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carleton SYSC 4405

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Carleton University, Systems and Computer Engineering Background: After graduation (in about 6 months!!), you get a job as an engineer at a company designing security systems. They want to be able to record any sound which occurs at the site where clients install their systems. However, they dont want to continuously record the input, since much of the time there is no sound. Your task is to design a system to detect when the sound amplitude passes a threshold and to trigger the recording of sound. Consider that the input sound x(t) at the microphone is as follows: x(t) = 0.2 sin 660 rad rad (t 0.9s) u(t 0.9s) + 0.03 sin 3020 (t 0.9s) u(t 0.9s) Volts s s

The signal is acquired by an ADC, based on a Sample/Hold (S/H) circuit and an 7-bit ash converter. The sampling rate is 2.0 kSample/sec. 1. (1 point) Your exam is version # 2. Write down this number. ANSWER: This should be easy 2. (5 points) Sketch the ADC system and label the components, including the analog input, Sample/Hold (S/H), converter and digital output. Sketch the signal for 0.898 t 0.902 s. at the input (x(t)) and at the output of the S/H (xSH (t)). Note: The values of x(t) do not need to be exact, but the values of xSH (t) should be. ANSWER: x(1.4980s) = x[0.8982.0kHz] = x[1796] = 0 x(1.4985s) = x[0.8982.0kHz] = x[1797] = 0 x(1.4990s) = x[0.8992.0kHz] = x[1798] = 0 x(1.4995s) = x[0.8992.0kHz] = x[1799] = 0 x(1.5000s) = x[0.9002.0kHz] = x[1800] = sin( ?(t 0.9s)) = 0 rad x(1.5005s) = x[0.9012.0kHz] = x[1801] = 0.2sin(660 rad s .0005s) + 0.03sin(3020 s .0005s) = 0.15880 x(1.5010s) = 0.19002 x(1.5015s) = 0.06479 x(1.5020s) = -0.11718 Matlab: n=[0;1;2;3;4];Fs=2e3;.2*sin(600*pi/Fs*n) + .003*sin(3020*pi/Fs*n) 3. (5 points) An 7-bit differential ADC is used with Vmax = 0.8 V, and outputs a quantized signal, xq [n]. What are the values of xq [n] corresponding to 0.898 t 0.902 s? ANSWER: = 2Vmax /2L = 2 0.8V /128 = 0.0125V x[1796] = 0 xq [1796] = 0 x[1797] = 0 xq [1797] = 0 x[1798] = 0 xq [1798] = 0 x[1799] = 0 xq [1799] = 0 x[1800] = 0 xq [1800] = 0 x[1801] = 0.15880 QuantLevel = 12 xq [1801] = 0.15000 x[1802] = 0.19002 QuantLevel = 15 xq [1802] = 0.18750 x[1803] = 0.06479 QuantLevel = 5 xq [1803] = 0.06250 x[1804] = 0.11718 QuantLevel = 10 xq [1804] = 0.12500

4. (5 points) Does clipping occur for this signal. Given only the signal xq [n], describe a way to get an indication of whether clipping has occured. ANSWER: A) There is no clipping in this signal (|V | < Vmax ) B) If a quatized signal equals the A/D limits, then clipping should be suspected. 5. (5 points) Calculate the magnitude of quantization noise in xq [n], in units of V 2 . ANSWER: Quantization Noise =

2 12

= 1.8330 106 V2

6. (5 points) For each of the two sinusoidal components in the input signal, calculate their representation in x[n]. Label each component as to whether it is a) Aliased or not, and b) Folded or not. ANSWER: rad 1 rad 1 Nyquist frequency is 1 2 2.0 kHz. A) Not aliased (660 s < 2 2.0 kHz). B) Aliased (3020 s > 2 2.0 kHz). 1 2.0 < F < 2.0 kHz). Thus, B is not folded. (Folded freqs are, F , s.t. 2 7. (5 points) In order to detect the start of the sound, the input signal is processed as follows: x(t) Absolute Value Low Pass Filter y (t)

after this process, the signal is compared to a threshold (which we dont consider here). Is this system: a) LSI, b) Causal, c) Stable d) Linear, e) Shift Invariant, f) Memoryless? ANSWER: a) LSI = NO b) Causal = YES c) Stable = YES d) Linear = NO e) Shift Invariant = YES f) Memoryless = NO 8. (5 points) For the system in Q#7, sketch the expected output for the input sound signal, for the period 0.8 t 1.0 s. (values do not need to be exact) ANSWER: Output starts at zero; after start of sine waves, the LPF output lowly increases to a saturation level. 9. (5 points) For the system in Q#7, the low pass lter y [n] = 0.97y [n 1] + (1 0.97)(x[n 10] + x[n 11]) is used. Sketch the system block diagram, (using DelayX ) to indicate longer delays, if needed) and calculate y [n] for n corresponding to 0.898 t 0.902 s, assuming no initial conditions. ANSWER: Block diagram has a) feedforward direction: a delay of 10 (then gain of 0.03) and another delay (to a gain of 0.03. On the feedback path, there is a single delay (to a gain of 0.97. 10. (10 points) For the following LPF y [n] = 0.97y [n 1] + (1 0.97)x[n] Calculate h[n] for 0 n 3, and calculate the DFT, H [k ], for the rst N = 4 samples. ANSWER: h[n] = 0.030.97n u[n]; (1)

thus: h[0] = 0.03 0.970 = 0.03 h[1] = 0.03 0.971 = 0.0291 h[2] = 0.03 0.972 = 0.0282 h[3] = 0.03 0.973 = 0.0274 H [0] = [1, 1, 1, 1] [0.03; 0.0291; 0.0282; 0.0274] = 0.11471 H [1] = [1, j, 1, j ] [0.03; 0.0291; 0.0282; 0.0274] = 0.00177 0.00172i H [2] = [1, 1, 1, 1] [0.03; 0.0291; 0.0282; 0.0274] = 0.00175 H [3] = [1, j, 1, j ] [0.03; 0.0291; 0.0282; 0.0274] = 0.00177 + 0.00172i

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