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Pérdidas de calor en tuberías

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Problem Description:

Colour Key Manual Input Results Do not use Assumptions and important notes Sources and titles Important values and calculations

03/01/2011

Physical Properties Liquid Liquid in the tank Density, Specific Heat,Cp Viscosity, Thermal conductivity,k Co-efficient of volumetric expansion, Molecular Mass of liquid,M Melting Point, oC Assumed fouling coefficient, hF Wet wall Thermal Conductivities/thickness Metal walls (Carbon Steel, max 0.5% Carbon),k M Metal wall thickness Air Units Air density at related temperature and pressure Room Pressure Mol. Wt of air Gas const Vapour/air Temp Air Density, PM/RT P M R t T air = 101.325 29 8.31 -10 263.15 1.34 kPa kg/kmol kJ/kmol K C K kg/m3

Etylenediamine (EDA) 897 2.8 2847 1.8 0.0018 0.257 0.000108 60.1 11.14 Units

2 5000 W/m K

1.34 kg/m 1.005 kJ/kg K 1005 J/kg K cP or m.Pa.s 0.0000198 kg/m.s 0.0257 W/m.K 0.00343 1/K kg/kmol o C -

Thermal Conductivity Etylenediamine of (EDA) k = 3.56 x 10 -5 x Cp ( 4/M)1/3 ------------> from Coulson & Richardson. Vol 6, Page 321 Thermal Conductivity k= 0.224 W/m.K

Source:

2 9.81 m/s

Source:

Source:

Pipe dimensions Di,p Inside pipe diameter Do,p Outsidepipe diameter Dm,p Mean pipe diameter Outisde diameter insulation Do,i Dlm,i Log mean diameter insulation e, absolute roughness Temperature Liquid in pipe, TL Outside air, TA 0.041 0.048 0.045 0.098 0.070 0.00005

Units m m m m m m Units

o 21 C o -10 C

Summary velocity

Units

Iteration:

Liquid in pipe, TL Outside air, TA First Guess After iteration First Guess After iteration Tw=(TL + TA )/ 2 Tw Tws=(TL + TA )/ 2 Tws

Put the right values manually into respective yellow cells untill difference between the two values approache zero

293.5

Tw=TL-(Utot/hi)(TL-TA)

265.6

Tws=(Utot/(hRo + h*wo))(TL-TA)+TA

Units

1.0 m/s 20401.76667 6.07406 5.93527 5.94915 0.02827 Colebrook equation for friction factor A=-2.0*LOG[(e/(D*3.7))+(12/Re)] B=-2.0*LOG[(e/(D*3.7))+(2.51*A/Re)] C=-2.0*LOG[(e/(D*3.7))+(2.51*B/Re)] f=[A-(B-A)^2/(C-2B+A)]^-2

Calculation

Calculation of Grashof Number (NGR) 3 2 2 Grashof Number, NGr = L x x g x x T / NGr for the liquid phase ( 2 x g x x /2 ) ( 2 x g x x /2 ) L3 x T 2.63E+08 3 2.63E+08 x L x T

NGr for outside air ( 2 x g x x /2 ) ( 2 x g x x /2 ) L3 x T Calculation of Prandtl Number (NPr) Prandtl Number,NPr = Cp x /k NPr for the liquid phase NPr for outside air Calculation of Rayleigh Number (NRa) Rayleigh Number,NRa = NGr x NPr 19.95 0.77 1.55E+08 3 1.55E+08 x L x T

L=Di T = TL Twl

0.04 m 0.45 K

3 2.63E+08 x L x T

8.12E+03 1.62E+05

12 NNu ={0.60 + (0.387 x (NRa)1/6)/[1+(0.559/NPr)9/16]8/27}2 Ra 10

For horizontal cylinders, Nusselt Number, NNu NNu =(f/8)(NRe-1000)(NPr)/[1+12,7(f/8)1/2(NPr2/3-1)] NNu o.k 235.87 Where NPr 2000 Where NRe 5e6 Where NRe 3000 o.k o.k o.k Reference: Incropera Page 515

11.24

0.10 m 1.85 K

3 1.55E+08 x L x T

2.72E+05 2.11E+05

12 NNu ={0.60 + (0.387 x (NRa)1/6)/[1+(0.559/NPr)9/16]8/27}2 Ra 10

NNu Where Ra 1012 Coefficient of outside air at wall,h AwV,cyl = NNu x k /Do Coefficient of outside air at wall,h AwV,cyl 2.50

hM = kM /tM hI = kI /tI hM hI 12228.26 1.52 W/m2 K W/m2 K ------------- Equation 21 ------------- Equation 22 ------------- USING Equation 21 ------------- USING Equation 22

------------- Equation 24

hR,A

2.341

W/m2 K

Coefficient ( W/m2 K) Coefficient of liquid at pipe wall at no flow (free convection), hwi Coefficient of liquid at pipe wall at flow (forced convection), hwi,f Outside coefficient of air at pipe wall, h' wo Coefficient of outside air at cylindrical wall considering wind enhancement factor for the assumed wind velocity,

Summary

70.55 1480.08 2.50 Do NOT use this value Obtained by multiplying above value by wind enhancement factor 6.2

h*wo

Conduction coefficient for metal wall hM Conduction coefficient for insulation hI Fouling coefficient, h Fi Radiation coefficient pipewall (hRO) Overall coefficient,Utot

m/hr

1/Utot,l = 1/(hwi x Di) + tm/(km x Dm,p) + ti/(ki x Dlm,i) + 1/( (h*wo + hrd ) x Do,i) + 1/(hfi x Di) 1/Utot,l Total heat loss per unit length Q/L= (TL-TA)/Utot,l Q/L 9.8 W/m 3.16 m K/W

No Flow

Flow

Q [W/m] 4.4 4.7 4.8 4.9 5.7 6.2 6.3 6.4 8.5 9 9.2 9.5 4.5 4.9 5.1 5.1 6 6.5 6.6 6.7 8.9 9.6 9.8 9.9

Heat input

[W/m] 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10

12

Flow conditions

10

heatloss/input [kW]

Flow conditions

Heat loss @ quiescent air Heat loss @ Beaufort 3 Heat loss @ Beaufort 5

Heat loss @ Beaufort 6

10

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