This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Prepared By <Student_Name>
B.E. Third Year (Information Tech & Engg.) College Name
Under Guidance of Mr. <TEACHER_NAME>
Summer Training Report On Computer Networking
TABLE OF CONTENT
i Acknowledgement ii Certificate iii Table of Content iv About the Company 1. Introduction to Networking Definition Requirement of Networking 2. Types of Network LAN (Local Area Network) WAN (Wide Area Network) 3. Network Models OSI Model 4. Cables Twisted Cable Coaxial Cable Fibre Optic 5. Networking Devices Network Interface Card Hub Switch Router 6. IP Addressing Introduction Private IP Masking Subnetting Example 7. LAN Solution
Summer Training Report On Computer Networking
Requirement Solution Specification Sheet 8. Router Internal Components Network Interfaces Configuring Configuring using Console Routing Protocols RIP IGRP Access List 9. Firewall Introduction Technologies Configuring 10. WLAN Standards Topologies Infrastructure Network Adhoc Network 11. Intrusion Detection System (IDS) HIDS NIDS Techniques 12. Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) Channels Interfaces Functional Group Reference Points 13.WAN Solution 14. Self Evaluation
Summer Training Report On Computer Networking
INTRODUCTION TO NETWORKING
Definition :A network is a system that transmits any combination of voice, video and/or data between users. A network can be defined by its geographical dimensions and by which the user’s PC access it. A network consists of a: • The network operating system (Windows NT/2000TM/Xp) on the user’s PC (client) and server. • The cables connecting all network devices (user’s PC, server, peripherals, etc.). • All supporting network components (hubs, routers and switches, etc.). Computer Network means an interconnected collection of autonomous computers.
Requirement of Networking
Resource sharing- To make all programs, equipment, and especially data available to anyone on the network without regard to the physical location of the resource and the user. High reliability- As all files could be replicated on two or three machines, so if one of them is unavailable (due to hardware failure), the other copies could be used. Scalability- It is the ability to increase system performance gradually as the workload grows just by adding more processors. A computer network can provide a powerful communication medium along widely separated employees. The use of networks to enhance human-to-human communication will probably prove more important than technical goals such as improved reliability. These are the requirement with respect to companies but computer networking is required even in the normal day to day life as we have to access the internet to get information about what all new happening in the world, to have communication with people staying far away using the e mail service. These are the reasons that forced the inventerors to invent the networking devices, models and protocols etc. And the birth of Networking took place in 1844 when for the first time Samuel Morse send the first telegraph message.
TYPES OF NETWORKS
Summer Training Report On Computer Networking
IEEE802. These standards collectively known as IEEE 802 .4 (Token Bus). and make very few errors.5 (Token Ring) Summer Training Report On Computer Networking . which means that the worst-case transmission time is bounded and known in advance. IEEE802. LAN SETUP IEEE has produced several standards for LANs. LAN’s are distinguished from other networks by three characteristics: 1) Their size. 2) Their transmission technology. IEEE802.LAN (LOCAL AREA NETWORK) These are privately owned networks within a single building or campus of up to a few a kilometers in size. have low delays. LAN’s are restricted in size. LANs run at speeds of 10 to 100 Mbps.3 (Ethernet). 3) Their topology. LAN’s often use a transmission technology consisting of a single cable to which all the machines are attached.
which can provide a dedicated connection for private use Summer Training Report On Computer Networking . Examples of this approach are X. which establishes connections during the transmission process so that different packets from the same transmission may take different routes and may arrive out of sequence at the destination.25. a WAN using part or all of a T1 carrier has a bandwidth of 1. an Ethernet LAN has a 10 Mbps bandwidth.WAN (WIDE AREA NETWORK) It is a Computer network that spans a relatively large geographical area. often a country or continent. and Switched T1. Computers connected to WAN are often connected through public networks such as telephone systems. Examples of this approach include ISDN. They can also be connected through leased lines or satellites. the long distance bandwidth is relatively slow: on the order of kilobits per second (kbps) as opposed to megabits per second (Mbps) for local-area networks (LANs). Typically a WAN consists of two or more Local Area Network. Switched 56. 2) Packet switching. For example. WANs run at speed of maximum 2 to 10 Mbps. The largest WAN in existence is Internet. frame relay. so that each packet takes the same path.544 Mbps . WAN SETUP For most WANs. and ATM. which provides a fixed connection (at least for the duration of a call or session). 3) Leased lines. Three types of approaches are used to connect WANs: 1) Circuit switching.
Summer Training Report On Computer Networking . and to troubleshoot. Standardized interfaces among layers facilitate modular engineering. To do this. Microsoft’s built-in TCP/IP software in its operating systems. the network layer needs to deliver data from end to end. remembering what each layer does is easier. It divides one big problem in to seven smaller problems . Reduced complexity allows easier program changes and faster product evolution. it uses data links to forward data to the next successive device along that end-to-end path. A better environment for interoperability is created.) OSI NETWORK MODEL The OSI model describes how information makes its way from application programs through a network medium to another application program in other computer. called layers.NETWORK MODELS Layering Concepts and Benefits Many benefits can be gained from the process of breaking up the functions or tasks of networking into smaller chunks. The following list summarizes the benefits of layered protocol Specifications: Humans can more easily discuss and learn about the many details of a protocol specification. making it easier to talk about. complex set of concepts and protocols into smaller pieces. One vendor can write software that implements higher layers—for example. Each problem is addressed by one of the seven layers of the OSI model. (For example. The layers break a large. to implement with hardware and software. a Web browser—and another can write software that implements the lower layers—for example. and defining standard interfaces between these layers. Therefore. One layer uses the services of the layer immediately below it.
Directly represents the services that directly support user applications Handles network access. expanding graphics commands. data compression Sets standards for different systems to provide seamless communication from multiple protocol stacks Not always implemented in a network protocol Summer Training Report On Computer Networking . data encryption / decryption. character conversion. flow control and error recovery Example apps are file transfer.Functions of Network Layers in Brief: APPLICATION LAYER • • • • • Used for applications specifically written to run over the network Allows access to network services that support applications. e-mail. Net BIOS-based applications PRESENTATION LAYER • • • • • Translates from application to network format and vice-versa All different formats from all sources are made into a common uniform format that the rest of the OSI model can understand Responsible for protocol conversion.
RIP. ICMP. the network layer compensates by breaking the data into smaller units. ARP. ARP.SESSION LAYER • • • • • Establishes. At the receiving end. data congestion and routing If router can’t send data frame as large as the source computer sends. NETWORK LAYER • • • • • Translates logical network address and names to their physical address (e. the session would connect and re-connect if there was an interruption. requests retransmission if some packets don’t arrive error-free Provides flow control and error-handling TCP. maintains and ends sessions across the network Responsible for name recognition (identification) so only the designated parties can participate in the session Provides synchronization services by planning check points in the data stream => if session fails. OSFP.g. computer name ==> MAC address) Responsible for addressing and determining routes for sending Managing network problems such as packet switching. only data after the most recent checkpoint need be transmitted Manages who can transmit data at a certain time and for how long Examples are interactive login and file transfer connections. RARP. the network layer reassembles the data Think of this layer stamping the addresses on each train car IP. the transport layer of the receiving computer reassembles the message from packets "Train" is a good analogy => the data is divided into identical units Provides error-checking to guarantee error-free data delivery. RARP. recognize names in sessions and register names in history TRANSPORT LAYER • • • • • • • Additional connection below the session layer Manages the flow control of data between parties across the network Divides streams of data into chunks or packets. Summer Training Report On Computer Networking . with on losses or duplications Provides acknowledgment of successful transmissions.
45 IP ADDRESS is a 32-bit number.0. Each IP address is split into 2 sections: 1) Network address 2) Host address Summer Training Report On Computer Networking . cards. and physical aspects Defines NIC attachments to hardware. IP address looks like this: 216.255. the devices use to connect the NIC to the wiring. For example. the IP address 0.0 is reserved for the default network and the address 255.61. the signaling involved to transmit / receive data and the ability to detect signaling errors on the network media Logical Link Control • • Error correction and flow control Manages link control and defines SAPs PHYSICAL LAYER • • • • Transmits raw bit stream over physical cable Defines cables. usually written in dotted decimal form.27. This 32-bit number is divided into 4 octets each separated by a decimal.255. It consists of the wiring. that uniquely identifies an interface of some computer.DATA LINK LAYER • • • • • Turns packets into raw bits 100101 and at the receiving end turns bits into packets.255is used for broadcast. Handles data frames between the Network and Physical layers The receiving end packages raw data from the Physical layer into data frames for delivery to the Network layer Responsible for error-free transfer of frames to other computer via the Physical Layer This layer defines the methods used to transmit and receive data on the network. how cable is attached to NIC Defines techniques to transfer bit stream to cable IP ADDRESSING Every machine on the internet has a unique identifying number.0. called an IP Address. Out so many values certain values are restricted for use as typical IP address. A typical.
Class B addresses also include the second octet as part of the Net identifier. Net 240.Class B is used for medium-sized networks. There are five IP classes: Class A – This class is for very large networks. It has first bit value of 1.It is used for experimental purpose only.1 is used as the loopback address.54.Class C addresses are commonly used for small to mid-size business. The other three octets are each used to identify each host.0. Net 145. just as in town there are different street address but same ZIP code.24 Host or Node 53. This means that it is used by the host computer to send a message back to itself. Net 224 Class E.54.105 Host or Node 24. such as a major international company. IP addresses with a first octet from 128 to191 are part of this class.45. Host or Node 24. The last octet is used to identify each host.145 . third bit value of 1 and fourth bit value of 0.It is used for multicast. The other 28 bits are used to identify the group of computers the multicast messages is intended for.Individual IP address in same network all have a different value in the host part of address.198 Class C. IP addresses with a first octet from192 to 223 are part of this class. but they have identical value in network part. It is commonly used for troubleshooting and network testing. The other two octets are used to identify each host.The IP address 127. Class B. Class C addresses also include the second and third octets as part of Net identifier. Net 196.54. A good example is a large college campus.0.43 Loopback. second bit value of 1. IP addresses with a first octet from 1 to 126 are part of this class.34 Host or Node 86 Class D. Net 54. Summer Training Report On Computer Networking Host or Node 23.
244 172.0.0 255.255.0/16 MASKING Computers use a mask to define size of network and host part of an address.255.0 255. Mask is a 32-bit number written in dotted decimal form.255. So in that case we require some private IP also which can be used in indigenous networks .254 192. in bits 24 16 8 Default Mask for Each Class of Network 255. 0 SUBNETTING Basically it is a process of subdividing networks into smaller subnets. For this we take some bits of host address and use them for network address so we have different independent networks Address Format when Subnetting Is Used (class A.1 to 172.168.0. It provides us the network address when we perform a Boolean AND of mask with the IP address.255.0.34.B. So here we use the basic concept of SUBNETTING i. In case we have 2-3 small networks but we cant buy IP address for each and every network.): 8 Network 24-x Subnet 16-x Subnet x Host x Host 8-x x Subnet Host 16 Network 24 Network Summer Training Report On Computer Networking . in bits 8 16 24 Size of Host Part of address.0. It also define number of host bits in an address.255.0.In each class a range of IP addresses have been defined for this purpose CLASS A CLASS B CLASS C 10.1 to 10.0.255.16.0.Private IP It is not necessary that every time we make a network we are connected to some ISP (Internet Service Provider).C resp. Class of addres s A B C Size of network Part of address.e using one public IP address we will give them IP address and make them independent networks.
0 is network address 0.0.4 142.4 is the host address of the computer 10001110. different streets (Subnet address). and different house number (Host address). If two PCs starts sending data simultaneously collision will occur.It is the group of PC’s in which collision will occur when two PC will transmit data simultaneously.3 (Ethernet) and 802.0.00110000.And due to this mask changes to subnet mask and now the network address also includes subnet address.0 And an IP address for a computer is given as 142. The IEEE 802.11111111.5 (Token Ring) are the MAC sub layers of these two LAN datalink protocols.16. CSMA/CD (Carrier Sense Multiple Access/ Collision Detection).0 is the subnet address 0.255.In this protocol when a PC wants to transmit any packet it sense the carrier i. Burned-in address: The 6-byte address assigned by the vendor making Summer Training Report On Computer Networking .4.00110100.16.if no other PC is using the carrier then only it sends. MAC (Media Access Control) . Broadcast Domain.0.00010000.00000000 here first two octets represents Network address and third octet represents subnet address.It is the group of PC’s those will receive same broadcast message.240. Example If subnet mask is 255.52. Both PCs will wait for some random time and then initiate the same process.00010000.48. Some terminologies Networking models: those are used with Collision Domain.11110000.00000000 and output is 10001110.e the path . It can be compared with a postal address as there is only one ZIP code (Network address).00000100 is ANDed with 11111111.
Summer Training Report On Computer Networking . Locally administered address: Through configuration.the card. UTP is the most common type and uses a RJ-45 Connector. Twisted pair network uses a star topology. It is usually burned in to a ROM or EEPROM on the LAN card and begins with a 3-byte organizationally unique identifier (OUI) assigned by the IEEE. PASSIVE COMPONENTS Passive components are those devices which are used to provide connectivity between different networking devices. It includes • Cables • Patch Panel • Patch Cord • I/O box • Racks • RJ-45 Connectors CABLES There are different Cabling options depending on the access method : Twisted pair The wires are twisted around each other to minimize interference from other twisted pairs in the cable. an address that is used instead of the burned-in address. Typical lengths are up to 100m. Unicast address: Fancy term for a MAC that represents a single LAN interface. Twisted pair cables are available unshielded (UTP) or shielded (STP).
2. There are two types of Fibre optic cable available. LC connectors (most common in use is SC connector) In fiber cables the data is converted to light signals and the signal is made to propagate through the fiber cable. Multi mode: This mode is further categorised in two: 1) SX: Typical length is up to 500m and data rate is 1000Mbps. Single mode: In this mode typical length is up to 12km and data rate is 1000Mbps. 2) FX: Typical length is up to 220m and data rate is 100Mbps.Coaxial Coaxial cable uses BNC connectors.e. The maximum cable lengths are around 500m. ST. Summer Training Report On Computer Networking .25 nm cable is known as 1000 base LX cable. The core diameter is about 9. Coaxial networks use a single bus topology Fiber Optic UTP and Co-axial cables are not capable for driving the data signals for long distance i. UTP is capable of transmitting up to a distance 100 meters only By using the Fiber cables it is possible to send the data about 10 kilometers. 1. Fiber optic cable uses SC.
Without a patch panel. instead of having to reterminate the cable run.PATCH PANEL A patch panel provides a convenient place to terminate (connect) all of the cable coming from different locations into the wiring closet. With a patch panel. like with a cable modem. Summer Training Report On Computer Networking . you just move the patch cable with it. NEED OF PATCH PANEL We can label the patch panel so we know that which wire belongs to which location. We connect the cables coming from various locations willing to connect to switch through the patch panel. Most cabling is wired "straight-through" from end to end. like moving a station or switch. it is chaotic. all of this cross-wiring is done in the patch cable. If you have to make any changes. But sometimes we need to cross-wire some of the pairs between switch and station. or cross-wire to connect two switches. If we want to disconnect a station from the switch. it's a lot easier if there's a label.
Hubs and Switches 1.PATCH CORD RACK We have to mount the patch panel somehow. Attach one end of a twisted-pair cable segment to the device’s RJ-45 connector. Cabling Guidelines The RJ-45 ports on the switch support automatic MDI/MDI-X operation. attach the other end of the cable segment to a modular wall outlet that is connected Summer Training Report On Computer Networking . The best way is to buy a rack. routers. switches. a rack is a pair of vertical rails with holes drilled in them so that we can mount patch panels. We use only twisted-pair cables with RJ-45 connectors that conform to FCC standards. Connecting to PCs. so wecan use standard straight-through twisted-pair cables to connect to any other network device (PCs. and other network equipment. Servers. Making Twisted-Pair Connections 2. The port where we are connecting the RJ-45 is a network card. servers. Basically. or hubs). hubs. This made it easy to access the back of the patch panel and other networking components.
NETWORKING DEVICES Summer Training Report On Computer Networking . It is actually part of the patch panel. and the other end to a modular wall outlet. If not already in place.to the wiring closet . 2. 1. and the other end to the patch panel. Label the cables to simplify future troubleshooting. attach one end of a cable segment to the back of the patch panel where the punch-down block is located. the punch-down block is an integral part of many of the newer equipment racks. 3. Make sure each twisted pair cable does not exceed 100 meters (328 ft) in length. Instructions for making connections in the wiring closet with this type of equipment follow. Wiring Closet Connections Today. Attach one end of a patch cable to an available port on the switch. attach the other end to an available port on the switch. Otherwise.
multiple PC’s are broadcasting. which will degrade the performance. then that bandwidth will need to be divided between all of these systems. When a frame is received. i. A 100/1000 Mbps hub must share its bandwidth with each and every one of its ports. it will have access to the max available bandwidth. If. Basically hub is a layer one device. Summer Training Report On Computer Networking . providing connectivity to different network devices. such as twisted pair or coaxial cable interconnects all network interface cards to network hubs or switches. These are the central connections for all the network equipments and handles a data type known as frame or packet. however. But different networking components do this job in diff form at diff layers. Ethernet and Token Ring are common network interface cards. it is amplified and then transmitted on to port of destination PC. Broadcasting results in lot of traffic on the network which lead to poor network response. then collision will occur. On the other hand all PCs connected to a hub will get a same message so a single broadcast domain will be created. If two PC simultaneously transmit there data packets and both are connected to a HUB. Actually frames/ packet contain data and the destination address of where it is going. so we can say. A physical transmission medium. transferring the data in form of packets or frames form one device to other. It is designed to do broadcasting i. it creates a single collision domain. it operates on the physical layer of the OSI model.e when it gets any frame it broadcasts it to every port irrespective that whether it is destined for that port or not. They are usually Half-Duplex in nature.Networking devices do various kind of jobs like transferring the data to signals. Hub has no way of distinguishing which port a frame should be sent.e. HUB When the need for interconnecting more then 2 devices together then a device known as hub comes to picture. So when only one PC is broadcasting. Today’s cards supports 10baseT and 100baseT with automatic recognition. NETWORK INTERFACE CARD A Network Interface Card (NIC) is a circuit board that plugs into both clients and servers and controls the exchange of data between them (A specific software “driver” must be installed depending on the make of the NIC.
Hence we can call switches create single broadcast domain and multiple collision domains. then collision will not occur. If the destination is available in the MAC table then forward to the corresponding PC. it creates a multiple collision domain. A 100/1000Mbps switch will allocate a full 100/1000 Mbps to each of its ports. Using this information. Basic Working Principle of Switch. Switches are of two types 1) Managed 2) Unmanaged Managed switch supports SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) Summer Training Report On Computer Networking . it knows exactly which port to send it to. 1. When a frame is send by some of the PC. This acknowledged data will be examined by the switch and the MAC address table would be up dated accordingly. This shortcoming of Hub is overcame by Switches. 3. Basically a switch keeps a record of MAC addresses of all the devices connected to it. So regardless of the no of PC’s transmitting user will always have access to max amt of bandwidth. Switches are intelligent devices which work on the Layer2 of the OSI model. The switch supports broadcast. which increases the network response time. At the time of initializing the switch the MAC address table is yet to be built up. it recognises the source MAC address and update the MAC address table. So when a frame is received. The designated PC will respond for the data and it will send the acknowledge for the data received. 2. it builds a MAC address table. so we can say. They are usually Full-Duplex in nature.SWITCH Hubs are capable of joining more than two PC but having some demerits like if two PC would want to communicate at a time then there would be a collision and the both PC would have to send the data once again. If two PC simultaneously transmit there data packets and both are connected to a SWITCH. If the destination MAC address is not present in the table then forwards in all the port available expect the incoming one.
the information for IP address router obtains directly ( all configured IP address on it ) or indirectly ( from neighbour routers ). but the switch works on hardware basic.The switch fully receives all bits in the frame (store) before forwarding the frame (forward). but the switch waits for 64 bytes to be received before forwarding the first bytes of the outgoing frame. Cut-through:. According to Ethernet specifications. commonly two LAN’s or WAN’s or a LAN and its ISP’s network. which contains all the IP address in the network.) 3. When a packet is received it compares the destination IP address of the packet with the available IP addresses in its Routing table. (FCS is in the Ethernet trailer. the places where two or more networks connect. Store-and-forward:. Router makes a table known as routing table.This performs like cut-through switching. This does not allow the switch to discard frames that fail the FCS check.The switch performs the address table lookup as soon as the destination address field in the header is received. For interconnecting two LAN or two or more different networks anther device known as router is used.(Detailed Information about router in chap ) Summer Training Report On Computer Networking . Bridge is another device like switch which also operates basing on the MAC address. collisions should be detected during the first 64 bytes of the frame.) 2. This allows the switch to check the FCS before forwarding the frame.e it operates at network layer of OSI model. The working principle of the router is totally different from a switch. The Switch works on ASICs ( Application Specific Integrated Circuits) ROUTER Switch and the Hub can only interconnect devices in a single LAN. The FCS still cannot be checked. The first bits in the frame can be sent out the outbound port before the final bits in the incoming frame are received. frames in error because of a collision will not be forwarded. But the Basic difference between the bridge and the switch is that bridge works on software bases. Routers to determine the best path for forwarding the packet are using forwarding tables. Fragment Free:. Its main job is to route ( sends ) packets to other networks and to do the routing ( establishing paths between networks ) it uses the IP address. A router is typically connected to at least two networks. Routers are located at gateways. It is a layer 3 device i.Different switching Principles:1. If the IP address is not available in the routing table then it simply discard the packet instead of flooding in all the ports like a switch. (FCS is in the Ethernet trailer.
FragmentFre e No Layer 3 Storeandforward Yes N/A No No Yes Summer Training Report On Computer Networking . can be optimized for less forwarding Router 1 per router interface 1 per router interface No N/A Yes No N/A Layer 2 Storeandforward No N/A N/A Layer 2 Store-andforward. cutthrough. Bridge.Comparison between Hub. Switch & Router Feature Number of broadcast domains Number of collision domains Forwards LAN broadcasts? Forwards LAN multicasts OSI layer used when making forwarding decision Internal processing variants Frame/packet fragmentation allowed? Multiple concurrent equal-cost paths to same destination allowed? Hub Segment 1 1 Bridge 1 1 per bridge port Yes Switch 1 1 per switch port Yes Yes.
And the offices are 200 meters apart. All floors must be connected to a central switch to be placed at IInd floor in office 2nd. The connectivity between these two offices is the main requirement to be fulfilled. In each office there are three different departments each department at different floor. In building Ist At each floor there are 20 users and also at 3 rd floor there are 2 Servers. Everywhere there should be structured cabling. which has 2 offices. The bandwidth requirement of each user is 100 Mbps while the bandwidth requirement for the server is 1 Gbps. Every switch should be provide with one GBIC slot for future connectivity of server. And connectivity should be via optical fiber.LAN SOLUTION CUSTOMER REQUIREMENT There is a company. Summer Training Report On Computer Networking . In building IInd At floor 1st and 2nd there are 20 users each. And at 3rd floor there are 40 users. Every where smart and managed switch should be used.
Summer Training Report On Computer Networking . Keeping this point into consideration we can use HCL 24 Port Managed Stackable Switch as this switch has got 24 ports and 2 GBIC slots and this switch is managed switch also. Here we will use Cat5e UTP cable because bandwidth requirement is 100 Mbps This trend of connecting the users to the switch will be followed at each and every floor but at floor 3rd of building IInd there are 40 user so here instead of 1 switch we require 2 switches. So now we have two options either to connect with UTP cable or Fiber optic cable. So here we will simply use the fiber optic patch cord to connect the server to switch. But here we will use fiber optic as we are already using it so thee is no need to waste money on UTP Cat 6 Cable.SOLUTION By looking at the requirement it is clear that we require a switch that has got 20 ports and also 2 GBIC slots (one for optical fiber connectivity and one free slot is demanded for future use). As structured cabling is must so we require UTP cable and I/O box and to connect PCs with I/O box we require 7ft Patch Cord.e. And with this 24 port switch we will use 24 port HCL made Patch Panel And for connectivity of patch panel with switch we require 3 ft Patch Cord. connection of switches to a central switch placed at 2nd floor of IInd building. Now only one thing is left i. At 3rd floor of building 1st 2 servers are also present whose bandwidth requirement is 1Gbps. As the connection requirement is via optical fiber so we at central location we require a switch having all its ports as GBIC slots and no of ports should not be more than 8 as there are only 7 24 port switches in use (one optical cable line from each switch) Now here as the distance between the two offices is only 200 meters so here we will use multimode optical fiber and that too FX type and as the cable is to be laid in open so outdoor armored cable will be use.
3z (1000Base SX/LX) PORTS.12Gbps SWITCHING RATE.Yes PC-C305-E CAT 5 e CABLE Enhanced CAT 5 350 MHz UTP Bulk Cable 4 Pairs Solid Grey Length: 305 Meters PC-JP24-E Summer Training Report On Computer Networking . IEEE802. IEEE802.3 (Ethernet) .The connectivity diagram.4K BANDWIDTH. and supports RFC1157 WEB MANAGEABLE.IEEE802.6.3a (Fast Ethernet). 1000 base LX/SX/FX) MAC Addresses.2ab (Gigabit Ethernet).Yes.24 port auto negotiation 10 base T/100 base TX 2optional modular expansion ports (1000 base-T. IEEE802. SPECIFICATION SHEET HCL-24TMS-2S-W HCL 24 Port Managed Stackable Switch STANDARDS.6Mbps SNMP(Simple Network Management Protocol). the bill of material and the specification sheet for the solution is given in the following pages.
PATCH PANEL Unshielded 24 Port RJ-45 jack for performance @ rated 100 Mbps Fully Complied to e CAT 5 T568A/B standards 1.Multimode Construction: Corrugated steel tape armoured cable construction Multimode – 62.5 350 MHz Grey Patch Cord UTP twisted pair with Black Snagless Flange Boot .5/125µm cable No of Cores – 6 fibre core cables. Enhance CAT. patch cord 7 ft.1 meter PF-PMSC-SC-3D-50 SC-SC Duplex Patch cord Multimode Patch Cords cable – 50/125µm Multi mode Patch Cords connectors –SC/ST Connectors MM patch cords Summer Training Report On Computer Networking . PF-CM6-A-OM2 outdoor armoured Fiber optic cable . Length. patch cord 3 ft.5 350 MHz Grey Patch Cord UTP twisted pair with Black Snagless Flange Boot PC-MC7-GE 7 ft. Enhance CAT.6mm metallic Patch Panel 19'' Rack Mount frame 1U Fully powder coated Black PC-MC3-GE 3 ft.
OFC Patch cord is duplex type of 3mtrs length PF-COSC-M SC Connector Multi mode Easy connection & disconnection – Pull -. Summer Training Report On Computer Networking .SC type PF-LIU-12U 12 Core LIU ( Line Insertion Unit ) Wall mount 12 way Fibre Jack Panel Base Unit + 12 MM SC couplers with panel PF-LIU-6U 6 Core LIU (Line Insertion Unit) Wall mount 6 way Fibre Jack Panel Base Unit + 6 MM SC couplers with panel.Push type PF-CPSC-M SC Coupler – mm (Included in the Fiber Patch Panel) Low Insertion loss Type – SC .
It does not lose data when power is switched off.It is used to store the router’s startup configuration file. operating system software. Flash content is retained even when we switch off or restart the router. It has typically 4 types of memory in it.It holds operating systems image(s). Our IOS software is present in this memory and we can upgrade it also. Flash memory is erasable. RAM also provides caching and packet buffering capabilities. router’s running configuration file. Its content is lost when we switch off or restart the router. RAM.It is used to store operational information such as routing tables.: ROM.ROUTER ROUTER INTERNAL COMPONENTS Like a computer. and power-on diagnostic tests programs. When we configure the router at that time actually we are writing in RAM. a router has a CPU that varies in performance and capabilities depending upon router platform.It is used to store the router’s bootstrap startup program. We can also upgrade our ROM FLASH MEMORY. So the contents of startup configuration files are maintained even when we switch off or restart the router. NVRAM. reprogrammable ROM. ROUTER’S NETWORK INTERFACES Summer Training Report On Computer Networking .
CONFIGURING THE ROUTER There are three methods for configuring the router: 1) Through console port:. The console port of the router is connected to the serial i. 3) Through Telnet:. Synchronous serial interfaces are configured to allow connections to WANs. is typically used for modem connection for remote router management. 2) Through the AUX port:.The console port is used for configuring a router locally with the help of a PC or a Laptop.The aux ( auxiliary ) port is accessed from a modem located faraway from a router through the PSTN ( Public Switched Telephone Network ) and the configuration is done.Line vty ( virtual terminal ) 0 to 4 are used for the configuring the router by telnet. The detailed configuration is given in the section. Most routers also have an auxiliary port that is very similar to console port but.e COM port of the router. ISDN BRI interfaces are configured to allow connection to an ISDN WAN. Summer Training Report On Computer Networking .Ethernet or Token Ring interface are configured to allow connection to a LAN. All cisco routers have a console port that provides an EIA/TIA-232 asynchronous serial connection. Console port can be connected to computers serial connection to gain terminal access to router.
The Following steps are adopted to access a router through the console port with a Windows based PC. These are the com port settings: 9600 8 N 1 On/off After pressing enter or OK to accept these settings.Start Menu Programs Accessories Communication Hyperterminal Connect to the device of the PC Summer Training Report On Computer Networking . This console connection allows to connect to and to communicate with router without having to connect to the network to which it belongs. we came across a blank window. Now.Configuring Router through Console port We use HyperTerminal Program to open a console session and log into the router locally. Now first of all we configure the COM port settings. then log into the router to interact with the IOS command line interface (CLI). we use the workstation’s Windows HyperTerminal (terminal emulation) program. Access Hyper terminal:. To set up a console session. This is a session window. the PC becomes the console that allows to enter commands and communicate directly with the router.
COM 1 Setting Hyper terminal Screen Summer Training Report On Computer Networking .
Following steps are to be followed: For configuring ethernet interface: Router# config terminal Router (config)# interface ethernet 0 Summer Training Report On Computer Networking . Now starts the configuration of router Now we will assign IP address to each and very interface connected to router. This is done to secure access to router. Router> enable Now automatically prompt asking for password will appear on the screen like this: Password: Now write password over here. Subnet mask should be given with a proper care. Router# configure terminal This is done to enter configuration mode. After this Router# will appear on the screen this shows that we are in privileged mode and now we try to enter in configuration mode.After connecting the router that will boot and after booting the following procedures will be adopted.
8. RIP TIMERS TIMER update timeout Flush DEFAULT CONTROLS 30 sec. RIP uses UDP port 520 for route updates.0 Router (config-if)# no shutdown Router (config-if)#exit Router (config)# interface serial 1 Router (config-if)# ip address 199. it is dropped from the router's announcements. If a router has not seen the route in an update during this specified interval. The routing-update timer controls the time between routing updates.204. The route-timeout timer controls when a route is no longer available. The route is maintained long enough for the router to advertise the route as down (hop count of 16). plus a small random delay to prevent all RIP routers from sending updates simultaneously.1 255.0 Router (config-if)# no shutdown Router(config-if)# exit ROUTING PROTOCOLS ROUTING INFORMATION PROTOCOL (RIP) RIP is a dynamic.0 Router (config-if)# no shutdown Router (config-if)#exit For configuring serial interface: Router (config)# interface serial 0 Router (config-if)# ip address 204. This makes RIP very fast to converge RIP sends full table updates at regular intervals specified by the route-update timer (30 seconds is the default). Summer Training Report On Computer Networking . Default is usually 30 seconds. How long to wait from the time the route was received to delete a route (60 seconds after timeout).13.255. This means that a RIP router summarizes all routes it knows along classful boundaries and sends the summary information to all other RIP routing devices.255. The default setting is usually 120 seconds.6. Interval a route should stay 'live' in the routing table.255. Interval between route update advertisements 180 sec. The default is usually 180 seconds.7. This counter is reset every time the router hears an update for this route. 240 sec. RIP calculates the best route based on hop count.255.151. The route-flush timer controls how long before a route is completely flushed from the routing table. distance vector routing protocol.2 255.255. RIP updates can contain up to 25 messages.255.Router (config-if)# ip address 223.1 255.
BASIC RIP CONFIGURATION According to the recollection of InetDaemon.168. the route is placed in holddown.1 router(config-if)# exit router(config)# router rip router(config-router)# network 192. the default flush timer is set to 630 seconds (seven times the update period and more than 10 minutes). which can consume excessive bandwidth when sending updates every 30 seconds. As with RIP. This setup prevents routing loops in the network. Links do not have a hop count. IGRP uses a flush timer to remove a route from the routing table. They are exactly one hop. IGRP uses an invalid timer to mark a route as invalid after 270 seconds (three times the update timer). uses bandwidth and delay as parameters instead of hop count. With IGRP.0.168.42. routers usually select paths with a larger minimum-link bandwidth over paths with a smaller hop count. If a network goes down or the metric for the network increases.0 router(config-router)# network 126.96.36.199.168.43. and can be configured to support a network diameter of 255.168. by default. Summer Training Report On Computer Networking .168.1 router(config-if)# interface ethernet 1 router(config-if)# ip address 192. IGRP is not limited to the 15-hop limit of RIP. and 192. by default.43. IGRP is available only on Cisco routers IGRP will load-balance traffic if there are several paths with equal cost to the destination IGRP sends its routing table to its neighbors every 90 seconds.0 router(config-router)# exit router(config-router)# ^z router# The example above assumes that the interfaces that will be running RIP have IP addresses on them that fall within the 192. The router accepts no new changes for the route until the holddown timer expires. configuring a Cisco router for a basic RIP configuration would look something like this: router> enable Password: router# conf t router(config)#interface ethernet 0 router(config-if)# ip address 192.42. IGRP's default update period of 90 seconds is a benefit compared to RIP. IGRP has a maximum hop limit of 100. The default holddown timer is 280 seconds (three times the update timer plus 10 seconds).0 class C ranges. IGRP IGRP is a distance-vector routing protocol that considers a composite metric which.
• Permit is the term used in Cisco IOS software to imply that the packet will not be filtered. there are two actions to choose from: deny and permit. and permit implies that the packet should continue on its way. As soon as an access-list statement is matched. Therefore. • At the end of every access list is an implied “deny all traffic” statement. it is blocked. Access lists have two major steps in their logic: matching and action. or just to prevent employees from using systems that they should not be using.IGRP Timer Update Invalid Holddown Flush Default Time 90 seconds 270 seconds 280 seconds 630 seconds IP ACCESS LIST IP access lists cause a router to discard some packets based on criteria defined by the network engineer. if a packet does not match any of your access list statements. after the routing decision. • The filtering logic is configured in the access list. • Packets can be filtered before they exit an interface. The goal of these filters is to prevent unwanted traffic in the network—whether to prevent hackers from penetrating the network. • Deny is the term used in Cisco IOS software to imply that the packet will be filtered. before the routing decision. Key features of access lists: • Packets can be filtered as they enter an interface. Matching logic examines each packet and determines whether it matches the access-list statement. Summer Training Report On Computer Networking . Deny means to discard the packet.
Every firewall has at least two network interfaces. and one for the network it is exposed to.FIREWALL As the limits of networking is increasing unfolded so the danger of information leaking in and leaking out increases. usually a private network and a public network such as the Internet. So a mechanism is required to keep good bits in and bad bits out. A firewall examines all traffic routed between the two networks to see if it meets certain criteria. It restricts traffic to only what is acceptable. Packet filtering inspects packet nly for following elements • Source IP address • Source Port • Destination IP address • Destination Port • Protocol Proxy Summer Training Report On Computer Networking . And for this we use FIREWALL.in most cases. A firewall sits at the junction point or gateway between the two networks. from the Internet. The packet filtering firewall analyzes TCP or UDP packets and compare them to a set of established rules called as Access Control List (ACL). A firewall filters both inbound and outbound traffic. A firewall is a device of some kind that separates and protects our network . Technologies There are three different types of firewall technologies: 1) Packet Filtering 2) Proxy 3) Stateful Inspection Packet Filtering A packet filtering firewall simply inspects incoming traffic at the transport layer of the OSI model. Hardware device means a physical devise connected at the gateway which checks every incoming or outgoing packet. and monitors that what is happening. one for the network it is intended to protect. It may be a hardware device or a software program running on a secure host computer. Software program means that software is loaded in computer that determines as what to allow and what to reject.
This is the most secure technology and provides the most functionality because connections are not only applied to ACL.When a firewall is installed then no PC makes direct connection to the outside world. Hardware_speed indicates connection speed. CONFIGURING THE FIREWALL Five basic commands are used to do a basic configuring of the firewall. There are various options provided to us by the firewall regarding speed. 1000sxfull—Sets full-duplex Gigabit Ethernet.e each PC first of all sends request to proxy which then forwards the request to the internet or outside world for connection or data transfer. then connection is dropped. Examples: nameif ethernet0 outside security0 Summer Training Report On Computer Networking . sets the speed of the interface and enables the interface all in one command. security_level A numerical value from 1 to 99 indicating the security level. if_name The name by which we refer to this interface. After a connection is established. In that case they use proxy i. 1000basesx—Sets half-duplex Gigabit Ethernet 1000auto—Automatically detects ands negotiates full/half duplex 10full—Sets 10Mbps full-duplex Ethernet 100full—Sets 100Mbps full-duplex Ethernet. If the session data does not match the state table information for that connection. Ethernet 0 is the outside interface. Stateful Inspection It is a combination of Packet filtering and proxy services. • interface • nameif • ip-address • nat • global Interface Command The interface command identifies the interface hardware card. respectively. all session data is compared to the static table. the interfaces have their hardware ID. and Ethernet 1 is the inside interface SYNTAX: nameif hardware_id if_name security_level hardware_id Indicates the interface’s physical location on the Firewall. The outside and inside interfaces are named by default and have default security values of 0 and 100. By default. Shutdown This parameter administratively shuts down the interface. but are logged into a static table. nameif command It is used to name an interface and assign security level from 1 to 99. SYNTAX: interface hardware_id hardware_speed [shutdown] hardware_id indicates interface’s physical location on the firewall.
netmask The appropriate network mask.255. netmask Network mask for the local IP address. ip address Command All the interfaces must be configured with an IP address.0 We can see the configuration by using show ip command.255.255. The ip address command binds a logical address (IP address) to the hardware ID.10. the firewall assigns a classful network mask. nat_id The ID number to match with the global address pool.255. There is a google server and we don’t want to make its IP address public so we change its IP address using nat command in firewall and now user will logon to this new IP . SYNTAX: ip address if_name ip_address [netmask] if_name The interface name that was configured using the nameif command.nameif ethernet1 inside security100 nameif ethernet2 dmz security20 We can see the configuration by using show nameif command. This results in more security as every time it has to pass through firewall.10. 2) Dynamic: If there are lots of PC’s in a network and all want to access the internet . local_ip The IP address that is translated.0 global Command Summer Training Report On Computer Networking . SYNTAX: nat ( if_name) nat_id local_ip [netmask] (if_name) The internal network interface name.255.10. This is usually the inside network IP address.255. nat Command The nat (Network Address Translation) command translates a set of IP addresses to another set of IP addresses. ip_address The interface’s IP address. If the mask value is not entered. There are two types of NATing: 1) Static: For ex. it is not easy that every PC is being provided with independent public IP so at firewall level we change every PC’s pvt Ip with public IP. The ip address command is used to configure IP addresses on the interfaces.16. Examples: nat (inside) 1 10.1.0 255.0 255.10.14 255.0 nat (inside) 1 172. Example: ip address inside 10.
In some cases the IDS may also respond to anomalous or malicious traffic by taking action such as blocking the user or source IP address from accessing the network A firewall simply blocks openings into your network/system. intrusion detection systems can monitor for hostile activity on these openings. SYNTAX: global ( if_name) nat_id global_ip | global_ip-global_ip [netmask] (if_name) The external network where you use these global addresses.The global command is used to define the address or range of addresses that the addresses defined by the nat command are translated into. It monitors network traffic and monitors for suspicious activity and alerts the system or network administrator. the firewall automatically performs Port Address Translation (PAT). A HIDS monitors the inbound and outbound packets from the device only and will alert the user or administrator of suspicious activity if detected NIDS Network Intrusion Detection Systems are placed at a strategic point or points within the network to monitor traffic to and from all devices on the network. nat_id Identifies the global address and matches it with the nat command it is pairing with. netmask The network mask for the global IP address(es). global_ip-global_ip Defines a range of global IP addresses to be used by the firewall to NAT. or attempts to log in. but cannot distinguish between good/bad activity. HIDS Host Intrusion Detection Systems run on individual hosts or devices on the network. then a firewall cannot protect against intrusion attempts against this opening. global_ip A single IP address. Therefore. There are four basic techniques used to detect intruders: 1) Anomaly detection 2) misuse detection (signature detection) 3) target monitoring Summer Training Report On Computer Networking . In contrast. however doing so might create a bottleneck that would impair the overall speed of the network. However. Ideally you would scan all inbound and outbound traffic. When a single IP address is specified. they are best tracked with host-based IDS. INTRUSION DETECTION SYSTEM (IDS) An IDS is a security counter measure. detecting the unauthorized user before their log on attempt is best accomplished with network-based IDS. It is important that the nat_id be identical to the nat_id used in the nat command. When an unauthorized user logs in successfully. The nat_id pairs the IP address defined by the global and nat commands so that network translation can take place. if you need to allow an opening to a system (like a web-server).
One way to check for the covert editing of files is by computing a cryptographic hash beforehand and comparing this to new hashes of the file at regular intervals. and anything that widely deviates from it gets flagged as a possible intrusion. if a computer is used at 2:00 AM when normally no one outside of business hours should have access. and on either all files or just the mission/system critical files Passive IDS A passive IDS simply detects and alerts." Target Monitoring These systems do not actively search for anomalies or misuse. what might be malicious traffic and you. such as profiling the programs executed daily. anomaly detection can investigate user patterns. IDS is required to be properly configured to recognize what is normal traffic on your network vs. but will take pre-defined proactive actions to respond to the threat. When suspicious or malicious traffic is detected an alert is generated and sent to the administrator or user and it is up to them to take action to block the activity or respond in some way. one example of a signature is "three failed logins. the system can properly alert its administrators. If a user in the graphics department suddenly starts accessing accounting programs or compiling code. or the administrators responsible for responding to IDS alerts. An example of this would be if a user logs on and off of a machine 20 times a day instead of the normal 1 or 2. Summer Training Report On Computer Networking . At another level. These specific patterns are called signatures. Typically this means blocking any further network traffic from the source IP address or user. This is more of a corrective control. designed to uncover an unauthorized action after it occurs in order to reverse it. Reactive IDS A reactive IDS will not only detect suspicious or malicious traffic and alert the administrator. This type of system is the easiest to implement. because it does not require constant monitoring by the administrator. this should raise some suspicions. need to understand what the alerts mean and how to effectively respond. Integrity checksum hashes can be computed at whatever intervals you wish. Misuse Detection or Signature Detection this method uses specifically known patterns of unauthorized behavior to predict and detect subsequent similar attempts. For host-based intrusion detection. but instead look for the modification of specified files. Also.Anomaly Detection Designed to uncover abnormal patterns of behavior the IDS establishes a baseline of normal usage patterns.
There is a Cisco 1841 Router at each of the BGC location.35 interface to receive the data from coming BGC Via optical fiber/ Lease line • 2 numbers of ISDN BRI ports. Summer Training Report On Computer Networking . BGC Router must have these specifications: • 2 port 10/100 Mbps Ethernet Interface. They are connected to a 2 Mbps Leased Line Modem Pair. CBC Router must have these specifications: • 4 numbers of10/100 fast Ethernet interfaces. • Four numbers of synchronous serial interfaces for 64 kbps lease line connectivity. As with each BGC location further locations are connected so it is required to use a router at each location. Al the BGC locations are to be connected to the central location having a point to point connectivity. • 20 number of V. The modem at the customer end is connected to a modem at the ISP side. through the serial port. SOLUTION As per the requirement the proposed solution is to have point to point connectivity between the central location and the 28 BGC locations. The leased Line connectivity is to be provided BY a ISP. The BGC location are having a leased line connectivity of 128 Kbps which can be up gradable to 2 Mbps.. The connectivity diagram and the bill of material required for the solution is given in the following pages. Like this way the central location having a Cisco 3845 Router is connected to 28 nos of 2 Mbps Leased Line modem pair. • Sufficient port Serial WAN Interfaces. HCL-Gateway –2M-2W.WAN SOLUTION REQUIREMENT There is one CBC (Central Billing Center) which is required to be connected with 28 BGC (Bill Generation Center).
Wireless LANs offer many advantages over traditional wired networks.11(b) 11Mb/s 5. bit rate/Raw net Frequency Band Range @ Max.11(a). which allow network PC cards plugged into a PC/laptop to connect to a traditional Ethernet LAN. A Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) is a network that provides the same services but without the need for physical connections between the computers and the network.11a standard is the most widely adopted one because it operates at licensed 5 GHZ band while other are unlicensed and also it provides max.11(a) 54 Mb/s 22-26 Mb/s 5 GHZ 12m 120% 2000% 8 802. 802.11(g) 54 Mb/s 17-22 Mb/s 2.11 standards to provide wireless networking technology.4 GHZ 57 m 100% 100% 3 802.4 GHZ 19m 110% 500% 4 Max. of channels IEEE 802. 802. bit rate than any other standards. With time-to-time development in the field of technology three standards has been finalized. 802.11(b). simplicity and reduced cost of installation. A WLAN typically uses radio waves. rate Unit Cost Coverage Cost No. STANDARDS IEEE developed the 802. IEEE developed the 802. such as mobility.11(g) 802. flexibility.5Mb/s 2.WLAN (WIRELESS LAN) In a traditional LAN each computer physically connects to the network via wires and a network port. nof channels and max. TOPOLOGIES There are two topologies on which WLAN works: 1) Infrastructure Network 2) Ad hoc Network INFRASTRUCTURE NETWORK Summer Training Report On Computer Networking . scalability and speed.11 standards to provide wireless networking technology like the wired Ethernet.
Each client is equipped with wireless network interface card (NIC) that consists of the radio transceiver and the logic to interact with the client machine and software. organizations can achieve broad network coverage. . A laptop or other mobile device may move from AP to AP while maintaining access to the resources of the LAN. This is a topology used when there are many access points in a single location.It is useful for providing wireless coverage of building or campus areas. While the AP is essentially a radio transceiver on one side and the wired backbone on the other. ADHOC NETWORK Summer Training Report On Computer Networking . By deploying multiple Access Points (APs) with overlapping coverage areas.
In this architecture.g. The ad hoc configuration is similar to a peer-to-peer office network in which no node is required to function as a server.This topology is used when we have to interconnect mobile devices that are in the same area (e. Summer Training Report On Computer Networking . In ad hoc there is no need of any AP as all devices are wirelessly connected to each other. in the same room). client stations are grouped into a single geographic area and can be Internet-worked without access to the wired LAN (infrastructure network)..
The BRI B-channel service operates at 64Kbps and carries data. B channels are called bearer channels because they bear the burden of transporting the data. and it was designed to achieve this over the telephone systems already in place. text.544Mbps. and video to end users. music. voice. They are used to establish the session before the data is actually transfer.Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) ISDN’s primary goal is the integration of voice and nonvoice services. the ISDN Primary Rate Interface (PRI. BRI: ISDN Basic Rate Interface (BRI. There are two types of channels: 1) B channel 2) D channel B channel Bearer channels (B channels) are used to transport data. ISDN provides 30 64Kbps B channels and one 64Kbps D channel for a total bit rate of up to 2. also known as 2B+1D) service provides two B channels and one D channel. while the BRI D-channel service operates at 16Kbps and usually carries control and signaling information. And according to European standards. graphics.048Mbps. D channel D channels are used for signaling. B channels operate at speeds of up to 64 kbps. ISDN INTERFACES Types of ISDN interfaces: 1) Basic Rate Interface (BRI) 2) Primary Rate Interface (PRI). PRI: According to American standards . also known as 23B+D1) service delivers 23 64Kbps B channels and one 64Kbps D channel for a total bit rate of up to 1. ISDN Function Groups and Reference Points Summer Training Report On Computer Networking . Both BRI and PRI provide multiple digital bearer channels over which temporary connections can be made and data can be sent. ISDN is actually a set of communication protocols proposed by telephone companies that allows them to carry a group of digital services that simultaneously convey data.
430 reference point defining the interface between the customer premises and the ISP. referring to the I. Router B is called a TE1 (Terminal Equipment 1) function group device. Router B is bought with an ISDN BRI S/T interface. the S/T interface defines the connection to Router B. An NT1 function group device must be connected to the ISP line through a U reference point.• Function group—A set of functions implemented by a device and software • Reference point—The interface between two function groups. Alternatively. implying that it must be cabled to a function group NT1 device. including cabling details Router A is ordered with an ISDN BRI U reference point. a TE1 can connect using an S reference point to an NT2 function group. Summer Training Report On Computer Networking . Non-ISDN equipment is called a TE2 (Terminal Equipment 2) device and is attached using the R reference point to a terminal adapter (TA) function group device.
S between TE1 or TA and NT2.35 cable. Summer Training Report On Computer Networking . T between NT2 and NT1. to connect to a TA 3) TA (Terminal adapter): Equipment that uses R and S reference points. Reference Points: R between TE2 and TA. . Can be thought of as the TE1 function group on behalf of a TE2. Uses an R reference point. Understands signaling and 2B+D. U between NT1 and ISP.Function Groups: 1) TE1 (Terminal Equipment 1) ISDN-capable four-wire cable. 2) TE2 (Terminal Equipment 2): Equipment that does not understand ISDN protocols and specifications (no ISDN awareness). Uses an S reference point. 4) NT1 (Network Termination): Connects with a U reference point (two-wire) to the ISP. typically an RS-232 or V. Connects with T or S reference points to other customer premises equipment.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.