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Session: 2013 A PROJECT REPORT ON Ways to Reduce Employee Absenteeism with Special Reference to Cadbury India Ltd.

For the partial fulfillment of the award of Master of Business Administration (HR)

Submitted To: Ms. Neha Saxena SOSM Jiwaji University


Submitted By: Shivani Tomar Roll No. 1287621


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I, the undersigned, hereby declare that the summer training project entitled Ways to Reduce Employee Absenteeism with Special Reference to Cadbury India Ltd. has been written and undertaken by me and is original work. The empirical findings of this project are based on the information collected by me. This report is submitted for the partial fulfillment of the degree of Bachelor of Business Administration to the SOSM Jiwaji University, Gwalior (M.P.). I have not submitted this report to any other university for any other degree/diploma program.

Shivani Tomar

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It is certified that the summer training report entitled, Ways to Reduce Employee Absenteeism with Special Reference to Cadbury India Ltd. is submitted by Ms. Shivani Tomar for partial fulfillment for the award of the degree of Bachelor of Business Administration of SOSM Jiwaji University, Gwalior (M.P.). It is record of candidates own work carried out at Cadbury India Ltd., Malanpur.

Ms. Neha Saxena

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It gives me immense pleasure to express my deep sense of gratitude to Ms. Neha Saxena, Faculty of SOSM JIWAJI UNIVERSITY, Gwalior, for his valuable guidance and consistent supervision throughout the course. I am also thankful to Mrs. Varsha Jain (HR Executive) for his valuable guidance for preparing the final Report and also for providing the necessary facilities. Finally I am indebted to our other faculty members, my friends and my parents who gave their full- fledged co-operation for successful completion of my project. It was indeed learning experience for me.


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Company profile Objective of the study Introduction of the topic Employee Absenteeism Research methodology Data analysis & graphical data representation Findings Suggestions & Implications Conclusion Bibliography Annexure

02-07 08-09 10-23 24-26 27-45 46 47-48 49-50 51 52-54

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Cadbury India is a fully owned subsidy of Kraft Foods Inc. The combination of Kraft Foods and Cadbury creates a global powerhouse in snacks, confectionery and quick meals.

With annual revenues of approximately $50 billion, the combined company is the world's second largest food company, making delicious products for billions of consumers in more than 160 countries. We employ approximately 140,000 people and have operations in more than 70 countries.

In India, Cadbury began its operations in 1948 by importing chocolates. After 60 years of existence, it today has five company-owned manufacturing facilities at Thane, Induri (Pune) and Malanpur (Gwalior), Bangalore and Baddi (Himachal Pradesh) and 4 sales offices (New Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkota and Chennai). The corporate office is in Mumbai.

Our core purpose "make today delicious" captures the spirit of what we are trying to achieve as a business. We make delicious foods you can feel good about. Whether watching your weight or preparing to celebrate, grabbing a quick bite or sitting down to family night, we pour our hearts into creating foods that are wholesome and delicious.

Currently, Cadbury India operates in four categories viz. Chocolate Confectionery, Milk Food Drinks, Candy and Gum category. In the Chocolate Confectionery business, Cadbury has
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maintained its undisputed leadership over the years. Some of the key brands in India are Cadbury Dairy Milk, 5 Star, Perk, clairs and Celebrations.

Cadbury enjoys a value market share of over 70% - the highest Cadbury brand share in the world! Our billion-dollar brand Cadbury Dairy Milk is considered the "gold standard" for chocolates in India. The pure taste of CDM defines the chocolate taste for the Indian consumer.

In the Milk Food drinks segment our main product is Bournvita - the leading Malted Food Drink (MFD) in the country. Similarly in the medicated candy category Halls is the undisputed leader. We recently entered the gums category with the launch of our worldwide dominant bubble gum brand Bubbaloo. Bubbaloo is sold in 25 countries worldwide.

Since 1965 Cadbury has also pioneered the development of cocoa cultivation in India. For over two decades, we have worked with the Kerala Agriculture University to undertake cocoa research and released clones, hybrids that improve the cocoa yield. Our Cocoa team visits farmers and advise them on the cultivation aspects from planting to harvesting. We also conduct farmers meetings & seminars to educate them on Cocoa cultivation aspects. Our efforts have increased cocoa productivity and touched the lives of thousands of farmers. Hardly surprising then that the Cocoa tree is called the Cadbury tree!

Today, as a combined company with an unmatched portfolio in confectionery, snacking and quick meals, we are poised in our leap towards quantum growth. We are the world's No.1 Confectionery Company. And we will continue to make today delicious!

Cadbury Fun Facts:-

The total weight of Dairy Milk produced worldwide in one year is equivalent to 7230 elephants!

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CADBURY WORLDWIDE:Cadbury India is a fully owned subsidy of Kraft Foods Inc. The combination of Kraft Foods and Cadbury creates a global powerhouse in snacks, confectionery and quick meals. We are currently the world's No.1 confectionery and biscuit company. We are also the worlds second-largest food company with sales in approximately 160 countries. We employ approximately 140,000 people. With an incredible brand portfolio, we contrive to make a delicious difference, today and everyday. Heritage: We have come a long way since J.L Kraft started selling cheese from a horse drawn wagon in 1903. Hard work, imagination and commitment to bring the world its favorite foods has helped us grow into a company that touches more than a billion people in 160 countries. Everyday. One at a time.

Some fast facts on the combined company:

Our Global Reach Approximately $50 billion in revenues 25%+ of global revenue from emerging markets #1 in global confectionery #1 in global biscuits More than 50% of global revenue from snacks and confectionery

Our Brand Portfolio 11 brands with more than $1 billion in revenue 70+ brands with more than $100 million in revenue 40+ brands over 100 years old 80% revenue from #1 share positions
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Asian Marketing Effectiveness Awards 08 Asian Marketing Effectiveness Awards 2008 for Bournvita Folk/Fusion campaign - GOLD award for the "Best Insights and Strategic Thinking" and SILVER award for the 'Most Effective Use of Advertising'. The Asian Marketing Effectiveness Awards are the region's most prestigious awards that celebrate resourceful Asian marketing. They are designed to set the standard for effective marketing within the region, and aim to uncover the campaigns that show results through innovative spirit and combining creativity with effectiveness to build world class brands.

Cadbury India ranked 7th Great Place to Work in India No. 1 FMCG Company Cadbury India has been ranked as the 7th Great Place to Work and the No. 1 FMCG company in India in 2008, by the Great Place to Work Institute. This study, in its fifth year in India , has a presence in 30 countries and is the oldest, most comprehensive and respected workplace study worldwide. Over two hundred companies throughout India participated in the survey, which measured the degree of satisfaction of employees with their place of work and picked out the best working environments. This is the fourth time we have featured amongst the Great Places to Work in India . We were ranked 10th in 2003, and were among the top 25 in 2004 and 2005. Great Place to Work 2007 'Cadbury India' has been awarded the "Bronze Award for Excellence in People Management" in the 'Great Place to Work 2007' survey conducted by Grow Talent Company Limited and Businessworld. The award recognizes Cadbury India as a national leader in the area of Human Resource Management.

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Business World along with Grow Talent has been carrying out the 'Great Place to Work' survey for the past 4 years. This award is based on the ranks received in top 25 list of the Great Place to Work India studies conducted in the last four years

ABBY Award wins for India. The prestigious ABBY awards, held in March, recognise creative excellence in the Indian Advertising Industry. The Ulta Perk campaign won four Silver Awards in total and the Cadbury Dairy Milk Campaign, Miss Palampur, also won a Silver Award. This year Cadbury also sponsored the new 'Young ABBY' Award.

Bournvita won the Emmvie Gold for the Best Media Innovation - TV.

Cadbury Dairy Milk & Bournvita crowned as Consumer Superbrands

Cadbury Dairy Milk & Bournvita have done it again. For the second time running, Cadbury Dairy Milk & Bournvita have been declared a `Consumer Superbrand' for 2006-7 by Superbrands India ry won the Emmvie Gold for the Best Media Innovation - TV, for brand Bournvita, for the entry Physical symbol of Confidence.

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Cadbury- Ranked among India's most respected companies

Cadbury India has been ranked 5th in the FMCG sector, in a survey on India's most respected companies by sector conducted by Business World magazine in 2007

Cadbury wins the Effies 2006 Pappu does it again! At the recent Effie 2006 awards organized by The Advertising Club of Mumbai, our 'Pappu Pass Ho Gaya' advertising campaign bagged two more awards - Gold in the Consumer Products category and Silver in the Integrated advertising campaign category

Cadbury India roars at Cannes Cadbury India received a bronze award at the Cannes Lions International Advertising Festival for partnering with a mobile phone operator in 2005 to provide exam results via SMS to school children.

Company Address: Cadbury India Ltd Plot No 25 Malanpur Industrial Area Village Gurikha, Tehsil Gohad Gwalior - 477 116 Madhya Pradesh India

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Chapter 2
Objective of the study

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OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 1. To find out the various cause for absenteeism 2. To study the various measures adopted by the organization 3. To provide suggestions in the form of solutions to reduce the rate of absenteeism

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INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY Absenteeism is a serious workplace problem and an expensive occurrence for both employers and employees seemingly unpredictable in nature. A satisfactory level of attendance by employees at work is necessary to allow the achievement of objectives and targets by a department. Employee Absenteeism is the absence of an employee from work. It is a major problem faced by almost all employers of today. Employees are absent from work and thus the work suffers. Absenteeism of employees from work leads to back logs, piling of work and thus work delay. Absenteeism is of two types 1. Innocent absenteeism - Is one in which the employee is absent from work due to genuine cause or reason. It may be due to his illness or personal family problem or any other real reason 2. Culpable Absenteeism - is one in which a person is absent from work without any genuine reason or cause. He may be pretending to be ill or just wanted a holiday and stay at home. Many employees will, on occasions, need a few days off work because of illness, however, when absences become more frequent or long term and reach an unacceptable level, action by management is necessary. Absence from work can be expensive in both monetary and human terms. The costs incurred when an employee is absent from work may include: (i) Replacing the employee or requiring other staff to cover the absence; (ii) Inability to provide services, or achieve section and departmental objectives; (iii) Low morale and general dissatisfaction from other staff, particularly if the absence is perceived as unwarranted

1.2 TITLE OF THE PROBLEM A study on the Ways to Reduce Employee Absenteeism with Special Reference to Cadbury India 1.3 NEED FOR THE STUDY The study aims at the causes of absenteeism of employees in Cadbury India Pvt. Ltd. at Malanpur At present, organizations in India take real interest in controlling absenteeism.
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Measures to prevent strikes and lockouts have received far and greater attention. One reason for this situation may be that strikes and lockouts are more noisy and visible while absenteeism is silent and unnoticeable. The relevance of the study is that, now the company is facing a major issue of high rate of absenteeism and hope that the study will reveal the reason for it and thereby the organization can take effective measures for checking the absenteeism.

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LITERATURE SURVEY AND THEORETICAL BACKGROUND DEFINITIONS OF ABSENTEEISM i. Absents constitutes a single day of missed work(Martocchio & Jimeno 2003)


Absence occurs whenever a person chooses to allocate time to activities that compete with scheduled work either to satisfy the waxing and warning of underlying

motivational rhythms(Fichman 1984) or to maximise personal utility(Chelius 1981)


An individuals lack of physical presence at a given location and time when there is a social expectation for him or her to be there. (Martocchio & Harrison, 1993)


Absenteeism refers to Non-attendance of employee for sheduled work( Gibson, 1966 john, 1978)


Absenteeism is defined as a failure of an employee to report to work when he or she is sheduled to do so

TYPES OF ABSENTEEISM There are two types of absenteeism, each of which requires a different type of approach. 1. Innocent Absenteeism Innocent absenteeism refers to employees who are absent for reasons beyond their control; like sickness and injury. Innocent absenteeism is not culpable which means that it is blameless. In a labour relations context this means that it cannot be remedied or treated by disciplinary measures. 2. Culpable Absenteeism Culpable absenteeism refers to employees who are absent without authorization for reasons which are within their control. For instance, an employee who is on sick leave even though he/she is not sick, and it can be proven that the employee was not sick, is guilty of culpable absenteeism.
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Counselling Innocent Absenteeism Innocent absenteeism is not blameworthy and therefore disciplinary action is not justified. It is obviously unfair to punish someone for conduct which is beyond his/her control. Absenteeism, no matter what the cause, imposes losses on the employer who is also not at fault. The damage suffered by the employer must be weighed against the employee's right to be sick. There is a point at which the employer's right to expect the employee to attend regularly and fulfill the employment contract will outweigh the employee's right to be sick. At such a point the termination of the employee may be justified, as will be discussed. The procedure an employer may take for innocent absenteeism is as follows: Initial counselling(s) Written counselling(s) Reduction(s) of hours and/or job reclassification Discharge Initial Counselling Presuming you have communicated attendance expectations generally and have already identified an employee as a problem, you will have met with him or her as part of your attendance program and you should now continue to monitor the effect of these efforts on his or her attendance. If the absences are intermittent, meet with the employee each time he/she returns to work. If absence is prolonged, keep in touch with the employee regularly and stay updated on the status of his/her condition. (Indicate your willingness to assist.) You may require the employee to provide you with regular medical assessments. This will enable you to judge whether or not there is any likelihood of the employee providing regular attendance in future. Regular medical assessments will also give you an idea of what steps the employee is taking to seek medical or other assistance. Formal meetings in which verbal warnings are given should be given as appropriate and documented. If no improvement occurs written warning may be necessary.
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Written Counselling If the absences persist, you should meet with the employee formally and provide him/her with a letter of concern. If the absenteeism still continues to persist then the employee should be given a second letter of concern during another formal meeting. This letter would be stronger worded in that it would warn the employee that unless attendance improves, termination may be necessary. Reduction(s) of hours and or job reclassification In between the first and second letters the employee may be given the option to reduce his/her hours to better fit his/her personal circumstances. This option must be voluntarily accepted by the employee and cannot be offered as an ultimatum, as a reduction in hours is a reduction in pay and therefore can be looked upon as discipline. If the nature of the illness or injury is such that the employee is unable to fulfill the requirements of his/her job, but could for example benefit from modified work, counsel the employee to bid on jobs of such type if they become available. Discharge Only when all the previously noted needs and conditions have been met and everything has been done to accommodate the employee can termination be considered. An Arbitrator would consider the following in ruling on an innocent absenteeism dismissal case. Has the employee done everything possible to regain their health and return to work? Has the employer provided every assistance possible? (i.e. counselling, support, time off.) Has the employer informed the employee of the unworkable situation resulting from their sickness? Has the employer attempted to accommodate the employee by offering a more suitable position (if available) or a reduction of hours? Has enough time elapsed to allow for every possible chance of recovery? Has the employer treated the employee prejudicially in any way?
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As is evident, a great deal of time and effort must elapse before dismissal can take place. These points would be used to substantiate or disprove the following two fold test. The absences must be shown to be clearly excessive. It must be proven that the employee will be unable to attend work on a regular basis in the future. Corrective Action for Culpable Absenteeism As already indicated, culpable absenteeism consists of absences where it can be demonstrated that the employee is not actually ill and is able to improve his/her attendance. Presuming you have communicated attendance expectations generally, have identified the employee as a problem, have met with him/her as part of your attendance program, made your concerns on his specific absenteeism known and have offered counselling as appropriate, with no improvement despite your positive efforts, disciplinary procedures may be appropriate. The procedures for corrective/progressive discipline for culpable absenteeism are generally the same as for other progressive discipline problems. The discipline should not be prejudicial in any way. The general procedure is as follows: [Utilizing counselling memorandum] Initial Warning(s) Written Warning(s) Suspension(s) Discharge Verbal Warning Formally meet with the employee and explain that income protection is to be used only when an employee is legitimately ill. Advise the employee that his/her attendance record must improve and be maintained at an improved level or further disciplinary action will result. Offer any counselling or guidance as is appropriate. Give further verbal warnings as required. Review the employee's income protection records at regular intervals. Where a marked improvement has been shown, commend the employee. Where there is no improvement a written warning should be issued.
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Written Warning Interview the employee again. Show him/her the statistics and point out that there has been no noticeable (or sufficient) improvement. Listen to the employee to see if there is a valid reason and offer any assistance you can. If no satisfactory explanation is given, advise the employee that he/she will be given a written warning. Be specific in your discussion with him/her and in the counselling memorandum as to the type of action to be taken and when it will be taken if the record does not improve. As soon as possible after this meeting provide the employee personally with the written warning and place a copy of his/her file. The written warning should identify any noticeable pattern If the amount and/or pattern continues, the next step in progressive discipline may be a second, stronger written warning. Your decision to provide a second written warning as an alternative to proceeding to a higher level of discipline (i.e. suspension) will depend on a number of factors. Such factors are, the severity of the problem, the credibility of the employee's explanations, the employee's general work performance and length of service. Suspension [only after consultation with the appropriate superiors] If the problem of culpable absenteeism persists, following the next interview period and immediately following an absence, the employee should be interviewed and advised that he/she is to be suspended. The length of the suspension will depend again on the severity of the problem, the credibility of the employee's explanation, the employee's general work performance and length of service. Subsequent suspensions are optional depending on the above condition. Dismissal [only after consultation with the appropriate superiors] Dismissals should only be considered when all of the above conditions and procedures have been met. The employee, upon displaying no satisfactory improvement, would be dismissed on the grounds of his/her unwillingness to correct his/her absence record.

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THEORIES OF ABSENTEEISM Absence behaviour is discussed in terms of theories on absences such as the notion of the informal contract, perceived inequity, and withdrawal from stressful work situations, dynamic conflict, social exchange, withdrawal, non-attendance, organizationally excused vs.

organizationally unexcused, involuntary vs. voluntary and lastly a four-category taxonomy. Informal Contract Gibsson (1966) attempted to explain some of the main features of absence behaviour by means of the notion of an informal contract. The contract is viewed as being made between the individual and the organisation. Gibsson (1966) was especially interested in absences that were not long enough to activate formal legitimising (certification) procedures. He used the concept of valence, referring to a persons positive or negative relationships to a work situation and pointed out that if the combined valences of a work situation are weak, it will be easier for people to legitimise their absences to themselves.

Gibsson (1966) remarks that a plausible idea relating to the size of the organisation influences absence rates; in larger organisations, since there is greater division of labour, there is also more concealment of the contributions of individuals, thus permitting latitude for absence from work. He also mentions the importance of the employees identification with the organisation, as in the case of longer-service employees, and argues for the importance of the authenticity of the work contract (Gibsson, 1966). In other words, the organisation should be seen to offer a fair deal to the individual, whose feelings of obligation would thus be strengthened. In this research Gibssons (1966) concept of valence, referring to an individuals positive and negative relationship toward a work situation has relevance, as the aim of this research is to determine whether work-related attitudes (Job Involvement and Organisational Commitment) predict employee absenteeism. It is hypothesised that employees with low job involvement and organizational commitment (negative relationship to the work situations) will have higher levels of absenteeism.

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Resolving Perceived Inequity

Adams (1965), Hill and Trist (1953) and Patchen (1960) have made notable theoretical contributions towards the study of absenteeism. No recent literature has been identified which has built on this perspective. Adams (1965) suggested that absences may be a means of resolving perceived inequity; the probability of absence behaviour will increase with the magnitude of inequity and if other means of reducing inequity are not available. Patchen (1960) had tested this kind of hypothesis; producing evidence of a relationship between absences and perceived fairness of pay, that is, employees feelings about how fairly they had been treated in regard to their pay levels and promotions.

Withdrawal from the Stress of Work Situations

In their study on absence, Hill and Trist (1953; 1962) contributed a theory of absence as being the withdrawal from the stress of work situations. Withdrawal is the central explanatory concept; thus, individuals experiencing conflicts of satisfaction and obligations tend to express them through labour turnover, accidents, and unsanctioned absences (this is, absences without formal permission). In addition to the views of Hill and Trist (1962), Hanisch and Hulin (1991) theorised that absenteeism and other withdrawal behaviours reflect invisible attitudes such as job dissatisfaction, low level of organisational commitment, or an intention to quit. According to this view, an employee who is absent from work is consciously or unconsciously expressing negative attachment to the organisation.

Dynamic Conflict The withdrawal explanation offered by Hill and Trist (1962) had some subsequent influence on theoretical discussions by s (1962) and Knox (1961). Gadourek (1965) described the latter as dynamic conflict theories. The conflict is located within the individual, and whether a person stays or withdraws is the result of a complex in incentives and stresses.

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Social Exchange Chadwick-Jones(1982) presented a case for the theory of absenteeism that is social, not individual in emphasis. As a first step Chadwick-Jones (1982) assumed the interdependency of members of work organisations. It seems obvious that

individuals do have some mutual obligations to peers, subordinates, and superiors (as well as other relationships outside the work situation). In this context the rights and duties of individuals are both subject to, and representative of, a set of rules about activities in the work situation. What individuals do is therefore likely to be in answer to, on behalf of, in defence of, as well as achieving a compromise with the rules of the group.

The second assumption made by Chadwick-Jones (1982), is that under the employment contract, some form of social exchange is taking place between employers and employees. Whatever they exchange in this situation whether it be their time, effort, or skill or money, security, congenial friends, or anything else- it will be only what is possible for employees in the organisation. Exchanges may be conceived as between individuals and work groups, or between work groups and management, but it would not be realistic to conceive of the exchange between the individual and the organisation while disregarding the social conditions and rules. Chadwick-Jones think of social exchange between employees and employers as developing in, or as revealed by, a pattern of behaviour in the work situation that includes absences with all the other factors that constitute the contract, formal and informal, between employers and employees. Formal factors include pay, hours, disciplinary rules, job duties, and promotion lines. Informal ones include supervisory styles, peer group relations, and salient to their analysis absence from work. Chadwick-Jones (1982) however, do point out that absences may not enter into the exchange at all, insofar as some employees or employee groups, especially those with higher status supervisors in factories, managers in banks are absent very little or hardly at all. It is quite possible, however, that managers possess greater control over the allocation of their working time and may take periods of time out that are not recorded.

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Withdrawal According to Chadwick-Jones (1982), absence from work, where work is defined by the employees presence at a particular location (office or workshop) for a fixed period each day, can be interpreted as an individual act of choice between alternative activities; as withdrawal or escape from surveillance; as individual or group resistance to an inflexible system. Thus, absence may also be viewed as a stratagem in inter-group relations, as a defensive or aggressive act in inter-group conflict (Chadwick-Jones et al., 1982). For the purpose of this research this theory has relevance, as the reasons for absence behaviour could be related to a choice of alternative activities instead of attending work. Non-attendance Another definition of absenteeism refers to the non-attendance of employees for scheduled work (Gibons, 1966; Johns, 1978; Jones, 1971). The definition

distinguishes absenteeism from other forms of non-attendance that are arranged in advanced (e.g. vacations) and specifically avoids judgements of legitimacy associated with absent events that are implied by as sick leave. This definitional emphasis seeks to focus on the key organisational consequences of unscheduled non-attendance instability in the supply of labour to the organisation resulting in the disruption of scheduled work processes and the loss of under utilisation of productive capacity (Allen, 1981; Jones, 1971, Nicholson, 1977). For this research this definition will be applicable, as the researcher will not take into account absences due to vacation leave and sick leave taken over more than three days.

Organisationally excused vs. organisationally unexcused In terms of distinguishing among types of absence, one simple distinction that previous studies (Blau, 1985; Cheloha & Farr, 1980; Firzgibbons & Moch, 1980) made is between organisationally excused versus organisationally unexcused absences. Based on these studies, it seems that organisations operationalise excused absence to include (within defined limits) categories such as personal sickness, jury duty, religious holidays, funeral leave, and transportation problems. However, as Johns and Nicholson (1982) noted, absence behaviour can have a variety of meanings for individuals. This research will focus on the organisationally unexcused type of absenteeism.

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Involuntary vs. voluntary March and Simon (1958) on the other hand, distinguished between two basic types of absences: involuntary (e.g. certified sickness, funeral attendance) and voluntary (e.g. vocation, uncertified sickness). Voluntary absences are under the direct control of the employee and are frequently utilised for personal aims. Conversely, involuntary absences are beyond the employees immediate control. Hence, voluntary rather than involuntary absences from work may reflect job dissatisfaction and lack of commitment to the organization. A four-category taxonomy Blau and Boal (1987) presented a four-category taxonomy describing the meanings of absence. These categories are medical, career enhancing, normative and calculative. In the medical category , absence is viewed as a response to various infrequent and uncontrollable events (illness, injury, fatigue, and family demands). If such an absence (medical) occurred, it probably would be operationalised as a sporadically occurring excused absence (Blau & Boal, 1987). In the career-enhancing category , absence is depicted as a mechanism that gives the employee a further choice to pursue task- and career-related goals. For the normative category , absence is viewed less as a motivated behaviour and more as a habitual response to the norms of the work group (organisation) regarding absence (Blau & Boal, 1987). As such, this type of absence probably would operationalise as a

consistently occurring excused absence. More importantly, rather than absenteeism appearing as a random walk, as with the medical category, definite patterns will emerge. Thus, for this group, it would be expected not only to predict frequency, but also when absenteeism will happen. Finally the calculative absence is viewed as a coin of exchange (Blau and Boal, 1987; Johns & Nicholson, 1982) in either fulfilling or modifying the implicit social contract between the employee and employer, and as a time allocation strategy for enhancing non-work outcomes. This type of absence would be operationalised in terms of the employee using a certain number of excused and unexcused absences permitted by the organisation, depending on how much the employee felt he or she should modify the implicit social contract. It could be predicted that an extremely apathetic employee (low job involvement and organisational commitment) would take full advantage by using both kinds of absence. Thus, the absolute frequency and total number of days absent should be greatest for workers who are the most apathetic.
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EFFECTS OF ABSENTEEISM Following are the drawbacks of excessive absenteeism 1.ON INDUSTRY Absenteeism in industry stops machines, disrupts processes, creates production bottle-necks, hampers smooth flow or continuity of work, upsets production targets, result in production losses, increases direct overhead costs , increase work load of the inexperienced , less experienced or sub standard workers as substitutes, this in turn creating problems of recruitment , training, job adjustments, morale and attitudes of the employees. ON WORKERS 1. Absenteeism reduces workers earnings and adds to his indebtedness, decrease his purchasing power. Makes it difficult for him to meet necessities of life, leading to personal problems, and in many cases loss of employment and resultant disaster for his dependents. 2. It affects both quantity and quality of production. If more number of workers are absent the total output is affected. If alternative arrangement is made by employing casual workers who do not posses adequate experience the quality of goods produced is affected. 3. It affects the efficiency of workers. The workers who joins after a long period of absence would normally be much less efficient. 4. It affects the discipline of the workers adversely. The worker who is attending to his work irregularly may not care much about the discipline.

Peculiar Features of absenteeism On the basis of micro studies undertaken in different parts of the country, certain observations may be made. a. The rate of absenteeism is the lowest on pay day, it increases considerably on the days following the payments of wages and bonus. b. Absenteeism is generally high among workers below 15 years of age and those above 40.The younger employees are not regular and punctual, presumably because of the employment of a large number of newcomers among the younger age groups.While the older people are not able to withstand the strenuous nature of the work. c. The rate of absenteeism varies from department to department within a unit. As the size of the group increases, the rate of absenteeism goes up. This difference in the rate of absenteeism is believed to be due to the peculiar style and practices of management, the composition of the laboue force and the culture of the organization.
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d. The percentage of absenteeism is generally higher in the day shifts. e. The percentege of abasenteeism is much higher in coal ans mining industries than in organized industries. f. Absenteeism in India is seasonal in character. g. It is the highest during March-April-may, when a land has to be prepared for monsoon saving, and also in the harvest season, when the rate goes as high as 40 percent.

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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research methodology is a way to systematically solve the research problem. It deals with the objective of a research study, the method of defining the research problem, the type of hypothesis formulated, the type of data collected, method used for data collecting and analyzing the data etc. The methodology includes collection of primary and secondary data.

5.1 TYPE OF RESEARCH DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH The study follows descriptive research method. Descriptive studies aims at portraying accurately the characteristics of a particular group or situation. Descriptive research is concerned with describing the characteristics of a particular individual or a group. Here the researcher attempts to present the existing facts by collecting data. 5.2 RESEARCH DESIGN A research design is a basis of framework, which provides guidelines for the rest of research process. It is the map of blueprint according to which, the research is to be conducted. The research design specifies the method of study. Research design is prepared after formulating the research problem. 5.3 SOURCES OF DATA Data are the raw materials in which marketing research works. The task of data collection begins after research problem has been defined and research design chalked out. Data collected are classified into primary data and secondary data PRIMARY DATA Questionnaires were used for collecting primary data SECONDARY DATA Secondary data were collected from the companys annual publications, memorandums of settlements, newspapers, journals, websites, and from library books
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5.4 SAMPLING METHOD Sampling technique used in this study is Random sampling. The selected sample size is 50. 5.5 SAMPLE SIZE The sample size taken for this study is 60. 5.6 TOOLS FOR ANALYSIS Percentage analysis is used


Due to time constraints and busy schedules of the nurses it was difficult to interact with them completely. The sample size was limited to 60 The responses may be influenced by personal bias. Generally do not provide in-depth understanding of underlying issues, reasons or behavior patterns. Incorrectly designed surveys may produce invalid and misleading results.

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1. Age

Parameters 20-30 30-40 40-50 More than 50 Total

No: of Respondents 9 18 18 15 60

Percentage 15 30 30 25 100

No: of Respondents 30 Percentage 30 25 18 15 9 18 15




More than 50

INFERENCE It has been inferred that 30% of the employees who participated in the survey are of age group between 30-40 , 30% again come under the category between 40-50 age group and the rest of them belong to more than 50 (25%) and 20-30(15%) types.
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2. SEX

Parameters Male Female Total

No: of Respondents 42 18 60

Percentage 70 30 100

No: of Respondents 70 Percentage

42 30 18



INFERENCE It has been inferred that 70% of the employees participated in the survey are male and the remaining come under the female category.

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Parameters Single Married Divorced Separated Widow(er) Total

No: of Respondents 9 42 3 0 6 60

Percentage 15 70 5 0 10 100

No: of Respondents 70 Percentage


15 9 3 Single Maried 5 0 0 Widow(er) 6 10



INFERENCE It has been inferred that 70% of the employees who participated in the survey are married and 15% of respondents are bachelors. Rest of them are categorized under the category of widow and divorce cases.

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4 Employee able to communicate their feelings for others

Parameters Always Very often Often Rarely Never Total

No: of Respondents 6 15 20 10 9 60

Percentage 10 25 33.33 16.67 15 100


No: of Respondents 33.33 25 20 15 10 6 10 16.67 9 15 Percentage


Very often




INFERENCE It has been inferred that 33% of employees have an opinion that they can communicate their feelings to others often, 25% feels it very often. Also we can infer that 17% of the employees rate it as rarely and 15% of them never had any such feelings, but 10% of them feel always free enough to communicate with others.

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5. Employees - forthright, frank and willingness to stand up for his rights.

Parameters Always Frequently Occasionally Rarely Never Total

No: of Respondents 12 27 13 5 3 60

Percentage 20 45 21.67 8.33 5 100


No: of Respondents 45 Percentage

27 20 12 13 5 8.33 3 Never 5 21.67





INFERENCE It has been inferred that 45% of respondents frequently stand up for their rights, 21% stands for it occasionally. Also we can infer that 20% of the employees always stand up for their rights and 8% of them are rare, but 5% of them ignore such views.

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6. Employee satisfaction at work

Parameters Highly Satisfied Satisfied Neutral Dissatisfied Highly Dissatisfied Total

No: of Respondents 4 12 23 18 3 60

Percentage 6.67 20 38.33 30 5 100


No: of Respondents 38.33 30 23 20 12 4 6.67 3 5 18 Percentage

Highly Satisfied




Highly Dissatisfied

INFERENCE It has been inferred that 38% of employees have neutral opinion on job satisfaction, 30% are dissatisfied. Also we can infer that 20% of the employees are satisfied and 7% of them are highly satisfied, but 5% of them experience high level of dissatisfaction.

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7. Stress part of work life for employees.

Parameters Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree Total

No: of Respondents 10 30 14 5 1 60

Percentage 16.67 50 23.33 8.33 1.67 100


No: of Respondents 50 Perentage

30 23.33 16.67 10 5 14 8.33 1 1.67 Strongly Disagree

Strongly Agree




INFERENCE It has been inferred that 50% of respondents agree that stress is part of their work life, 23% of them view it to be neutral. Also we can infer that, 16% of the employees strongly agree and 8% of them disagree but 2% of them strongly disagree.

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8. Work is heavy and tiresome.

Parameters Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree Total

No: of Respondents 16 26 12 5 1 60

Percentage 26.67 43.33 20 8.33 1.67 100


No: of Respondents 43.33 Percentage

26.67 16

26 20 12 8.33 5 1 1.67

Strongly Agree




Strongly Disagree

INFERENCE It has been inferred that, 43.33% feel that their work is heavy and tiresome and 26.67% strongly agree that their work is heavy or tiresome, 20% of their view is neutral,8% disagree and 2% strongly disagree.

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9. Loneliness while working with others

parameters always Frequently Sometimes Rarely Never Total

No: of Respondents 7 23 19 9 2 60

Percentage 11.67 38.33 31.67 15 3.33 100


No: of Respondents 38.33 31.67 23 19 15 11.67 7 9 2 3.33 always Frequently Sometimes Rarely Never Percentage

INFERENCE It has been inferred that 38% of respondents frequently feel lonesome while working with others, 32% feel it sometimes and also we can infer that 15% of them feel it rarely, 12%always and 3% never felt so.

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10. Boredom in their routine work

parameters Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree Total

No: of Respondents 9 23 16 10 2 60

Percentage 15 38.33 26.67 16.67 3.33 100


No: of Respondents 38.33 Percentage

26.67 23 15 9 16 10 2 3.33 Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree 16.67

INFERENCE It has been inferred that 38% of respondents agree that they feel bored when engaged in their routine work, 27% of their view is neutral and also we can infer that 17% disagree, 15%strongly agree and 3% strongly disagree.

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11. Satisfaction with the existing working conditions

parameters Highly Satisfied Satisfied Neutral Dissatisfied Highly Dissatisfied Total

No: of Respondents 2 21 21 10 6 60

Percentage 3.33 35 35 16.67 10 100


No: of Respondents 35 35 Percentage


21 16.67 10 6 10


Highly Satisfied




Highly Dissatisfied

INFERENCE It has been inferred that 35% of respondents are satisfied with the existing working condition, 35% seems to be neutral. Also we can infer that 17% are dissatisfied and 10% are highly dissatisfied. Only 3% are highly satisfied employees.

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12 Time for personal activities

Parameters Always Frequently Sometimes Rarely Never Total

No: of Respondents 6 18 11 12 13 60

Percentage 10 30 18.33 20 21.67 100


No: of Respondents 30 Percentage

18 11

18.33 12

20 13


10 6






INFERENCE It has been inferred that 30% of respondents frequently get time to do things that are really important for them, 22% dont agree with this. Also we can infer that 20% who agree are rare cases and 18% only sometimes. 10% have enough time to deviate for their personal activities. 13. Satisfied with the welfare measures
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Parameter Highly Satisfied Satisfied Neutral Dissatisfied Highly Dissatisfied Total

No: of Respondents 3 15 13 24 5 60

Percentage 5 25 21.67 40 8.33 100


No: of Respondents Percentage 40

25 21.67 15 5 13


8.33 3 5

Highly Satisfied




Highly Dissatisfied

INFERENCE It has been inferred that 40% of respondents are dissatisfied with the welfare measures adopted by the company, 25% are satisfied and also we can infer that 22% seems to be neutral, 8% are highly dissatisfied and 5% are highly satisfied.

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14. Health problems leading to absenteeism?

Parameter Very Often Sometimes Rarely No Total

No: of Respondents 3 18 31 8 60

Percentage 5 30 51.67 13.33 100

No: of Respondents Percentage


30 18


13.33 3 5 8

Very Often




INFERENCE It has been inferred that 52% of respondent have the opinion that sickness makes them absent from work rarely, 30% says from time to time and also we can infer that 22% says sickness alone does not make them absent from work. 5% very often are absent due to health problems. 15 Impact of political or social engagement force them to be absent from work
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Parameter Very Often Sometimes Rarely No Total

No: of Respondents 3 16 17 24 60

Percentage 5 26.67 28.33 40 100


No: of Respondents Percentage 40

26.67 16 5 17

28.33 24

Very Often




INFERENCE It has been inferred that 40% of respondents have an opinion that the political or social engagement force did not make them absent from work, 28% feel it to be rare and also we can infer that 27% are satisfied and 5% very often keep themselves absent due to political or social engagements.

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16. Habit of alcohol consumption makes them absent

Parameter Often Very Often Sometimes Rarely No Total

No: of Respondents 2 6 21 9 22 60

Percentage 3.33 10 35 15 36.67 100


No: of Respondents Percentage 36.67


21 15 10 2 3.33 Often 6 9


Very Often




INFERENCE It has been inferred that 37% of respondents have an opinion that the habit of alcoholism did not make them absent from work. 35% says sometimes they are absent for work and also we can infer that 15 % come under rare cases, 10% are very often and 3% are often absent from work due to this bad habit.

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17. Helping hand from the colleagues

Parameter Yes No To Some Extent Total

No: of Respondents 6 36 18 60

Percentage 10 60 30 100


No: of Respondents 60 Percentage

36 30 18 6 10



To Some Extent

INFERENCE It has been inferred that 60% of respondents have an opinion that their colleagues did not help them in case of personal problems, 30% says to some extent they had received some help and also we can infer that 10% agree that their colleagues help them in case of any personal problems.

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18. Any occupational hazards which prompt the employees to take leave

Parameter Yes No Total

No: of Respondents 8 52 60

Percentage 13.33 86.67 100


No: of Respondents Percentage






INFERENCE It has been inferred that 87% of respondents have an opinion that they are not afraid of any occupational hazards which prompts them to take leave, 13% show some kind of fear towards occupational hazards which prompt them to take leave.

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On analysing the response it is found that, 35% of the employees are dissatisfied with their work. 50% of the employees have an opinion that stress is part of their work life. 43% agree and 27% strongly agree that their work is heavy. From this, it can be interpreted that the employees are having a hectic work schedule. A total of 70% of the employees feel lonely while working with others. 39% of workers feel bored in their routine work. 42% dont have time for their personal activities. 40% of the workers are not satisfied with the welfare measures adopted by the company. Health problems seem to be one of the causes of absenteeism for the work. It is also found that 35% of the employees are satisfied with working condition. It has been found that 40% of the respondents have an opinion that politics have no impact on the employee absenteeism. 60% of the employees feel that their colleagues did not help them in case of personal problems.

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The management must intervene in the day to day activities of the employees. They should provide full-fledged support, guidance and encouragement. The management must provide training programme to the employees at a frequent basis. This will help them to enhance their skill and improve their existing performance. The management must further, scrutinize the response of the employees after the implementation of the training programme. Overloaded workaholic atmosphere must be avoided, as it may create a lot of stressrelated problems. Employees must be encouraged for their creativity and innovative outlook towards their job assigned. Welfare measures of the employees should be improved so as to make the employees feel more satisfied and contended. A satisfied employee will be more committed to the organization. Medi-claim policies, weekly or monthly medical checkups etc should be provided to the employees in order to make them physically fit for the job. The employees should either be provided with transportation facility or housing facility so that they would have ample time for recreation in substitute for the time they spend in traveling. The management should take necessary action to strengthen the relationship between the employees.

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Cadbury India Pvt. Ltd. at Malanpur being one of the reputed electronic meter manufacturing companies in India is also a victim of absenteeism, as one of the curse their organization is facing at present. The study tries to reveal the factors influencing the absenteeism of employees with some suggestions which will be of immense aid for the employees as well as the organization to reduce the absenteeism level. I earnestly desire that, the study might bring some descend in the number of absentees in the organization, if taken into consideration practically. To conclude, employees dissatisfaction towards job & welfare measures, hectic work schedule, stress, health problems are some of the major causes of absenteeism. This can be reduced by the management by implementing various employee satisfactory changes in the organization. People are the major assets of any organization and taking care of their welfare and satisfaction is their duty as a whole apart from earning profit. As work environment is becoming more challenging and complex, the management must also see through it that, it is capable of managing and bringing in changes at the same pace so as to survive in this competitive scenario.

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K.ASWATHAPPA, Human resource and Personnel Management, Tata Mc Graw Hilll, 2003. REDDY P.N and GULSHAN S.S, Principles Business Organizational Management, Eurasia Publishing House 1990.

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NAME : 1. Age 20-30 2. Sex Male 3. Marital status Single Living together Married Divorced Widow(er) Separated : Female 30-40 40-50 More Than

4. I am able to communicate my feelings to others? Always Never 5. I am forthright, frank and willing to stand up for my rights Always Rarely Frequently Never Occasionally Very often Often Rarely

6. How satisfied I am with my works? Highly Satisfied Highly Dissatisfied 7. Stress is a part of my work life Strongly agree Disagree Agree Strongly Disagree Neutral Satisfied Neutral Dissatisfied

8. Do you feel your work is heavy or tiresome? Strongly agree Disagree Agree Strongly Disagree
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9. Do you feel lonesome while working with others? Always Frequently Sometimes Rarely Never

10. Do you feel boredom in your routine work? Strongly agree Disagree Agree Strongly Disagree Neutral

11. Are you satisfied with the existing working condition? Highly Satisfied Highly Dissatisfied 12. Do you have time to do things that are really important for you? Always Frequently Sometimes Rarely Never Satisfied Neutral Dissatisfied

13. Are you satisfied with the welfare measures adopted by the company? Highly Satisfied Highly Dissatisfied 14. Does sickness makes you absent from work? Very often sometimes very seldom No Satisfied Neutral Dissatisfied

15. Does any of the political or social engagement force make you absent from work? Very often sometimes very seldom No

16. Does the habit of alcoholism make you absent from work? Often Very often Sometimes Very seldom No

17. Do your colleagues help in case of personal problem? Yes No To some extent

18. Are you afraid of any occupational hazards which prompt you to take leave? Yes No

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19. How do you take your eligible leave? With prior sanction without prior sanction

20. Do you take leave for any other reason, specify?

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