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Walter Cannon, Homeostasis and the Physiological Response to Stress

Cannon, Homeostasis and the Physiological Response to Stress Courtesy National Library of Medicine (NLM) Slides from:
Courtesy National Library of Medicine (NLM)
Courtesy National Library of Medicine (NLM)

Slides from:

Introduction to the Autonomic Nervous System-Lecture Marc Imhotep Cray, M.D.

Marc Imhotep Cray, M.D.

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Homeostasis

(A responsibility of the ANS and Endocrine System)

Redrawn after: Kibble JD, Halsey CR, Homeostasis: In Medical Physiology -The Big Picture; McGraw-Hill ,2009:2
Redrawn after: Kibble JD, Halsey
CR, Homeostasis: In Medical
Physiology -The Big Picture;
McGraw-Hill ,2009:2

Negative feedback is the major control process used to maintain a

stable internal environment

Marc Imhotep Cray, M.D.

The physiologic process of maintaining an internal environment (ECF environment) compatible with normal health

Autonomic reflexes maintain set points and modulate organ system functions via negative feedback in pursuit of

homeostasis

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Components of a negative

feedback control system

Recognizes deviation of normal set point value Measures control variable COMPARATOR SENSOR stretch receptors, chemo-,
Recognizes deviation of
normal set point value
Measures control variable
COMPARATOR
SENSOR
stretch receptors, chemo-,
baro-, osmo-, and thermo-
receptors etc.
SET
POINT
Attempt to restore set point value
Attempt to restore
set point value
EFFECTOR

EFFECTOR

EFFECTOR
EFFECTOR

+

SET POINT Attempt to restore set point value EFFECTOR + ERROR SIGNAL - Negative feedback: Initiation

ERROR

SIGNAL -
SIGNAL
-

Negative feedback:

Initiation of responses that counter deviations of controlled variables

from their normal range

CONTROLLED

VARIBLE

(SEE NEXT SLIDE)

their normal range CONTROLLED VARIBLE (SEE NEXT SLIDE) - Redrawn after: Kibble JD, Halsey CR, Homeostasis:

-

their normal range CONTROLLED VARIBLE (SEE NEXT SLIDE) - Redrawn after: Kibble JD, Halsey CR, Homeostasis:

Redrawn after: Kibble JD, Halsey CR, Homeostasis: In Medical

Physiology -The Big Picture; McGraw-Hill ,2009:2

Important variable maintained within a normal range

NEGATIVE

FEEDBACK

t h i n a n o r m a l r a n g e

Effector opposes stimulus

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Marc Imhotep Cray, M.D.

Examples of Physiologic Controlled Variables

Controlled Variable

(Arterial Blood Sample)

Arterial O2 partial pressure

Arterial CO2 partial pressure

Arterial blood pH Glucose

Core body temperature

Typical Set Point Value

100 mm Hg

40 mm Hg

pH 7.4

90 mg/dL (5 mM)

98.4°F (37°C)

Serum Na+

140

mEq/L

Serum K+

4.0

mEq/L

Serum Ca2+

4.5

mEq/L

Mean arterial blood pressure

90

mm Hg

Glomerular filtration rate

120 mL /min

Adopted from: Kibble JD, Halsey CR, Homeostasis: In Medical Physiology - The Big Picture; McGraw-Hill ,2009:3

Marc Imhotep Cray, M.D.

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Walter Cannon coined the word homeostasis

Referring to animal systems, pioneering 20th century

physiologist Walter Cannon

coined the word homeostasis in 1926

Coordinated physiological

reactions which maintain most of

the steady states in the body are so complex, and are so peculiar to the living organism, that it was

suggested (Cannon, 1929) that a

specific designation for these states be employed - homeostasis

Cannon, WB, Organization for Physiological Homeostasis/PDF Physiological Rev July 1, 1929 9:399-431

Marc Imhotep Cray, M.D.

Courtesy National Library of Medicine (NLM)
Courtesy National Library of Medicine (NLM)

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Cannon-Bard theory

Dr. Cannon investigated the emergency functions of the sympathetic nervous system and with Philip Bard developed the Cannon-Bard theory, which proposed that emotional and physiological responses to

external situations arise at once

and that both prepare the body to deal with the situation.

Story Time, Walter Cannon (1871-1945)

Marc Imhotep Cray, M.D.

Courtesy National Library of Medicine (NLM)
Courtesy National Library of Medicine (NLM)

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Homeostasis (2)

(A responsibility of the ANS and Endocrine System)

Nervous

( A responsibility of the ANS and Endocrine System) Nervous Wired Neurotransmitters versus Short Distance Short
( A responsibility of the ANS and Endocrine System) Nervous Wired Neurotransmitters versus Short Distance Short
Wired
Wired
of the ANS and Endocrine System) Nervous Wired Neurotransmitters versus Short Distance Short Distance
Neurotransmitters
Neurotransmitters
ANS and Endocrine System) Nervous Wired Neurotransmitters versus Short Distance Short Distance Closeness Rapid Onset
versus
versus
and Endocrine System) Nervous Wired Neurotransmitters versus Short Distance Short Distance Closeness Rapid Onset Short
and Endocrine System) Nervous Wired Neurotransmitters versus Short Distance Short Distance Closeness Rapid Onset Short
Short Distance Short Distance
Short Distance
Short Distance

Closeness

versus Short Distance Short Distance Closeness Rapid Onset Short Duration Rapid Response Marc Imhotep Cray,
versus Short Distance Short Distance Closeness Rapid Onset Short Duration Rapid Response Marc Imhotep Cray,
versus Short Distance Short Distance Closeness Rapid Onset Short Duration Rapid Response Marc Imhotep Cray,
versus Short Distance Short Distance Closeness Rapid Onset Short Duration Rapid Response Marc Imhotep Cray,
Rapid Onset
Rapid Onset
versus Short Distance Short Distance Closeness Rapid Onset Short Duration Rapid Response Marc Imhotep Cray, M.D.
Short Duration
Short Duration
Short Distance Closeness Rapid Onset Short Duration Rapid Response Marc Imhotep Cray, M.D. Endocrine Wireless
Rapid Response
Rapid Response

Marc Imhotep Cray, M.D.

Onset Short Duration Rapid Response Marc Imhotep Cray, M.D. Endocrine Wireless Hormones Hormones Long Distance Long
Onset Short Duration Rapid Response Marc Imhotep Cray, M.D. Endocrine Wireless Hormones Hormones Long Distance Long
Onset Short Duration Rapid Response Marc Imhotep Cray, M.D. Endocrine Wireless Hormones Hormones Long Distance Long

Endocrine

Duration Rapid Response Marc Imhotep Cray, M.D. Endocrine Wireless Hormones Hormones Long Distance Long Distance
Duration Rapid Response Marc Imhotep Cray, M.D. Endocrine Wireless Hormones Hormones Long Distance Long Distance
Wireless
Wireless

Hormones

Hormones

Imhotep Cray, M.D. Endocrine Wireless Hormones Hormones Long Distance Long Distance Receptor Specificity Delayed

Long Distance

Long Distance

Wireless Hormones Hormones Long Distance Long Distance Receptor Specificity Delayed Onset Prolonged Duration
Wireless Hormones Hormones Long Distance Long Distance Receptor Specificity Delayed Onset Prolonged Duration
Receptor Specificity
Receptor Specificity
Hormones Hormones Long Distance Long Distance Receptor Specificity Delayed Onset Prolonged Duration Regulation 7
Delayed Onset
Delayed Onset
Hormones Hormones Long Distance Long Distance Receptor Specificity Delayed Onset Prolonged Duration Regulation 7
Prolonged Duration
Prolonged Duration
Hormones Hormones Long Distance Long Distance Receptor Specificity Delayed Onset Prolonged Duration Regulation 7
Regulation
Regulation

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Sympathetic Nervous System The Fright -Flight Or Fight Response  sympatho-adrenergic system gives rise to
Sympathetic Nervous System
Sympathetic Nervous System

The Fright -Flight Or Fight Response

sympatho-adrenergic system gives rise to fright, flight or

fight response in acutely stressful situations

sympathetic dominate over parasympathetic and

subject is aggressive and/ or anxious

cardiac rate, contractile force and conductivity are increase,

blood is re-distributed from viscera to active skeletal muscles by visceral, skin and fat vasoconstriction (+ α-1) and skeletal

muscles preferential vasodilatation (+ β-2)

brain releases corticotrophin-releasing factor to hypothalamic-pituitary portal system

The hypothalamic-pituitary axis secretes

adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)>>adrenal cortex>>cortisol

Marc Imhotep Cray, M.D.

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Sympathetic Nervous System (2)

Sympathetic Nervous System (2)  subject hyperventilates,  gastrointestinal activity reduced,  increased

subject hyperventilates,

gastrointestinal activity reduced,

increased glycogenolysis and lipolysis

The airways dilate, and

adrenal medullary (catecholamines) and

cortical secretion (cortisol) increases

This response is seen in humans exposed to psychological-

emotional , as well as physiologic stress

Stress in general is comprised of severe emotional and physical burdens (fear, pain, hypoxia, hypothermia,

hypoglycemia, hypotension etc.)

Story Time, Walter Cannon (1871-1945)

Marc Imhotep Cray, M.D.

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Endocrine Reponses to Stress  Brain releases corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) to hypothalamic-pituitary portal
Endocrine Reponses to Stress
Endocrine Reponses to Stress

Brain releases corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF)

to hypothalamic-pituitary portal system

hypothalamic-pituitary axis secretes adrenocorticotropic hormone(ACTH)

This response is seen in humans exposed to psychological-emotional stress, as well as physiologically mediated stress response mechanism, such as ANS stimulation.

Stress in general is comprised of severe emotional and physical burdens (fear, pain, hypoxia, hypothermia, hypoglycemia, hypotension etc.).

Marc Imhotep Cray, M.D.

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Endocrine –Immune System Reponses to Stress The brain and the immune defense system  Internal
Endocrine –Immune System Reponses to Stress
Endocrine –Immune System Reponses to Stress

The brain and the immune defense system

Internal and external stress affects the prefrontal cortex,

whereby the limbic system with the hypothalamus is

activated

hypothalamic nuclei release CRH to portal blood

blood reaches adenohypophysis, where CRH triggers the

release of adenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH),

endorphins and met-enkephalin

ACTH works through different pathways in order to protect the body

For example, ACTH stimulates the adrenal cortex to release corticosteroids, which produce immuno- suppression.

Marc Imhotep Cray, M.D.

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Learn more:

Cannon, WB, Organization for Physiological Homeostasis/PDF Physiological Rev July 1, 1929 9:399-431

Story Time, Walter Cannon (1871-1945)

http://www.scribd.com/doc/106694667/IVMS-ANS-Pharmacology-
http://www.scribd.com/doc/106694667/IVMS-ANS-Pharmacology-

Marc Imhotep Cray, M.D.

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