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Walter Cannon, Homeostasis and the Physiological Response to Stress

Slides from: Introduction to the Autonomic Nervous System-Lecture Marc Imhotep Cray, M.D. http://www.scribd.com/doc/106694667/IVMS-ANS-PharmacologyIntroduction-Review-of-the-Autonomic-Nervous-System-abridged

Courtesy National Library of Medicine (NLM)

Marc Imhotep Cray, M.D.

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Homeostasis

(A responsibility of the ANS and Endocrine System)

Redrawn after: Kibble JD, Halsey CR, Homeostasis: In Medical Physiology -The Big Picture; McGraw-Hill ,2009:2

Negative feedback is the major control process used to maintain a stable internal environment
See: Wiki-Human-homeostasis/PDF

The physiologic process of maintaining an internal environment (ECF environment) compatible with normal health Autonomic reflexes maintain set points and modulate organ system functions via negative feedback in pursuit of homeostasis
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Marc Imhotep Cray, M.D.

Components of a negative feedback control system
Recognizes deviation of normal set point value Measures control variable Attempt to restore set point value

COMPARATOR SENSOR
stretch receptors, chemo-, baro-, osmo-, and thermoreceptors etc.

+
ERROR SIGNAL

SET POINT

EFFECTOR

CONTROLLED VARIBLE
(SEE NEXT SLIDE)

Redrawn after: Kibble JD, Halsey CR, Homeostasis: In Medical Physiology -The Big Picture; McGraw-Hill ,2009:2

NEGATIVE FEEDBACK
Effector opposes stimulus 3

-

Negative feedback: Initiation of responses that counter deviations of controlled variables from their normal range

Important variable maintained within a normal range
Marc Imhotep Cray, M.D.

Examples of Physiologic Controlled Variables
Controlled Variable
(Arterial Blood Sample)

Typical Set Point Value

Arterial O2 partial pressure Arterial CO2 partial pressure Arterial blood pH Glucose Core body temperature Serum Na+ Serum K+ Serum Ca2+ Mean arterial blood pressure Glomerular filtration rate

100 mm Hg 40 mm Hg pH 7.4 90 mg/dL (5 mM) 98.4°F (37°C) 140 mEq/L 4.0 mEq/L 4.5 mEq/L 90 mm Hg 120 mL /min
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Adopted from: Kibble JD, Halsey CR, Homeostasis: In Medical Physiology The Big Picture; McGraw-Hill ,2009:3 Marc Imhotep Cray, M.D.

Walter Cannon coined the word homeostasis
 Referring to animal systems, pioneering 20th century physiologist Walter Cannon coined the word homeostasis in 1926  Coordinated physiological reactions which maintain most of the steady states in the body are so complex, and are so peculiar to the living organism, that it was suggested (Cannon, 1929) that a specific designation for these states be employed homeostasis
Cannon, WB, Organization for Physiological Homeostasis/PDF Physiological Rev July 1, 1929 9:399-431
Marc Imhotep Cray, M.D.

Courtesy National Library of Medicine (NLM)

http://en.citizendium.org/wiki/File:William_cannon.jpg #Licensing

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Cannon-Bard theory
Dr. Cannon investigated the emergency functions of the sympathetic nervous system and with Philip Bard developed the Cannon-Bard theory, which proposed that emotional and physiological responses to external situations arise at once and that both prepare the body to deal with the situation.
http://www.annals.org/cgi/content/full/134/11/1086 Story Time, Walter Cannon (1871-1945) http://peer.tamu.edu/curriculum_modules/OrganSystems/module_5 /storytime.htm

Courtesy National Library of Medicine (NLM)

Marc Imhotep Cray, M.D.

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Homeostasis (2)
Nervous Wired Neurotransmitters Short Distance Distance Short Closeness

(A responsibility of the ANS and Endocrine System)
versus Endocrine Wireless Hormones Hormones Long Distance Distance Long Receptor Specificity

Rapid Onset
Short Duration Rapid Response
Marc Imhotep Cray, M.D.

Delayed Onset
Prolonged Duration Regulation
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Sympathetic Nervous System

The Fright -Flight Or Fight Response

 sympatho-adrenergic system gives rise to fright, flight or fight response in acutely stressful situations  sympathetic dominate over parasympathetic and  subject is aggressive and/ or anxious  cardiac rate, contractile force and conductivity are increase,  blood is re-distributed from viscera to active skeletal muscles by visceral, skin and fat vasoconstriction (+ α-1) and skeletal muscles preferential vasodilatation (+ β-2)  brain releases corticotrophin-releasing factor to hypothalamic-pituitary portal system  The hypothalamic-pituitary axis secretes adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)>>adrenal cortex>>cortisol
Marc Imhotep Cray, M.D.

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Sympathetic Nervous System (2)

     

subject hyperventilates, gastrointestinal activity reduced, increased glycogenolysis and lipolysis The airways dilate, and adrenal medullary (catecholamines) and cortical secretion (cortisol) increases

 This response is seen in humans exposed to psychologicalemotional , as well as physiologic stress  Stress in general is comprised of severe emotional and physical burdens (fear, pain, hypoxia, hypothermia, hypoglycemia, hypotension etc.)
Story Time, Walter Cannon (1871-1945) http://peer.tamu.edu/curriculum_modules/OrganSystems/module_5/storytime.htm

Marc Imhotep Cray, M.D.

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Endocrine Reponses to Stress

 Brain releases corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) to hypothalamic-pituitary portal system  hypothalamic-pituitary axis secretes adrenocorticotropic hormone(ACTH)
 This response is seen in humans exposed to psychological-emotional stress, as well as physiologically mediated stress response mechanism, such as ANS stimulation.  Stress in general is comprised of severe emotional and physical burdens (fear, pain, hypoxia, hypothermia, hypoglycemia, hypotension etc.).
See: The Wisdom of the Body, by Walter B. Cannon
Marc Imhotep Cray, M.D.

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Endocrine –Immune System Reponses to Stress

The brain and the immune defense system  Internal and external stress affects the prefrontal cortex, whereby the limbic system with the hypothalamus is activated  hypothalamic nuclei release CRH to portal blood  blood reaches adenohypophysis, where CRH triggers the release of adenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), endorphins and met-enkephalin  ACTH works through different pathways in order to protect the body  For example, ACTH stimulates the adrenal cortex to release corticosteroids, which produce immunosuppression.
Marc Imhotep Cray, M.D.

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Learn more:
Cannon, WB, Organization for Physiological Homeostasis/PDF Physiological Rev July 1, 1929 9:399-431 Story Time, Walter Cannon (1871-1945) http://peer.tamu.edu/curriculum_modules/OrganSystems/module_5/storytime.htm

http://www.scribd.com/doc/106694667/IVMS-ANS-PharmacologyIntroduction-Review-of-the-Autonomic-Nervous-System-abridged
Marc Imhotep Cray, M.D.

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