CNS – – PNS – –

➢ ➢ ➢ Brain Spinal Cord Cranial and Spinal Nerves Ganglia

Parietal Temporal Occipital

Frontal Lobe – 3 sulci into 4 gyri • Precentral sulcus • Superior frontal sulcus • Inferior frontal sulcus( superior, middle and inferior frontal gyri) Parietal Lobe – 2 sulci into 3 gyri • Postcentral sulcus(postcentral gyrus) • Intraparietal sulcus( superior parietal gyrus/lobule, inferior parietal gyrus/lobule) Temporal Lobe – 2 sulci into 3 gyri • Superior temporal sulci • Middle temporal sulci Occipital Lobe- occupies the small area behind the parieto-occipital sulcus. Medial Surface of the Cerebral Hemisphere  Corpus Callosum – largest commisure of the brain; C-shaped  Cingulate Gyrus – begins beneath the anterior end of the corpus callosum and continuous above the corpus callosum until it reaches its posterior end.  Callosal sulcus – gyrus that separates the corpus callosum. 3 main parts:  Paracentral lobulerectangular in shape. - surrounds the indentation produced by the central sulcus on the superior border.  Precuneus – bounded anteriorly by the upturned posterior end of the cingulate sulcus and posteriorly by the parietoocciptal sulcus.  Cuneus – triangular area of cortex bounded above :parieto-occipital sulcus inferiorly: calcarine sulcus posterioerly: superior medial margin.

Weight of an Adult Brain

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Male: 1,380 grams Female : 1,280 grams

3 major divisions: – Prosencephalon – Telencephalon (cerebrum) Diencephalon (Central Part) Mesencephalon (midbrain) Rhombencephalon • Metencephalon (pons) • Myelencephalon (medulla oblongata) • Cerebellum Cerebrum 1. Consist of two cerebral hemispheres 2. Connected by corpus callosum 3. Separated by longitudinal fissure which contains the falx cerebri and anterior cerebral arteries. 4. Thrown into folds called gyri 5. Separated by fissures called sulci ➢ Main Sulci of the Brain Lateral Surface • Central Sulcus -anterior: motor cortex -posterior: sensory cortex • Lateral Sulcus – deep cleft on the inferior and lateral surface divided into: • Anterior horizontal ramus, anterior ascending ramus, continuous as the posterior ramus Medial Surface • Parieto-occipital sulcus • Calcarine sulcus

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Lobes of the Brain ➢ Frontal

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Inferior Surface of the Cerebral Hemisphere

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Collateral sulcus- runs anteriorly below the calcarine sulcus Lingual gyrus- between the collateral sulcus and the calcarine sulcus Parahippocampal gyrusanterior to the lingual gyrus Uncus – hooklike that terminates in front. Medial occipitotemporal gyrus – bounded by: Medially: collateral and rhinal sulci Laterally: occipitotempral sulcus Lateral occipitotemporal gyrus –lateral to the occipito temporal sulcus Olfactory Bulb & Tract – overlie sulcus called olfactory sulcus Medial to olfactory sulcus: gyrus rectus Lateral to olfactory sulcus: orbital gyri

- completely divided by a band of nerve fibers(internal capsule) -divided into:

1) Caudate nucleuslarge C-shaped mass of gray matter that is closely related to the lateral ventricles. - divided into : head, body & tail.

2)

Lentiform nucleus - wedge-shaped mass of gray matter related medially to the internal capsule w/c separates it to from the caudate nucleus and thalamus divided into: A. Putamen B. Globus Pallidus

Internal structures of the Cerebral Hemisphere ➢ ➢ ➢ Lateral ventricle Basal Nuclei White Matter

b) Amygdaloid Nucleus - situated in the temporal lobe close to the uncus. - considered part of the limbic system. c) Claustrum – thin sheet of gray matter that is separated from the lateral surface of the lentiform nucleus by the external capsule. Function of the Basal Nuclei Collaborates as a collective whole with the cerebral cortex. 3. White Matter • Composed of myelinated nerve fibers of different diameter supported by neuroglia. • Classified into 3 groups according to their connections: Commisural fibers, Association fibers, Projection Fibers

1. Lateral Ventricles • There are two lateral ventricles and one is present in each cerebral hemispheres • Roughly C-shaped cavity lined with ependyma and filled with CSF. • Divided into: body, anterior, posterior and inferior horn. • Communicates with the cavity of the 3rd ventricle through interventricular foramen 2. Basal Nuclei • Applied to a collection of gray masses of gray matter situated within each cerebral hemisphere. • Consist of : ○ Corpus striatum ○ Amygdaloid Nucleus ○ Claustrum

a) Commissure Fibers Essentially connect corresponding regions of the two hemispheres. They are as follows: Corpus Callosum, Anterior Commisure, Posterior Commisure, Fornix, Habebular Commisure

a) Corpus striatum –
situated lateral to the thalamus

a) Corpus callosum –largest
commisure of the brain that

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connects the two cerebral hemispheres. - for purpose of description, it is divided into : rostrum, the genu, the body, and the splenium

1. Thalamus 2. Subthalamus 3. Epithalamus 4. Hypothalamus 1) Thalamus • -large ovoid mass of gray matter that forms the major part of the diencephalon. • -region of great fxnal importance and serves cell station to all the main sensory system (except the olfactory pathway). • -anterior end: narrow and rounded and forms the small boundary of the interventricular foramen. • posterior end: expanded to form the pulvinar( which overhangs the superior colliculus and the superior brachium. • -lateral geniculate body forms a small elevation on the under aspect of the lateral portion of the pulvinar. • -superior surface of the thalamus is covered medially by the tela choroidea and the fornix. • medial surface of the thalamus forms the superior part of the lateral wall of the third ventricle and is usually connected to the opposite thalamus by a band of gray matter, the interthalamic connection(interthalamic adhesion) • lateral surface is separated from the lentiform nucleus by the very important band of white matter called internal capsule. 2) Subthalamus • Lies inferior to the thalamus, situated between the thalamus and the tegmentum of the midbrain; craniomedially, it is related to the hypothalamus. • Collection of nerve cells are the following: ○ Red nuclei

✔ Rostrum- thin part of the ✔
anterior end of the corpus callosum. Genu- curved anterior end of the corpus callosum that bends inferiorly in front of the septum pellucidum. Body of the corpus callosum- thickened part (Splenium)

b) Anterior Commisure – small
bundle of nerve fibers that crosses the midline in the lamina terminalis. c) Posterior Commisure – crosses midline immediately above the opening of cerebral aqueduct into the 3rd ventricle. d) Fornix – myelinated nerve fibers and constitutes the efferent system of the hippocampus that passes to the mammilary bodies of the hypothalamus. The nerve fibers first form the alveus. e) Habenular Commisuresmall bundle of nerve fiber that crosses the midline in the superior part of the root of the pineal stalk.

DIENCEPHALON Consist of the third ventricle and the structures that form its boundaries. ➢ Extends posteriorly to the point where the third ventricle becomes continuous with the cerebral aqueduct and anteriorly as far as the interventricular foramina ➢ Gross Features Bounderies Superior wall: roof of the 3rd ventricle Lateral surface: internal capsule Medial surface: superior part by the medial surface of thalamus. Four (4) major parts:

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○ Substantia nigra Subthalamic nucleus has the shape of a biconvex lens,involved in the control of the muscle activity due to its conncetion to corpus striatum

the pineal gland with age possess no nerve cells.

3) Epithalamus • -consist of the habenular nuclei and their connections and the pineal gland.  Habenular Nucleus • small group of neurons situated just medial to the posterior surface of the thalamus. • believe to be the center for integration of olfactory, visceral, and somatic afferent pathway. Pineal Gland(body) • small, conical structure that is attached by the pineal stalks to the diencephalon. • it projects backward so that it lies posterior to the midbrain. • the superior part of the base of the stalk contains the habenular commisure • the inferior part of the base of the stalk contains the posterior commisure • completely divide into lobules by connective tissue septa that extends into the gland from the capsule • types of cell found: pinealocytes and the glial cells. • concretion of calcified material called brain sand progressively accumulate within

functions  Recognized as an endocrine gland capable of influencing the activities of the pituitary gland, the islets of langerhan, the parathyroid , the adrenal and the gonads.  for Melatonin production.  Plays an important role in the regulation of reproductive function. 4) Hypothalamus • part of the diencephalon that extends from the region of the optic chiasma to the caudal border of the mamillary bodies. • Lies below the hypothalamic sulcus on the lateral wall of the 3rd ventricle. • Relatively the small area of the brain that is strategically well placed close to the limbic system, the thalamus, the ascending and descending tracts, and the hyphophysis • Controls and integrates the fxns of the ANS and endocrine system and plays important role in maintaining body homeostasis. • Involved in such activities as regulation of body temperature, body fluids, drives to eat and drink, sexual behavior and emotion. Relations of the Hypothalamus  Optic chiasma  Tuber cinereum and infundibulum  Mamillary bodies Optic chiasma • Flattened bundle of nerve fibers situated at the junction of the anterior wall and floor of the third ventricle.

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Superior surface: attached to the lamina terminalis Inferiorly: related to hypophysis cerebri from which it is separated by the diaphragm sellae. Anterolateral corner : continuos with optic nerves Posterolateral corner: continuous with the optic tracts Superior surface: optic recess of the 3rd ventricle It is important to remember that the fibers originating from the nasal half of each retina cross the medial plane at the chiasma to enter the optics tract of the opposite side.

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Posterior wall is formed by the opening into the cerebral aqueduct, Lateral wall is formed by the medial surface of the thalamus superiorly and hypothalamus inferiorly. Superior wall or roof is formed by a layer of ependyma that is continuous with the lining of the ventricle. The te;a choroidea of the third ventricle – two-layered fold of pia mater

Tuber Cinereum • Convex mass of gray matter, as seen from the inferior surface. • Continuos inferiorly with the infundibulum (hollow and become continuous with the posterior lobe of the hypophysis cerebri. • Median eminence is a raised part of the tuber cinereum to which is attached the infundubulum. Mammilary Bodies • Two(2) hemispherical bodies situated side by side posterior to the tuber cinereum • Possess a central core of gray matter invested by a capsule of myelintated nerve fibers. • Posterior to the mammilary bodies lies an area of the brain that pierced by a number of small apertures and is called posterior perforated substance (transmits the central branches of posterior cerebral arteries) Third Ventricle – Derived from the forebrain vesicle – Slitlike cleft between two thalami. – Communicates anteriorly with the lateral ventricles through the interventricular foramina (foramina of monro) – Communicates posteriorly with the fourth ventricle through the cerebral aqueduct. – Anterior wall is formed by a thins sheet of gray matter(lamina terminalis)

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