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# AHS Forum 58, June 2002

## Helicopter Sizing by Statistics

Faculty of Aerospace Engineering Technion Israel Institute of Technology Haifa 32000, Israel.
Presented at the American Helicopter Society 58th Annual Forum, Montreal, Canada, June 11-13, 2002.

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## AHS Forum 58, June 2002

Introduction
Sizing is the first and an important stage in helicopter preliminary design process. Preliminary design tools are relatively simple and were developed for fast design cycles.

Design trends analysis is a well known technique in which flying configurations are analyzed in order to conclude or identify a trend which is common to many configurations, and therefore, it may represent physical constrains which are not clear and evident at the early stages. Design trends analysis is useful for the sizing stage in its broad sense: geometrical sizing and preliminary sizing of performance, power required, etc. The present study is based on a (partial) database for more than 180 conventional single rotor helicopter configurations. The analysis has been carried out using advanced computerized correlation technique which is based on Multiple Regression Analysis.

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## The Analysis Methodology

Multiple Regression Analysis (MRA):
... . Y = a X1 X 2 X 3

A computerized algorithm has been coded to generate and select hundreds of combinations of independent variables, in order to identify the groups that provide high correlation measure. The purpose was to find design trends that contain minimal number of independent unknowns (preferably one or two) that exhibit high correlation indicators. Error definition:

(%) = 100

| EV - DBV | DBV

where EV and DBV stand for the estimated value and the database value, respectively. For each case we shall present the averaged AVER and maximum MAX error obtained, defined by

AVER

1 N i N i =1

and

MAX

= max( i )

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## The Analysis Methodology (cont.)

Multiple Regression Correlation Measure:
1 R 2 = 1 i = N

e yi yie j e yi y j
i =1

e where yi are the data base values, y is the averaged data base value, and yi are the estimated values.

Hence, R = 1 stands for a perfect correlation, while in most cases the minimal value of R was set to be above 0.9 in order to conclude that a correlation is of a value and represents a genuine trend.

The Database

The database used is the one stored in RAPID/RaTE (Rotorcraft Analysis for Preliminary Design / Rand Technologies & Engineering) - a desktop rotorcraft analysis package . RAPID/RaTE is designed to model general rotorcraft configurations, conventional helicopters and tilt-rotors. RAPID/RaTE performs trim response, mission analysis, vibration analysis, stability analysis, and both flight mechanics and aeroelastic simulations.

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## The Analysis Methodology Scheme

RAPID/RaTE Helicopter Configurations DATABASE Generation of helicopter parameters combinations {Xi, i=1,2,} Filtering of Database configurations for selected parameters groups Calculation of the MRA parameters and the multiple correlation measure R
AVER Evaluating error estimation .... , MAX

a , , , , e tc .

Identification of parameter combinations with high correlation measures Helicopter Configuration Model

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## Main Scheme of Helicopter Sizing

Vertical tail average chord, 12% Tail Rotor RPM, 6.6% Tail Rotor Solidity Hover Tip Speed 170-250 m/sec Tail rotor Blade number Main Rotor RPM, Hover Rotor RPM, 6.5% Tail Rotor chord, 10% 6% Main rotor chord, 10% Fuel value (liters), 11.5% Empty Weight, 9.3% Useful load, 9.5% Fenestron diameter, 7.7% Tail rotor diameter, 7.6% Horizontal tail arm, 16% Horiz. tail area, 29% Range with standard fuel, S/L

Gross Weight
Total power T-O, 14.3% T-O Transmission rating, 8%

Overall length, rotor turning, 1.7% Main rotor Blade number Fuselage Length, 6.2% Tail Rotor Arm, 3.3% Height to rotor head, 7% Vertical tail Arm, 4.2% Width over landing gears, 10% Long range speed, 6.5% Clearance Fuselage - Ground .3-.7 m Main Rotor Solidity Main Rotor Diameter, 6% Disc load

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## AHS Forum 58, June 2002

a MT = f ( D) aVT = f ( D)

FH = f ( D)

## Helicopter Geometry Sizing Parameters

FL = f ( D)
RT FL = f ( D)

FW = f ( D)
TR cTR = f (W0 , N B )

c = f (W0 , N B ) = f ( N B , D, c)

## DLOAD & D = f (W0 ,Vmax )

cVT = f ( DTR )

TR TR = f ( N B , DTR , cTR )

TR = f ( DTR )
DTR = f (W0 )

= f ( D)

a HT = f (W0 )

S HT = f (W0 )

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## Main Rotor Diameter

The " square cube" scaling law: D W0 1 3
40

D = f (W0 )
30 21 6

D = f (W0 ,Vm )

30

20

10

0 10 20 30 40

AVER MAX

AVER MAX

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## AHS Forum 58, June 2002

0 10000 20000 30000 40000 50000 60000

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20
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## RAH-66 Comanche CH-53E Mi-6 & Mi-22 Mi-26

10 0

70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0

## RAH-66 Comanche Estimation

Database configurations

## ASI Ultrasport 254

2000 4000 6000 8000

## Database configurations Estimation

10000 12000 14000 16000

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## AHS Forum 58, June 2002

60

50

2.94 (W
1/3

40
- 6) Fixe d-wing

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[McCormick, 1995]
1.54 (W
1/3

- 6)

[Current study]
.334 (W
1/3

20

[McCormick, 1995]

- .74)

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0 0 10 20 30
1/3

40

50

60

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## AHS Forum 58, June 2002

1000
Jet transport/bomber

586

100
Sailplane
30

73

73

10

20 7.5

11

1

0.8

## c = .0108 W00.540 / Nb0.714 ,

where c is in [m] and W0 is in [ kg] ( AVER = 10%, MAX = 41%, R = .9535).

0.6

0.4

0.2

12

5000

## 4500 4000 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 0 5

Main Rotor Database Main Rotor Estimation Tail Rotor Database Tail Rotor Estimation FENESTRON Database

10

15

20

25

30

35

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## Main & Tail Rotor Angular Velocity (cont.)

Main Rotor: = 2673. / D 0.829 where is in [ RPM ] and D is in [m] ( AVER = 6%, MAX = 35%, R = .9630). Tail Rotor: 0.828 [ RPM ] = 3475. / DTR ( AVER = 7%, MAX = 16%, R = .9737)
or

800

600

400

200

## [rad / sec] = 364. / D

where DTR is in [m].

0.828 TR

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## Main & Tail Rotor Tip Speed

300 250 200 150 100 50 0 0

## Tip Speed (m/s)

Main Rotor Database configurations Tail Rotor Database configurations Fenestron Database configurations
Main Rotor Estimation Tail Rotor Estimation
5 10

15

20

25

30

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## Main Rotor: V Tail Rotor: V

TIP

TIP

= 140. D 0.171, where V TIP is in [m / sec] 0.172 , where V TIP is in [m / sec] = 182. DTR
Faculty of Aerospace Eng., Technion - I.I.T.
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## Tail Rotor Diameter (m)

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 10000 20000

## Database configurations Estimation FENESTRON Estimation

FENESTRON configurations

DTR = .0895 W00.391 where DTR is in [m] and W0 is in [ kg] ( = 8%, = 25%, R = .9754)
AVER MAX

30000

40000

50000

60000

## 2 USAAMRDL Report 1974: D / DTR = [7.0 7.3] .27 DL {lb / ft }

RAPID/RaTE analysis:

16

25

20

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## RAPID / RaTE analysis:

. , a MT = .5107 D 1061

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Database configurations RAPID+ Estimation RAPID/RaTE Estimation USAAMRDL Report 1977 Ref. 13 Estimation
0 5 10 15 20 25

## Tail Rotor Arm Estimation (m)

USAAMRDL Report 1977: a MT = ( D + DTR ) / 2 + .5 feet

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0.5

## cTR = .0058 W00.506 / NbTR 0.720 ,

where cTR is in [m] and W0 is in [ kg] ( AVER = 10%, MAX = 30%, R = .9437).

## Tail Rotor Blade Chord Estimation (m)

Faculty of Aerospace Eng., Technion - I.I.T.
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## Horizontal Tail Surface Area

SHT = .0021 W00.758 ,
9 8

where SHT is in [m2 ] and W0 is in [ kg] ( AVER = 29%, MAX = 214%, R = .9117).
Mi-26

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20 18 16

## Vertical Tail Arm (m)

14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 5 10 15 20

## aVT = .5914 D 0.995,

where aVT and D are in [m] ( AVER = 4%, MAX = 20%, R = .9853).
25 30 35

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## Vertical Tail Average Chord

Average Chord of Vertical Tail (m)
3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 0 1 2 3 4 5

Database configurations (Diameter < 3.5 m) Database configurations (Diameter > 3.5 m) Database configurations (FENESTRON) Estimation (Diameter < 3.5 m) Estimation (Diameter > 3.5 m) Estimation (FENESTRON)
0.927 cVT = .909 DTR

Fenestron

AVER MAX

D .9 m 8 TR > 35

## For Fenestron configurations

cVT DTR
Faculty of Aerospace Eng., Technion - I.I.T.
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## AHS Forum 58, June 2002

Configuration Length
40 35

Fuselage Length

30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 5 10 15

50 45 40 35 30

Estimation
20

25

30

35

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## Main Rotor Diameter (m)

. FLRT = 1.09 D 103 ( = 2%, = 9%, R = .9982) where FLRT and D are in [m].
AVER MAX
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

25 20 15 10 5 0

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## Overall Length, Rotor Turning (m)

FL = 0.824 D 1.056 ( = 6%, = 17%, R = .9807) Database configurations where FL and D are in [m].
AVER MAX

9

8 7 6 5 4 3

## FH = 0.642 D 0.677 ( = 7%, = 25%, R = .9371) where FH and D are in [m].

AVER MAX

Mi-26

1 0 0 5 10 15 20

Database configurations
Estimation
25 30 35

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

AVER MAX

EH 101

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

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## AHS Forum 58, June 2002

Fuselage-Ground Clearance

## Clearance Fuselage - Ground (m)

0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0 10000 20000 30000 40000 50000 60000

Database configurations

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## Empty Weight & Useful Load

0 35000 30000 25000 20000 15000 10000 5000 0 10000 20000 30000 40000 50000 60000

## WE and W0 are in [kg]

7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 14000

## WU and W0 are in [kg]

0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000

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14000

## Weight Estimation (kg)

12000 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000

W0 = WPL + WF + WC + WE


WU

## .4709 W00.99 +.4854 W01.015

Useful Load Est. + Empty Weight Est. Empty Weight Estimation Useful Load Estimation

W0

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## Empty Weight & Useful Load (continued)

Empty Weight / Gross Weight, %
100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

## Rotary-wing [current study]

74

80 70 60 50 45 30 42

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## AHS Forum 58, June 2002

Fuel Value
W0 = WPL + WF + WC + WE


WU

Rg

## = Range with standard fuel at sea level

3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000

## Fuel Value (liters)

( AVER = 11%, MAX = 33%, R = .9942), where WF is fuel value in [liters], W0 is in [kg],
and Rg is range with standard fuel, S / L in [km].

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## AHS Forum 58, June 2002

Speed
1.0565, VNE = .8215 VM ( AVER = 6%, MAX = 20%, R = .9399),
1.0899 , VLR = .5475 V M ( AVER = 6%, MAX = 31%, R = .9408),

where VNE is never exceed speed (S / L) in [km / hr], VLR is long range speed (S / L) in [km / hr],

VM is in [km / hr],
Speed; S/L (km/hr)

## 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 0

Long Range Speed Database configurations Long Range Speed Estimation Never Exceed Speed Database configurations Never Exceed Speed Estimation

VM

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

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## Take-Off Total Power & Transmission Rating

0 25000 10000 20000 30000 40000 50000 60000 Gross Weight (kg)

## PTO is the take - off total power in [ kW ] and W0 is in [ kg]

12000 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 35000

5000

10000

15000

20000

25000

30000

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## Max Continuous Total Power & Transmission Rating

Max Continuous Total Power Estimation
0 12000 3000 6000 9000 12000

Database Estimation

## Max Continuous Total Power (kW)

9000

0.9760 , PMC = .0013 W0 0.9876 V M ( AVER = 10%, MAX = 37%, R = .9889), where PMC is the Max Cont. total power in [kW ], W0 is in [kg], V M is Max speed in [km / hr ]
12000

CH - 53E
6000

EH 101
9000

3000
6000

EH 101

1.3393, TMC = .000141 W0 0.9771 VM ( AVER = 9%, MAX = 20%, R = .9870), where

3000

TMC is the Max Cont. transmission rating in [kW ], W0 is in [kg], VM is in [km / hr]

3000

6000

9000

0 12000

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## AHS Forum 58, June 2002

Power loading = the ratio of the take off gross weight over the maximum engine power. Transmission loading = the ratio of the take off gross weight over the take-off transmission rating.
10 Power/Transmission Loading (kg/kW) 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 10000 20000 30000 40000 50000 60000
Mi - 26 MINI-500 BRAVO

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## AHS Forum 58, June 2002

Propeller powered aircrafts

10

8 6 4 2 0

9 6.4

6 4.9

6.3

3.5 1.8

2.6

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## AHS Forum 58, June 2002

Concluding Remarks
A database for conventional helicopter configurations has been established and studied using advanced computerized correlation technique which is based on multiple regression analysis. Design trends were obtained and demonstrated. Currently, such data can not be found in the open literature. The study presented in this paper is expected to give designers a perspective of the existing flying designs and their inter-correlation. This is extremely important in the early preliminary stages where sizing issues are discussed in order to activate the preliminary design process. The collection of design trends presented in this paper contains also valuable information when comparison of performance of various configurations is under discussion. The present study results have been implemented as an autonomous component of RAPID/RaTE package.
Faculty of Aerospace Eng., Technion - I.I.T.
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