” in the English version is the direct object of “like. feminine singular subject: Agli attori è piaciuta la scena romantica.la. you’ll notice how with piacere the auxiliary verb in compound tenses (like the passato prossimo) is always essere. masculine plural subject: A Colombina sono piaciuti i nuovi lazzi. this variation is common when a departure from the usual routine can add some desired emphasis. everybody liked the Pleasure Sandwich. then the verb. There’s no cause for alarm. feminine plural subject: Radio Arlecchino. --Do you like Arlecchino’s movie? –Yes I like it (Arlecchino’s movie). You might also notice that she didn’t follow the famous recipe exactly. mi piace vederli.

utexas. The loquacious bunch of movie-goers illustrated several of them as they commented on Arlecchino’s new film. You just have to make note of how each one works as you encounter it. Episode 17.to be a good idea. Other verbs expressing likes and dislikes Piacere and its negative form. It would behoove you. congiuntivo passato Dubito che ad Arlecchina siano piaciuti i regali che Pantalone le ha fatto.edu/ . You see that the gender and number of the people who like the thing is irrelevant.. affascinare . not just passato prossimo. etc.la. non piacere .to charm. convenire . It would be a good idea for you not to be capricious.Persino a Pantalone sono piaciute le canzoni di Pulcinella. Ti conviene non fare capricci. very often with the conditional even when the Italian is not. The past participle of piacere agrees with the thing(s) that they like. The tricky part is that some of them follow the pattern we’ve established in the Panino Piacere recipe and others don’t... pg 8 © 2008 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. are far from being the only ones. And leave it to Eric to illustrate a sentence with piacere that starts with the verb--as can often happen in a yes-or-no question: È piaciuta subito a tutti i protagonisti la trama? Of course it’s also true in all the other compound tenses as well. You would be better off not to.. to behoove subject: the thing that is a good idea direct object: none indirect object: the person for whom it is a good idea auxiliary: essere This expression gets translated in several different ways in English. Just two examples: condizionale passato Mi sarebbero piaciute più esplosioni. for emphasis or variety: La scena romantica è piaciuta agli attori. to fascinate subject: the person or thing that is charming or fascinating direct object: the person who is charmed or fascinated Radio Arlecchino. This will be true even when you put your Pleasure Sandwich together backwards.

. the thing that affects direct object: the persons or things concerned or affected indirect object: none auxiliary: avere I risultati dei provini interessano tutti gli attori della compagnia. to be concerned about something. to cause disgust subject: the disgusting thing direct object: “built in”: schifo indirect object: the person who is disgusted auxiliary: avere importare .to be important subject: the thing that is important direct object: none indirect object: the person to whom something is important auxiliary: essere Radio Arlecchino. subject: the thing that concerns. pg 9 © 2008 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. The results of the auditions concern all the actors of the company.edu/ . to affect”. Pantalone didn’t show much interest in Arlecchina’s opinion of the costume. Episode 17. subject: the thing that is of interest. the person concerned direct object: none object of the preposition a: the thing in which someone takes interest or about which someone is concerned auxiliary: essere Pantalone non si è interessato molto all’opinione che Arlecchina ha espresso sul costume. Meaning “to be of interest”. interessare .Meaning “to concern. the person to whom something is of interest auxiliary: avere or essere A Pantalone ha interessato molto vedere Arlecchina nel costume che le aveva dato. the thing that is interesting direct object: none indirect object: the person to whom something is interesting.indirect object: none auxiliary: avere interessare .la...to be disgusting. so you can usually use it safely either way. subject: the person who takes an interest.this one is a rather limber verb. Then there is the pronominal (reflexive) version: interessarsi a – to demonstrate or to take an interest in something. fare schifo . Italians don’t always make a careful distinction between these two subtle differences in the meaning of interessare..utexas. Pantalone was very interested to see Arlecchina in the costume he had given her.

. romantic love.to feel like (having or doing something) subject: the person who feels like.” “Pulcinella. Italians just don’t use the verb amare as a casual exaggeration of piacere the way English speakers use “to love” as a hyperbolic substitute for “to like.utexas. to care for someone subject: the person who loves someone direct object: none indirect object: the object of someone’s affection.essere simpatico/a / stare simpatico/a .. This expression has no implication of the sexual or romantic attraction that piacere sometimes (but certainly not always) has. pg 10 © 2008 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. ma non ti amo. such as Mi piacciono moltissimo le frittate di Pulcinella. to scare. the person loved auxiliary: avere Arlecchina might say: “Pulcinella. since..to like. whereas in Italian. as Antonella points out. Al pubblico è piaciuto da morire il nuovo film di Arlecchino. why don’t you marry it?!” There’s really no Italian equivalent for this particular wisecrack. volere bene is the preferred expression.la. but I do not love you. In English. I care for you a great deal. ti voglio tanto bene. if you love Radio Arlecchino so much. you know. Episode 17.” fare paura .. we most often use the verb “to love” for this also. This verb is a very handy alternative to piacere because it can be used to make the distinction between “just liking” and.to love. Italians use yet another expression to describe the kind of deep affection and caring that exists among relatives and close friends.edu/ . to cause fear subject: the thing that is frightening direct object: “built in”: paura indirect object: the person who is frightened auxiliary: avere avere voglia . The force of piacere is often boosted in different ways. Radio Arlecchino. volere bene . Ci è piaciuta un sacco la square dance dei Balanzone. What’s more.” Amare is reserved for expressions of serious. “like liking” somebody. subject: the person who is likeable direct object: none indirect object: the person who just likes somebody auxiliary: essere Concerning liking and loving. “Hey.to frighten. The expression is often used with stare rather than essere and sounds much more informal that way.

avere voglia.edu/ . is always the object of the expression. Abbiamo voglia di vedere il sequel. whose likes or dislikes we are talking about. what someone feels like doing is expressed as a verb in the infinitive following the preposition di.to disappoint subject: the thing that is disappointing direct object: the person who is disappointed indirect object: none auxiliary: avere Although the issues of direct versus indirect object and avere versus essere may seem daunting at first.direct object: “built in”: voglia indirect object: none auxiliary: avere NOTE: what someone feels like having is expressed as a noun following the preposition di. Hai voglia di un po’ di popcorn? Do you feel like [having] some popcorn? commuovere . Episode 17. (The three exceptions to this are amare. it will be helpful for you to remember one important thing.to give goosebumps subject: the thing that gives somebody goosebumps direct object: “built in”: venire la pelle d’oca indirect object: the person who gets goosebumps auxiliary: avere deludere . not the subject. In all of these Italian expressions.to annoy. the person whose emotions.to move (emotionally) subject: the thing that is moving direct object: the person who is moved indirect object: none auxiliary: avere emozionare . and volere bene) Radio Arlecchino. pg 11 © 2008 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc.to excite subject: the thing that is exciting direct object: the person who is excited indirect object: none auxiliary: avere dare fastidio . as is so often the case in English.la. to be bothersome subject: the thing that is annoying or bothersome direct object: “built in”: fastidio indirect object: the person who is annoyed or “bugged” auxiliary: avere fare venire la pelle d’oca .utexas.

They’re both the same! In the big wide world of grammar. Cinecittà was one of the very few positive projects created by the Italian fascist dictator Benito Mussolini (Predappio.).edu/ . Remember Signora Balanzone in Episode 16? She has a Radio Arlecchino. Nowadays. 1993). if you’re using first. ti.la. backstage. etc. Franca. 1920 . Campion. but were rebuilt in 1947. Dario Fo received the Nobel Prize for Literature for dedicating his life to theatre. As Alberto Sordi. When. What do you think Cinecittà means? Cine = cinema.utexas. you should visit the studios of Cinecittà. when Roberto Benigni won three Oscars with his movie La vita è bella. He founded it in 1937 on the southeastern outskirts of Rome to produce propaganda films. If in Rome during the months of June and September. Coppola. called by many “Il Maestro. one of the most beloved Italian actors. ci. he shared it with his wife. Cinecittà--also called la Hollywood sul Tevere--is indeed a stage.Giulino di Mezzegra. Abrams. he shared with the world his infinite love for Nicoletta Braschi. don’t blame yourself! He is speaking a dialect. vi) with these expressions--and that will happen a lot--the indirect vs direct object problem is really no problem at all since nobody will ever know if you’re using the wrong pronoun. Federico Fellini (Rimini.or second-person object pronouns (mi. we’re grateful for small favors! Nota Culturale For those who are wondering about Dario. la fabbrica dei sogni: it has “fabricated” more than 3. Pasolini. and muse Franca. Similarly. Gibson. Did you understand his lines without checking the transcript? If you had difficulties.” He made most of his movies in Cinecittà’s Studio 5. they have hosted film productions of renowned Italian directors (Rossellini. la città dei film! And this is exactly what Cinecittà is. no longer open to the public.000 so far! Our lovely guard from Cinecittà featured in this episode. 1945). Episode 17. city of movies. offering everything imaginable object or service required to make a movie. De Sica.Rome. belongs to the new reality of Cinecittà. Studio 5 is still particularly famous because it was the “home” so to speak of one of the greatest Italian directors. Bertolucci. fiction series. a movie director could walk into Cinecittà with just a script and an idea and leave Cinecittà with his or her vision on a reel of film. preproduction/production/full production studio in one lot. a few months later. città = city. let’s explain who they are! Dario Fo and his wife Franca Rame are a well-known and popular couple who have been together on stage and in real life since the early 50’s. co-author. Roberto and Nicoletta mentioned in this episode. and advertising spots. Since then. pg 12 © 2008 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. in 1997. once said. Visconti. 1883 . Cinecittà is used mainly by TV productions such as talk and game shows. etc. Leone. Scorsese. Minghella. Fellini. Cavani. Soderbergh.Of course. which is now a private institution.) as well as foreigners (Annaud. Cinecittà studios were later bombed by the Western Allies during World War II. his wife and actress in all of his movies.

Three of the main reasons for such a linguistic reality are the habit of ancient Romans not to impose Latin on the people they conquered.. cadenza. so stay tuned to Radio Arlecchino as we consider their place in Italy’s rich linguistic treasure trove… Thanks for listening! And be sure to tell your friends that you heard it here on Radio Arlecchino! Your hosts with the most – grammar. such as the ones spoken in Sardinia and Friuli. dialects are not just a variation on the Italian standard. into your ears” Radio Arlecchino. ten…) variety of dialect. the historic novel I promessi sposi (The Betrothed) who. 1785 – Milano. but distinct languages with their own grammar and lexicon. In the guard’s speech.very strong accent. people speak more than one (two. Now what about those intellectuals who were mentioned earlier? They’re a potentially controversial bunch. Linguists can drown in the myriad of Italian dialects: in each of the 20 Italian regions.la.utexas. he would go to “sciacquare i panni nell’Arno”: do his verbal laundry in the Tuscan river of Arno. however. Antonella Olson & Eric Edwards “Out of our minds . and last but not least.edu/ . author of one of the major works of Italian literature. 1873). Episode 17. the geographical constitution of the Italian peninsula. Often. five. from Bologna. you can detect more than just an accent. the foreign dominations that occupied the Italian territory until the unification of Italy. Petrarch and Boccaccio would constitute the standard Italian with a pinch of Roman dialect (since Rome became the capital of the new Italy in 1871). made complete between 1861 and 1871 by Italians who fought for it during il Risorgimento (The Resurgence). The language of the great thirteenth-century Tuscan writers Dante. Italian dialects are a rich source of endless fascination for many linguists and intellectuals. It was Alessandro Manzoni (Milano.. in fact some of the words he uses are in Roman dialect. in a sense. pg 13 © 2008 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. decided that the language of the new and unified Italy be the Tuscan dialect.

La Antonella interviews Pulcinella on Spettacolo Stasera Antonella: Pulcinella. you haven't missed that? Antonella: But of course! Your songs help me to enrich my day. otherwise it's always you asking me questions. Pulcinella: And my music. che piacere rivederti! Mi sembra un secolo che non ci vediamo! Pulcinella: Anche a me fa piacere incontrarti di nuovo. Antonella: How I've missed you! And I've missed your excellent dishes as well. to be precise.utexas. Episode 18." our recent show on expressing likes and dislikes: the verb piacere and others that function like piacere.la. pg 1 © 2008 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. Antonella: Quanto mi sei mancato! E mi sono anche mancati i tuoi piatti prelibati. Pulcinella: E la mia musica non ti è mancata? Antonella: Ma certo! Le tue canzoni mi servono per arricchire la giornata. I love Radio Arlecchino. Pulcinella: But let's talk a bit about you.Piazza della Grammatica 1 • Antonella Olson & Eric Edwards. Presentatori e Capocomici Gentili Ascoltatori. altrimenti sei sempre tu che fai domande a me.php?p=18 Buon divertimento! Hanno partecipato / Featured in this broadcast: Nevin Pecorelli as Pulcinella in the Naples studio Steven Miller as Pulcinella somewhere under the sea Transcript : Antonella intervista Pulcinella a Spettacolo Stasera Antonella: Pulcinella.edu/ra/episode. You can hear this podcast by clicking on the following link: http://tltc. tintarella italiana? Antonella: Sarda per la precisione. How tanned you are… a good Italian glow? Antonella: Sardinian..la. Come sei abbronzata. what a pleasure to see you again! It seems like a century to me since we last saw each other! Pulcinella: It's a pleasure for me too to meet you again.edu/ . Pulcinella: Ma parliamo un po' di te.utexas. Dear Listeners. Here's a transcript of "Catch of the Day.

Ischia. I've got more than one. I'm a bit touchy. the Amalfi Coast in with Sardinia? Antonella: Oh. Venetian pizzerias frighten me. Pulcinella: Dunque. the cynical Roman now? Antonella: Perhaps. l'allegria e la gioia di vivere. come on.edu/ . you know. Antonella: You mean.la.Sardegna mi piace tanto quanto mi piacciono i tuoi spaghetti a forma di frittata! Pulcinella: Non bestemmiare. Episode 18. le costiere di granito rosa. mi fanno paura le pizzerie veneziane e mi fa schifo qualsiasi Radio Arlecchino. have you ever been to Sardinia? Pulcinella: Look. Non mi occorre molto per essere felice. I would say. spontaneity. And how about one of your flaws? Assuming you have them… Pulcinella: A very few of them in fact. la Costiera Amalfitana con la Sardegna? Antonella: A Pulcine’ ma tu ci sei mai stato in Sardegna? Pulcinella: Senti. Antonella: Cioè. and the joy of life. E qual è un tuo difetto? Ammesso che tu ne abbia… Pulcinella: In effetti pochi. I don't need much to be happy. mia cara.utexas. il mare verde trasparente… io preferisco la terra dove batte cuore napoletano. Antonella: Mandolin. and any main course that Antonella: Forse. di' a me e a tutti i tuoi fan qual è la tua caratteristica principale. pg 2 © 2008 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. ne ho più di una. the pink granite coast. green pepper and good company are enough for you? Pulcinella: What's this. Pulcine'. Direi la spontaneità. Antonella: D'accordo. in that I'm offending Sardinia? Pulcinella: No. forse è meglio che cambiamo discorso…Dunque. tell me and all your fans. You'd really lump Capri. nel senso che offendo la Sardegna? Pulcinella: No. my frittata. Ischia. la mia frittata. what is your great character traiit? Pulcinella: Well. Ma vuoi mettere Capri. mi dà fastidio che tu paragoni quell'isola con la mia frittata. a me non interessano i nuraghi. perhaps it's best that we change the subject… So. Antonella: Ti bastano mandolino. good cheer. it annoys me that you should compare that island to my frittata. I'm not interested in nuraghi. sai. Sono un po' permaloso. my dear. Antonella: Very well. peperoncino verde e buona compagnia? Pulcinella: Che fai la romana cinica? Sardinia as much as I love your spaghetti frittata! Pulcinella: Don't be absurd. the clear green sea… I prefer that land wherein beats the Neapolitan heart.

conjugated to go with its subject. Once you get the hang of the Panino Piacere recipe when you use the verb piacere. What do we mean when we say that these verbs function in the same way as piacere? First of all.to be pleasing (to like) subject: the thing or person that somebody likes direct object: none indirect object: the person who likes something or someone Radio Arlecchino. Pulcinella misses the view of the Bay of Naples. We’ll start out by listing the way piacere functions. That is. when necessary. For this reason. which is the noun that follows the verb. Secondly.la. So we give you the literal meaning first. Nota Grammaticale In Episode 18. that's why I like you all the more. all that I've left to do now is treat you to a serenad… There is no magic under the sea to mend a broken heart. Solo ai pesci posso cantar ripetendo il loro pianto. just by way of a reminder. and then continue with the verbal expressions that Antonella and Pulcinella use in the interview you’ve just heard.edu/ . This is followed by the verb in question. the English version of these sentences often has as its subject the person who in the Italian sentence is the indirect object. piacere . although they don’t express likes or dislikes. Antonella: Non hai peli sulla lingua. pg 3 © 2008 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. then. hasn't been properly seasoned disgusts me. of course. A Pulcinella manca il panorama del Golfo di Napoli. Antonella: You don't beat around the bush. the literal translation of the Italian verb often sounds awkward in English or simply doesn’t make sense. because English expresses the idea in a different way. the verb most often used in English to express the same idea. perciò mi piaci ancora di più.utexas. but with good reason. Only to the fish can I sing now repeating their mournful cry. Pulcinella: Allora non mi resta che farti una serenata… Non c'è magia sotto il mar che serva al cuor infranto.pietanza scondita. you’re ready to use some other very common verbal expressions that function grammatically in the same way as piacere. Pulcinella: Well then. we stray a bit from the theme of expressing likes and dislikes. most sentences using these verbs following the same pattern (recipe) as sentences using piacere. and what would be the direct object in the English sentence is often the subject of the Italian verb. we start out with the preposition a plus an indirect object (or an unstressed indirect object pronoun with no preposition). Episode 18.

utexas. thing. can you use a hand with that sack of money? occorrere .to remain. pg 4 © 2008 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. and that.la. someone misses direct object: none indirect object: the person who misses someone. Signor Pantalone. the thing needed direct object: none indirect object: the person who needs something auxiliary: essere bastare .auxiliary: essere fare piacere . something. to be left over (to have left.to be necessary (to need) subject . therefore.edu/ .the thing that is necessary. that is left [over] direct object: none indirect object: the person who has something left [over] auxiliary: essere Radio Arlecchino. or place that is absent.to be useful (to use.to be a pleasure subject: the thing that is a pleasure direct object: “built in”: piacere (the infinitive of a verb used as a noun) indirect object: the person for whom something is a pleasure auxiliary: avere mancare . or some place auxiliary: essere servire . to need) subject: the thing that is useful direct object: none indirect object: the person for whom the thing is useful auxiliary: essere This expression is translated in different ways in English depending on the context. although the meaning is always essentially the same: Mi serve un microfono particolare per registrare la serenata sottomarina di Pulcinella.to be absent (“to miss” in the sense of reacting emotionally to the absence of someone or something) subject: the person. Episode 18. to have left over) subject: the thing that remains. Le serve una mano con quella borsa di soldi? Signor Pantalone. I need a special microphone to record Pulcinella’s submarine serenade.to be enough subject: the thing that is enough direct object: none indirect object: the person for whom something is enough auxiliary: essere restare .

which is not a dialect.la. intellectuals and writers such as Carlo Emilio Gadda. The song “Non potho reposare” (grazie Carlos!) is a classic in their repertoire and in the heart of many Sardinians. Pulcinella’s Amalfi Coast is undoubtedly a breathtaking miracle of nature. In reaction to this. Pino Daniele chose to include dialects in their artistic works in order to preserve the dignity of dialects and historical traditions. and. the pink granite coast. In the process.utexas. subproletariat in novels and first movies). It has to do with the economic boom of the late 50’s. wrote the direct discourses of his two main novels in Roman dialect and let characters in many of his movies speak in dialect. Particularly controversial was Pier Paolo Pasolini (Bologna. into your ears” Radio Arlecchino. Pier Paolo Pasolini. However. it is hard to share Pulcinella’s disinterest in “nuraghi. A group who embraced the importance of preserving the cultural and historical heritage of the past. 1922 – Idroscalo di Ostia.. Italy was trying to rebuild its economy after the terrifying and devastating years of World War II. crystal clear water whose tonalities go from deep blue to green to light blue… And has he been to Budelli? This beach is really pink due to the coral shattered by the sea! Nature and animal lovers will find no better place to practice the verb piacere than Sardegna! Thanks for listening! And be sure to tell your friends that you heard it here on Radio Arlecchino! Your hosts with the most – grammar. fortresses from the bronze age made of stone and burial chambers (remains of about 9. Gigi Camedda and Gino Marielli).. and succeeded thanks to the financial aid of the Americans in 1948 through the Marshall Plan. 1975) who composed some of his poetry in Friulan dialect.Nota Culturale Are you still wondering about the “controversial bunch” of Episode 17? Or don’t you care much about intellectuals and dialects? Well. placed a label of inferiority on those who spoke dialects. Episode 18. The introduction of the television into Italian homes brought about the need to use standard Italian to reach all viewers. Antonella Olson & Eric Edwards “Out of our minds . Andrea Parodi’s unique voice and his emotions while singing it seem to synthesize a powerful yet delicate love for the island.edu/ . but rather the language of which Sardinians are extremely proud. that are unique to this island. the icon of this was the TV. And what about the colors that one finds on this island? The pink of the granite rocks that surround sandy beaches. Italy inevitably entered the era of consumerism. Dacia Maraini and musicians such as 99 Posse. They mainly sing in sardo. See the video of his last concert. the so-called miracolo economico. pg 5 © 2008 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. from Sardegna (Sardinia).000 still exist). Almamegretta. Pasolini was not so much driven by the pure desire to be realistic. here's a quick explanation of why we called them controversial. Sardegna offers landscapes among the most splendid in Italy and in the world. is the ethnic pop-rock band Tazenda (Andrea Parodi. They are an impressive tie to a remote past. but rather to be close and loyal to the social classes he represented (rural class in poetry. the clear green sea…” Antonella is right that Pulcinella probably never visited Sardegna! How could he dismiss the nuraghi. consequently.

la.edu/ . Break-In Voice of the device: Please insert four Canadian quarters." our recent show on talking about the future: il futuro semplice and il futuro anteriore... Futurometro: Yes.Piazza della Grammatica 1 • Antonella Olson & Eric Edwards. Dottore. credevo che fosse in ospedale. pg 1 © 2008 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc.utexas. It’s in all the papers. Futurometro! How are you? Futurometro: I’m fine! But you.utexas. introduca quattro monete canadesi di venticinque centesimi. Dottore! Student at the keyboard: Hi. Here's a transcript of "Global Thermogrammatical War. sai. capita che a volte persino i giornali sbagliano. Dear Listeners. it happens sometimes that even the papers get it wrong. Episode 19. Studente alla tastiera: Eh. Lo raccontano tutti i giornali. Dottore! Studente alla tastiera: Ciao.. Il Futurometro parla Futurometro: Salve.. è vero. I thought you were in the hospital. You can hear this podcast by clicking on the following link: http://tltc. Futurometro! Come stai? Futurometro: Io.edu/ra/episode. Would you Radio Arlecchino. Futurometro: Sì. Presentatori e Capocomici Gentili Ascoltatori.. Dottore. bene! Ma Lei. Vogliamo fare The Futurometer speaks Futurometro: Greetings. Student at the keyboard: You know. it’s true.la.php?p=19 Buon divertimento! Hanno partecipato / Featured in this broadcast: Harmony Eichsteadt Niko Letsos Krista Lundquist Hubert Montoya as the Students Transcript : Irruzione Voce dell’apparecchio: Per favore..

Risultati: porterò. eccetera. che sono sempre le stesse. Verbi in -are. they will carry.edu/ . Your example: to take or to carry. porteremo. Il vostro esempio: Portare. porteranno. Result: “Prender-” Radio Arlecchino. Second conjugation. to squeeze. spremere. Result: “Portar-” Two: Change the “a” of the infinitive ending to “e”. which are the same for all conjugations. Student at the keyboard: Come on. pg 2 © 2008 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. Scelga per favore un modo verbale. senz'altro! Futurometro: Bene. Episode 19. Uno: Togliere la “e” finale dell'infinito. you will carry. porterà. dominare. Coniugazioni Futurometro: Prima coniugazione. giochiamo a guerra termogrammaticale globale! Futurometro: Bene. Scelga per favore un tempo verbale. etc. you will carry. to dominate. porterete. Futurometro! The future. Futurometro: Bene. One: Remove the finale “e” from the infinitive. Studente alla tastiera: Dai. Risultato: Portar-Due: Mutare la “a” della desinenza dell'infinito in “e”.utexas. Verbs ending in “-are. Verbs ending in “-ere” to rain. of course! Futurometro: Fine. solleticare. to explode Your example: to take or to grab One: Remove the finale “e” from the infinitive. Seconda coniugazione. Risultato: Porter Tre: Aggiungere le desinenze del Futuro. The simple future. like to play a game? Student at the keyboard: How about Global Thermogrammatical War? Futurometro: Wouldn’t you prefer a nice game of chess? Student at the keyboard: No.” to whistle. Please select a verbal mood. porterai. Studente alla tastiera: Indicativo.una partita? Studente alla tastiera: Ti andrebbe guerra termogrammaticale globale? Futurometro: Non preferirebbe una bella partita a scacchi? Studente alla tastiera: No. Futurometro! Il futuro. per tutte le coniugazioni. we will carry. Results: I will carry. Il futuro semplice. Result: “Porter-” Three: Add the future endings. to tickle. Futurometro: Fine. Student at the keyboard: Indicative.la. Verbi in -ere. let’s play Global Thermogrammatical War! Futurometro: Fine. Risultato: Prender-- Conjugations Futurometro: First conjugation. esplodere Il vostro esempio: Prendere. Uno: Togliere la “e” finale dell'infinito. piovere. fischiare. Please select a verb tense. he/she/it will carry.

partirete. partirai. Antonella: Tomorrow Pantalone will go to the bank and the Dottore will give a lesson at the university. bere. produrre. porre. we will depart.. there are some. they will take Third conjugation.. The future perfect. prenderemo. potere. partiranno. to collide..edu/ . investire.. Uno: Togliere la “e” finale dell'infinito. to suppose. per tutte le coniugazioni.. ce ne sono alcuni. which are the same for all conjugations. pg 3 © 2008 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc... to drink.. condurre. Results: I will take. avere.utexas. per tutte le coniugazioni. Terza coniugazione. che sono sempre le stesse. to be. you will depart. Radio Arlecchino. prenderai. Essere. posporre.Due: Aggiungere le desinenze del Futuro. Results: I will depart. to put. Studente alla tastiera: verbi irregolari nel futuro. to cough Your example: to depart One: Remove the finale “e” from the infinitive. to produce. Verbi in -ire. to have. Eric: Stasera Arlecchino e compagnia recitano in una nuova commedia. Student at the keyboard: verbs that are irregular in the future. to hold. to have to. Futurometro: Irregular? In the future? Yes.. Eric: Tonight Arlecchino and company will act in a new play. prenderanno. I’ll print a PDF that will explain the irregular futures.. we will take. you will depart. to see. The Futuromenter plays a Radio Arlecchino episode Futurometro: Searching for Radio Arlecchino. to postpone.. you will take.. to go.. Risultato: Partir-Due: Aggiungere le desinenze del Futuro. Antonella: Domani Pantalone va in banca e il Dottore dà una lezione all'università. Stamperò un PDF che spiegherà i futuri irregolari Il futuro anteriore. he/she/it will depart. andare. prenderà. che sono sempre le stesse.la. Risultati: partirò.. dovere. to be able. Result: “Partir-” Two: Add the future endings. to compose. they will depart. to know. comporre. vedere. vivere. Il vostro esempio: Partire. to live. he/she/it will take.. Episode 19. Risultati: prenderò. venire. Verbs ending in “-ire” to roar. Il Futurometro fa sentire una puntata di Radio Arlecchino Futurometro: In cerca di Radio Arlecchino. to translate. trasmissione sul futuro. to come. partiremo. which are the same for all conjugations. sapere. partirà. to conduct. broadcast on the future.. ruggire.. you will take. supporre. tenere. tradurre. Futurometro: Irregolari? Nel futuro? Sì. Two: Add the future endings. prenderete. tossire.

Si saranno laureati. metterai Arlecchino. Antonella: One day Pantalone will stop courting Arlecchina. I will have gone out. Avremo studiato. Chi sarà? Eric: Sarà Colombina. Avrete capito. Chi entrerà dalla finestra? Antonella: Sarà un ladro. Eric: L'anno prossimo Pulcinella inciderà un nuovo CD. Avranno imparato. You will have departed.. tutti i nostri amici bussano alla porta. clean the dressing rooms. Eric: I imagine it’s Colombina. They will have received their university degrees. Sarà venuta.edu/ . all our friends knock at the door. We will have gone. Sarai tornato. Episode 19. Future perfect Antonella and Eric: I will have eaten. put via questi costumi. We will have studied. Saremo andati. Eric: Domani Pantalone andrà in banca e il Dottore darà una lezione all'università. e poi aiuterai Pantalone away these costumes. she probably wants us to help her learn the square dance. pg 4 © 2008 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. Who could be coming in through the window? Antonella: It must be a thief. Pantalone to count the receipts. Antonella: Tonight Arlecchino and company will act in a new play. pulirai i camerini. He/She will have read. Antonella: Un giorno Pantalone smetterà di fare la corte ad Arlecchina. You will have understood. You will have seen You will have come back. Radio Arlecchino. They will have learned. Eric: Tomorrow Pantalone will go to the bank and the Dottore will give a lesson at the university.Antonella: Stasera Arlecchino e compagnia reciteranno in una nuova commedia. Sarò uscito. Avrà letto.. Futuro anteriore Antonella e Eric: Avrò mangiato.la. Sarete partiti. and then help a calcolare il guadagno. Avrai visto.utexas. Eric: Next year Pulcinella will record a new CD. I wonder who that is. She will have come.. Arlecchino. vorrà che l’aiutiamo ad imparare la square dance.

I’m begging you.. don’t do that.. Radio Arlecchino.? Futurometro: Pardon me... Santo cielo! Cosa sarà successo? Eric: Boh...Antonella: Quando Pulcinella è tornato con il mandolino.. Arlecchina era già andata via. he will already have received five Oscars. vi prego.. Isn’t that right? I’m sorry.la.. ai Carabinieri.. Good heavens! What could have happened? Eric: Beats me. Per favore. but I thought you were the Dottore... Pulcinella probably seasoned another spaghetti frittata. ma adesso dovrò telefonare alla polizia. guys. You will drive a beat up old Cinquecento because you won’t have checked your bank account before going to the dealership. no. Eric: Ma sono già le tre! Dove sarà il Dottore? Antonella: Chi lo sa? Si sarà fermato a prendere alcuni Pasti Allegri prima di venire...... Episode 19. but now I’m going to have to phone the police. Le belle ragazze ti prenderanno in giro e -Studente alla tastiera: il Dottore guarirà. all'Interpol. the Carabinieri.. the Junior Woodchucks.. Non è vero? Mi dispiace.. Quando Arlecchino vincerà il premio Nobel.. Antonella: When Pulcinella came back with his mandolin. alla CIA.. pg 5 © 2008 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. When Arlecchino wins the Nobel Prize....edu/ . non fate così.... the FBI... Scotland Yard...... ma credevo che fosse Lei il Dottore...? Futurometro: Scusi. ragazzi. avrà già ricevuto cinque Oscar. La farsa è finita! Futurometro: Il pubblico ti applaudirà come il nuovo "American Idol" quando avrai imparato ad usare bene il futuro e mangerai tutte le tue verdure. Eric: Why it’s already three o’clock! Where do you suppose the Dottore is? Antonella: Who knows? He probably stopped to pick up some Cheerful Meals before coming...a Scotland Yard. Pulcinella avrà condito un'altra frittata di spaghetti.. alle Giovani Marmotte.. all'FBI. The jig is up! Futurometro: The public will applaud you as the new “American Idol” when you have learned to use the future well and you eat all your vegetables. no. the CIA. Guiderai una Cinquecento vecchissima e scassatissima perché non avrai controllato il tuo conto in banca prima di andare dal concessionario.. Please... Arlecchina had already gone away.... The pretty girls will make fun of you and-Student at the keyboard: will the Dottore get better. Interpol....utexas..

” Il Futurometro ti farà a pezzettini se metterai le mani nel suo meccanismo.). ma aggiunge che se continuerete a mettere le mani nel suo meccanismo.Margherita. we will have what we can call “a double future. in fact. the day after tomorrow.utexas. etc. as soon as. etc. differently from English. in Italian--at least formal. Non mi risponderai? Mezzo pazzo tu mi lascerai! Il nostro matrimonio Sarà in manicomio Se tu un dì in tandem con me A passeggiare non verrai. Nota Grammaticale “Il Futurometro vi dà il benvenuto. right after. Daisy. Also. ecc.). you will find out that “fare a pezzettini” is not exactly the most fun thing you might wish for yourself Similarly to English. ecc. Sto andando a spiegare in fact means that I am physically going somewhere to carry out my explanation about the future. la prossima settimana (il mese prossimo. Episode 19.” You'd better consult a dictionary before messing with our robot friend. in (one hour. Radio Arlecchino. next week (next month. Contrary to English usage.). the Futurometer. dopodomani. vi fará a pezzettini. se.la.).. when. In Italian we will not translate literally “I am going to explain”. appena. Often Italians also use the present tense to express actions about to take place in the immediate future. the expression “I am going to explain everything about the future” corresponds in Italian to “I will explain everything about the future”. The Futurometer will cut you into bits and pieces if you put your hands in its apparatus. not colloquial. Italian--if there is a future in the main clause and the dependent clause is introduced by quando.. fra/tra (un'ora.edu/ . again. if. subito dopo tomorrow. pg 6 © 2008 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. Daisy. in Italian the simple future tense is used to describe actions that will take place in the future and is often accompanied by time expressions such as: domani.

Some examples are: andare (andrò). some other things may happen with verbs that are irregular in the future.utexas. sapere (saprò). In other verbs. avrà. to which you add the future endings.” the Futurometer will reply! 1. saremo. Remembering that will go a long way in helping you avoid problems. avremo. pg 7 © 2008 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. avrete.la. vivere (vivrò). avranno 3.. in the future! So. sarai. Avere: avrò. sarà. The problem that most often arises is in adding those endings to the correct future stem. ends in the letter “r”. regular or irregular. there is often further shortening of the future Radio Arlecchino. Italian grammarians call this phenomenon la sincope. as heard in the podcast. the future endings are the same for all conjugations. potere (potrò). Episode 19.edu/ . saranno 2. vedere (vedrò). well. dovere (dovrò). avere (avrò). but the future stem of every single Italian verb.. That always results in a future stem that ends in an “r. as you heard in the podcast. here are those future endings. sarete. What's more. the first step in obtaining the future stem is to drop the final “e” of the infinitive. Again. Essere: sarò. Some verbs lose the first vowel of the infinitive ending and take a shortened form.” As we'll see in a moment. the first vowel of the infinitive ending is dropped and that ever-present letter “r” at the end of the stem is doubled. the same for all verbs: -ò -ai -à -emo -ete -anno Only the verbs in –are will transform the characteristic vowel “a” into “e”. students usually get a handle on them fairly quickly.Since. avrai. Verbs in -are: parlerò parlerai parlerà parleremo parlerete parleranno Verbs in -ere: scriverò scriverai scriverà scriveremo scriverete scriveranno Verbs in -ire: dormirò dormirai dormirà dormiremo dormirete dormiranno Are there irregular verbs conjugated in the simple future? “Of course.

edu/ . vorrai. vorranno Note: Some verbs have a double “r” in the infinitive to begin with. apply to the future perfect. “finishing our homework” takes place before our “going out. All the rules learned about compound tenses such as passato prossimo. vorremo. such as parlare: Radio Arlecchino. etc. By tomorrow we will have finished our homework. Italian is very meticulous when it comes to expressing the exact temporal sequence of actions: Dopo che avremo finalmente finito i compiti. but prior to another future action.utexas. Just drop the final “e” of the infinitive and add those endings! Examples: porre: porrò. are: bere (bevere: berrò). tenere (terrò). spiegheremo. venire (verrò).because it is an action that will take place in the future. as it is known in Italian. After we have finally finished our homework. because they are shortened forms of older. As far as the future tense is concerned though. cercheranno Spiegare: spiegherò. As you can guess. tradurrai. vorrà.” Cercare: cercherò. pg 8 © 2008 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. etc. tradurre: tradurrò. cercheremo. Volere: vorrò. spiegherà. the future perfect. cercherai.stem. As our friend the Futurometer would point out. and it's often hard to tell what conjugation they belong to. obsolete infinitives. cercherà.” Because the main clause presents an action in the future (usciremo). trapassato prossimo. and so on. In the time sequence of the above sentence. valere (varrò). it doesn't matter. 4. is formed by the simple future of the auxiliaries essere and avere and the past participle of the main verb. Verbs in -care and in -gare take “h” before the vowel “e” in order to preserve the “hard” sound of the “c” or “g. Verbs that take the auxiliary avere. Entro domani avremo finito i compiti. porrai. vorrete. spiegheranno The English future perfect and the Italian futuro anteriore are similar: they both express actions that “will have taken place” by a certain time.the word anteriore means “prior” or “before”-. cercherete. il futuro anteriore. we will go out. usciremo. volere (vorrò). spiegherete. spiegherai.la. Examples of l'assimilazione. the other future action action must be expressed in the future perfect (dopo che avremo finito) -. rimanere (rimarrò). Episode 19.

pg 9 © 2008 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. comparing notes about the usage of the future tense in their native languages. in Italian “future of probability” is much more frequently used since the concept is communicated more directly and faster. I wonder who the owner of this painting is and who painted it.edu/ .. an American and an Italian. agreement between the subject and past participle is mandatory. hypothesis. agreement with the past participle is mandatory: Avrai letto le riviste per domani? Sì.utexas. I will have read them.avrò parlato avrai parlato avrò parlato avremo parlato avrete parlato avranno parlato If direct object pronouns (lo. Che quadro magnifico! A chi apparterrà? Chi l'avrà dipinto? What a magnificent painting! I wonder who the owner is. as the above example shows. le avrò lette. Finally.. such as partire: sarò partito/a sarai partito/a sarà partito/a saremo partiti/e sarete partiti/e saranno partiti/e As always. they would have some difficulties in finding similarities with the so-called (for convenience only) “futuro della probabilità” or future of probability. Verbs that take the auxiliary essere. li. Episode 19. le) are used. Will you have read the magazines by tomorrow? Yes. Since one can guess or wonder both about a present situation and a past one. in compound tenses conjugated with the auxiliary essere. Who do you suppose painted it? Guessing. la. However.la. doubt can be expressed in Italian in the same way one does in English: Mi chiedo chi è il proprietario di questo quadro e chi l' ha dipinto. a very peculiar thing happens when a sentence has a past tense in the main clause and expresses an idea of the future in the dependent clause: Radio Arlecchino. If we had two Futurometers. “future of probability” will use simple future (what may be happening now) as well as future perfect (what may have already happened).

Of course. as it seems almost possible that he should have had a futurometro of his own. Episode 19. you will read about other geniuses in the cultural note. you owe a debt to Alessandro Volta (1745-1827). Galvani was from Bologna. By the way. great Italian minds have been developing science and technology that have hastened our journey into the Future all along. Like our own Dottor Balanzone. pg 10 © 2008 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. Nota Culturale Our art and popular culture have conditioned us to think of the future in terms of science and technology and where they will lead us.Sapevo che tu saresti tornato qui.. engineered. leggerete di altri geni nella nota culturale. as he designed. If your imagination is galvanized by Volta's work with "animal electricity" then you will get a charge out of learning more about his contemporary and often rival. Quale grande genio avrà stabilito questa regola??? Qualcuno che ama la consecutio temporis! Which great genius do you think created such a rule??? Someone who loves the consecutio temporis! A proposito.. The incredible Leonardo (1452-1519) comes immediately to mind. and the soaring lyrical flights of Italian opera through the nineteenth century usually dominate our perceptions of the Bel Paese. or merely conceptualized countless devices and machines that were far ahead of his time. I knew that you would return here. but the past conditional must be used in the second part. If you feel the immense pressure that learning Italian grammar can sometimes exert.utexas. "We live submerged at the bottom of an Radio Arlecchino. Torricelli had a knack for expressing himself quite poetically: "Noi viviamo sommersi nel fondo di un pelago d’aria. who invented the battery and lent his name to the familiar unit of electrical potential." he wrote.edu/ . Seeing Galvani make a dead frog's legs twitch with a charge of static electricity may very well be what made the Dottore what he is today. the mixture of the sensuous and the spiritual of the Italian Baroque. If you are one of the thousands who listen to Radio Arlecchino on a portable mp3 player. The glorious art and architecture of the Italian Renaissance. (that you were going to return) Not a future tense or the present conditional. How many torrs of pressure are exerted on a student by the futuro anteriore? Aside from his scientific achievements. you might be able to measure it with the barometer invented by Evangelista Torricelli (1608-1647). Luigi Galvani (1737-1798).la. Things such as hacking into the defense computers or facing existential questions about human existence in the vast reaches of outer space are not the kind of thing we usually associate with Italy.

la.edu/ . But there's no doubt that Marconi's work on radiotelegraphy and wireless data transmission was instrumental in ushering in the age of telecommunications. the "brain flight" or "brain drain. Although we love a good controversy as much as anybody else." Pulcinella should remember this the next time he takes a dive for a serenade. Episode 19. This is seen as a problem in other countries of Europe and elsewhere as well. in which we will explore cause and effect in hypothetical statements. If we don't have to deal with any more unauthorized nocturnal visits from over-eager students! Thanks for listening! And be sure to tell your friends that you heard it here on Radio Arlecchino! Your hosts with the most – grammar. Meanwhile..utexas. We hope your future will include upcoming episodes of Radio Arlecchino. of course. Here at Radio Arlecchino we simply cannot fail to mention Guglielmo Marconi (1874-1937). pg 11 © 2008 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc." Many recently graduated Italians with degrees in the sciences find it easier and more rewarding to pursue careers in their fields--especially those in research and development--outside Italy.ocean of air. Antonella Olson & Eric Edwards “Out of our minds .. we're not going to get involved in the "Who invented radio?" debate. La globalizzazione will definitely be a challenging phenomenon nel futuro. great Italian scientific minds are still there. back in this century. into your ears” Radio Arlecchino. but are now facing some old challenges that have created la fuga dei cervelli.

You can hear this podcast by clicking on the following link: http://tltc. Dear Listeners. that’s it! Welcome. Eric: Ci sono problemi. pg 1 © 2009 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc.Come si dice? I nostri amici che fanno i podcast. you’ll hear the hypothetical statement in action.edu/ . supereremo anche questo caos. sentirete il periodo ipotetico in azione.poss-. come in! Antonella: Greetings. it’s our pod-.consequence Transcript : A teatro Antonella: E ora. Che piacere rivederLa! Tutto pronto per lo spettacolo? Pantalone: Se San Genesio intercederà per noi. if you will accompany us.What is it? Our friends who do the podcasts.php?p=20 Buon divertimento! Hanno partecipato / Featured in this broadcast: Simone Sessolo Adria Frizzi Irene Eibenstein-Alvisi Pantalone Colombina la signora Balanzone condizione – condition | conseguenza . Eric: Are there problems.la. se ci accompagnerete a teatro. Pantalone: Oh! Se non sbaglio.poss-.Piazza della Grammatica 1 • Antonella Olson & Eric Edwards. What a pleasure to see you again! Everything ready for the show? Pantalone: If Saint Genesius will intercede for us. signor Pantalone? At the theatre Antonella: And now.utexas. signor Pantalone? Radio Arlecchino. insomma! Benvenuti. Presentatori e Capocomici Gentili Ascoltatori. signor Pantalone. we will overcome this chaos as well.utexas. entrate! Antonella: Salve. Here's a transcript of " If You Can’t Stand the Heat. Pantalone: Oh! If I’m not mistaken." our recent show introducing hypothetical statements.edu/ra/episode. sono i nostri amici pod-. signor Pantalone. Episode 20.la.

dobbiamo Dottor Balanzone: Arlecchina. Arlecchino. he’ll regret it! Arlecchino: Listen. Dottore. Colombina. if you sapere quel che riesco a fare pure scalza! want to know what I can do even barefoot! Arlecchina: Oh. phone the law office of Truffaldini. Dottore. I swear to you that on stage tonight you’ll see stars! Pantalone: If anyone has seen Pulcinella. non metto più piede sul palcoscenico! Arlecchino: Pure scalza reciterai bene se sei proprio una brava attrice! Colombina: If that scoundrel who got away with my slippers doesn’t bring them back right now. hai saputo con chi è uscita ieri sera la nostra cara Colombina? Dottor Balanzone: Ripeto: Se non si spegne quel televisore vengo giù col Arlecchina: Listen.edu/ .. Arlecchino.. come on! If you don’t find them. I’ll lend you some shoes. Colombina. me lo dica subito! Sono tre ore che lo sto cercando! Voce dal televisore: Se tu conosci qualcuno che si è avvelenato mangiando un Pasto Allegro “Arlecchino”.Colombina: Se il mascalzone che mi ha portato via le pantofole non me le restituisce proprio adesso. Arlecchina. I’ve been looking for him for three hours! Voice from the television set: If you know someone who has been poisoned by eating an Arlecchino Happy Meal.utexas. Arlecchina. se farà più cambiamenti a quella scena. ti presto io delle scarpe. pg 2 © 2009 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. se vuoi Colombina: Come here. Le giuro che sul palcoscenico stasera Lei vedrà delle stelle! Pantalone: Se qualcuno ha visto Pulcinella. guys! Let’s think about commedia. telefona subito agli avvocati dello studio Truffaldini Sborsagente e Cacciambulanza. Dottor Balanzone: Arlecchina. dai! Se non le trovi. if you make any more changes to that scene. have you heard with whom our dear Colombina went out last night? Dottor Balanzone: I repeat: If that television set doesn’t get turned off I’m Radio Arlecchino. the play. Episode 20..... Sborsagente and Cacciambulanza now! Dottor Balanzone: Haven’t I explained to them a thousand times that it isn’t my fault? If someone doesn’t turn off that cursed device now.la. we must parlare un attimo se hai visto i cambiamenti talk for a moment if you’ve seen the al secondo atto! changes to the second act! Arlecchina: Senta. Dottor Balanzone: Non gli ho spiegato mille volte che non è colpa mia? Se qualcuno non spegne adesso quel maledetto apparecchio. se ne pentirà! Arlecchino: Senti. ragazzi! Pensiamo alla Arlecchina: Hey. I’m not setting foot on the stage! Arlecchino: Even barefoot you’ll perform well if you are really a good actress! Colombina: Vieni qua. tell me right away.

alzo un po’ il volume. ve lo comunichiamo adesso! Signora Balanzone: Eh. è proprio lui. Episode 20. I won’t turn it off. if she went out with Pantalone she didn’t have a moment’s peace... Voice from the TV: Furthermore. in diretta. we’re letting you know now! Mrs Balanzone: They’re talking about your show! If you don’t mind. Pantalone: What? Zounds! If that scoundrel is doing that show live. mo parlano del vostro spettacolo! Se mi permettete.utexas..... live and in person. Pulcinella! Mrs Balanzone: There he is! It’s him. non lo spengo ma cambio il canale. I’ll just change the channel. That old man is an octopus! Colombina: If you don’t mind. it means he’ll be doing ours dead if his Saint Gennaro doesn’t save him from my claws! Radio Arlecchino. Voce dal televisore: Inoltre. sono a vostra disposizione! Arlecchino: La Balanzone! Ci mancava proprio lei! Voce dal televisore: Spettacolo Stasera vi presenta un’intervista esclusiva! Se non sapevate già che stasera al Teatro Pazzimpalco reciterà il celeberrimo Pulcinella. here with us in the Spettacolo Stasera studio! Hi. Spettacolo Stasera brings you an exclusive interview with the Neapolitan superstar. se è uscita con Pantalone non ha avuto un secondo di pace! Quel vecchio è una piovra! Colombina: Se non Le dispiace. vuol dire che da morto farà il nostro se il suo San Gennaro non lo salverà dalle mie grinfie! coming down there with my hammer! Arlecchina: I don’t know and I don’t care. Pulcinella! Signora Balanzone: Eccolo. our own Pulcinella.martello! Arlecchina: Non lo so e non m’interessa! Ma ti dico una cosa. Signora Balanzone: Buona sera! Buona sera a tutti! Tutto bene? Tutto pronto per lo spettacolo? Se posso essere utile.qui con noi nello studio di Spettacolo Stasera! Ciao.. dal vivo.edu/ .. Spettacolo Stasera presenta ora un’intervista esclusiva con la superstar napoletana. Dottore. I’ll turn up the volume a bit. il nostro Pulcinella.. Dottore.la.. Mrs Balanzone: Good evening! Good evening. I am at your disposal! Arlecchino: The Balanzone woman! Just what we needed! Voice from the TV: Spettacolo Stasera presents an exclusive interview! If you didn’t already know that tonight at the Pazzimpalco Theatre the super-famous Pulcinella will perform. But I’ll tell you one thing. Pantalone: Che? Accidenti! Se quel mascalzone sta facendo dal vivo quello spettacolo.. everybody! Is everything all right? Everything ready for the show? If I may be of assistance. pg 3 © 2009 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. e live -.

Places. per favore. everyone... Arlecchina: C’è un sostituto? Arlecchino: Macché sostituto! Colombina: Non trovo più il mio fazzoletto di merletto veneziano! Mi serve per il primo atto! Arlecchino: Lo ammazzerò! Arlecchina: Is there an understudy? Arlecchino: Yeah.utexas.. an understudy. I am ready to answer! Pantalone: Saprai quali domande ti farò io. Colombina: Is it possible to know where my slippers are? Pantalone: Colombina. il sipario si alza tra due minuti.Pulcinella alla televisione: Buona sera. for heaven’s sake! Arlecchino: It’s not possible. right.. Gentile compagnia.edu/ . please.. Colombina: Ma si può sapere dove sono le mie pantofole? Pantalone: Colombina.. good evening. pg 4 © 2009 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. Colombina: I’m not finding my Venetian lace handkerchief! I need it for the first act! Arlecchino: I’ll kill him! Radio Arlecchino... everyone! If you have questions.. mia cara. non prenderai un po' di aranciata con me prima che cominci-Colombina: Signor Pantalone. Arlecchina: But doesn’t he realize that here the curtain is about to go up in-Voice on the speaker: two minutes.la. my dear. Tutti al loro posto. per carità! Arlecchino: Ma non è possibile! Come facciamo? Mrs Balanzaone: If I’m not mistaken. buona sera a tutti! Se avete delle domande.. Episode 20. won’t you have a bit of orangeade with me before-Colombina: Signor Pantalone. sembra un po’ più cicciottello alla televisione. Pantalone: You’ll find out the questions mascalzone! that I’ll be asking you.. he seems a bit plumper on television.. sono pronto a rispondere! Pulcinella on the TV: Good evening. the curtain is going up in two minutes.. you scoundrel! Signora Balanzone: Se non sbaglio. carrying some beautiful slippers about in his teeth. Arlecchina: Ma non si rende conto che qui il sipario sta per alzarsi tra-Voce all’altoparlante: due minuti.. What are we to do? Signora Balanzone: Che strano! Quel cane Mrs Balanzone: How odd! That dog’s porta fra i denti delle pantofole bellissime. Dear company..

Dottore! Mi deve accompagnare adesso! Dottore: Sono pronto! Sono semper paratus! Arlecchina: Questo è il colmo! Pantalone: Ecco. mia cara. Le galline sempre dalla sinistra! Signora Balanzone: Sì. don’t worry. mio caro Balanzone.edu/ . vedete? Le mucche qui! Le mucche entreranno in scena da questa parte.. Radio Arlecchino. I’m coming right now! Colombina: Arlecchino. non ti preoccupare. pg 5 © 2009 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc.. Signora Balanzone: Dovresti mangiare qualcosa prima di andare in scena. Dottore! You must accompany me now! Dottor Balanzone: I’m ready! I am semper paratus! Arlecchina: This is the last straw! Pantalone: There. hurry up! Pantalone: No. dai.. ora spengo io il televisore.. I’ll turn off the television now.. le galline no! Le galline devono entrare dall'altra parte.utexas..Arlecchina: Lo ammazzerai solo se io non l’avrò già ammazzato! Signora Balanzone: Ma come sono carine queste galline! Saranno brave nello spettacolo. sì. Dottor Balanzone: Dov'è mia moglie? Chi l'ha vista? Chiamate subito la signora Balanzone! Colombina: Di chi sono queste galline? Signora Balanzone: Oh.. no. yes. Episode 20. not the chickens! The chickens must come in from the other side. non prenderai un po' di aranciata con me prima che cominci lo spettacolo? Colombina: Venga. no. won’t you have a bit of orangeade with me before the show starts? Colombina: Come.. you see? The cows here! The cows will enter the scene on this side. Pantalone: Arlecchina.. vengo subito! Colombina: Arlecchino! Sbrigati! Pantalone: No... Chickens always from the left! Mrs Balanzone: Yes.. come on... Arlecchina: You’ll kill him only if I haven’t already killed him! Mrs Balanzone: Now aren’t these chickens darling? They’ll be great in the show... Pantalone: Arlecchina. my dear.la. Dottor Balanzone: Where is my wife? Who’s seen her? Call Mrs Balanzone right away! Colombina: Whose are these chickens? Mrs Balanzone: Oh my dear Balanzone. Mrs Balanzone: You ought to eat something before you go onstage.

Nota Grammaticale Hypothetical statements are made up of two clauses: one describes a condition (la condizione)and the other states a consequence (la conseguenza) of the condition being met. Colombina: But what are we going to do in the second act if Pulcinella doesn’t arrive? Pantalone: With Pulcinella or without him! The show must go on! Antonella: Eric! I don’t believe we can get anything done around here! Eric: You’re telling me? Let’s go! Mrs Balanzone: Have you seen how many people? There’s not even one empty seat! Pantalone: Attention! Curtain! Curtain going up! Show time! Antonella: What a disaster! What will they do if Pulcinella doesn’t get here? Eric: Search me. The condizione is set up in the clause introduced by “if”: se.la. But the actors of the commedia are famous for their improvisation.edu/ . Radio Arlecchino. pg 6 © 2009 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc.the other actors will have their revenge! The three types of periodi ipotetici are defined by their degree of reality or possibilty. Antonella: È proprio Pulcinella che dovrà avere quel talento se lo piglia Pantalone. Antonella: Eric! Non credo che qui ce la facciamo a combinare niente! Eric: Lo dici a me? Andiamo! Signora Balanzone: Avete visto quanta gente? Non c’è neanche una poltrona vuota! Pantalone: Attenti! Sipario! Si alza il sipario! Commedia! Antonella: Che disastro! Cosa faranno se non arriverà Pulcinella? Eric: Boh.... Antonella: It’s really Pulcinella who will need that talent if Pantalone gets a hold of him.. Episode 20. condition If Pulcinella doesn’t show up in time to make his entrance. consequence .utexas. Ma gli attori della commedia sono famosi per la loro improvvisazione.Colombina: Ma cosa faremo nel secondo atto se non arriverà Pulcinella? Pantalone: Con Pulcinella o senza di lui! Lo spettacolo deve andare avanti..

The condition will have a verb in the imperfect subjunctive (l’imperfetto del congiuntivo) and the consequence will have a verb in the conditional (il condizionale). and about the future tenses in Episode 19. We’ll take up the second and third types in a future episode. (congiuntivo imperfetto o trapassato) and the verb in the consequence will be either present or past conditional (condizionale presente o passato). -ire) and then add the appropriate endings to the remaining stem. you might want to look at Episodes 9 and 10. Since the imperative is sometimes used in the consequence clause. drop the infinitive ending (-are. the English “if” can often be substituted with “whenever”. so its consequence is seen as real or probable as well. 2 and 3. Whenever the Dottore forgot his lines. -ere. pg 7 © 2009 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. In today’s podcast.. The verb in the condition will be either imperfect or pluperfect subjunctive.la.il periodo ipotetico del primo tipo In this type of hypothesis the condition is seen as real or likely. It may be helpful at this point to review briefly the present indicative. The consequence. remember that we talk about past tenses in Episodes 1.edu/ . Both clauses will have verbs in the indicative mood (modo indicativo) in the appropriate tense. (l’indicativo presente). we’re focusing on the periodo ipotetico del primo tipo. Italian verbs that are regular form the present indicative as follows: First. il periodo ipotetico del terzo tipo Both the condition and the consequence are either contrary to fact or impossible.. Sometimes the imperative (modo imperativo). This type of hypothetical statement uses tenses of the indicative mood in both clauses. then.utexas. Episode 20. is also possible but viewed as doubtful or merely theoretical. appears in the consequence. il periodo ipotetico del secondo tipo The condition is possible. In this type of hypothesis. but viewed as unlikely. If the Dottore forgot his lines he would start speaking nonsense in Latin. Radio Arlecchino. If you would like to review those. or command form.

-gliare or -sciare. inviate. mangia.la. mangi. pg 8 © 2009 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. mangiamo. cominciano mangiare: mangio. lasciamo. lasciano When the infinitive ends in -iare. cerchiamo.utexas. lasci. lascia. -i. -gare). -ete. pagano When the infinitive ends in -ciare. cerca. cercano pagare: pago. invii. comincia. cominciate. -iamo. the i of the stem is dropped in the second-person singular form only if the i is not stressed in the first-person singular form. sbagli. mangiate. Episode 20. -i. cercate.edu/ . studi. cercare: cerco. sbagliano lasciare: lascio. studiare: io STUdio studio. cominciamo. sbaglia. inviamo.+ -o. studiamo inviare: io inVIo invio. -ono prendo prende prendi prendiamo prendete prendono Radio Arlecchino.+ -o. -ate. studiamo. pagate. -e. cominci.cantare --> cant. -ano canto canti canta cantiamo cantate cantano When the stem of a 1st-conjugation verb ends in c or g (-care. paghi. inviano prendere --> prend. -giare. mangiano sbagliare sbaglio. -a. studiate. an h is inserted between the stem and the endings that begin in i in order to preserve the “hard” sound of the c or g. the i at the end of the stem is dropped when the ending begins with i (to avoid two i’s in a row) cominciare: comincio. cerchi. -iamo. invia. sbagliate. studia. sbagliamo. paga. lasciate. paghiamo.

-e. pg 9 © 2009 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. -isci. -iscono finisco finisci finisce finiamo finite finiscono About the third (-ire) conjugation: most of these verbs insert isc between the stem and the endings of the singular forms and the third-person plural form.+ -isco. Avere and essere are at the top of the list. -iamo.la. Episode 20. Of course there’s plenty of irregular verbs in the present indicative. -ite. -isce. -iamo. only four are irregular in the present indicative: andare vado vai va andiamo andate vanno dare do dai dà diamo date danno fare faccio fai fa facciamo fate fanno stare sto stai sta stiamo state stanno Radio Arlecchino. But remember that the isc is inserted only in the present tense (of both the indicative and the subjunctive). -ono sento senti sente sentiamo sentite sentono finire (-isc-) --> fin.utexas. so you just have to learn that when you learn the verbs.+ -o. avere ho hai ha abbiamo avete hanno essere sono sei è siamo siete sono Of the verbs ending in -are in the infinitive.edu/ . -ite. There’s no reliable way to predict which verbs take the isc and which don’t.sentire --> sent. -i.

of course. The modal verbs are just plain irregular: dovere to have to.. Radio Arlecchino. to gather raccolgo raccogli raccoglie raccogliamo raccogliete raccolgono salire to go up salgo sali sale saliamo salite salgono tenere to hold.edu/ .la. back at the periodo ipotetico del primo tipo. to remain rimango rimani rimane rimaniamo rimanete rimangono Verbs in -gliere: togliere to remove.. pg 10 © 2009 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. Some of them do fall into groups that share a common pattern. can.. “G”: now you see it. now you don’t rimanere to stay. to keep tengo tieni tiene teniamo tenete tengono venire to come vengo vieni viene veniamo venite vengono There are many more. etc. Episode 20. We’re using the appropriate tense of the indicative in both the condition and the consequence (with an occasional imperative showing up in the consequence). scegli. to take away tolgo togli toglie togliamo togliete tolgono also scegliere to choose: scelgo. may posso puoi può possiamo potete possono volere to want voglio vuoi vuole vogliamo volete vogliono raccogliere to collect..utexas. so be alert! Meanwhile. must devo devi deve dobbiamo dovete devono potere to be able.The rest of them are as unpredictable as they are irregular.

stay tuned for our next episode exploring the conditions of the conditional. The patron saints of Rome are San Pietro e Paolo (June 29th). birthday. take an aspirin! Nota culturale As we know. So if your name is Valeria. Santa Martina (January 30th). Sant'Alessandra (March 20th). of Naples San Gennaro (September 19th). the day in which your name coincides with the name of the saint on the religious calendar.edu/ . prendi un’aspirina! If you have a headache. he always offers her a bit of orangeade. San Teodoro (February 7th). a Radio Arlecchino. the “personal” patron saint of Pulcinella simply because he is Neapolitan! When you look at an Italian calendar. the patron saint of actors. le offre sempre un po’ di aranciata. potremo vedere Arlecchino e compagnia a teatro stasera. If the spectators didn’t applaud.utexas. Dottor Balanzone will destroy the television set with the hammer if I don’t turn it off right away. of Bologna San Petronio (October 4th). and San Gennaro. you will have a second celebration. and so on. you are going to have a great celebration on your birthday (party with family and friends. Se hai mal di testa. Arlecchino gli buttava in faccia un secchio d’acqua. Note that it doesn’t matter which of the two clauses comes first in the sentence: Il Dottor Balanzone distruggerà il televisore col martello se non lo spegnerò subito. So. has one as well.. Roman Catholicism is the largest religion in Italy and greatly affects Italian culture and holidays. of Palermo Santa Rosalia--finally.. 7th). listeners are introduced to two saints in particular: San Genesio. gifts. the conditional mood is required for the consequence of hypothetical statements of the second and third types. the “saint's day”. If you have not lost the tickets. Se gli spettatori non applaudivano. As Eric and Antonella mentioned in the podcast. of Milan Sant'Ambrogio (Dec. etc. the patron saint of Venice is San Marco (April 25th).la. the list is 360 days long! Italians celebrate two personal festivities: il compleanno. champagne. Se Pantalone vede una bella ragazza che gli piace. Episode 20. of Florence San Giovanni (June 24th). of Bari San Nicola (May 7th-9th). In this episode. If Pantalone sees a pretty girl that he likes. Arlecchino threw (would throw) a bucket of water in their faces. you very often see that every day is accompanied by the name of a saint: Santo Stefano (December 26th). and l'onomastico.) and on April 28. large and small. although on a much smaller scale! The patron saint of Italy is Saint Francis of Assisi--San Francesco--and each city.Se non hai perso i biglietti. Until then. pg 11 © 2009 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. that is. cake. we will be able to see Arlecchino and company at the theatre tonight. Then we’ll be ready for Close Hypotheses of the Second and Third Kind.

there are fewer buses running. coal (a piece of black sugar). One of Italian children's favorite holidays is la Befana (Epiphany) on January 6th: after the gifts of Babbo Natale (Santa Claus). Palm Sunday. Episode 20. you will enjoy public celebration with musical bands.woman!--(July 15th). such as All Saints' Day (Nov. Antonella Olson & Eric Edwards “Out of our minds .. etc. however. If you visit a city on the day in which its patron saint is celebrated. pg 12 © 2009 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc.utexas. 2nd). markets. they see their stockings filled with candies. special desserts..la. into your ears” Radio Arlecchino. of Cagliari Sant'Efisio (May 1st). the Assumption Day) on August 15th: it celebrates the assumption of the Virgin Mary into Heaven and it's safe to say that everyone takes that day off! We will be very happy if you join us for upcoming episodes of Radio Arlecchino. 1st). Italians share many of the worldwide Christian holidays. fairs and other amusements. All Souls' Day (Nov. small presents and carbone. we’ll be exploring the conditional mood (with the Dottore’s newest contraption) before we move on to hypothetical statements of the second and third types! Thanks for listening! And be sure to tell your friends that you heard it here on Radio Arlecchino! Your hosts with the most – grammar. Lent. be aware that it is a local holiday: Offices and many stores are closed. The most important summer holiday in Italy is Ferragosto (l'Assunzione.. and so on. religious processions. Christmas.edu/ . and Easter.

utexas. vorrei comunicarvi che il sogno di ballare la square dance con la necessaria disinvoltura è ora realizzabile! Potreste andare in Texas come abbiamo fatto io e il Dottor Balanzone ma -. You can hear this podcast by clicking on the following link: http://tltc.edu/ra/episode.. Wouldn’t you do us the honor of taking your first steps with us? You’ll discover all the secrets of the Square Dance with our Balla-Balanzone podcasts! Radio Arlecchino. Dear Listeners.questo non sarà più necessario per superare le difficoltà di questa danza straordinaria! Non preferireste allenarvi nella privacy delle vostre case? Adesso potete farlo! Grazie ai nuovi podcast della Balla-Balanzone.lucky you! -.edu/ . Presentatori e Capocomici Gentili Ascoltatori.this will no longer be necessary for overcoming the difficulties of this extraordinary dance! Wouldn’t you prefer to train in the privacy of your home? Now you can do it! Thanks to the new Balla-Balanzone podcast. anybody will be up to exploring the rhythmic motions of the Far West! The doctor and I will share with you the all the secrets of the square dance in our podcast.Piazza della Grammatica 1 • Antonella Olson & Eric Edwards.” our recent show about the conditional mood: il condizionale presente and il condizionale passato.php?p=21 Buon ascolto! Hanno partecipato / Featured in this broadcast: Irene Eibenstein-Alvisi Simone Sessolo Adria Frizzi as Mrs Balanzone as Pantalone as Colombina "Balla-Balanzone" la Signora Balanzone: Gentili ascoltatori.la. pg 1 © 2009 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. I would like to let you know that dream of dancing the square dance with the necessary aplomb is now within reach! You could go to Texas as Doctor Balanzone and I did but -.? Scoprirete tutti i segreti della Square Dance con i nostri podcast Balla-Balanzone! "Balla-Balanzone" Mrs Balanzone: Dear listeners.utexas.la.beati voi! -. Episode 21.. Here’s a transcript of “Lost in the Woulds. Non ci fareste l'onore di fare i primi passi con noi. qualsiasi persona sarà in grado di esplorare i movimenti ritmici del Far West! Il dottore ed io condivideremo con voi tutti i segreti della Square Dance nei nostri podcast.

Dottore? Dottor Balanzone: Ecce Conditionator! Antonella: È veramente una visione mozzafiato! Dottor Balanzone: Lo so. Dottore! First of all. onde evitare che i codici segreti per la messa in moto siano nuovamente intercettati.la. to avoid that the secret codes for setting it in motion be intercepted again. really? Dottor Balanzone: I would gladly explain it to you. il Condizionatore 9000 lo fa per il condizionale. è proprio bello! Antonella: No. no. dottore! I’m serious! It’s taken my breath away! Dottor Balanzone: My heavens! Forgive me! Here. the Conditionator 9000 does for the conditional.. Dottore! Prima di tutto. no.. You.. miss. Lei. will have to close your eyes and cover your Radio Arlecchino.edu/ . signorina. but. it’s quite beautiful. Dottore. Behold the device that reveals all the mysteries of this verbal mood! Antonella: Would you show it to us. Dottor Balanzone: Precisely! Let’s activate the Conditionator! But first. Dottore? Dottor Balanzone: Ecce Conditionator! Antonella: It’s truly a breathtaking sight! Dottor Balanzone: I know. what is the conditional. Antonella: Grazie! Grazie. ma. would you explain to us. dovrà chiudere gli occhi e The Conditionator 9000 Dottor Balanzone: The Conditionator 9000! Everything the Futurometer does for the future.utexas. why should I do so when we have before us the miraculous Conditionator 9000? Who else could explain it to you better? Antonella: I wouldn’t know... if I do say so myself. modestia a parte.. Antonella: Thank you! Thank you.. che cos'è in realtà il condizionale? Dottor Balanzone: Ve lo spiegherei volentieri. Ecco il dispositivo che svela tutti i misteri di questo modo verbale! Antonella: Ce lo farebbe vedere.Il Condizionatore 9000 Dottor Balanzone: Il Condizionatore 9000! Tutto quello che il Futurometro fa per il futuro. dovremo adottare speciali misure di sicurezza. Dottor Balanzone: Appunto! Accendiamo il Condizionatore! Ma prima. perché lo dovrei fare io quando abbiamo davanti a noi il miracoloso Condizionatore 9000? Chi altro potrebbe spiegarvelo meglio? Antonella: Non saprei. Dottore. dottore! Dico sul serio! Mi ha tolto il respiro! Dottor Balanzone: Mio dio! Mi perdoni! Ecco. Antonella: No. lo metto nello stato neutrale. pg 2 © 2009 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. Episode 21. we must adopt special security measures. I’ll put it in neutral.. ci spiegherebbe.

[.] Conditionator: For this it would be an excellent idea to consult the Futurometer. [. [.. [... the forms..] The present conditional -.. le forme.... in Episode 19 of Radio Arlecchino. il radiotrasmettitore dovrà interrompere momentaneamente il servizio mentre io eseguo -Ecco! Tutto sistemato! Le spiegazioni saranno in inglese e gli esempi in italiano. vuole continuare con le forme del condizionale o preferirebbe esaminare le sue varie funzioni? Dottor Balanzone: Prima di tutto. do you want to continue with the forms of the conditional or would you prefer to examine its various functions? Dottor Balanzone: First of all.utexas.... pg 3 © 2009 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc.First conjugation (-are): fischiare (to whistle) I would whistle you would whistle he.Second conjugation (-ere): spremere (to squeeze) I would squeeze you would squeeze he. nella puntata 19 di Radio Arlecchino: [. Then we will be able to list the functions.. Nunc coniugatio. [...] Il condizionale presente -.] Conditionator: Dottore. Episode 21. it would squeeze we would squeeze you would squeeze Radio Arlecchino...Prima coniugazione (-are): fischiare fischierei fischieresti fischierebbe fischieremmo fischiereste fischierebbero Il condizionale presente -.. she.] Condizionatore: Dottore. the radio transmitter will have to interrupt service for a moment while I perform -There! Everything ready! The explanations will be in English and the examples in Italian.] Condizionatore: Per questo sarebbe un'ottima idea consultare il Futurometro.edu/ . it would whistle we would whistle you would whistle they would whistle The present conditional -..la..Seconda coniugazione (-ere): spremere spremerei spremeresti spremerebbe spremeremmo spremereste ears.tapparsi le orecchie. she. Poi potremo elencare le funzioni: nunc coniugatio..

utexas. continuare ora ad esaminare le funzioni! [. Episode 21. it would cough we would cough you would cough they would cough The past conditional -.. yes. rather. vorrei..spremerebbero Il condizionale presente -.Third conjugation (-ire): tossire (to cough) I would cough you would cough he. pg 4 © 2009 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. it would have carried we would have carried you would have carried they would have carried The past conditional -.] Informazioni non confermate Condizionatore: Il ministro annuncerebbe la nomina di un nuovo Dottor Balanzone: Thank you.la.edu/ .. she. vorrebbe continuare adesso con le Dottore.Intransitive verb: partire (to depart) I would have departed you would have departed he. she.verbo intransitivo: partire sarei partito/a saresti partito/a sarebbe partito/a saremmo partiti/e sareste partiti/e sarebbero partiti/e they would squeeze The present conditional -.] Unconfirmed information Condizionator: The minister is expected to announce the nomination of a new Radio Arlecchino. vorremmo. sì. I would. it would have departed we would have departed you would have departed they would have departed Dottore. anzi. we would like to continue now to examine the functions! [. to carry) I would have carried you would have carried he. would you like to continue now funzioni del modo condizionale? with the functions of the conditional mood? Dottore Balanzone: Grazie.Terza coniugazione (-ire): tossire tossirei tossiresti tossirebbe tossiremmo tossireste tossirebbero Il condizionale passato -.verbo transitivo: portare avrei portato avresti portato avrebbe portato avremmo portato avreste portato avrebbero portato Il condizionale passato -..Transitive verb: portare (to take. she.

Avremmo dovuto evacuare lo studio prima che Pulcinella cominciasse a preparare la frittata. Dottor Balanzone: The useful tips would Radio Arlecchino. You should ask Pulcinella for the recipe. Exhortation Colombina. Fareste meglio a non tossire durante il monologo di Pantalone. Un’azione posteriore ad una passata Ha detto che avrebbe preso l'autobus numero 64 e che ci avrebbe incontrato davanti all'obelisco a mezzogiorno. You’d better not cough during Pantalone’s monologue.edu/ . The thief allegedly entered through the living-room window while the homeowners were sleeping. would you like to hear more conjugations of the conditional mood or would you prefer to listen to other examples of its use? We could also suggest some helpful tips to the students. Personal opinion I think you must ask Pulcinella for the recipe.sottosegretario di stato. Dovresti chiedere la ricetta a Pulcinella. Opinione personale Penso che tu debba chiedere la ricetta a Pulcinella. A helpful tip Dottore. vorrebbe sentire più coniugazioni nel modo condizionale o preferirebbe ascoltare altri esempi sull'uso? Potremmo anche suggerire alcune indicazioni utili agli studenti. An action subsequent to a past action He said he would take the number 64 bus and that he would meet us in front of the obelisk at noon. you ought to make up with Arlecchina. Episode 21. dovresti fare pace con Arlecchina. Un’indicazione utile Dottore. Il ladro sarebbe entrato dalla finestra del salotto mentre i padroni di casa dormivano. L’esortazione Colombina.la. Dottor Balanzone: le indicazioni utili undersecretary of state. Arlecchino ci ha promesso che il facchino avrebbe portato i nostri bagagli alla stazione e che sarebbe arrivato a prenderli prima del pranzo. Arlecchino promised us that the porter would take our bags to the station and that he would arrive to pick them up before lunch.utexas. pg 5 © 2009 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc.

the negative Radio Arlecchino. il signor Pantalone de' Bisognosi.edu/ ..sarebbero molto gradite! [.. ha detto che avrebbe cercato di recuperare tutto il pollame ma che non sarebbe stato pratico ricercare il bestiame disperso per la città. Anchorman: . il telegiornalista: .] Condizionatore: Andremmo al cinema stasera ma abbiamo già visto quel film. vorrebbe continuare o gradirebbe una pausa? Dottor Balanzone: Io potrei continuare fino a tarda notte quando si tratta di modi e tempi verbali.. il telegiornalista: Il capocomico della troupe. Il telegiornale continua. andavamo al cinema ogni sabato pomeriggio.and they took most of the animals to the shelter of the Society for the Protection of Animals. Anchorwoman: Mr Bisognosi. ha fatto la seguente dichiarazione: Pantalone: La mia intenzione è di rettificare quanto possibile le conseguenze be most appreciated! [. in una conferenza stampa. Episode 21. The news broadcast continues.. we would go to the movies every Saturday afternoon. Quando avevo dodici anni.. ma una pausa sarebbe davvero gradita! Condizionatore: Adesso effettueremo l'autodesattivazione.la.. Anchorwoman: Some of the audience members allegedly left with some of the chickens as well as numerous cows. la telegiornalista: Alcuni spettatori avrebbero portato via delle galline nonché numerose mucche.utexas.e hanno portato la maggior parte degli animali al rifugio della Società Protezione Animali.] Conditionator: We would go to the movies tonight if we had not already seen that movie. Anchorman: The head of the troupe. said that he would try to recover all of the fowl but that it would not be practical to search for the cattle dispersed throughout the city... pg 6 © 2009 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. but a break would be quite welcome! Conditionator: We will now perform selfdeactivation. as much as possible. la telegiornalista: Il signor Bisognosi. would you like to continue or would you enjoy a break? Dottor Balanzone: I could go on until late at night when it’s a matter of verbal moods and tenses. When I was twelve years old.. made the following statement: Pantalone: My intention is to rectify. in a press conference. Mr Pantalone de’ Bisognosi.. Dottore. Dottore...

but I swear to you. an actress in the troupe.edu/ . pg 7 © 2009 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. Quando ho sentito il barrito di quel pachiderma che entrava in scena. sia umani che animali. ha aggiunto Colombina: Non so dove ti sei nascosto.utexas.la. la telegiornalista: State ascoltando il consequences of this deplorable situation. Theatre Spokesperson: I don’t know anything about this Pulcinella.. I.. un certo Pulcinella. this catastrophe would never have taken place! Anchorman: In the same press conference. un'attrice della troupe. Anchorwoman: You’re listening to Radio Radio Arlecchino. mi è venuta la pelle d'oca.. se avrai la faccia tosta di rimettere piede sul palcoscenico io. Pulcinella... whose failure to arrive allegedly set off the confusion at the Pazzimpalco Theatre.. ha parlato con un nostro corrispondente: Portavoce del Teatro: Non ne so niente di quel Pulcinella.negative di questa deplorevole situazione. scena del caotico scandalo zoologico. la signorina Colombina. Oh! Vorrei ben sperare che non ci fossero anche delle oche. sul palcoscenico.per te! la telegiornalista: Un portavoce del Teatro Pazzimpalco. Episode 21.. questa catastrofe non sarebbe mai avvenuta! il telegiornalista: Nella stessa conferenza stampa.. senti. But I would like for everyone to know that without the negligence and complete lack of responsibility of a future ex-colleague of ours.. nor do we know for certain the number of wounded. Miss Colombina.. fra le poltrone in platea.. among the seats in the house. Oh! I would certainly hope that there weren’t any geese as well. Non avevo mai visto una cosa simile! Chi avrebbe potuto immaginarlo? Nessuno mi aveva detto che nello spettacolo avrebbero recitato delle galline. if you have the gall to set foot on the stage again. ti... ma sarebbe disastroso -. ma vi posso dire. Ma vorrei che tutti sapessero che senza le omissioni e la totale mancanza di responsabilità di un nostro futuro excollega. non. When I heard the trumpeting of that pachyderm going onstage. I had never seen anything like it! Who could have imagined it? Nobody had told me that animals would perform in the show. scene of the chaotic zoological scandal. nè sappiamo con certezza il numero di feriti. added: Colombina: I don’t know where you’ve hidden.. ma ti giuro. onstage. ma insomma! il telegiornalista: Non siamo riusciti a contattare il signor Pulcinella. I don’t know what I’ll do but it will be disastrous -.. non so che cosa farei. Pulcinella. il cui mancato arrivo avrebbe inasprito la confusione al Teatro Pazzimpalco. Mucche? Cani? Gatti? Chi poteva prevedere che avrebbero invaso ogni angolo del teatro? Dietro le quinte.. I got goosebumps. spoke with one of our correspondents. listen. Cows? Dogs? Cats? Who could foresee that they would invade every corner of the theatre? Backstage.for you! Anchorwoman: A spokesperson for the Pazzimpalco Theatre. a certain Pulcinella. but after all! Anchorman: We haven’t been able to contact Mr Pulcinella. but I can tell you. human or animal.

So..edu/ . will transform the characteristic vowel “a” into “e”: parlar. here are those conditional endings. for one thing.” As we'll see in a moment. In any case. Arlecchino News. The first step in obtaining the conditional (and future) stem is to drop the final “e” of the infinitive. Episode 21.? Well.--> parlerparlerei parleresti parlerebbe parleremmo parlereste parlerebbero Verbs in -ere: scriverei scriveresti scriverebbe scriveremmo scrivereste scriverebbero Radio Arlecchino. to which you add the conditional endings. As you heard in the podcast. ends in the letter “r”. So if you’ve already listened to Episode 19. the same for all verbs: -ei -esti -ebbe -emmo -este -ebbero Only the verbs in -are. we couldn’t hypothesize about that.utexas. “Global Thermogrammatical War.” you’ve got that part of the conditional all figured out.. but the conditional stem of every single Italian verb. More good news is that the conditional stem is always the same as the future stem. But let’s start with some good news. That always results in a conditional stem that ends in an “r. we’ll review. Nota Grammaticale What would we do without the conditional mood. regular or irregular.. the conditional endings are the same for all conjugations. some other things may happen with verbs that are irregular in the conditional.. pg 8 © 2009 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc.notiziario di Radio Arlecchino.la.

What's more. spieghereste. cerchereste.Verbs in -ire: dormirei dormiresti dormirebbe dormiremmo dormireste dormirebbero And now.la. Avere: avrei. saremmo. Some verbs lose the first vowel of the infinitive ending and take a shortened form. Verbs in -care and in -gare take “h” before the vowel “e” in order to preserve the “hard” sound of the “c” or “g.edu/ . it doesn't matter. spiegheremmo. are: bere (bevere: berrei). Volere: vorrei. for the Inevitable Irregularities. pg 9 © 2009 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. avrebbero 3. Episode 21. vedere (vedrei). and it's often hard to tell what conjugation they belong to. spiegherebbe. sarebbe. the first vowel of the infinitive ending is dropped and that ever-present letter “r” at the end of the stem is doubled. avrebbe. etc. Essere: sarei. 4. Just drop the final “e” of the infinitive and add those endings! Examples: porre: porrei. Some examples are: andare (andrei).” Cercare: cercherei. vorreste. as it is known in Italian. saresti. there is often further shortening of the future stem. Aye-aye. sarebbero 2. porresti. etc. spiegheresti. sareste. vorresti. potere (potrei). tradurresti. rimanere (rimarrei). venire (verrei). vivere (vivrei). avremmo. tradurre: tradurrei. dovere (dovrei). vorremmo. Captain! 1. vorrebbe. cercherebbe. cercheremmo. Radio Arlecchino. vorrebbero Note: Some verbs have a double “r” in the infinitive to begin with. tenere (terrei). obsolete infinitives. Examples of l'assimilazione. spiegherebbero The English past conditional and the Italian condizionale passato are similar: they both express actions that “would have taken place” had a certain condition been met. volere (vorrei). cercheresti. In other verbs. Italian grammarians call this phenomenon la sincope. because they are shortened forms of older.utexas. cercherebbero Spiegare: spiegherei. As far as the conditional is concerned though. avresti. avere (avrei). sapere (saprei). valere (varrei). avreste.

edu/ . what we wouldn’t give to have our very own Conditionator! It would come in very handy when we run up against several of these different uses of the conditional mood. 1. Episode 21. Se ascoltassi sempre Radio Arlecchino. Ah. il condizionale passato. le avremmo già lette. such as parlare: avrei parlato avresti parlato avrebbe parlato avremmo parlato avreste parlato avrebbero parlato If direct object pronouns (lo. is formed by conjugating the present conditional of the auxiliaries essere and avere and following the auxiliary with the past participle of the main verb. conosceresti molto bene la grammatica italiana. Verbs that take the auxiliary avere.Avremmo finito i compiti ma il cane ha mangiato i nostri quaderni. Verbs that take the auxiliary essere. la. Y would happen. agreement between the subject and past participle is mandatory. futuro anteriore and so on. such as partire: sarei partito/a saresti partito/a sarebbe partito/a saremmo partiti/e sareste partiti/e sarebbero partiti/e As always. agreement with the past participle is mandatory: Se fossimo riusciti a trovare quelle riviste. Radio Arlecchino. trapassato prossimo.la. All the rules learned about compound tenses such as passato prossimo. le) are used. apply to the condizionale passato. we would have read them. li. pg 10 © 2009 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. in compound tenses conjugated with the auxiliary essere. Second or Third Type: If X happened. As you would surely deduce. In the Consequence Clause of a Hypothetical Statement of the Second or Third Type. We would have finished our homework but the dog ate our notebooks. If we had managed to find those magazines. the past conditional.utexas.

4. Radio Arlecchino.Third Type: If X had happened. 2. gentler alternative to the imperative (Give me.. Y would happen. The suspects allegedly cross the border in stolen cars and sell the merchandise in nearby small towns. or that they “are presumed” to have happened. who supposedly had lost her slippers and her lace handkerchief. L’imputata avrebbe minacciato di uccidere Pulcinella.. pg 11 © 2009 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. I sospetti attraverserebbero il confine in macchine rubate e venderebbero la merce in piccoli paesi vicini. the present conditional is used as a kinder. the present and past conditional are used to convey that things are “alleged” to be happening. Pulcinella dovrebbe rimanere lontano dalla compagnia per alcuni giorni. In polite requests. as Episode 22 will demonstrate! So stay tuned.. Se gli studenti non avessero distrutto il Futurometro.edu/ ... non avremmo dovuto ripararlo. This use is very frequent in news reports in the print and broadcast media. The accused allegedly threatened to kill Pulcinella. In relaying as-yet-unconfirmed information that cannot be reported as fact.utexas. Se il Dottore non avesse inventato il Condizionatore. how would you like it if we were to explain the mysteries of these hypotheses to you in an upcoming episode? We thought so. che avrebbe perso le sue pantofole e fazzolette di merletto. Episode 21...!): “Dammi una fetta di pizza!” becomes “Mi daresti una fetta di pizza?” “Voglio un bicchiere di acqua!” becomes “Vorrei un bicchiere di acqua” or “Mi offriresti un bicchiere di acqua?” 3. and you’re in luck. Meanwhile. Y would have happened.. Pulcinella ought to stay away from the company for a few days. In expressing opinions. especially concerning what you think people ought to do or ought to have done. Most often using a form of the modal verb dovere.la. sarebbe molto più difficile capire il condizionale. who allegedly do not like to be sued for slander or libel. Does that seem rather complicated to you? Well.!) or to flat statements of desire (I want. If X had happened.

edu/ .Il Dottore avrebbe dovuto fare più ricerche prima di installare le sue invenzioni. And we should repeat this warning: Just because you have the auxiliary “would” in English. The actors promised the owner of the theatre that there would be no more problems with animals. Colombina. While he was still living in Naples. English usually uses the present conditional for this purpose. faremmo meglio a scappare prima che il Futurometro si renda conto di quello che stiamo facendo! Guys. In exhorting people to do things. Arlecchina. Although the commedia characters are not Radio Arlecchino. we would love to go on and on about the conditional. Se foste con noi per il prossimo appuntamento. Pulcinella andava spesso in Via Toledo a fare le spese. Remember that habitually repeated actions in the past are a job for the imperfetto dell’indicativo -. Pulcinella would often go shopping in Via Toledo. Mentre abitava ancora a Napoli. Episode 21. Gli attori hanno promesso al proprietario del teatro che non ci sarebbero stati più problemi con animali. 5.utexas. Well. Colombina. It’s helpful to remember that the conditional mood is never used to report events that actually happened. non dovreste litigare così tanto! Arlecchina. we use the past conditional as the “future as seen from the past”. you will not necessarily use the conditional in Italian. ci fareste tanto piacere! Nota culturale In today’s episode. Mrs Balanzone said she would teach us to square-dance at the party. In referring to a past action that follows another past action. pg 12 © 2009 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. La signora Balanzone ha detto che ci avrebbe insegnato a ballare la square dance alla festa.NOT for the condizionale.la. English often uses “would” to indicate a habitually repeated past action. In our next episode we’ll see how the conditional and the subjunctive moods make strange but compatible bedfellows in special hypothetical statements. the antics of our commedia dell’arte characters involved their coping with a theatre strangely overrun by animal thespians. and in fact we will soon enough. The Dottore should have done more research before installing his inventions. we’d better beat it before the Futurometer figures out what we’re up to! 6. This function of the past conditional is almost always a feature of indirectly reported speech. you shouldn’t quarrel so much! Ragazzi.

The puppy grows and becomes too demanding and cumbersome. especially in the summer when everyone tries to leave the city to go on vacation. get closer--the exact opposite of what dogs do: they avoid direct visual contact. and they do something that fortunately we humans do not do. the municipal dog-pound in Rome is built to house 300 dogs. If we could only ‘lower ourselves’ by one little step and respect each other. not quite. Nowadays. there is a dog shelter. where different approaches and specialized strategies have been developed to better deal with abandoned animals and to educate people. into your ears” Radio Arlecchino. certainly not everyone. facilities are often inadequate. “When humans meet. it's possible to find those who don't respect diversity and the needs of the animal.. Does the average Italian share Francesco's infinite love and respect for animals? Um. Episode 21. San Francesco d'Assisi. some of them try their best to change an erroneous attitude towards animals and offer classes to educate dog-fanciers in establishing a better and more correct relationship with the dog. a town near Rome.traditionally associated with animals. pg 13 © 2009 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. humans and animals. we look at each other in the eyes. where there have always been associations whose volunteers take care of abandoned dogs.. As in other parts of the world.edu/ . We must learn how to read their body language. hold out our hands. the only one they have at their disposal and the same one that centuries ago belonged to us as well. Antonella Olson & Eric Edwards “Out of our minds .” Flavia tells us.. appropriately called ‘Canis in fabula’. in general. For example. Moreover. as creatures that are different yet equal. The patron saint of Italy. both human and animal. that is. highly revered Italian is. another. volunteers devote a great deal of time and energy to improving understanding of the animal's mentality by taking classes and working closely and directly with them. in Italy puppies are too often abandoned by people who merely wanted a toy to give their children. but in reality 800 live there.” Thanks for listening! And be sure to tell your friends that you heard it here on Radio Arlecchino! Your hosts with the most – grammar.utexas. But we asked Flavia Del Fattore. a serious animal lover and a dog expert: “In Italy. they approach each other by coming up alongside. was a man who loved nature with all his soul--nature and all its creatures. “Big steps have been made toward the improvement of dog-pounds in Italy. Even among volunteers. they sniff each other's bottom where special glands are located that communicate social and emotional status. it's like an overcrowded prison full of innocents who have no hope of ever receiving amnesty! “In Velletri. The first lesson to be learned is the difference between our languages.. “respect for animals is a goal yet to be reached just as is the goal of embracing diversity in general.la.

Antonella: How come? I thought you were overcome with nostalgia.edu/ra/episode.php?p=22 Buon ascolto e buon divertimento! Hanno partecipato / Featured in this broadcast: Esmeralda Moscatelli Simone Sessolo as Colombina as Pantalone condizione .” our recent show on hypothetical statements of the second and third types. that way he won’t see me.. pg 1 © 2009 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. here comes the Dottore! I’m afraid he has it in for me.. Eric: Più forte della nostalgia ora è il mio desiderio di avere un incontro ravvicinato Antonella: del secondo tipo? Eric: e anche del terzo. così non mi vedrà.utexas. Flashback 1 Arlecchino: Ecco. Presentatori e Capocomici Gentili Ascoltatori. even if I could. arriva il Dottore! Temo che lui ce l’abbia con me.la.condition | conseguenza – consequence Nostalgia e desiderio Antonella: Se potessimo tornare indietro. Radio Arlecchino.. Eric: I wouldn’t do it. You can hear this podcast by clicking on the following link: http://tltc. Here’s a transcript of “Truth or Consequences. Eric: Non lo farei.la.utexas. Nostalgia e desiderio Antonella: If we could turn back. Flashback 1 Arlecchino: There. Antonella: Come mai? Credevo che tu fossi preso dalla nostalgia.. Eric: Stronger than nostalgia now is my desire to have a close encounter-Antonella: of the second type? Eric: and of the third as well. I’ll climb up the ladder.Piazza della Grammatica 1 • Antonella Olson & Eric Edwards..edu/ . Episode 22. neanche se potessi. Dear Listeners. Mi arrampico sulla scala.

.... Get that jar. he deliberately took a false step on the ladder! He looked at me from above and I do believe he fell on purpose. quando ha visto che ero proprio lì sotto..condizione: imperfetto del congiuntivo Se Arlecchino non avesse così tanta paura del Dottore.. pg 2 © 2009 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. condizione: imperfetto del congiuntivo Se Colombina fosse meno furbastra. ha messo appositamente un piede male sulla scala! Mi ha guardato all’alto e penso proprio che l’abbia fatto apposta a cadere......? Antonella: Go on.. Flashback 2 Pantalone: Is there noone else who saw what happened? Colombina: I’ll tell you how it went. on that shelf. Flashback 3 Antonella: Sopra la scrivania. dai. Flashback 2 Pantalone: Non c’è nessun altro qui che abbia visto quello che è successo? Colombina: Te lo racconto io come è andata.utexas. Radio Arlecchino. su quello scaffale.? Antonella: Dai. Dunque.... Flashback 3 Antonella: Above the desk. conseguenza: condizionale presente non si arrampicherebbe sulla scala per nascondersi.. unscrew the lid. Now. If Colombina weren’t such a scoundrel she wouldn’t blame Arlecchino for everything.. Eric: What’s inside.. Prendi quella scatola.. Episode 22. Eric: Cosa c'è dentro. condizione: imperfetto del congiuntivo se lui non fosse così birichino The Dottore wouldn’t have it in for Arlecchino if he weren’t so mischievous.la. svita il cappuccio. If Arlecchino weren’t so afraid of the Dottore he wouldn’t climb up the ladder to hide. conseguenza: condizionale presente Il Dottore non ce l’avrebbe con Arlecchino. conseguenza: condizionale presente non darebbe la colpa di tutto al povero Arlecchino. when he saw that I was right under there.edu/ ....

Eric: La vedo. scusa. Eric: I see it.Eric: Antonella. scusa. Episode 22. sorry..edu/ ... Ci dev'essere un'altra. ma oso aprirla? Antonella: Ma sì! Abbi coraggio. There should be another one..... hai preso quella sbagliata. conseguenza: condizionale passato Non avrei avuto così tante sorprese scioccanti! If you weren’t so bossy I would never have had so many shocking surprises! Flashback 4 Dottore: Avete visitato il Vittoriano? Avete ammirato il Foro Romano? i turisti: Sì! Dottore: Siete andati ai Musei Vaticani? Avete messo la mano nella Bocca della Verità? i turisti: Sì! Dottore: Avete camminato da Piazza Navona fino alla Fontana di Trevi? i turisti: Sì! Dottore: Avete salito la scalinata in Piazza di Spagna? Flashback 4 Dottore: Have you visited the Vittoriano? Have you admired the Roman Forum? The Tourists: Yes! Dottore: Have you gone to the Vatican Museums? Have you put your hands in the Mouth of Truth? The Tourists: Yes! Dottore: Have you walked from Piazza Navona to the Trevi Fountain? The Tourists: Yes! Dottore: Have you climbed the Spanish Steps? Radio Arlecchino..utexas.. Eric! Che mani di pasta frolla che hai! Quelli sono i miei fagioli saltellanti! Eric: Antonella. pg 3 © 2009 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. controlla.. sorry. Those are my jumping beans! condizione: imperfetto del congiuntivo Se tu non fossi così autoritaria. but do I dare open it? Antonella: Of course! Be brave. take a look. Eric! Eric: Yikes! Antonella: Oh. scusa.la. you got the wrong one. what’s this? Antonella: Oh. sorry. Eric! What a butterfingers you are. ma cos'è questo? Antonella: Oh. Eric! Eric: Accidenti! Antonella: Oh.

. Pulcinella they know. of the New Year. Qui ci sono i rumori più sbalorditivi. i razzi “Gatto Nero” sono giustamente famosi in tutto il mondo! Osservate. Gatto Nero rockets are justly famous throughout the world! Observe. hear me. the most mysterious smoke.. qui ci sono. sì. a fun-filled amusement for the whole family. here they are! Ladies and gentlemen.. Oh. here are.. the most brilliant lights. they would not be so tired. bambini di tutte le età...utexas. Flashback 5 Dottore: Do I have firecrackers! Pulcinella. yes. E per la signorina.. Oh... le luci più brillanti. bring me a box of firecrackers for the young man. pg 4 © 2009 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. Flashback 5 Dottore: Se ho dei petardi! Pulcinella. condizione: trapassato del congiuntivo Se non avessero camminato per tutta Roma in piena estate. children of all ages.edu/ ... il fumo più misterioso.. conseguenza: condizionale presente non sarebbero così stanchi. sì! Dottore: Siete stanchi? i turisti: Sì! Antonella: Quei poveri turisti hanno camminato per tutta Roma in piena estate! Eric: Perciò sono stanchissimi. Here are the most amazing sounds. Partecipate alle feste di San Giovanni.. Episode 22. come.. portami una scatola di petardi per il giovanotto. If they had not walked all over Rome in the middle of the summer... di Capodanno... here they are. i colori più stravaganti. yes! Dottore: Are you tired? The Tourists: Yes! Antonella: Those poor tourists have walked all over Rome in the middle of the summer! Eric: That’s why they’re worn out.. venite. Eccoli eccoli eccoli! Signori e signore.. Gatto Nero fireworks! Yes. The Tourists: Oh..i turisti: Oh.. sentitemi. these wonderful Gatto Nero sparklers. in all the holidays of the year.. Pulcinella sì lo conoscono. of Christmas. un balocco divertente per tutta la famiglia.. a tutte le feste dell’anno... Join in the feasts of Saint John.. And for the young lady. di Natale. Here they are.. the most extravagant colors.la... Radio Arlecchino. i fuochi d’artificio Gatto Nero! Sì. queste meravigliose candele magiche “Gatto Nero”.

... Colombina: Oh! You’re about to see it for sure. conseguenza: condizionale passato Il Dottore non avrebbe mai viaggiato sulla luna.. Riflessioni e ricordi Eric: E se tu non fossi andata in Italia quell’estate.. Episode 22. I wouldn’t have been left here alone in the studio. State per vedere qualcosa di veramente inverosimile.Accendo ora la miccia.... two.. Fuoco! Meravigliatevi ora davanti all’incomparabile pirotecnica “Gatto Nero”! Antonella: Il Dottore ha fatto un bel viaggio sulla luna.. Colombina... Colombina. Now I light the fuse......... Eric: thanks to Pulcinella who gave him a hand with the rocket.la... Dottore! Dottore: Three... conseguenza: condizionale passato quei ragazzi americani non si sarebbero divertiti così tanto alla festa di San Giovanni a Firenze.. mia cara... Dottore Dottore: Grazie. Colombina: Oh! Lei senz’altro lo vedrà. Et nunc. Colombina: Ecco.. Et nunc.. due.. Riflessioni e ricordi Eric: And if you hadn’t gone to Italy that summer. If the Dottore had not made such a demonstration.. one.... uno. Fire! Now wonder in amazement before the incomparable Gatto Nero pyrotechnics! Antonella: The Dottore took a fine trip to the moon. condizione: trapassato del congiuntivo se Pulcinella non gli avesse dato una mano con il razzo. if you please.. those American kids would not have had such a good time at the Feast of Saint John in Florence. Eric: grazie a Pulcinella che gli ha dato una mano con il razzo.edu/ .. Radio Arlecchino. condizione: trapassato del congiuntivo Se il Dottore non avesse fatto una tale dimostrazione..utexas. io non sarei rimasto qui da solo nello studio. my dear. Colombina: There you are. Dottore Dottore: Thank you. pg 5 © 2009 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc.. You’re about to see something truly incredible. per favore.. Dottore! Dottore: Tre..

. when our actor friends have all left to go on vacation.la.utexas. If Pulcinella played the mandolin. quando i nostri amici attori sono tutti partiti per andare in vacanza. Eric: E dove sono andati quei Balanzone? Antonella: Hanno lasciato un messaggio sulla segreteria telefonica. Dottor Balanzone: Saremmo andati a Rimini a trovare i genitori della signora Balanzone se non ci avessero invitato a partecipare a un seminario sulla square dance ad Austin! A dopo. Eric: Soprattutto in estate. friends! Stay well! Have a great vacation! Antonella: And Pantalone? Radio Arlecchino.. Eric: Se vedesse entrare un bel giovanotto.. Antonella: se Pulcinella avesse la faccia tosta di affrontarlo.. amici! State bene! Buone vacanze! Antonella: E Pantalone? Antonella: It’s true that here in the studio one can feel abandoned.edu/ . Se Pulcinella suonasse il mandolino. Eric: If she saw a handsome young man come in.... Arlecchina-Antonella: --would surely play the flirt Eric: and Colombina would get mad. Arlecchina-Antonella: --farebbe senz’altro la civetta Eric: e Colombina si arrabbierebbe. Antonella: Sarei molto più contenta adesso se fossero qui con noi. Antonella: I would be much happier now if they were here with us. Episode 22. Eric: Instead we would have to dance a square dance Antonella: if Mrs Balanzone were here. pg 6 © 2009 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc... Eric: Dovremmo ballare invece la square dance Antonella: se ci fosse la signora Balanzone. Senti.. Eric: Especially in the summer..Antonella: È vero che qui nello studio ci si può sentire abbandonati. Eric: Pantalone would scold Pulcinella. Dottor Balanzone: We would have gone to Rimini to visit Mrs Balanzone’s parents if we had not been invited to participate in a square dance seminar in Austin! See you later. Eric: Pantalone rimproverebbe Pulcinella. Antonella: potremmo ballare la tarantella. Eric: And where have those Balanzones gone? Antonella: They left a message on the answering machine. Antonella: if Pulcinella had the cheek to confront him. Listen. Antonella: we could dance the tarantella...

but instead I will be in the Cadore. Eric: It’s not possible! Again? Antonella: It’s summer. Radio Arlecchino. Come dovresti ormai ben sapere. È vero.. nonostante la folla di turisti.utexas. mio caro. Episode 22. to tell the truth.. Comunque.edu/ . I too would admire the view from the Janiculum... These hypotheses. what would you do if you didn’t have to stay here? Antonella: Well.. Certe cose non cambiano and his ducats.. anch’io berrei acqua Pansellegrino davanti al Colosseo.. I too would drink Pansellegrino water in front of the Coliseum.“ Eric: He left this note: He wrote: “I intended to stay in Venice. Il duca e Antonella: I’ve heard enough... I would go too. Eric! Ti mando una cartolina! Eric: A presto. I was just about to tell you.. It’s true. Antonella! Buon viaggio e buon divertimento! Antonella: Grazie! Ciao! Eric: Ma cosa faccio io adesso? Se ci fosse un modo di farlo.. Eric! I’ll send you a postcard! Eric: See you soon. Rome! Ciao. stavo proprio per dirtelo. a dire il vero. neanch’io rimarrò qui. Io. di queste ipotesi... pg 7 © 2009 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc.la.. The duke i suoi ducati.. anch’io mangerei tartufo a Piazza Navona. in spite of the crowd of tourists. Roma! Ciao.. Anyway. I’m not fond of the mountains. Eric: And you. Eric: Non è possibile! Di nuovo? Antonella: È estate.Eric: Ha lasciato questo biglietto: Ha scritto: “Avevo intenzione di rimanere a Venezia. ma invece sarò nel Cadore. I’m not staying here either. my dear.... non ci andrei affatto se il Duca che mi ospiterà non avesse una nipote diciottenne che sta per ereditare un sacco di quei ducati. cosa faresti se non dovessi stare qua? Antonella: Bene.. non amo le montagne. I’m just not going to be making them..” Antonella: Ho sentito abbastanza...... mai. anch’io ammirerei il panorama dal Gianicolo.... If there were justice in this world. non ne faccio. I too would eat tartufo in Piazza Navona. Se ci fosse giustizia in questo mondo.. Eric: E tu. anch’io ci andrei. As you ought to know by now. Antonella! Have a good trip and have fun! Antonella: Thanks! Ciao! Eric: Now what do I do? If there were a way to do it. Some things never change. I wouldn’t go at all if the Duke who will be hosting me didn’t have an eighteenyear-old niece who’s about to inherit a pile of ducats....

the English “if” can often be substituted with “whenever”. The hypotheses that we’ve taken up in today’s podcast are those of the second and third types..la.. Radio Arlecchino.utexas. il periodo ipotetico del primo tipo – hypothesis of the first type In this type of hypothesis the condition is seen as real or likely. avresti più energia. Se tu facessi più esercizio fisico. Both of these require the use of the conditional mood.php?p=20 The three types of periodi ipotetici are defined by their degree of reality or possibilty.php?p=21 il periodo ipotetico del secondo tipo .utexas. you may want to tune in here before we proceed: http://tltc. is also possible but viewed as doubtful or merely theoretical. “Lost in the Woulds.Nota Grammaticale Hypothetical statements are made up of two clauses: one describes a condition (la condizione) and the other states a consequence (la conseguenza) of the condition being met. Episode 20.edu/ . In this type of hypothesis. appears in the consequence. pg 8 © 2009 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc.” If you missed that one. Sometimes the imperative (modo imperativo). “If You Can’t Stand the Heat. then.edu/ra/episode. If you performed more physical exercise. you can tune in here: http://tltc. which we discussed in Episode 21.” focuses on this type of hypothesis. The condition will have a verb in the imperfect subjunctive (l’imperfetto del congiuntivo) and the consequence will have a verb in the conditional (il condizionale). We introduced the periodo ipotetico in Episode 20.utexas. If the Dottore forgot his lines he would start speaking nonsense in Latin. The situation described is considered as being in the realm of possibility. “If You Can’t Stand the Heat. The consequence.” If you missed that episode.hypothesis of the second type The condition is possible. but viewed as unlikely. Whenever the Dottore forgot his lines. so its consequence is seen as real or probable as well.la. you would have more energy.edu/ra/episode. but the person making this statement considers it unlikely or doubtful that the other person will actually exercise more often.la. Episode 22. Both clauses will have verbs in the indicative mood (modo indicativo) in the appropriate tense. or command form.

Again. The verb in the condition will be either imperfect or pluperfect subjunctive. since the opportunity has past. The situation described by the hypothesis is impossible: third type. Episode 22.utexas. Avreste visto uno dei migliori lazzi di Arlecchino se foste arrivati cinque minuti prima. You did not write to me and therefore I did not answer. so the action of the consequence cannot be carried out now (condizionale presente). You would have seen one of Arlecchino’s best routines if you had arrived five minutes earlier. but considered doubtful or merely theoretical. The important point is that if the situation being described is Radio Arlecchino. The classic example of this type of hypothesis is one that describes how things would have happened if conditions had been different. If we were Martians we would be green and we would communicate by using telepathy. Nothing we do now can change that. What makes this example “classic” is the fact that. Actually the distinction between the second and third types is a very fine one that you don’t always have to be aware of. so this hypothesis is a classic of the third type. we aren’t green and we can’t communicate using telepathy. il periodo ipotetico del terzo tipo . We would go to the theatre to see Arlecchino if we had not left our tickets at home. Nor is it possible for us to become Martian. it’s all possible. pg 9 © 2009 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc.la. Third type. We aren’t Martians. The condition is an action that has already taken place (congiuntivo trapassato). the whole thing is now clearly contrary to fact and impossible. (congiuntivo imperfetto o trapassato) and the verb in the consequence will be either present or past conditional (condizionale presente o passato). Andremmo a teatro a vedere Arlecchino se non avessimo lasciato i biglietti a casa. If you had written to me I would have answered you. Se mi avessi scritto ti avrei risposto. Not everything contrary to fact or impossible is in the past.edu/ . or telepathize. I would prepare “supplì al telefono” if you gave me the recipe. Se fossimo marziani saremmo verdi e comunicheremmo usando la telepatia.hypothesis of the third type Both the condition and the consequence are either contrary to fact or impossible.Preparerei dei “supplì al telefono” se mi dessi la ricetta. You didn’t see the routine because you arrived five minutes too late. turn green.

But if you don’t really think it’s likely to happen--your boss is as stingy as Pantalone--you are more likely to say Se mi dessero un aumento. I will buy a new car. Italy’s Istat (l’Istituto nazionale di statistica) reports that 13 of every 100 persons use public transportation (buses and metro).edu/ .utexas.la. Nota culturale Travel by helicopter is not quite as common in Italy as Antonella’s sudden departures might suggest.considered unlikely. the subjunctive appears exclusively in the condition clause and the conditional appears exclusively in the consequence clause. then you’re going to use the subjunctive (congiuntivo imperfetto o trapassato) in the condition (“if”) clause and the conditional (condizionale presente o passato) in the consequence (result) clause. If they give me a raise. I would have bought a new car. this slows down such endeavors significantly. even if they can drive everyone crazy (both drivers of cars and pedestrians).000: almost double the number of mopeds in Germany and Holland. comprerei una nuova macchina. comprerò una nuova macchina. Episode 22. you might say Se mi daranno un aumento. and you didn’t get it. if the opportunity to get a raise has already come and gone. comes first in the sentence. Radio Arlecchino. contrary to fact or impossible. If they had given me a raise. In cities such as Rome. A final thing to remember is that it doesn’t matter which clause. pg 10 © 2009 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc. the same situation can be expressed by different types of hypotheses depending on the speaker’s attitude. Italy beats out France and Germany with about 600 vehicles for every 1. but unfortunately only 2 out of the 57 proposed projects have been completed so far. Italy is quite behind many other European countries when it comes to the metro (subway) system. of course.000 inhabitants and 120 mopeds for every 1. In 1992. If you are fairly optimistic about getting that raise. Of course. it is almost impossible to dig anywhere without finding what could easily become yet another archeological site. Cars are the most common means of transportation along with mopeds since these fast two-wheeled gadgets are extremely practical in the chaotic traffic of the largest Italian cities. doubtful. But when you’re dealing with the second or third type. And very often. avrei comprato una nuova macchina. a law allocated millions of euros to improve the system. there’s no alternative to the classic hypothesis of the third type: Se mi avessero dato un aumento. If they gave me a raise. I would buy a new car. condition or consequence.

Unfortunately. Episode 22. into your ears” Radio Arlecchino. apply to all Italians) is quite evident when one waits for a bus. particularly to go downtown where many streets are open only to taxis and buses. Antonella Olson & Eric Edwards “Out of our minds . Even though Italians love their cars. of course. buses are often crowded. the proverbial Italian lack of punctuality (which does not..utexas. Nevertheless. 4:30-7:30pm) and seldom have air conditioning. pg 11 © 2009 • Texas Language Technology Center • http://tltc.la. moreover.edu/ . especially during rush hours (7:30-9:00am. travelling on a bus can be a great opportunity to talk about politics or current events with the other passengers--if they are not too busy carrying on a conversation on their cellular phones! Thanks for listening! And be sure to tell your friends that you heard it here on Radio Arlecchino! Your hosts with the most – grammar..There is a great demand for taxis. they hate having to hunt down a parking place so they do use buses. which are expensive but very functional at any time of the day.

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