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Page 893

APPENDIX

P R O P E R T Y TA B L E S A N D
CHARTS (ENGLISH UNITS)
TABLE A1E
TABLE A2E
TABLE A3E
TABLE A4E
TABLE A5E
TABLE A6E
TABLE A7E
TABLE A8E
TABLE A9E
TABLE A10E
TABLE A11E
TABLE A12E
TABLE A13E
TABLE A14E
TABLE A15E
TABLE A16E
TABLE A17E

Molar mass, gas constant, and ideal-gas specific heats of


some substances 894
Boiling and freezing point properties 895
Properties of solid metals 896897
Properties of solid nonmetals 898
Properties of building materials 899900
Properties of insulating materials 901
Properties of common foods 902903
Properties of miscellaneous materials 904
Properties of saturated water 905
Properties of saturated refrigerant134a 906
Properties of saturated ammonia 907
Properties of saturated propane 908
Properties of liquids 909
Properties of liquid metals 910
Properties of air at 1 atm pressure 911
Properties of gases at 1 atm pressure 912913
Properties of the atmosphere at high altitude 914

893

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894
APPENDIX 2

TABLE A1E
Molar mass, gas constant, and ideal-gas specific heats of some substances

Substance
Air
Ammonia, NH3
Argon, Ar
Bromine, Br2
Isobutane, C4H10
n-Butane, C4H10
Carbon dioxide, CO2
Carbon monoxide, CO
Chlorine, Cl2
Chlorodifiuoromethane (R-22), CHCIF2
Ethane, C2H6
Ethylene, C2H4
Fluorine, F2
Helium, He
n-Heptane, C7H16
n-Hexane, C6H14
Hydrogen, H2
Krypton, Kr
Methane, CH4
Neon, Ne
Nitrogen, N2
Nitric oxide. NO
Nitrogen dioxide, NO2
Oxygen, O2
n-Pentane, C5H12
Propane, C3H8
Propylene, C3H6
Steam, H2O
Sulfur dioxide, SO2
Tetrachloromethane, CCI4
Tetrafluoroethane (R-134a), C2H2F4
Trifluoroethane (R-143a), C2H3F3
Xenon, Xe

Molar Mass,
M, lbm/lbmol
28.97
17.03
39.95
159.81
58.12
58.12
44.01
28.01
70.905
86.47
30.070
28.054
38.00
4.003
100.20
86.18
2.016
83.80
16.04
20.183
28.01
30.006
46.006
32.00
72.15
44.097
42.08
18.015
64.06
153.82
102.03
84.04
131.30

Gas Constant R*
Btu/
psiaft3 /
lbmR
lbmR
0.06855
0.1166
0.04970
0.01242
0.03415
0.03415
0.04512
0.07089
0.02802
0.02297
0.06604
0.07079
0.05224
0.4961
0.01982
0.02304
0.9850
0.02370
0.1238
0.09838
0.07089
0.06618
0.04512
0.06205
0.02752
0.04502
0.04720
0.1102
0.03100
0.01291
0.01946
0.02363
0.01512

0.3704
0.6301
0.2686
0.06714
0.1846
0.1846
0.2438
0.3831
0.1514
0.1241
0.3569
0.3826
0.2823
2.681
0.1071
0.1245
5.323
0.1281
0.6688
0.5316
0.3831
0.3577
0.2438
0.3353
0.1487
0.2433
0.2550
0.5957
0.1675
0.06976
0.1052
0.1277
0.08173

Specific Heat Data at 77F


cp,
cv,
Btu/lbmR Btu/lbmR
k cp /cv
0.2400
0.4999
0.1243
0.0538
0.3972
0.4046
0.2016
0.2482
0.1142
0.1552
0.4166
0.3647
0.1967
1.2403
0.3939
0.3951
3.416
0.05923
0.5317
0.2460
0.2484
0.2387
0.1925
0.2193
0.3974
0.3986
0.3657
0.4455
0.1488
0.1293
0.1991
0.2219
0.03781

0.1715
0.3834
0.07457
0.04137
0.3631
0.3705
0.1564
0.1772
0.08618
0.1322
0.3506
0.2940
0.1445
0.7442
0.3740
0.3721
2.431
0.03554
0.4080
0.1476
0.1774
0.1725
0.1474
0.1572
0.3700
0.3535
0.3184
0.3351
0.1178
0.1164
0.1796
0.1983
0.02269

1.400
1.304
1.667
1.300
1.094
1.092
1.288
1.400
1.325
1.174
1.188
1.241
1.362
1.667
1.053
1.062
1.405
1.667
1.303
1.667
1.400
1.384
1.306
1.395
1.074
1.127
1.148
1.329
1.263
1.111
1.108
1.119
1.667

*The gas constant is calculated from R Ru /M, where Ru 1.9859 Btu/lbmolR 10.732 psiaft3/lbmolR is the universal gas constant and M is the
molar mass.

Source: Specific heat values are mostly obtained from the property routines prepared by The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST),
Gaithersburg, MD.

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APPENDIX 2

TABLE A2E
Boiling and freezing point properties
Boiling Data at 1 atm

Substance

Normal
Boiling
Point, F

Latent Heat of
Vaporization
hfg, Btu/Ibm

Ammonia

27.9

24.54

Freezing Data
Freezing
Point, F

Latent Heat
of Fusion
hif, Btu/Ibm

107.9

138.6

Argon
Benzene
Brine (20% sodium
chloride by mass)
n-Butane
Carbon dioxide
Ethanol
Ethyl alcohol
Ethylene glycol
Glycerine
Helium
Hydrogen
Isobutane
Kerosene
Mercury
Methane

302.6
176.4

69.5
169.4

308.7
41.9

12.0
54.2

219.0
31.1
109.2*
172.8
173.5
388.6
355.8
452.1
423.0
10.9
399559
674.1
258.7

165.6
99.6 (at 32F)
360.5
368
344.0
419
9.80
191.7
157.8
108
126.7
219.6

0.7
217.3
69.8
173.6
248.8
12.6
66.0

434.5
255.5
12.8
38.0
296.0

34.5

46.9
46.4
77.9
86.3

25.6
45.5

4.90
25.1

Methanol
Nitrogen

148.1
320.4

473
85.4

143.9
346.0

42.7
10.9

Octane
Oil (light)
Oxygen
Petroleum
Propane

256.6

297.3

43.7

131.7

91.5
99165
184.0

71.5

77.9

361.8

5.9

305.8

34.4

141.9

32

143.5

Refrigerant-134a

15.0

Water

212

93.2

970.5

Liquid Properties
Temperature, F

Specific
Density
Heat cp,
r, Ibm/ft3 Btu/IbmR

27.9
0
40
80
302.6
68

42.6
41.3
39.5
37.5
87.0
54.9

1.06
1.083
1.103
1.135
0.272
0.411

68
31.1
32
77
68
68
68
452.1
423.0
10.9
68
77
258.7
160
77
320.4
260
68
77
297.3
68
43.7
32
100
40
15
32
90
32
90
150
212

71.8
37.5
57.8
48.9
49.3
69.2
78.7
9.13
4.41
37.1
51.2
847
26.4
20.0
49.1
50.5
38.2
43.9
56.8
71.2
40.0
36.3
33.0
29.4
88.5
86.0
80.9
73.6
62.4
62.1
61.2
59.8

0.743
0.552
0.583
0.588
0.678
0.678
0.554
5.45
2.39
0.545
0.478
0.033
0.834
1.074
0.609
0.492
0.643
0.502
0.430
0.408
0.478
0.538
0.604
0.673
0.283
0.294
0.318
0.348
1.01
1.00
1.00
1.01

*Sublimation temperature. (At pressures below the triple-point pressure of 75.1 psia, carbon dioxide exists as a solid or gas. Also, the freezing-point
temperature of carbon dioxide is the triple-point temperature of 69.8F.)

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896
APPENDIX 2

TABLE A3E
Properties of solid metals
Properties at 540 R

Composition
Aluminum
Pure
Alloy 2024-T6
(4.5% Cu, 1.5% Mg,
0.6% Mn)
Alloy 195, cast (4.5% Cu)
Beryllium
Bismuth

Melting
Point,
r
R
Ibm/ft3

cp (Btu/
IbmR)

k (Btu/
hftR)

Properties at Various Temperatures (R),


k (Btu/hftR)/cp(Btu/lbmR)
a 106
ft2/s

1679

168

0.216 137

1045

1395

173

0.209 102.3

785.8

2790

174.2
115.5

0.211 97
0.436 115.6

734
637.2

981

610.5

0.029

4.6

71

180

360

720

1080

1440

174.5
0.115
37.6

137
0.191
94.2

138.6
0.226
107.5

133.4
0.246
107.5

126
0.273

0.113

0.188
100.5
174
0.266
5.6
0.028
32.06
0.143
57.4
0.053
64.1
0.091
70.5
0.09
238.6
0.085
30
0.187
37.6

54.9
0.09
1.1
0.09
56
0.069
186.6
0.029
88.4
0.029
54.3
0.091
46.6
0.091

0.22
106.9
93
0.523
4.06
0.03
9.7
0.349
54.7
0.057
52.5
0.115
49.3
0.107
227.07
0.094
34
0.109
42.8

79.2
0.09

0.249

572
0.048
9.5
0.026
109.7
0.03
117.3
0.047
91.9
0.045
96.5
0.056
278.5
0.06
24.3

Boron

4631

156

0.264

15.6

105

Cadmium

1069

540

0.055

55.6

521

Chromium

3812

447

0.107

54.1

313.2

Cobalt

3184

553.2

0.101

57.3

286.3

Copper
Pure
Commercial bronze
(90% Cu, 10% Al)
Phosphor gear bronze
(89% Cu, 11% Sn)
Cartridge brass
(70% Cu, 30% Zn)
Constantan
(55% Cu, 45% Ni)
Germanium

2445

559

0.092 231.7

1259.3

2328

550

0.1

30

150.7

1987

548.1

0.084

31.2

183

23.7

2139

532.5

0.09

63.6

364.9

43.3

2687

557

0.092

13.3

72.3

2180

334.6

0.08

34.6

373.5

183.2

72.8
0.621

61.3
0.624

52.5
0.72

6.1
0.451

5.5
0.515

5.7
0.558

46.6
0.129
39
0.12
219
0.01

41.2
0.138
33.6
0.131
212
0.103

37.8
0.147
80.1
0.145
203.4
0.107

0.130

86.0
0.101

25
0.08
179.7
0.031
83.2
0.031
40.2
0.117
38
0.117
32.8

15.7
0.083
172.2
0.032
79.7
0.032
31.6
0.137
30.7
0.137
27.7

11.4
0.085
164.09
0.033
76.3
0.034
25.01
0.162
24.4
0.162
22.7

10.05
0.089
156
0.034
72.8
0.036
19
0.232
18.7
0.233
17.4

0.116
33.9
0.116
28.8

0.113
28.2
0.133
25.4

0.163
22.7
0.163
21.6

0.279
18
0.278
17

0.119
24.4
0.116

0.139
23
0.133

0.166
20.2
0.163

0.231
16
0.260

Gold

2405 1205

0.03

Iridium

4896 1404.6

0.031

85

541.4

Iron:
Pure
Armco
(99.75% pure)
Carbon steels
Plain carbon (Mn 1%,
Si 0.1%)
AISI 1010

3258

491.3

0.106

46.4

248.6

491.3

0.106

42

222.8

490.3

0.103

35

190.6

489

0.103

37

202.4

488

0.106

30

160.4

508

0.104

23.7

125

488.3

0.106

21.8

117.4

22
0.117

21.2
0.137

19.3
0.164

15.6
0.23

490.6

0.106

24.5

131.3

24.3

22.6

20

15.8

151.8

0.117
27.0
0.117

0.137
24.3
0.137

0.164
21
0.164

0.231
16.3
0.231

Carbon-silicon
(Mn 1%,
0.1% Si 0.6%)
Carbon-manganese-silicon
(1% Mn 1.65%,
0.1% Si 0.6%)
Chromium (low) steels:
1
Cr14 MoSi
2
(0.18% C, 0.65% Cr,
0.23% Mo, 0.6% Si)1
1 Cr12 Mo (0.16% C,
1% Cr, 0.54% Mo, 0.39% Si)
1 CrV
(0.2% C, 1.02% Cr, 0.15% V)

489.2

0.106

28.3

1367

9.8
0.06
134
0.045
189
0.026
99.4
0.021
77.4
0.051
55.2
0.051

1800

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897
APPENDIX 2

TABLE A3E
Properties of solid metals (Concluded)
Properties at 540 R
Melting
Point,
r
R
Ibm/ft3

Properties at Various Temperatures (R),


k (Btu/hftR)/cp (Btu/lbmR)
a 106
ft2/s

cp(Btu/
IbmR)

k (Btu/
hftR)

503

0.114

8.7

42

493.2

0.114

8.6

42.5

AISI 316

514.3

0.111

7.8

37.5

AISI 347

498

0.114

8.2

40

Composition
Stainless steels:
AISI 302
AISI 304

3006

Lead

1082

708

0.03

20.4

259.4

Magnesium

1661

109

0.245

90.2

943

Molybdenum

5209

639.3

0.06

79.7

578

Nickel:
Pure
Nichrome
(80% Ni, 20% Cr)
Inconel X-750
(73% Ni, 15% Cr,
6.7% Fe)
Niobium

3110

555.6

0.106

52.4

247.6

3010

524.4

0.1

6.9

36.6

2997

531.3

0.104

6.8

33.4

4934

535

0.063

31

254

Palladium

3289

750.4

0.058

41.5

263.7

Platinum:
Pure
Alloy 60Pt-40Rh
(60% Pt, 40% Rh)
Rhenium

3681 1339

0.031

41.4

270

3240 1038.2

0.038

27.2

187.3

6215 1317.2

0.032

27.7

180

Rhodium

4025

777.2

0.058

86.7

534

Silicon

3033

145.5

0.17

85.5

960.2

Silver

2223

656

0.056 248

Tantalum

5884 1036.3

0.033

33.2

266

Thorium

3641

730.4

0.028

31.2

420.9

909

456.3

0.054

38.5

431.6

281

0.013

12.7

100.3

Tin

1873

Titanium

3515

Tungsten

6588 1204.9

0.031 100.5

735.2

Uranium

2531 1190.5

0.027

16

134.5

Vanadium

3946

381

0.117

17.7

110.9

Zinc

1247

445.7

0.093

67

450

Zirconium

3825

410.2

0.067

13.1

133.5

180

360

5.31
0.064

7.3
0.096

0.12

0.131

23
0.028
87.9
0.155
1034
0.038
94.8
0.055

21.2
0.029
91.9
0.223
82.6
0.053
61.8
0.091
0.114
5.9

31.9
0.044
44.2
0.04
44.7
0.024

0.088
30.4
0.059
41.4
0.054
42
0.03

34
0.023
107.5
0.035
510.8
0.061
257
0.044
34.2
0.026
34.6
0.024
49.2
0.044
17.6
0.071
120.2
0.020
12.5
0.022
20.7
0.061
67.6
0.07
19.2
0.049

30
0.03
89
0.052
152.5
0.132
248.4
0.053
33.2
0.031
31.5
0.027
42.4
0.051
14.2
0.111
107.5
0.029
14.5
0.026
18
0.102
68.2
0.087
14.6
0.063

720

1080

1440

1800

10
0.122
9.6
0.123
8.8
0.137
9.1
0.122
19.7
0.031
88.4
0.256
77.4
0.062
46.3
0.115
8.0
0.125
7.8

11.6
0.133
11.5
0.133
10.6
0.143
1.1
0.133
18.1
0.034
86.0
0.279
72.8
0.065
37.9
0.141
9.3
0.130
9.8

13.2
0.140
13
0.139
12.3

14.7
0.144
14.7
0.145
14

12.7
0.14

14.3
0.144

0.112
32
0.065
42.5
0.059
41.5
0.032
30

26.6
0.033
84.3
0.06
57.2
0.189
245.5
0.057
33.4
0.034
31.4
0.029
35.9
0.058
11.8
0.131
92
0.032
17.1
0.029
18
0.123
64.1
0.096
12.5
0.072

0.121
33.6
0.067
46
0.062
42.3
0.034
34

25.5
0.034
78.5
0.065
35.8
0.207
238
0.059
34
0.035
32.2
0.032

0.13
35.4
0.069
50
0.064
43.7
0.035
37.5

25.4
0.036
73.4
0.069
24.4
0.218
228.8
0.062
34.3
0.036
32.9
0.035

25.8
0.037
70
0.074
18.0
0.226
219
0.066
34.8
0.036
32.9
0.037

11.2
0.141
79.2
0.033
19.6
0.035
19.3
0.128
59.5
0.104
12
0.77

11.4
0.151
72.2
0.034
22.4
0.042
20.6
0.134

12
0.161
68.2
0.035
25.4
0.043
22.0
0.142

12.5
0.082

13.7
0.087

Source: Tables A3E and A4E are obtained from the respective tables in SI units in Appendix 1 using proper conversion factors.

84.4
0.302
68.2
0.068
39
0.126
12.2
11.8

64.7
0.070
41.4
0.134

13.9
0.149
32.2
0.071
54.4
0.067
45.5
0.036
40

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898
APPENDIX 2

TABLE A4E
Properties of solid nonmentals
Properties at 540 R

Composition

Properties at Various Temperatures (R),


k (Btu/hftR)/cp (Btu/lbmR)

Melting
Point,
R

r
Ibm/ft3

cp (Btu/
IbmR)

k (Btu/
hftR)

a 106
ft2/s

4181

247.8

0.182

26.6

162.5
128

Aluminum oxide,
sapphire
Aluminum oxide
polycrystalline
Beryilium oxide

4181

247.8

0.182

20.8

4905

187.3

0.246

157.2

947.3

Boron

4631

156

0.264

16

107.5

Boron fiber epoxy


(30% vol.) composite
k, || to fibers
k, to fibers
cp
Carbon
Amorphous Diamond,
type lla
insulator
Graphite, pyrolytic
k, || to layers
k, to layers
cp
Graphite fiber epoxy
(25% vol.) composite
k, heat flow || to fibers
k, heat flow to fibers
cp
Pyroceram, Corning 9606
Silicon carbide,

1062

130
1.3
0.34
121.7

0.268

219

0.121 1329

4091

138

2700

1126.7
3.3
0.169
810

2921
5580

706

360

260

76.8

47.4

31.7

109.8

30.3

1.2
0.21
0.086
0.38
5778

1.3
0.28
0.18
0.68

720

1080

1440

1800

18.7
0.224
15.3
0.244
113.2
0.322
10.8
0.355

11
0.265
9.3
0.265
64.2
0.40
6.5
0.445

7.5
0.281
6
0.281
40.4
0.44
4.6
0.509

6
0.293
4.5
0.293
27.2
0.459
3.6
0.561

1.26

1.36

1.46

1.31
0.34
0.34
1.09

2311.2
0.005

889.8
0.046

0.203

2871.6
9.7
0.32

1866.3
5.3
0.098

803.2
2.4
0.236

515.4
1.5
0.335

385.4
1.16
0.394

3.3
0.4
0.08
3.0

5.0
0.63
0.153
2.3

1.9

0.25

1.7

0.27

308.5
0.92
0.428

87.4
6.4
0.5

Silicon dioxide,
crystalline (quartz)
3389
k, || to c-axis
k, to c-axis
cp
Silicon dioxide,
3389
polycrystalline (fused silica)
Silicon nitride
3911
Sulfur

0.92

180

162.3
197.3

0.223
0.193
0.161

2.3
283.1

5
20.3
2475.7

7.5
0.29
2.1

0.210

1.7
50.3
0.285

165.4
6
3.6
138.6

0.177
0.177

0.79

150

0.165

9.2

130

0.169

0.1

22.5
12.0
9
104
1.51

Thorium dioxide

6431

568.7

0.561

7.5

65.7

Titanium dioxide,
polycrystalline

3840

259.5

0.170

4.9

30.1

0.4

0.095
0.962

9.5
5.9
0.65

0.138
0.1
0.144

4.4
2.7
0.211
0.87
0.216
8.0
0.185

2.9
2
0.256
1.01
0.248
6.5
0.223

2.4
1.8
0.298
1.25
0.264
5.7
0.253

1.65
0.276
5.0
0.275

5.9
0.609
4.0
0.192

3.8
0.654
2.9
0.210

2.7
0.680
2.3
0.217

2.12
0.704
2
0.222

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899
APPENDIX 2

TABLE A5E
Properties of building materials
(at a mean temperature of 75F)

Material
Building Boards
Asbestoscement board
Gypsum of plaster board
Plywood (Douglas fir)

Insulated board and sheating


(regular density)
Hardboard (high density, standard
tempered)
Particle board
Medium density
Underlayment
Wood subfloor

Density, r
lbm/ft3

Thermal
Conductivity, k
Btu-in/hft2F

Specific
Heat, cp
Btu/lbmR

R-value
(for listed
thickness, L/k),
Fhft2/Btu

in.
in.
1 2 in.

1 4 in.
3 8 in.
1 2 in.
3 4 in.
1 2 in.
25 32 in.

120
50
50
34
34
34
34
34
18
18

0.80

0.24
0.26

0.29
0.29
0.29
0.29
0.29
0.31
0.31

0.06
0.32
0.45

0.31
0.47
0.62
0.93
1.32
2.06

63

1.00

0.32

in.
3 4 in.

50
40

0.94

0.31
0.29
0.33

0.82
0.94

Thickness,
L in
1 4
3 8

5 8

Building Membranes
Vapor-permeable felt
Vapor-seal (2 layers of mopped
17.3 lbm/ft2 felt)

0.06

0.12

Flooring Materials
Carpet and fibrous pad
Carpet and rubber pad
Tile (asphalt, linoleum, vinyl)

0.34
0.33
0.30

2.08
1.23
0.05

120
130
150
120
70

5.0
9.0
9.3
6.2
2.8

0.19

5.34
6.94
9.02

0.71
1.11
1.28

120
100
80
60
40
120
80
116

5.2
3.6
2.5
1.7
1.15
9.7
4.5
5.0

0.2
0.2

Masonry Materials
Masonry units:
Brick, common
Brick, face
Brick, fire clay

Concrete blocks (3 oval cores,


sand and gravel aggregate)

Concretes
Lightweight aggregates
(including expanded shale,
clay, or slate, expanded slags,
cinders; pumice; and scoria)
Cement/lime, mortar, and stucco
Stucco

4 in.
8 in.
12 in.

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900
APPENDIX 2

TABLE A5E
Properties of building materials (Concluded)
(at a mean temperature of 75F)

Material
Roofing
Asbestos-cement shingles
Asphalt roll roofing
Asphalt shingles
Built-in roofing
Slate
Wood shingles (plain and plastic
film faced)
Plastering Materials
Cement plaster, sand aggregate
Gypsum plaster
Lightweight aggregate
Sand aggregate
Perlite aggregate
Siding Material (on flat surfaces)
Asbestos-cement shingles
Hardboard siding
Wood (drop) siding
Wood (plywood) siding, lapped
Aluminum or steel siding (over
sheeting):
Hollow backed
Insulating-board backed
Architectural glass

Thickness,
L in

Density, r
lbm/ft3

Thermal
Conductivity, k
Btu-in/hft2F

Specific
Heat, cp
Btu/lbmR

R-value
(for listed
thickness, L/k),
Fhft2/Btu

0.24
0.36
0.30
0.35

0.21
0.15
0.44
0.33

3 8

in.

120
70
70
70

1 2

in.

0.30

0.05

0.31

0.94

in.

1.16

5.0

0.20

0.15

1 2

in.
in.

45
105
45

5.6
1.5

0.20
0.32

0.32
0.09

in.
1 in.
3 8 in.

120

0.28
0.31
0.29

0.21
0.67
0.79
0.59

3 8

158

6.9

0.29
0.32
0.21

0.61
1.82
0.10

3 4
1 2

7 16

in.
in.

3 8

Woods
Hardwoods (maple, oak etc.)
Softwoods (fir, pine, etc.)

45
32

1.10
0.80

0.30
0.33

Metals
Aluminum (1100)
Steel, mild
Steel Stainless,

171
489
494

1536
314
108

0.214
0.120
0.109

Source: Tables A-5E and A-6E are adapted from ASHRAE, Handbook of Fundamentals (Atlanta, GA: American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and
Air-Conditioning Engineers, 1993), Chap. 22, Table 4. Used with permission.

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Page 901

901
APPENDIX 2

TABLE A6E
Properties of insulating materials
(at a mean temperature of 75F)

Density, r
lbm/ft3

~2 to 234 in
~3 to 312 in
~514 to 612 in

0.32.0
0.32.0
0.32.0

0.170.23
0.170.23
0.170.23

7
11
19

8.5
49
1.0
1.5
1.0
4.5
15
7.5

0.38
0.25
0.28
0.16
0.36
0.22
0.29
0.27

0.24
0.23
0.29
0.38
0.30
0.40
0.17
0.43

1.52.5
3.54.5
4.4

0.160.18
0.260.27
0.18

0.25

12

0.32

0.60.20
0.60.20

7.6
78
24.1
815
0.33.2
10

0.17
0.47
0.270.31
0.45
0.270.32
0.31

0.17
0.17
0.17
0.17

11
19
22
30

0.4

0.24
0.24
0.50
0.94

1.39
2.78
5.56

10

0.0118

2.5

0.0011

7.5

0.00012

Board and Slab


Cellular glass
Glass fiber (organic bonded)
Expanded polystyrene (molded beads)
Expanded polyurethane (R-11 expanded)
Expanded perlite (organic bonded)
Expanded rubber (rigid)
Mineral fiber with resin binder
Cork
Sprayed or Formed in Place
Polyurethane foam
Glass fiber
Urethane, two-part mixture (rigid foam)
Mineral wool granules with
asbestos/inorganic binders
(sprayed)
Loose Fill
Mineral fiber (rock, slag,
or glass)

R-value
(for listed
thickness, L/k)
Fhft2/Btu

Thickness,
L in

Material
Blanket and Batt
Mineral fiber (fibrous form
processed from rock, slag,
or glass)

Specific
Heat, cp
Btu/lbmR

Thermal
Conductivity, k
Btu-in/hft2F

~3.75 to 5 in
~6.5 to 8.75 in
~7.5 to 10 in
~7.25 in

Silica aerogel
Vermiculite (expanded)
Perlite, expanded
Sawdust or shavings
Cellulosic insulation (milled paper or wood pulp)
Cork, granulated
Roof Insulation
Cellular glass
Preformed, for use above deck

Reflective Insulation
Silica powder (evacuated)
Aluminum foil separating fluffy glass mats;
1012 layers (evacuated); for
cryogenic applications (270 R)
Aluminum foil and glass paper laminate;
75150 layers (evacuated); for cryogenic
applications (270 R)

in
1 in
2 in

1 2

84
85
65
75
82
92
84
80
23
78
89
82
89
75
87
89

Fruits
Apples
Apricots
Avocados
Bananas
Blueberries
Cantaloupes
Cherries, sour
Cherries, sweet
Figs, dried
Figs, fresh
Grapefruit
Grapes
Lemons
Olives
Oranges
Peaches
0.873
0.881
0.721
0.801
0.857
0.937
0.873
0.841

0.825
0.913
0.857
0.913
0.801
0.897
0.913

0.873
0.945
0.913
0.921
0.937
0.905
0.937
0.953
0.793
0.969
0.945
0.801
0.881
0.961
0.929
0.921
0.913
0.905
0.881
0.793
0.937
0.825
0.929
0.945
0.953
0.937

Above
Freezing

0.453
0.456
0.396
0.426
0.447
0.478
0.453
0.441
0.270
0.435
0.468
0.447
0.468
0.426
0.462
0.468

0.453
0.481
0.468
0.471
0.478
0.465
0.478
0.484
0.423
0.490
0.481
0.426
0.456
0.487
0.474
0.471
0.468
0.465
0.456
0.423
0.478
0.435
0.474
0.481
0.484
0.478

Below
Freezing

121
122
93
108
118
132
121
115
33
112
128
118
128
108
125
128

121
134
128
129
132
126
132
135
106
138
134
108
122
136
131
129
128
126
122
106
132
112
131
134
135
132

Latent
Heat of
Fusionc
Btu/lbm
83
85
86
85
18
90
87
93
78
75
79
57
64
83
49
70
67
56
74
65
37
56
38
64
5
16
37
39
1
74
17
63
88
6
2
3
4

Pears
Pineapples
Plums
Quinces
Raisins
Strawberries
Tangerines
Watermelon
Fish/Seafood
Cod, whole
Halibut, whole
Lobster
Mackerel
Salmon, whole
Shrimp
Meats
Beef carcass
Liver
Round, beef
Sirloin, beef
Chicken
Lamb leg
Pork carcass
Ham
Pork sausage
Turkey
Other
Almonds
Butter
Cheese, cheddar
Cheese, Swiss
Chocolate, milk
Eggs, whole
Honey
Ice cream
Milk, whole
Peanuts
Peanuts, roasted
Pecans
Walnuts

Food

Water
Content,a
% (mass)

9
14

31

22
31

29
29

27

29

28
28
28
28
28
28

29
30
31
28

31
30
31

Freezing
Point,a
F

0.497
0.513

0.793

0.705
0.905

0.593
0.761
0.737
0.649
0.793
0.721
0.497
0.649
0.505
0.713

0.825
0.801
0.833
0.657
0.713
0.865

0.865
0.881
0.889
0.881

0.921
0.897
0.945

Above
Freezing

0.216
0.249
0.312
0.318
0.204
0.423
0.252
0.390
0.465
0.219
0.207
0.210
0.213

0.348
0.411
0.402
0.369
0.423
0.396
0.312
0.369
0.315
0.393

0.435
0.426
0.438
0.372
0.393
0.450

0.450
0.456
0.459
0.456
0.255
0.471
0.462
0.481

Below
Freezing

7
23
53
56
1
106
24
90
126
9
3
4
6

70
101
96
80
106
93
53
80
55
92

112
108
113
82
92
119

119
122
124
122
26
129
125
134

Latent
Heat of
Fusionc
Btu/lbm

Specific heat data are based on the specific heat values of water and ice at 32F and are determined from Siebels formulas: cp, fresh 0.800 (Water content) 0.200, above freezing,
and cp, frozen 0.300 (Water content) 0.200, below freezing.

The latent heat of fusion is determined by multiplying the heat of fusion of water (143 Btu/lbm) by the water content of the food.

3:28 PM

30
30
31
31
29
30
29
29

28
30
29
29
29
31
30

30
31
31
31
30
29
31
31
31
31
31
29
31
32
30
29
30
31
30
31
31
31
31
31
31
30

Freezing
Point,a
F

Specific Heat,b
Btu/lbmF

1/8/10

Source: aWater content and freezing point data are from ASHRAE, Handbook of Fundamentals, I-P version (Atlanta, GA: American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers,
Inc., 1993), Chap. 30, Table 1. Used with permission. Freezing point is the temperature at which freezing starts for fruits and vegetables, and the average freezing temperature for other foods.

84
93
89
90
92
88
92
94
74
96
93
75
85
95
91
90
89
88
85
74
92
78
91
93
94
92

Vegetables
Artichokes
Asparagus
Beans, snap
Broccoli
Cabbage
Carrots
Cauliflower
Celery
Corn, sweet
Cucumbers
Eggplant
Horseradish
Leeks
Lettuce
Mushrooms
Okra
Onions, green
Onions, dry
Parsley
Peas, green
Peppers, sweet
Potatoes
Pumpkins
Spinach
Tomatos, ripe
Tumips

Food

Water
Content,a
% (mass)

Specific Heat,b
Btu/lbmF

Properties of common foods


(a) Specific heats and freezing-point properties

TABLE A7E

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902
APPENDIX 2

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Page 903

903
APPENDIX 2

TABLE A7E
Properties of common foods (Concluded)
(b) Other properties

Food

Water
Content,
%(mass)

Fruits/Vegetables
Apple juice
Apples
Apples, dried
Apricots, dried
Bananas, fresh
Broccoli
Cherries, fresh
Figs
Grape juice
Peaches
Plums
Potatoes
Raisins

87
85
41.6
43.6
76

92
40.4
89
3690

32158
32

68
3286
73
73
41
21
3286
73
68
232
3
070
73

62.4
52.4
53.4
82.4
61.2
35.0
65.5
77.5
62.4
59.9
38.1
65.7
86.2

0.323
0.242
0.127
0.217
0.278
0.223
0.315
0.179
0.328
0.304
0.143
0.288
0.217

1.51 106
1.47 106
1.03 106
1.22 106
1.51 106

1.42 106
1.03 106
1.51 106
1.51 106

1.40 106
1.18 106

0.922
0.910
0.650
0.662
0.856

0.952
0.642
0.934
0.934

0.868
0.592

67
74
0
72
39.7
75
30.6
81
67
71.8
72
72
74
75

43
37
95
95
73
32
73
37
37
72
72
39
37
72

59.3
68.0
50.5

71.2
65.5
77.4
73.7

64.3
64.3
64.3
65.5
66.2

0.235
0.272
0.110
0.259
0.188
0.275
0.184
0.309
0.307
0.277
0.263
0.263
0.287
0.272

1.40 106
1.40 106

1.18 106
1.40 106
1.18 106
1.29 106

1.51 106
1.40 106
1.40 106
1.40 106
1.40 106

0.802
0.844

0.832
0.638
0.850
0.584
0.886
0.802
0.831
0.832
0.832
0.844
0.850

16
31.9
16
91
88
0
0
100
100
32.3

39
73
40
72
82
90
39
0
30
73

21.2
62.4

56.8
57.4
62.4
59.6
28.1

0.114
0.061
0.135
0.327
0.335
0.097
0.097
0.329
0.357
0.047

1.29 106
1.18 106

1.51 106
1.61 106
1.08 106

0.496
0.591
0.496
0.946
0.928

1.000
1.000
0.594

Meats
Beef, ground
Beef, lean
Beef fat
Beef liver
Cat food
Chicken breast
Dog food
Fish, cod
Fish, salmon
Ham
Lamb
Pork, lean
Turkey breast
Veal
Other
Butter
Chocolate cake
Margarine
Milk, skimmed
Milk, whole
Olive oil
Peanut oil
Water
White cake

Temperature, T Density, r
F
lbm/ft3

Thermal
Conductivity, k
Btu/hftF

Thermal
Diffusivity, a
ft2/s

Specific
Heat, cp
Btu/lbmR

Source: Data obtained primarily from ASHRAE, Handbook of Fundamentals, I-P version (Atlanta, GA: American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and AirConditioning Engineers, Inc., 1993), Chap. 30, Tables 7 and 9. Used with permission.
Most specific heats are calculated from cr 0.4 0.6 (Water content), which is a good approximation in the temperature range of 40 to 90F. Most
thermal diffusivities are calculated from a k/rcr. Property values given above are valid for the specified water content.

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Page 904

904
APPENDIX 2

TABLE A8E
Properties of miscellaneous materials
(values are at 540 R unless indicated otherwise)

Material
Asphalt
Bakelite
Brick, refractory
Chrome brick
851 R
1481 R
2111 R
Fire clay, burnt
2880 R
1391 R
1931 R
2471 R
Fire clay, burnt
3105 R
1391 R
1931 R
2471 R
Fire clay brick
860 R
1660 R
2660 R
Magnesite
860 R
1660 R
2660 R
Chicken meat,
white (74.4%
water content)
356 R
419 R
455 R
492 R
527 R
Clay, dry
Clay, wet
Coal, anthracite
Concrete (stone mix)
Cork
Cotton
Fat
Glass
Window
Pyrex
Crown
Lead

Density, r
lbm/ft3

Thermal
Specific
Conductivity, k Heat, cp
Btu/hftR
Btu/lbmR

132.0
81.2

0.036
0.81

0.220
0.350

187.9

1.33
1.44
1.16

0.199

Material
Ice
492 R
455 R
311 R
Leather, sole
Linoleum
Mica

128.0

0.58
0.64
0.64

0.229

145.1

0.75
0.81
0.81

0.229

165.1

0.58
0.87
1.04

0.229

2.20
1.62
1.10

0.270

96.8
93.3
84.3
143.6

0.92
0.86
0.78
0.28
0.28
0.54
0.97
0.15
0.81

0.301
0.210

0.028
0.035
0.10

0.485
0.311

0.40
0.60.8
0.61
0.49

0.179
0.199

5.37
5.0

174.8
138.9
156.1
212.2

Paper
Plastics
Plexiglass
Teflon
540 R
720 R
Lexan
Nylon
Polypropylene
Polyester
PVC, vinyl
Porcelain
Rubber, natural
Rubber,
vulcanized
Soft
Hard
Sand
Snow, fresh
Snow 492 R
Soil, dry
Soil, wet
Sugar
Tissue, human
Skin
Fat layer
Muscle
Vaseline
Wood, cross-grain
Balsa
Fir
Oak
White pine
Yellow pine
Wood, radial
Oak
Fir
Wool, ship

Density, r
lbm/ft3
57.4
57.6
57.9
62.3
33.4
73.7
181.0

Thermal
Specific
Conductivity, k Heat, cp
Btu/hftR
Btu/lbmR
1.09
1.17
2.02
0.092
0.047
0.11
0.30

0.487
0.465
0.349

58.1

0.10

0.320

74.3

0.11

0.350

137.3

74.9
71.5
56.8
87.1
91.8
143.6
71.8

0.20
0.26
0.11
0.17
0.069
0.087
0.058
0.87
0.16

0.251

0.301

0.388
0.279
0.201

68.7
74.3
94.6
6.24
31.2
93.6
118.6
99.9

0.075
0.092
0.10.6
0.35
1.27
0.58
1.16
0.34

0.480

0.191

0.454
0.525

0.21
0.12
0.24
0.098

8.74
25.9
34.0
27.2
40.0

0.032
0.064
0.098
0.064
0.087

0.650
0.570

0.670

34.0
26.2
9.05

0.11
0.081
0.029

0.570
0.650

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APPENDIX 2

TABLE A9E
Properties of saturated water

Density
r, lbm/ft3

T, F

Saturation
Pressure
Psat, psia

Liquid

Vapor

32.02
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
190
200
210
212
220
230
240
250
260
270
280
290
300
320
340
360
380
400
450
500
550
600
650
700
705.44

0.0887
0.1217
0.1780
0.2563
0.3632
0.5073
0.6988
0.9503
1.2763
1.6945
2.225
2.892
3.722
4.745
5.996
7.515
9.343
11.53
14.125
14.698
17.19
20.78
24.97
29.82
35.42
41.85
49.18
5753
66.98
89.60
117.93
152.92
195.60
241.1
422.1
680.0
1046.7
1541
2210
3090
3204

62.41
62.42
62.41
62.36
62.30
62.22
62.12
62.00
61.86
61.71
61.55
61.38
61.19
60.99
60.79
60.57
60.35
60.12
59.87
59.82
59.62
59.36
59.09
58.82
58.53
58.24
57.94
57.63
57.31
56.65
55.95
56.22
54.46
53.65
51.46
48.95
45.96
42.32
37.31
27.28
19.79

0.00030
0.00034
0.00059
0.00083
0.00115
0.00158
0.00214
0.00286
0.00377
0.00493
0.00636
0.00814
0.0103
0.0129
0.0161
0.0199
0.0244
0.0297
0.0359
0.0373
0.0432
0.0516
0.0612
0.0723
0.0850
0.0993
0.1156
0.3390
0.1545
0.2033
0.2637
0.3377
0.4275
0.5359
0.9082
1.479
4.268
3.736
6.152
13.44
19.79

Temp.

Enthalpy
of
Vaporization

Specific
Heat
cr, Btu/IbmR

hfg, Btu/lbm Liquid


1075
1071
1065
1060
1054
1048
1043
1037
1031
1026
1020
1014
1008
1002
996
990
984
978
972
970
965
959
952
946
939
932
926
918
910
895
880
863
845
827
775
715
641
550
422
168
0

1.010
1.004
1.000
0.999
0.999
0.999
0.999
0.999
0.999
0.999
0.999
0.999
1.000
1.000
1.001
1.002
1.004
1.005
1.007
1.007
1.009
1.011
1.013
1.015
1.018
1.020
1.023
1.026
1.029
1.036
1.044
1.054
1.065
1.078
1.121
1.188
1.298
1.509
2.086
13.80

Thermal
Conductivity
k, Btu/hft R

Dynamic Viscosity
m, Ibm/fts

Prandtl
Number
Pr

Volume
Expansion
Coefficient
b, 1/R

Vapor

Liquid

Vapor

Liquid

Vapor

Liquid

Vapor

Liquid

0.446
0.447
0.448
0.449
0.450
0.451
0.453
0.454
0.456
0.458
0.460
0.463
0.465
0.468
0.472
0.475
0.479
0.483
0.487
0.488
0.492
0.497
0.503
0.509
0.516
0.523
0.530
0.538
0.547
0.567
0.590
0.617
0.647
0.683
0.799
0.972
1.247
1.759
3.103
25.90

0.324
0.329
0.335
0.341
0.347
0.352
0.358
0.363
0.367
0.371
0.375
0.378
0.381
0.384
0.386
0.388
0.390
0.391
0.392
0.392
0.393
0.394
0.394
0.395
0.395
0.395
0.395
0.395
0.394
0.393
0.391
0.389
0.385
0.382
0.370
0.352
0.329
0.299
0.267
0.254

0.0099
0.0100
0.0102
0.0104
0.0106
0.0108
0.0110
0.0112
0.0115
0.0117
0.0120
0.0122
0.0125
0.0128
0.0131
0.0134
0.0137
0.0141
0.0144
0.0145
0.0148
0.0152
0.0156
0.0160
0.0164
0.0168
0.0172
0.0177
0.0182
0.0191
0.0202
0.0213
0.0224
0.0237
0.0271
0.0312
0.0368
0.0461
0.0677
0.1964

1.204 103
1.308 103
8.781 104
7.536 104
6.556 104
5.764 104
5.117 104
4.578 104
4.128 104
3.744 104
3.417 104
3.136 104
2.889 104
2.675 104
2.483 104
2.317 104
2.169 104
2.036 104
1.917 104
1.894 104
1808 104
1.711 104
1.625 104
1.544 104
1.472 104
1.406 104
1.344 104
1.289 104
1.236 104
1.144 104
1.063 104
9.972 105
9.361 105
8.833 105
7.722 105
6.833 105
6.083 105
5.389 105
4.639 105
3.417 105
2.897 105

6.194 106
6.278 106
6.361 106
6.444 106
6.556 106
6.667 106
6.778 106
6.889 106
7.000 106
7.111 106
7.222 106
7.333 106
7.472 106
7.583 106
7.722 106
7.833 106
7.972 106
8.083 106
8.222 106
8.250 106
8.333 106
8.472 106
8.611 106
8.611 106
8.861 106
9.000 106
9.111 106
9.250 106
9.389 106
9.639 106
9.889 106
1.013 105
1.041 105
1.066 105
1.130 105
1.200 105
1.280 105
1.380 105
1.542 105
2.044 105
2.897 105

13.5
11.4
9.44
7.95
6.79
5.89
5.14
4.54
4.05
3.63
3.28
2.98
2.73
2.51
2.90
2.15
2.01
1.88
1.77
1.75
1.67
1.58
1.50
1.43
1.37
1.31
1.25
1.21
1.16
1.09
1.02
0.973
0.932
0.893
0.842
0.830
0.864
0.979
1.30
6.68

1.00
1.01
1.01
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.01
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.01
1.01
1.01
1.02
1.03
1.04
1.06
1.08
1.11
1.20
1.35
1.56
1.90
2.54
9.71

0.038 103
A0.003 103
0.047 103
0.080 103
0.115 103
0.145 103
0.174 103
0.200 103
0.224 103
0246 103
0.267 103
0.287 103
0.306 103
0.325 103
0.346 103
0.367 103
0.382 103
0.395 103
0.412 103
0.417 103
0.429 103
0.443 103
0.462 103
0.480 103
0.497 103
0.514 103
0.532 103
0.549 103
0.566 103
0.636 103
0.656 103
0.681 103
0.720 103
0.771 103
0.912 103
1.111 103
1.445 103
1.883 103

Note 1: Kinematic viscosity n and thermal diffusivity a can be calculated from their definitions, n m/r and a k/rcr n/Pr. The temperatures 32.02F,
212F, and 705.44F are the triple-, boiling-, and critical-point temperatures of water, respectively. All properties listed above (except the vapor density) can
be used at any pressures with negligible error except at temperatures near the critical-point value.
Note 2: The unit Btu/lbmF for specific heat is equivalent to Btu/lbmR, and the unit Btu/hftF for thermal conductivity is equivalent to Btu/hftR.
Source: Viscosity and thermal conductivity data are from J. V. Sengers and J. T. T. Watson, Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data 15 (1986),
pp. 12911322. Other data are obtained from various sources or calculated.

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APPENDIX 2

TABLE A10E
Properties of saturated refrigerant134a

Density
r, lbm/ft3

Saturation
Temp. Pressure
T, F Psat, psia

Liquid

Vapor

40
30
20
10
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
190
200
210

88.51
87.5
86.48
85.44
84.38
83.31
82.2
81.08
79.92
78.73
77.51
76.25
74.94
73.59
72.17
70.69
69.13
67.48
65.72
63.83
61.76
59.47
56.85
53.75
49.75
43.19

0.1731
0.2258
0.2905
0.3691
0.4635
0.5761
0.7094
0.866
1.049
1.262
1.509
1.794
2.122
2.5
2.935
3.435
4.012
4.679
5.455
6.367
7.45
8.762
10.4
12.53
15.57
21.18

7.4
9.9
12.9
16.6
21.2
26.6
33.1
40.8
49.8
60.2
72.2
85.9
101.4
119.1
138.9
161.2
186.0
213.5
244.1
277.8
314.9
355.8
400.7
449.9
504.0
563.8

Enthalpy
of
Vaporization

Specific
Heat
cp, Btu/IbmR

hfg, Btu/lbm Liquid


97.1
95.6
94.1
92.5
90.9
89.3
87.5
85.8
83.9
82.0
80.0
78.0
75.8
73.5
71.1
68.5
65.8
62.9
59.8
56.4
52.7
48.5
43.7
38.0
30.7
18.9

0.2996
0.3021
0.3046
0.3074
0.3103
0.3134
0.3167
0.3203
0.3240
0.3281
0.3325
0.3372
0.3424
0.3481
0.3548
0.3627
0.3719
0.3829
0.3963
0.4131
0.4352
0.4659
0.5123
0.5929
0.7717
1.4786

Thermal
Conductivity
k, Btu/hftR

Vapor

Liquid

Vapor

0.1788
0.1829
0.1872
0.1918
0.1966
0.2017
0.2070
0.2127
0.2188
0.2253
0.2323
0.2398
0.2481
0.2572
0.2674
0.2790
0.2925
0.3083
0.3276
0.3520
0.3839
0.4286
0.4960
0.6112
0.8544
1.6683

0.0636
0.0626
0.0613
0.0602
0.0589
0.0576
0.0563
0.0550
0.0536
0.0522
0.0507
0.0492
0.0476
0.0460
0.0444
0.0427
0.0410
0.0392
0.0374
0.0355
0.0335
0.0314
0.0292
0.0267
0.0239
0.0199

0.00466
0.00497
0.00529
0.00559
0.00589
0.00619
0.00648
0.00676
0.00704
0.00732
0.00758
0.00785
0.00810
0.00835
0.00860
0.00884
0.00908
0.00931
0.00954
0.00976
0.00998
0.01020
0.01041
0.01063
0.01085
0.01110

Prandtl
Number
Pr

Dynamic Viscosity
m, Ibm/fts
Liquid
3.278
3.004
2.762
2.546
2.345
2.181
2.024
1.883
1.752
1.633
1.522
1.420
1.324
1.234
1.149
1.068
9.911
9.175
8.464
7.778
7.108
6.450
5.792
5.119
4.397
3.483

104
104
104
104
104
104
104
104
104
104
104
104
104
104
104
104
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105

Volume
Expansion
Coefficient
b, 1/R

Surface
Tension

Vapor

Liquid

Vapor

Liquid

lbf/ft

5.558
5.226
4.937
4.684
4.463
4.269
4.098
3.947
3.814
3.697
3.594
3.504
3.425
3.357
3.303
3.262
3.235
3.223
3.229
3.259
3.324
3.443
3.661
4.090
5.119
9.311

0.237
0.272
0.310
0.352
0.398
0.447
0.500
0.555
0.614
0.677
0.742
0.810
0.880
0.955
1.032
1.115
1.204
1.303
1.416
1.551
1.725
1.963
2.327
2.964
4.376
9.669

0.00114
0.00117
0.00120
0.00124
0.00128
0.00132
0.00132
0.00142
0.00149
0.00156
0.00163
0.00173
0.00183
0.00195
0.00210
0.00227
0.00248
0.00275
0.00308
0.00351
0.00411
0.00498
0.00637
0.00891
0.01490
0.04021

0.001206
0.001146
0.001087
0.001029
0.000972
0.000915
O.000859
0.000803
0.000749
0.000695
0.000642
0.000590
0.000538
0.000488
0.000439
0.000391
0.000344
0.000299
0.000255
0.000212
0.000171
0.000132
0.000095
0.000061
0.000031
0.000006

1.714
2.053
2.433
2.856
3.314
3.811
4.342
4.906
5.494
6.103
6.725
7.356
7.986
8.611
9.222
9.814
1.038
1.092
1.144
1.195
1.245
1.298
1.366
1.431
1.544
1.787

106
106
106
106
106
104
106
106
106
106
106
106
106
106
106
106
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105

Note 1: Klnematic viscosity n and thermal diffusivity a can be calculated from their definitions, n m/r and a k/rcp n/Pr. The properties listed here
(except the vapor density) can be used at any pressures with negligible error except at temperatures near the critical-point value.
Note 2: The unit Btu/lbm . F for specific heat is equivalent to Btu/lbmR, and the unit Btu/hftF for thermal conductivity is equivalent to Btu/hftR.
Source: Data generated from the EES software developed by S. A. Klein and F. L. Alvarado. Original sources: R. Tilner-Roth and H. D. Baehr, An International
Standard Formulation for the Thermodynamic Properties of 1,1,1,2-Tetrafluorethane (HFC-134a) for Temperatures from 170 K to 455 K and Pressures up to
70 Mpa, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, Vol. 23, No.5, 1994: M. J. Assael, N. K. Dalaouti, A. A. Griva, and J. H. Dymond, Viscosity and Thermal Conductivity of
Halogenated Methane and Ethane Refrigerants, IJR, Vol. 22, pp. 525535, 1999: NIST REPROP 6 program (M. O. McLinden, S. A. Klein, E. W. Lemmon,
and A. P. Peskin, Physicial and Chemical Properties Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO 80303. 1995).

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907
APPENDIX 2

TABLE A11E
Properties of saturated ammonia

Density
r, lbm/ft3

Saturation
Temp. Pressure
T, F Psat, psia

Liquid

Vapor

40
30
20
10
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
190
200
210
220
230
240

43.08
42.66
42.33
41.79
41.34
40.89
40.43
39.96
39.48
38.99
38.50
37.99
37.47
36.94
36.40
35.83
35.26
34.66
34.04
33.39
32.72
32.01
31.26
30.47
29.62
28.70
27.69
25.57
25.28

0.0402
0.0527
0.0681
0.0869
0.1097
0.1370
0.1694
0.2075
0.2521
0.3040
0.3641
0.4332
0.5124
0.6029
0.7060
0.8233
0.9564
1.1074
1.2786
1.4730
1.6940
1.9460
2.2346
2.5670
2.9527
3.4053
3.9440
4.5987
5.4197

10.4
13.9
18.3
23.7
304
38.5
48.2
59.8
73.4
89.2
107.7
128.9
153.2
180.8
212.0
247.2
286.5
330.4
379.4
433.2
492.7
558.2
630.1
708.5
794.4
887.9
989.5
1099.0
1219.4

Enthalpy
of
Vaporization

Specific
Heat
cr, Btu/IbmR

hfg, Btu/lbm Liquid


597.0
590.2
583.2
575.9
568.4
560.7
552.6
544.4
535.8
526.9
517.7
508.1
498.2
487.8
477.0
465.8
454.1
441.7
428.8
415.2
400.8
385.4
369.1
351.6
332.7
312.0
289.2
263.5
234.0

1.0542
1.0610
1.0677
1.0742
1.0807
1.0873
1.0941
1.1012
1.1087
1.1168
1.1256
1.1353
1.1461
1.1582
1.1719
1.1875
1.2054
1.2261
1.2502
1.2785
1.3120
1.3523
1.4015
1.4624
1.5397
1.6411
1.7798
1.9824
2.3100

Thermal
Conductivity
k, Btu/hftR

Prandtl
Number
Pr

Dynamic Viscosity
m, Ibm/fts

Vapor

Liquid

Vapor

Liquid

0.5354
0.5457
0.5571
0.5698
0.5838
0.5992
0.6160
0.6344
0.6544
0.6762
0.6999
0.7257
0.7539
0.7846
0.8183
0.8554
0.8965
0.9425
0.9943
1.0533
1.1214
1.2012
1.2965
1.4128
1.5586
1.7473
2.0022
2.3659
2.9264

0.3501
0.3426
0.3352
0.3278
0.3203
0.3129
0.3055
0.2980
0.2906
0.2832
0.2757
0.2683
0.2609
0.2535
0.2460
0.2386
0.2312
0.2237
0.2163
0.2089
0.2014
0.1940
0.1866
0.1791
0.1717
0.1643
0.1568

0.01026
0.01057
0.01089
0.01121
0.01154
0.01187
0.01220
0.01254
0.01288
0.01323
0.01358
0.01394
0.01431
0.01468
0.01505
0.01543
0.01582
0.01621
0.01661
0.01702
0.01744
0.01786
0.01829
0.01874
0.01919
0.01966
0.02015
0.02065
0.02119

1.966 104
1.853 104
1.746 104
1.645 104
1.549 104
1.458 104
1.371 104
1290 104
1.213 104
1.140 104
1.072 104
1.008 104
9.486 105
8.922 105
8.397 105
7.903 105
7.444 105
7.017 105
6.617 105
6.244 105
5.900 105
5.578 105
5.278 105
5.000 105
4.742 105
4500 105
4.275 105
4.064 105
3.864 105

Volume
Expansion
Coefficient
b, 1/R

Surface
Tension

Vapor

Liquid

Vapor

Liquid

lbf/ft

1.917
1.856
1.797
1.740
1.686
1.634
1.585
1.539
1.495
1.456
1.419
1.387
1.358
1.333
1.313
1.298
1.288
1.285
1.288
1.300
1.322
1.357
1.409
1.484
1.595
1.765
2.049

1.003
1.017
1.031
1.048
1.068
1.089
1.113
1.140
1.168
1.200
1.234
1.272
1.313
1.358
1.407
1.461
1.522
1.589
1.666
1.753
1.853
1.971
2.113
2.286
2.503
2.784
3.164
3.707
4.542

0.00098
0.00101
0.00103
0.00106
0.00109
0.00112
0.00116
0.00119
0.00123
0.00128
0.00132
0.00137
0.00143
0.00149
0.00156
0.00164
0.00174
0.00184
0.00196
0.00211
0.00228
0.00249
0.00274
0.00306
0.00348
0.00403
0.00480
0.00594
0.00784

0.002443
0.002357
0.002272
0.002187
0.002103
0.002018
0.001934
0.001850
0.001767
0.001684
0.001601
0.001518
0.001436
0.001354
0.001273
0.001192
0.001111
0.001031
0.000951
0.000872
0.000794
0.000716
0.000638
0.000562
0.000486
0.000411
0.000338
0.000265
0.000194

5.342
5.472
5.600
5.731
5.861
5.994
6.125
6.256
6.389
6.522
6.656
6.786
6.922
7.056
7.189
7.325
7.458
7.594
7.731
7.867
8.006
8.142
8.281
8.419
8.561
8.703
8.844
8.989
9.136

106
106
106
106
106
106
106
106
106
106
106
106
106
106
106
106
106
106
106
104
106
106
106
106
106
106
106
106
106

Note 1: Kinematic viscosity n and thermal diffusivity a can be calculated from their definitions, n m/p and a k/rcp n/Pr. The properties listed here
(except the vapor density) can be used at any pressures with negligible error except at temperatures near the critical-point value.
Note 2: The unit Btu/lbmF for specific heat is equivalent to Btu/lbmR, and the unit Btu/hftF for thermal conductivity is equivalent to Btu/hftR.
Source: Data generated from the EES software developed by S. A. Klein and F. L. Alvarado. Orginal sources: Tillner-Roth, Harms-Watzenterg, and Baehr, Eine
neue Fundamentalgleichung fur Ammoniak, DKV-Tagungsbericht 20: 167181, 1993; Liley and Desai, Thermophysical Properties of Refrigerants,
ASHRAE, 1993, ISBN 1-1883413-10-9.

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APPENDIX 2

TABLE A12E
Properties of saturated propane

Density
r, lbm/ft3

Saturation
Temp. Pressure
T, F Psat, psia

Liquid

Vapor

200
180
160
140
120
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
120
140
160
180

42.06
41.36
40.65
39.93
39.20
38.46
38.08
37.70
37.32
36.93
36.54
36.13
35.73
35.31
34.89
34.46
34.02
33.56
33.10
32.62
32.13
31.63
31.11
30.56
30.00
29.41
28.13
26.69
24.98
22.79

0.0003
0.0011
0.0032
0.0078
0.0170
0.0334
0.0453
0.0605
0.0793
0.1024
0.1305
0.1641
0.2041
0.2512
0.3063
0.3703
0.4441
0.5289
0.6259
0.7365
0.8621
1.0046
1.1659
1.3484
1.5549
1.7887
2.3562
3.1003
4.1145
5.6265

0.0201
0.0752
0.2307
0.6037
1.389
2.878
4.006
5.467
7.327
9.657
12.54
16.05
20.29
25.34
31.3
38.28
46.38
55.7
66.35
78.45
92.12
107.5
124.6
143.7
164.8
188.1
241.8
306.1
382.4
472.9

Enthalpy
of
Vaporization

Specific
Heat
cr, Btu/IbmR

hig, Btu/lbm Liquid


217.7
213.4
209.1
204.8
200.5
196.1
193.9
191.6
189.3
186.9
184.4
181.9
179.3
176.6
173.8
170.9
167.9
164.8
161.6
158.1
154.6
150.8
146.8
142.7
138.2
133.6
123.2
111.1
96.4
77.1

0.4750
0.4793
0.4845
0.4907
0.4982
0.5069
0.5117
0.5169
0.5224
0.5283
0.5345
0.5392
0.5460
0.5531
0.5607
0.5689
0.5775
0.5867
0.5966
0.6072
0.6187
0.6311
0.6447
0.6596
0.6762
0.6947
0.7403
0.7841
0.8696
1.1436

Thermal
Conductivity
k, Btu/hftR

Vapor

Liquid

Vapor

0.2595
0.2680
0.2769
0.2866
0.2971
0.3087
0.3150
0.3215
0.3284
0.3357
0.3433
0.3513
0.3596
0.3684
0.3776
0.3874
0.3976
0.4084
0.4199
0.4321
0.4452
0.4593
0.4746
0.4915
0.5103
0.5315
0.5844
0.6613
0.7911
1.0813

0.1073
0.1033
0.0992
0.0949
0.0906
0.0863
0.0842
0.0821
0.0800
0.0780
0.0760
0.0740
0.0721
0.0702
0.0683
0.0665
0.0647
0.0629
0.0512
0.0595
0.0579
0.0563
0.0547
0.0532
0.0517
0.0501
0.0472
0.0442
0.0411
0.0376

0.00313
0.00347
0.00384
0.00423
0.00465
0.00511
0.00534
0.00559
0.00585
0.00611
0.00639
0.00568
0.00697
0.00728
0.00761
0.00794
0.00829
0.00865
0.00903
0.00942
0.00983
0.01025
0.01070
0.01116
0.01165
0.01217
0.01328
0.01454
0.01603
0.01793

Prandtl
Number
Pr

Dynamic Viscosity
m, Ibm/fts
Liquid
5.012
3.941
3.199
2.660
2.252
1.934
1.799
1.678
1.569
1.469
1.378
1.294
1.217
1.146
1.079
1.018
9.606
9.067
8.561
8.081
7.631
7.200
6.794
6.406
6.033
5.675
5.000
4.358
3.733
3.083

104
104
104
104
104
104
104
104
104
104
104
104
104
104
104
104
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
106
105
105
105

Volume
Expansion
Coefficient
b, 1/R

Surface
Tension

Vapor

Liquid

Vapor

Liquid

lbf/ft

7.991
6.582
5.626
4.951
4.457
4.087
3.936
3.803
3.686
3.582
3.490
3.395
3.320
3.253
3.192
3.137
3.088
3.043
3.003
2.967
2.935
2.906
2.881
2.860
2.843
2.831
2.825
2.784
2.845
3.380

0.833
0.826
0.821
0.818
0.817
0.817
0.819
0.820
0.822
0.825
0.828
0.831
0.835
0.840
0.845
0.850
0.857
0.864
0.873
0.882
0.893
0.906
0.921
0.938
0.959
0.984
1.052
1.164
1.371
1.870

0.00083
0.00086
0.00088
0.00091
0.00094
0.00097
0.00099
0.00101
0.00104
0.00106
0.00109
0.00112
0.00115
0.00119
0.00123
0.00127
0.00132
0.00138
0.00144
0.00151
0.00159
0.00168
0.00179
0.00191
0.00205
0.00222
0.00267
0.00338
0.00459
0.00791

0.001890
0.001780
0.001671
0.001563
0.001455
0.001349
0.001297
0.001244
0.001192
0.001140
0.001089
0.001038
0.000987
0.000937
0.000887
0.000838
0.000789
0.000740
0.000692
0.000644
0.000597
0.000551
0.000505
0.000460
0.000416
0.000372
0.000288
0.000208
0.000133
0.000065

2.789
2.975
3.164
3.358
3.556
3.756
3.858
3.961
4.067
4.172
4.278
4.386
4.497
4.611
4.725
4.842
4.961
5.086
5.211
5.342
5.478
5.617
5.764
5.919
6.081
6.256
6.644
7.111
7.719
8.617

106
106
106
106
106
106
106
106
106
106
106
106
106
106
106
106
106
106
106
106
106
106
106
106
106
106
106
106
106
106

Note 1: Kinematic viscosity n and thermal diffusivity a can be calculated from their definitions, n m/r and a k/rcp n/Pr. The properties listed here
(except the vapor density) can be used at any pressures with negligible error at temperatures near the critical-point value.
Note 2: The unit Btu/lbmF for specific heat is equivalent to Btu/lbmR, and the unit Btu/hftF for thermal conductivity is equivalent to Btu/hftR.
Source: Data generated from the EES software developed by S. A. Klein and F. L. Alvarado. Original sources: Reiner Tillner-Roth, Fundamental Equations of
State, Shaker, Verlag, Aachan, 1998; B. A. Younglove and J. F. Ely. Thermophysical Properties of Fluids. II Methane, Ethane, Propane, Isobutane, and
Normal Butane, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, Vol. 16, No. 4, 1987; G. R. Somayajulu, A Generalized Equation for Surface Tension from the Triple-Point to the
Critical-Point, International Journal of Thermophysics, Vol. 9, No. 4, 1988.

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909
APPENDIX 2

TABLE A13E
Properties of liquids

Temp.
T, F

Specific
Thermal
Density
Heat
Conductivity
r, Ibm/ft3 cp, Btu/IbmR k, Btu/hftR

Thermal
Diffusivity
a, ft2/s

Dynamic
Viscosity
m, Ibm/fts

Kinematic
Viscosity
n, ft2/s

Prandtl
Number
Pr

Volume
Expansion
Coeff. b,
1/R

Methane (CH4)
280
260
240
220
200
180
160
140

27.41
26.43
25.39
24.27
23.04
21.64
19.99
17.84

0.8152
0.8301
0.8523
0.8838
0.9314
1.010
1.158
1.542

0.1205
0.1097
0.0994
0.0896
0.0801
0.0709
0.0616
0.0518

1.497
1.389
1.276
1.159
1.036
9.008
7.397
5.234

106
106
106
106
106
107
107
107

1.057
8.014
6.303
5.075
4.142
3.394
2.758
2.168

104
105
105
105
105
105
105
105

3.857
3.032
2.482
2.091
1.798
1.568
1.379
1.215

106
106
106
106
106
106
106
106

2.575
2.183
1.945
1.803
1.734
1.741
1.865
2.322

0.00175
0.00192
0.00215
0.00247
0.00295
0.00374
0.00526
0.00943

104
104
104
104
104
104

7.879
6.840
6.005
5.326
4.769
4.308

106
106
106
106
106
106

7.317
6.468
5.793
5.250
4.808
4.447

0.000656
0.000671
0.000691
0.000716
0.000749
0.000789

104
104
104
104
104
105
105
105

1.500
8.939
6.043
4.406
3.368
2.653
2.127
1.713

105
106
106
106
106
106
106
106

12.96
7.977
5.830
4.738
4.114
3.716
3.437
3.264

0.000785
0.000836
0.000908
0.001012
0.001169
0.001421
0.001883
0.002970

Methanol [CH3(OH)]
70
90
110
130
150
170

49.15
48.50
47.85
47.18
46.50
45.80

0.6024
0.6189
0.6373
0.6576
0.6796
0.7035

0.1148
0.1143
0.1138
0.1133
0.1128
0.1124

1.076
1.057
1.036
1.014
9.918
9.687

106
106
106
106
107
107

3.872
3.317
2.872
2.513
2.218
1.973

Isobutane (R600a)
150
100
50
0
50
100
150
200

42.75
41.06
39.31
37.48
35.52
33.35
30.84
27.73

0.4483
0.4721
0.4986
0.5289
0.5643
0.6075
0.6656
0.7635

0.0799
0.0782
0.0731
0.0664
0.0591
0.0521
0.0457
0.0400

1.157
1.120
1.036
9.299
8.187
7.139
6.188
5.249

106
106
106
107
107
107
107
107

32
40
50
60
70
80
90
100

79.65
79.49
79.28
79.07
78.86
78.66
78.45
78.24

0.5402
0.5458
0.5541
0.5632
0.5715
0.5794
0.5878
0.5964

0.163
0.1637
0.1645
0.1651
0.1652
0.1652
0.1652
0.1653

1.052
1.048
1.040
1.029
1.018
1.007
9.955
9.841

106
106
106
106
106
106
107
107

32
50
75
100
125
150
200
250
300

56.12
55.79
55.3
54.77
54.24
53.73
52.68
51.71
50.63

0.4291
0.4395
0.4531
0.4669
0.4809
0.4946
0.5231
0.5523
0.5818

0.0849
0.08338
0.08378
0.08367
0.08207
0.08046
0.07936
0.07776
0.07673

9.792
9.448
9.288
9.089
8.740
8.411
7.999
7.563
7.236

6.417
3.669
2.376
1.651
1.196
8.847
6.558
4.750

Glycerin
7.047
4.803
2.850
1.547
0.9422
0.5497
0.3756
0.2277

0.08847
0.06042
0.03594
0.01956
0.01195
0.00699
0.004787
0.00291

84101
57655
34561
18995
11730
6941
4809
2957

46636
22963
8345
3275
1607
848.3
333.6
172.5
99.94

Engine Oil (unused)

107
107
107
107
107
107
107
107
107

2.563
1.210
0.4286
0.1630
7.617 102
3.833 102
1.405 102
6.744 103
3.661 103

4.566
2.169
7.751
2.977
1.404
7.135
2.668
1.304
7.232

102
102
103
103
103
104
104
104
105

Source: Data generated from the EES software developed by S. A. Klein and F. L. Alvarado. Originally based on various sources.

0.000389
0.000389
0.000389
0.000389
0.000389
0.000389
0.000389
0.000389
0.000389

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910
APPENDIX 2

TABLE A14E
Properties of liquid metals

Temp.
T, F

Density
r, Ibm/ft3

Specific
Thermal
Heat
Conductivity
cp, Btu/IbmR k, Btu/hftR

Thermal
Diffusivity
a, ft2/s

Dynamic
Viscosity
m, Ibm/fts

Kinematic
Viscosity
n, ft2/s

Prandtl
Number
Pr

1.335
1.289
1.176
1.087
1.017
9.180
8.524
8.061
7.719

106
106
106
106
106
107
107
107
107

0.02895
0.02737
0.02363
0.02074
0.01849
0.01527
0.01313
0.01164
0.01053

1.614
1.482
1.350
1.215
1.138

106
106
106
106
106

0.01352
0.01271
0.01183
0.0109
0.01029

2.450
2.223
1.994
1.862
1.727
1.590

106
106
106
106
106
106

0.02369
0.02143
0.01917
0.01798
0.01676
0.01551

7.239
6.350
5.433
4.488
3.354
3.014

106
106
106
106
106
106

0.01007
0.008891
0.007667
0.006387
0.004860
0.004449

4.933
4.500
4.052
3.589
2.614
2.409

106
106
106
106
106
106

0.006577
0.005975
0.005359
0.004728
0.003420
0.003248

106
106
106
106
106
106

0.02136
0.01857
0.0159
0.01095
0.007296
0.006324

Volume
Expansion
Coeff. b,
1/R

Mercury (Hg) Melting Point: 38 F


32
50
100
150
200
300
400
500
600

848.7
847.2
842.9
838.7
834.5
826.2
817.9
809.6
801.3

0.03353
0.03344
0.03319
0.03298
0.03279
0.03252
0.03236
0.03230
0.03235

4.727
4.805
5.015
5.221
5.422
5.815
6.184
6.518
6.839

4.614
4.712
4.980
5.244
5.504
6.013
6.491
6.924
7.329

105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105

1.133
1.092
9.919
9.122
8.492
7.583
6.972
6.525
6.186

103
103
104
104
104
104
104
104
104

Bismuth (Bi) Melting Point: 520 F


700
800
900
1000
1100

620.7
616.5
612.2
608.0
603.7

0.03509
0.03569
0.0363
0.0369
0.0375

9.361
9.245
9.129
9.014
9.014

1.193
1.167
1.141
1.116
1.105

700
800
900
1000
1100
1200

658
654
650
645.7
641.5
637.2

0.03797
0.03750
0.03702
0.03702
0.03702
0.03702

9.302
9.157
9.013
8.912
8.810
8.709

1.034
1.037
1.040
1.035
1.030
1.025

104
104
104
104
104

1.001
9.142
8.267
7.392
6.872

103
104
104
104
104

Lead (Pb) Melting Point: 621 F

104
104
104
104
104
104

1.612
1.453
1.296
1.202
1.108
1.013

103
103
103
103
103
103

Sodium (Na) Melting Point: 208 F


300
400
500
600
800
1000

57.13
56.28
55.42
54.56
52.85
51.14

0.3258
0.3219
0.3181
0.3143
0.3089
0.3057

48.19
46.58
44.98
43.37
40.55
38.12

7.192
7.142
7.087
7.026
6.901
6.773

104
104
104
104
104
104

4.136
3.572
3.011
2.448
1.772
1.541

104
104
104
104
104
104

Potassium (K) Melting Point: 147 F


300
400
500
600
800
1000

50.40
49.58
48.76
47.94
46.31
44.62

0.1911
0.1887
0.1863
0.1839
0.1791
0.1791

26.00
25.37
24.73
24.09
22.82
21.34

200
300
400
600
800
1000

52.99
52.16
51.32
49.65
47.99
46.36

0.2259
0.2230
0.2201
0.2143
0.2100
0.2103

14.79
14.99
15.19
15.59
15.95
16.20

7.500
7.532
7.562
7.591
7.643
7.417

104
104
104
104
104
104

2.486
2.231
1.976
1.721
1.210
1.075

104
104
104
104
104
104

Sodium-Potassium (%22Na-%78K) Melting Point: 12 F


3.432
3.580
3.735
4.070
4.396
4.615

104
104
104
104
104
104

3.886
3.467
3.050
2.213
1.539
1.353

104
104
104
104
104
104

7.331
6.647
5.940
4.456
3.207
2.919

Source: Data generated from the EES software developed by S. A. Klein and F. L. Alvarado. Originally based on various sources.

1.005
1.005
1.005
1.005
1.005
1.005
1.008
1.018
1.035

104
104
104
104
104
104
104
104
104

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911
APPENDIX 2

TABLE A15E
Properties of air at 1 atm pressure
Temp.
T, F

Specific
Density
Heat
r, Ibm/ft3 cp, Btu/IbmR

300
200
100
50
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
190
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
600
700
800
900
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000

0.24844
0.15276
0.11029
0.09683
0.08630
0.08446
0.08270
0.08101
0.07939
0.07783
0.07633
0.07489
0.07350
0.07217
0.07088
0.06963
0.06843
0.06727
0.06615
0.06507
0.06402
0.06300
0.06201
0.06106
0.06013
0.05590
0.05222
0.04899
0.04614
0.04361
0.04134
0.03743
0.03421
0.03149
0.02917
0.02718
0.02024
0.01613
0.01340
0.01147
0.01002
0.00889

0.5072
0.2247
0.2360
0.2389
0.2401
0.2402
0.2403
0.2403
0.2404
0.2404
0.2404
0.2404
0.2404
0.2404
0.2405
0.2405
0.2405
0.2405
0.2406
0.2406
0.2406
0.2407
0.2408
0.2408
0.2409
0.2415
0.2423
0.2433
0.2445
0.2458
0.2472
0.2503
0.2535
0.2568
0.2599
0.2630
0.2761
0.2855
0.2922
0.2972
0.3010
0.3040

Thermal
Conductivity
k, Btu/hftR
0.00508
0.00778
0.01037
0.01164
0.01288
0.01312
0.01336
0.01361
0.01385
0.01409
0.01433
0.01457
0.01481
0.01505
0.01529
0.01552
0.01576
0.01599
0.01623
0.01646
0.01669
0.01692
0.01715
0.01738
0.01761
0.01874
0.01985
0.02094
0.02200
0.02305
0.02408
0.02608
0.02800
0.02986
0.03164
0.03336
0.04106
0.04752
0.05309
0.05811
0.06293
0.06789

Thermal
Diffusivity
a, ft2/s
1.119
6.294
1.106
1.397
1.726
1.797
1.868
1.942
2.016
2.092
2.169
2.248
2.328
2.409
2.491
2.575
2.660
2.746
2.833
2.921
3.010
3.100
3.191
3.284
3.377
3.857
4.358
4.879
5.419
5.974
6.546
7.732
8.970
1.025
1.158
1.296
2.041
2.867
3.765
4.737
5.797
6.975

105
105
104
104
104
104
104
104
104
104
104
104
104
104
104
104
104
104
104
104
104
104
104
104
104
104
104
104
104
104
104
104
104
103
103
103
103
103
103
103
103
103

Dynamic
Viscosity
m, Ibm/fts
4.039
6.772
9.042
1.006
1.102
1.121
1.140
1.158
1.176
1.194
1.212
1.230
1.247
1.265
1.281
1.299
1.316
1.332
1.349
1.365
1.382
1.398
1.414
1.430
1.446
1.524
1.599
1.672
1.743
1.812
1.878
2.007
2.129
2.247
2.359
2.467
2.957
3.379
3.750
4.082
4.381
4.651

106
106
106
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105

Kinematic
Viscosity
n, ft2/s

Prandtl
Number
Pr

1.4501
0.7042
0.7404
0.7439
0.7403
0.7391
0.7378
0.7365
0.7350
0.7336
0.7321
0.7306
0.7290
0.7275
0.7260
0.7245
0.7230
0.7216
0.7202
0.7188
0.7174
0.7161
0.7148
0.7136
0.7124
0.7071
0.7028
0.6995
0.6971
0.6953
0.6942
0.6934
0.6940
0.6956
0.6978
0.7004
0.7158
0.7308
0.7432
0.7516
0.7543
0.7497

1.625
4.433
8.197
1.039
1.278
1.328
1.379
1.430
1.482
1.535
1.588
1.643
1.697
1.753
1.809
1.866
1.923
1.981
2.040
2.099
2.159
2.220
2.281
2.343
2.406
2.727
3.063
3.413
3.777
4.154
4.544
5.361
6.225
7.134
8.087
9.080
1.460
2.095
2.798
3.560
4.373
5.229

105
105
105
104
104
104
104
104
104
104
104
104
104
104
104
104
104
104
104
104
104
104
104
104
104
104
104
104
104
104
104
104
104
104
104
104
103
103
103
103
103
103

Note: For ideal gases, the properties cp, k, m, and Pr are independent of pressure. The properties r, n, and a at a pressure P (in atm) other than 1 atm are
determined by multiplying the values of r at the given temperature by P and by dividing n and a by P.
Source: Data generated from the EES software developed by S. A. Klein and F. L. Alvarado. Original sources: Keenan, Chao, Keyes, Gas Tables, Wiley, 1984;
and Thermophysical Properties of Matter, Vol. 3: Thermal Conductivity, Y. S. Touloukian, P. E. Liley, S. C. Saxena, Vol. 11: Viscosity, Y. S. Touloukian,
S. C. Saxena, and P. Hestermans, IFI/Plenun, NY, 1970, ISBN 0-306067020-8.

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912
APPENDIX 2

TABLE A16E
Properties of gases at 1 atm pressure
Temp.
T, F

Density
r, Ibm/ft3

Specific
Heat
cp, Btu/IbmR

Thermal
Conductivity
k, Btu/hftR

50
0
50
100
200
300
500
1000
1500
2000

0.14712
0.13111
0.11825
0.10769
0.09136
0.07934
0.06280
0.04129
0.03075
0.02450

0.1797
0.1885
0.1965
0.2039
0.2171
0.2284
0.2473
0.2796
0.2995
0.3124

0.00628
0.00758
0.00888
0.01017
0.01273
0.01528
0.02027
0.03213
0.04281
0.05193

Thermal
Diffusivity
a, ft2/s

Dynamic
Viscosity
m, Ibm/fts

Kinematic
Viscosity
n, ft2/s

Prandtl
Number
Pr

Carbon Dioxide, CO2


6.600
8.522
1.061
1.286
1.784
2.341
3.626
7.733
1.290
1.885

105
105
104
104
104
104
104
104
103
103

7.739
8.661
9.564
1.045
1.217
1.382
1.696
2.381
2.956
3.451

106
106
106
105
105
105
105
105
105
105

5.261
6.606
8.086
9.703
1.332
1.743
2.700
5.767
9.610
1.408

105
105
105
105
104
104
104
104
104
103

0.7970
0.7751
0.7621
0.7543
0.7469
0.7445
0.7446
0.7458
0.7445
0.7474

9.419
1.036
1.127
1.214
1.379
1.531
1.802
2.334
2.766
3.231

106
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105

1.005
1.242
1.498
1.772
2.372
3.032
4.508
8.881
1.413
2.072

104
104
104
104
104
104
104
104
103
103

0.7798
0.7593
0.7454
0.7359
0.7247
0.7191
0.7143
0.7078
0.7038
0.7136

5.861
6.506
7.133
7.742
8.906
1.000
1.200
1.620
1.974
2.327

106
106
106
106
106
105
105
105
105
105

1.092
1.361
1.655
1.972
2.674
3.457
5.244
1.076
1.760
2.605

104
104
104
104
104
104
104
103
103
103

0.8033
0.7649
0.7428
0.7311
0.7245
0.7283
0.7412
0.7491
0.7366
0.7353

4.969
5.381
5.781
6.167
6.911
7.622
8.967
1.201
1.477
1.734

106
106
106
106
106
106
106
105
105
105

7.373
8.960
1.067
1.250
1.652
2.098
3.117
6.354
1.048
1.544

104
104
103
103
103
103
103
103
102
102

0.6638
0.6960
0.7112
0.7177
0.7197
0.7174
0.7146
0.7241
0.7323
0.7362

1.014 104
1.251 104
1.507 104

0.6746
0.7056
0.7133

Carbon Monoxide, CO
50
0
50
100
200
300
500
1000
1500
2000

0.09363
0.08345
0.07526
0.06854
0.05815
0.05049
0.03997
0.02628
0.01957
0.01559

0.2571
0.2523
0.2496
0.2484
0.2485
0.2505
0.2567
0.2732
0.2862
0.2958

0.01118
0.01240
0.01359
0.01476
0.01702
0.01920
0.02331
0.03243
0.04049
0.04822

1.290
1.636
2.009
2.408
3.273
4.217
6.311
1.254
2.008
2.903

104
104
104
104
104
104
104
103
103
103

Methane, CH4
50
0
50
100
200
300
500
1000
1500
2000

0.05363
0.04779
0.04311
0.03925
0.03330
0.02892
0.02289
0.01505
0.01121
0.00893

0.5335
0.5277
0.5320
0.5433
0.5784
0.6226
0.7194
0.9438
1.1162
1.2419

0.01401
0.01616
0.01839
0.02071
0.02559
0.03077
0.04195
0.07346
0.10766
0.14151

50
0
50
100
200
300
500
1000
1500
2000

0.00674
0.00601
0.00542
0.00493
0.00419
0.00363
0.00288
0.00189
0.00141
0.00112

3.0603
3.2508
3.3553
3.4118
3.4549
3.4613
3.4572
3.5127
3.6317
3.7656

0.08246
0.09049
0.09818
0.10555
0.11946
0.13241
0.15620
0.20989
0.26381
0.31923

50
0
50

0.09364
0.08346
0.07527

0.2320
0.2441
0.2480

0.01176
0.01300
0.01420

1.360
1.780
2.228
2.698
3.690
4.748
7.075
1.436
2.390
3.544

104
104
104
104
104
104
104
103
103
103

Hydrogen, H2
1.110
1.287
1.500
1.742
2.295
2.924
4.363
8.776
1.432
2.098

103
103
103
103
103
103
103
103
102
102

Nitrogen, N2
1.504 104
1.773 104
2.113 104

9.500 106
1.043 105
1.134 105

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913
APPENDIX 2

TABLE A16E
Properties of gases at 1 atm pressure (Concluded)
Temp.
T, F

Density
r, Ibm/ft3

Specific
Heat
cp, Btu/IbmR

Thermal
Conductivity
k, Btu/hftR

100
200
300
500
1000
1500
2000

0.06854
0.05815
0.05050
0.03997
0.02628
0.01958
0.01560

0.2489
0.2487
0.2492
0.2535
0.2697
0.2831
0.2927

0.01537
0.01760
0.01970
0.02359
0.03204
0.04002
0.04918

50
0
50
100
200
300
500
1000
1500
2000

0.10697
0.09533
0.08598
0.07830
0.06643
0.05768
0.04566
0.03002
0.02236
0.01782

0.2331
0.2245
0.2209
0.2200
0.2221
0.2262
0.2352
0.2520
0.2626
0.2701

0.01216
0.01346
0.01475
0.01601
0.01851
0.02096
0.02577
0.03698
0.04701
0.05614

Thermal
Diffusivity
a, ft2/s
2.502
3.379
4.349
6.466
1.255
2.006
2.992

Dynamic
Viscosity
m, Ibm/fts

Kinematic
Viscosity
n, ft2/s

Prandtl
Number
Pr

104
104
104
104
103
103
103

1.221
1.388
1.543
1.823
2.387
2.829
3.212

105
105
105
105
105
105
105

1.783
2.387
3.055
4.559
9.083
1.445
2.059

104
104
104
104
104
103
103

0.7126
0.7062
0.7025
0.7051
0.7232
0.7202
0.6882

104
104
104
104
104
104
104
103
103
103

1.104
1.218
1.326
1.429
1.625
1.806
2.139
2.855
3.474
4.035

105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105

1.032
1.277
1.543
1.826
2.446
3.132
4.685
9.509
1.553
2.265

104
104
104
104
104
104
104
104
103
103

0.7622
0.7312
0.7152
0.7072
0.7020
0.7018
0.7029
0.7005
0.6985
0.6988

4.933
5.592
6.261
6.942
8.333
9.756
1.267
2.014
2.742
3.422

106
106
106
106
106
106
105
105
105
105

8.192
1.041
1.293
1.574
2.228
3.004
4.931
1.191
2.178
3.411

105
104
104
104
104
104
104
103
103
103

1.0050
1.0049
1.0018
0.9969
0.9845
0.9713
0.9475
0.9063
0.8793
0.8563

Oxygen, O2
1.355
1.747
2.157
2.582
3.484
4.463
6.665
1.357
2.224
3.241

Water Vapor, H2O


50
0
50
100
200
300
500
1000
1500
2000

0.06022
0.05367
0.04841
0.04408
0.03740
0.03248
0.02571
0.01690
0.01259
0.01003

0.4512
0.4484
0.4472
0.4473
0.4503
0.4557
0.4707
0.5167
0.5625
0.6034

0.00797
0.00898
0.01006
0.01121
0.01372
0.01648
0.02267
0.04134
0.06315
0.08681

8.153
1.036
1.291
1.579
2.263
3.093
5.204
1.314
2.477
3.984

105
104
104
104
104
104
104
103
103
103

Note: For ideal gases, the properties cp, k, m, and Pr are independent of pressure. The properties r, n, and a at a pressure P (in atm) other than 1 atm are
determined by multiplying the values of r at the given temperature by P and by dividing n and a by P.
Source: Data generated from the EES software developed by S. A. Klein and F. L. Alvarado. Originally based on various sources.

cen98128_App-B_p893-914.qxd

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3:28 PM

Page 914

914
APPENDIX 2

TABLE A17E
Properties of the atmosphere at high altitude
Altitude,
z, ft

Temperature
T, F

Pressure,
r, psia

Gravity
g, ft/s2

Speed of
Sound
c, ft/s

Density
r, Ibm/ft3

0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
4500
5000
5500
6000
6500
7000
7500
8000
8500
9000
9500
10,000
11,000
12,000
13,000
14,000
15,000
16,000
17,000
18,000
19,000
20,000
22,000
24,000
26,000
28,000
30,000
32,000
34,000
36,000
38,000
40,000
45,000
50,000
55.000
60,000

59.00
57.22
55.43
53.65
51.87
50.09
48.30
46.52
44.74
42.96
41.17
39.39
37.61
35.83
34.05
32.26
30.48
28.70
26.92
25.14
23.36
19.79
16.23
12.67
9.12
5.55
1.99
1.58
5.14
8.70
12.2
19.4
26.5
33.6
40.7
47.8
54.9
62.0
69.2
69.7
69.7
69.7
69.7
69.7
69.7

14.7
14.4
14.2
13.9
13.7
13.4
13.2
12.9
12.7
12.5
12.2
12.0
11.8
11.6
11.3
11.1
10.9
10.7
10.5
10.3
10.1
9.72
9.34
8.99
8.63
8.29
7.97
7.65
7.34
7.05
6.76
6.21
5.70
5.22
4.78
4.37
3.99
3.63
3.30
3.05
2.73
2.148
1.691
1.332
1.048

32.174
32.173
32.171
32.169
32.168
32.166
32.165
32.163
32.162
32.160
32.159
32.157
32.156
32.154
32.152
32.151
32.149
32.148
32.146
32.145
32.145
32.140
32.137
32.134
32.131
32.128
32.125
32.122
32.119
32.115
32.112
32.106
32.100
32.094
32.088
32.082
32.08
32.07
32.06
32.06
32.05
32.04
32.02
32.00
31.99

1116
1115
1113
1111
1109
1107
1105
1103
1101
1099
1097
1095
1093
1091
1089
1087
1085
1083
1081
1079
1077
1073
1069
1065
1061
1057
1053
1049
1045
1041
1037
1029
1020
1012
1003
995
987
978
969
968
968
968
968
968
968

0.07647
0.07536
0.07426
0.07317
0.07210
0.07104
0.06998
0.06985
0.06792
0.06690
0.06590
0.06491
0.06393
0.06296
0.06200
0.06105
0.06012
0.05919
0.05828
0.05738
0.05648
0.05473
0.05302
0.05135
0.04973
0.04814
0.04659
0.04508
0.04361
0.04217
0.04077
0.03808
0.03553
0.03311
0.03082
0.02866
0.02661
0.02468
0.02285
0.02079
0.01890
0.01487
0.01171
0.00922
0.00726

Viscosity
m, Ibm/fts

Thermal
Conductivity,
k, Btu/hftR

0.0146
0.0146
0.0146
0.0145
0.0145
0.0144
0.0144
0.0143
0.0143
0.0142
0.0142
0.0141
0.0141
0.0141
0.0140
0.0140
0.0139
0.0139
0.0138
0.0138
0.0137
0.0136
0.0136
0.0135
0.0134
0.0133
0.0132
0.0132
0.0130
0.0129
0.0128
0.0126
0.0124
0.0122
0.0121
0.0119
0.0117
0.0115
0.0113
0.0113
0.0113
0.0113
0.0113
0.0113
0.0113

1.202
1.199
1.196
1.193
1.190
1.186
1.183
1.180
1.177
1.173
1.170
1.167
1.164
1.160
1.157
1.154
1.150
1.147
1.144
1.140
1.137
1.130
1.124
1.117
1.110
1.104
1.097
1.090
1.083
1.076
1.070
1.056
1.042
1.028
1.014
1.000
0.986
0.971
0.956
0.955
0.955
0.955
0.955
0.955
0.955

105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105

Source: U. S. Standard Atmosphere Supplements, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1966. Based on year-round mean conditions at 45 latitude and varies
with the time of the year and the weather patterns. The conditions at sea level (z D) are taken to be P 14.696 psia, T 59 F, r 0.076474 lbm/ft3,
g 32.1741 ft2/s.