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BIO11 – CardioVascular – Adrienne Fraser

Lesson 1 – Intro / Components of Blood CLASS 1  25 minutes Materials: 30 x T/F sheet 1 x LCD Microsoft Word Probe Questions 2 x Answer Key Intro Activity: True/False **28 students in class** o 20 questions (T/F) on prior knowledge of CV system – ~10-15 minutes to fill out answers o When done, correct as a class (~10 minutes) – hands for true, hands for false, ask some students to explain their answer, give correct answer, provide extra details if necessary, answer student questions, move on – meant to be a BRIEF into and ascertain what prior knowledge exists and activate this prior knowledge – try not to go TOO in depth on anything… CLASS 2  75 minutes Materials: Powerpoint Presentation Lesson: Powerpoint [to slide 16]  Duration ~ 75 minutes o Interesting Facts about Blood / Circulatory system [5-10 min] o THINK! – small vs. large organisms, why do large need CV system? [2 min]  Importance of circulation – complex multicellular organisms need circulatory because they are too large for substances to simply diffuse from cell to cell to exchange waste/nutrients/gases, etc

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BIO11 – CardioVascular – Adrienne Fraser

o Open V. Closed systems [5-10 min]   
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2 parts of CV – fluid (ie blood) and pump (ie heart) Open = no vessels to transport fluid Closed = fluid transported within network of vessels

Overview Video [1 min]: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R-sKZWqsUpw

o Function/Purpose of Components [5 min] o Component Ratios [10 min]    – 55% plasma, 45% „formed elements‟ body maintains ratios! If high solute levels are detected (ie „formed elements‟) @ 55%, increased water absorption to even out ratio o Plasma [5 minutes]      Liquid (90% fluid ie water, 10% proteins, glucose, waste, gases, etc) 3 proteins: Albumins – regulate fluid levels Globulins – immune function Fibrinogens – clotting

o Blood cells come from stem cells in bone marrow [3 minutes] o RBC‟s = erythrocytes [15 minutes]         Carry oxygen “Metallo-Protein” hemoglobin (contains lots of iron) that ups oxygen carrying capacity Heme – part oxygen binds to Shape – greater surface area, more gas exchange Oxyhemoglobin – has Oxygen bound to heme Carbinohemoglobin – has CO2 Hemorrhage – lose blood cells, lose ability to transport oxygen Hematocrit – percentage of RBC in blood

BIO11 – CardioVascular – Adrienne Fraser

o THINK! Low iron = tired, WHY? [5-10 minutes] o Leukocytes = White Blood Cells [5-10 minutes]   Play a big part in immune system Different kinds (ie macrophages – phagocytose foreign invaders) o Platelets [10 minutes]   Responsible for clotting blood Tear on wound edges, release chemicals that make plasma (fibrinogens) „sticky‟, cells stick together and form a barrier

BIO11 – CardioVascular – Adrienne Fraser

Lesson 2 – Anatomy of CV system / Structure of Arteries, Veins, Capillaries / direction of flow of blood 150 minutes  Heart structure, 2 circuits, flow of blood, Blood vessels MATERIALS: o Class Set of Blood Components Probe o 1 x LCD Microsoft Word Probe Questions o 1 x LCD Answer Key o Class Set of Heart / Circuits Handouts (diagrams to colour) o 1 x Heart Labelling Transparency o 1 x Circuits (Pulmonary and Systemic) Transparency INTRO: Blood Components Probe o 10 minutes: answer questions o 5 minutes: Exchange and correct as a class o 5 minutes: pass back, then pass in POWERPOINT [slide 17-35] ~130 minutes o Video – Circulatory System Overview [5 minutes] o Components: Heart, Blood Vessels [5 -10 minutes]    Atria on Top – receive blood Ventricles on Bottom – push blood out Valves prevent backflow!

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o REMEMBER – RIGHT Vs. LEFT o Routes/Circuits  ONE-WAY SYSTEM but TWO CIRCUITS [15-20 minutes]  Pulmonary – pulmonary arteries takes O2 poor blood from right side of heart to lungs, gas exchange occurs at capillaries / alveoli, pulmonary veins bring O2 rich blood back to Left side of heart  Systemic - O2 rich blood leaves left side of heart via Aorta to all over the body, through smaller arteriole,

BIO11 – CardioVascular – Adrienne Fraser

then capillaries [gas exchange], venules, veins, Inferior & superior Vena Cava, enters Right side of Heart o Valves of the Heart [10-15 minutes]    2 kinds! Prevent backflow when heart contracts AV = Atrio-Ventricular = BETWEEN AN ATRIUM AND VENTRICLE          Tricuspid – Right side; Tri = 3 flaps; NO OTHER NAME Bicuspid – Left Side = Mitral; 2 flaps Crescent / semilunar shape Pulmonary – to pulmonary artery Aortic – to aorta

Semilunar = between ventricle and arteries

Lub-dub – touched on this already, “2” heart beats Valve animation [1 minute] Photographs

o LABEL THE VALVES – ask students what A is, reveal, etc [2 minutes] o Flow of Blood [10-15 minutes]  Start with blood arriving to right side of the heart through superior and inferior vena cavae, continue tracing path through heart, pulmonary circuit, back through heart, out to body systems  mention O2/CO2 levels in blood at each stage o Label Heart/Blood Flow! In Pairs/Individual [5-10 minutes]      Label as a class [10 minutes] Leave ventricles, take blood FROM heart NOT ALWAYS O2 RICH!!!!!  pulmonary circuit Huge size variation from Aorta to small arterioles Very Elastic – swell/stretch when blood is pumped then spring back to original size when heart relaxes o ARTERIES/ARTERIOLES: [10 minutes]

BIO11 – CardioVascular – Adrienne Fraser

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Feeling your pulse = feeling When they bulge Smaller lumen (opening) but larger diameter Why? Greater middle layer of muscle

o VEINS/VENULES: [10 minutes]     Take blood too heart (into Atria) NOT ALWAYS O2 POOR!!  pulmonary circuit Larger lumen (inside space) than arteries, but much thinner muscle layer Not nearly as elastic – can‟t propel blood on its own            Depends on surrounding skeletal muscles to push blood along Also has VALVES to prevent backflow! If valves don‟t work – blood can‟t move! VARICOSE VEINS! TINY – 0.008 mm Lay 10 side by side – about the diameter of 1 strand of hair! Only 1 erythrocyte can pass through at a time Walls are 1 cell thick – allows for easy diffusion of O2, wastes, nutrients, etc Penetrate almost all tissues Why are they so small and so long??? PICTURE showing 1 erythrocyte in capillary Go over [5 minutes]

o CAPILLARIES: [10-20 minutes]

o Word/ Bloodflow Scramble! [10 minutes] alone!

BIO11 – CardioVascular – Adrienne Fraser

LESSON 3  75 minutes  Conduction, Regulation of Heart Rate & Blood Pressure OXYGEN TRANSPORT VIDEO http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eor6EK_JP40 Rest of Circulation PowerPoint Notes Could use Heart Labelling transparency again to point out SA node and how the signal travels LESSON 4 75 minutes + additional time at home if necessary Virtual Cardiology “Laboratory” MATERIALS: o Computers (either laptops in class or computer lab) – Lab can be done as partners or individually o Class Set of Virtual Cardio Lab instructions handout o Website: http://www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/vlabs/cardiology/ Entire Class is devoted to students doing the lab, although some students may need more time to go home and finish it NOTE: The 3 patients are not always given in the same order so some tests may not be available for all patients Lesson 5 – CV Pathologies o Start with a basic overview of heart pathologies (1:49) http://www.medmovie.com/pages/heartproblems.html o Quick class discussion/brainstorm of pathologies (20 minutes) o Introduce Pathology assignment (30 minutes) o Assign partners / let students pick partners o Let them start working / picking the pathologies they are going to do etc.