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OCTOBER 2013

Message
Elements of Winning Packaging 32 Inter­active Marketing Using Labels 42
Margerum’s New Santa Barbara Winery 46 Barrel Orders Reflect Optimism 52 Wine East: Establishing a Noiret Vineyard 90

On the Bottle

Nutrition Labeling and Alcohol Content 62 Aeration Treatments Before/In Ferment 65 Vineyard Irrigation the Smart Way 77

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-5 p. U. $85. Number 10 PACKAGING BOTTLES &LABELS Digital conference explores design. All print subscribers now get digital access to Wines & Vines. Canada/Mexico. Calif.” Thin layers of birch and cherry wood can be stained and used as facestock for wine labels. She organizes the University of California. Chris Stamp. ISSN 043-583X. associate professor of viticulture at Cornell University. Jean Jacobson.WINESANDVINES. Wines & Vines is distributed through an audited circulation. Dr. but for some winemakers— and wine writers—these aren’t just passing fads. dave@bayard. planning. scan this mobile barcode or visit winesandvines. which include selections from Divining Rod and Cryptic. Wines & Vines does not assume responsibility for unsolicited manuscripts or materials.com Monday-Friday. Fritz Westover. Use your Wines & Vines login to sign in.m. In This Issue B A Member of Wine Communications Group Inc. PDT. evaluates spacing and trellises for the new red cultivar Noiret with an eye toward wine quality (page 86). make sure you have the resources to support it. Bridget Williams Publishing Information Barbara Summer Volume 94. O C TO b e r 2 0 1 3 4 Questions? Contact customer service at (866) 453-9701 or custserv@winesandvines.” 1 3 Mysterium’s sophisticated packaging was designed to appeal to patrons of night clubs. Jane Firstenfeld identifies packaging trends from the 2013 BTI award winners. Writers: Richard Carey. Wine Flavor 101 series aimed at understanding relationships between vineyard and winemaking practices and wine composition. McGourty Advertising Manager Practical Winery & Vineyard Christina Ballinger Editor: Don Neel Associate Publisher: Tina Vierra PUBLISHING President & Publisher Wine East Chet Klingensmith Editor: Linda Jones McKee. $48. O C TO b er 201 3 43 4 W in es & V i ne s OC TOB E R 20 13 .com Midwest: Hooper Jones Staff Writer (847) 486-1021 Andrew Adams hooperhja@aol. 8:30 a. Reproduction in whole or part without permission is prohibited. F Wines & Vines.com Glenn T.S.m. $38. Davis. You can: • DOWNLOAD pages or full issues eDWaRDS: “If you decide to use QR coding on your labels.com Senior Correspondent Northeast: Marsha Tabb Paul Franson (215) 794-3442 Contributing Editor marshatabb@comcast. Linda Bisson coauthors an article about the impact of “Oxygen in Wine” (page 65). Contributors are responsible for the proper release of proprietary and/or classified information..com Columnists International: Dave Bayard Winemaking: Tim Patterson (973) 822-9275 Grapegrowing: Cliff Ohmart.Laurie Daniel alance and alcohol levels are popular topics these days. scan this mobile barcode with your phone.com/digitaledition. Stephen Yafa database development & information technology Database Manager Lynne Skinner Project Manager Liesl Jaros Database & Web Development James Rust Peter Scarborough Chairman Hugh Tietjen Publishing Consultant Ken Koppel Justine E. tablet or mobile device • SEARCH by keyword or table of contents • NAVIGATE by topic or page thumbnail To access. Sonoma. Linda Bisson r.00 (for airmail add $85.com B O T T L E S A N D L A B E L S i S S u E THE VOICE OF THE WINE INDUSTRY WWW. To access. Vanden Heuvel ew wine cultivars offer viticultural challenges that also impact winemakers. D EDITORIAL Advertising Editor West: Jacques Brix Jim Gordon Vice President & Director of Sales Managing Editor (707) 473-0244 Kate Lavin jbrix@winesandvines.COM OCTOBER 2013 Message Elements of Winning Packaging 32 Interactive Marketing Using Labels 42 Margerum’s New Santa Barbara Winery 46 Barrel Orders Reflect Optimism 52 Wine East: Establishing a Noiret Vineyard 90 On the Bottle Nutrition Labeling and Alcohol Content 62 Aeration Treatments Before/In Ferment 65 Vineyard Irrigation the Smart Way 77 October’s Cover or our cover story (page 32). where its name glows under black light.net Jane Firstenfeld East: Laura Lemos Northwest Correspondent (973) 822-9274 Peter Mitham laura@boja.00 is published monthly.00.com Design & Production winesandvines. Andrew Reynolds.” TONI haMIlTON- • ACCESS via desktop. lower alcohol Pinot Noirs (page 55).00) at San Rafael and at additional mailing offices. CO 80306-1649 Customer Service (866) 453-9704 subs@winesandvines. N Postmaster Send address changes to: Wines & Vines PO Box 1649 Boulder.com. Operations Coordinator Hudson Cattell Caroline Shakeshaft Contributing Writers Laurie Daniel. materials and the current market By Jane Firstenfeld highlights Digital Edition PACKAGING VIeW VIDeO: Watch these wine industry and design professionals share the best and worst of wine packaging. • BROWSE current and archived issues JIM GORDON: “There has never been as exciting a creative explosion of unusual names and labels. • WATCH videos 2 caTheRINe DIDulka: “The role of design in business is to address the needs of consumers and visually express the values and beliefs of the business. Justine Vanden Heuvel. Or see the digital edition at winesandvines. Periodicals postage paid All other countries. a member of Subscription Rates Wine Communications Group.. Daniel talked to winemaker Ross Cobb about how he honed his practices to produce elegant.

Win es & Vin e s O C TO B E R 20 13 5 .

Faces & Forums 30 Wine Library Association Annual Tasting. A Winery With Personality 46 Former restaurateur outfits warehouse as cellar. Labels and Wine­ making. A Family Affair In San Francisco. COVERING NORTH AMERICA . planning. the (Richard) Smart way. By Jim Gordon Wine Industry Metrics 10 Cab Grows in Sales and Volume. Wines Stall in Home Market. Optimize your label for consumer relationships. Labor Trends May Challenge Industry. Coopers concerned about American oak supply. Flash Offers Drop to 2011 Level. Vintage Wine Estates Buys Clos Pegase. B A R R E L S & winema k in g Oregon Continues to Draw Investment. Asking for the Sale 58 Inquiring Winemaker 82 Advertisers’ Index 98 Twelve tips for tasting room customer service. Plus News Bytes and Briefs. News Headlines 14 Orders Herald Optimism 52 Ross Cobb on Subtlety 55 SALES AND MARKETING Tasting Room Focus 21 Product News 28 46 Latest Winery & Grower Offerings and Developments. spacing and root systems impact fruit. The Skinny on Skin Contact for Whites. Options to Control Powdery Mildew. Yeast Nutrition Vital For Wine Fermentation. By Tim Patterson WINE EAST IN WINES & VINES Alcohol and Serving Facts 62 Nutrition labeling debate is not about nutrients. Most Effective Labels 42 TECHNICAL REVIEW Conference explores design.OCTOBER — BOTTLES AND LABELS ISSUE BOTTLES AND LABELS DEPARTMENTS Winning Trends 32 Message on a Bottle 38 Contributors 4 Editor’s Letter 8 Packaging awards favor gold and screenprinting. Arkansas Winery Swept Away by Flood. 50 Million-Case Wine Opportunity. Protect Your Reputation 44 32 Lessons from the Anti-Counterfeiting Seminar. Bottles. Sonoma Coast Pinot specialist details approach. materials. News from Eastern North America 86 58 Cultivars by Region. NORTHWEST CENTRAL CALIFORNIA EAST Establishing Noiret Vines 90 6 W in e s & V i ne s OC TOB E R 20 13 REGIONS FEATURED IN THIS ISSUE Trellising. Commercial Irrigation 77 Vineyard irrigation. B. Oxygen in Winemaking 65 Aeration treatments prior to/during fermentation.C.

© Owens-Illinois. Inc. When you open a bottle of Mouton Cadet. Baron Philippe de Rothschild glassislife. “Glass is the link between you and us. we expect you to enjoy it as if you were with us here in Bordeaux. whether in Tokyo or San Francisco.com #glassislife .” – Hugues Lechanoine Managing Director.

All of us at Wines & Vines wish you good luck during this most important time of the year in winemaking. Cornell University associate professor Justine E. so her advice is well tested. Napa and Marin counties. We would love to hear from you during or after the crush about any unusual challenges you faced this season.EDITOR’S LETTER Bottles. which advises how to maximize the interactive marketing value of a wine label.com. Here is what our bottles and labels articles cover: On page 32. Author Toni Hamilton-Edwards is a former Diageo and Constellation marketing pro who now works for a major label-printing company. Right now. It concerns making brands stand out as discussed during a digital conference in July conducted in partnership with Labels & Labeling magazine. on page 90 in the Wine East section. and how you met them. but I do want to point out five articles that winemakers will find es­ pecially interesting. in which Wines & Vines was a participant. microbiologist at the University of California. it looks like an almost trouble-free harvest! New issue theme A second conference was a live one.com/headlines about the harvest across North America. or email me at jim@winesandvines. 108. Linda Bisson. She bases her story on wine packaging singled out by the Beverage Testing Institute as outstanding. And rather than being a harvest theme—which is such a moving target right now—it deals with the other end of the production cycle. Talented Pinot Noir winemaker Ross Cobb from California’s Sonoma Coast shared winemaking details with interviewer Laurie Daniel that were unusually frank and helpful (page 55). Dr. Wines & Vines already has published several reports online at winesandvines. in which he ad­ dresses the topic of fermenting white wines on their skins. here in Northern California. contributing editor Jane Firstenfeld examines the “Best of the Bottles” to see what elements comprise them. Also on this winemaking list is a thorough technical article about the effects of aeration on must and wine in the Practical Winery & Vineyard section (page 65). Good luck with harvest I hope your harvest will be well under way by the time you read this. Vanden Heuvel shares the results of an extensive vineyard trial. packaging and selling. See page 44 for managing editor Kate Lavin’s summary of the information shared there. She gives winemakers valuable information about the quality parameters that Noiret grapes have yielded under different viticultural conditions. Davis. Two other articles concerning bottles and labels originated this summer during conferences. ext. which has all the de­ tails about construction and equip­ ment for the new Margerum winery in Buellton. If you are open to sharing your own solutions—as the writers. Winemaking focus Everyone from cult winery owners to vineyard foremen to seasonal laborers are paying close attention. Spotting a polished Land Rover along with dusty white pick­ up trucks and worn 1980s sedans among the vines indicates that ev­ eryone from cult winery owners to vineyard foremen to seasonal labor­ ers are paying close attention to the ripening grapes. where our magazine is based. As you all know. co-hosted by the Napa Valley Vintners and Wines & Vines. The January 2014 issue of the print magazine will devote a large section to a final wrap-up about vintage 2013. The October issue theme is a new one for us: bottles and labels. . with reports from more than 25 regions written by careful local observers. it’s never the same and there is always something else to learn. Two of them are by Tim Patterson. Firstenfeld wrote the first one. harvest and crush activities have slowly ramped up in the North Coast counties of California. Calif. Rigs of vine­ yard lighting for night harvesting are making their annual appear­ ances. His second story is the monthly Inquiring Winemaker column on page 82. “Message on a Bottle” is the title of a piece beginning on page 38. the Wine Anti-Counterfeiting Seminar. Finally. held for wineries. Trucks and trailers stacked ridiculously high with half-ton bins—most of them still empty—crisscross the areas I see on a weekly basis in Sonoma. Tim reported the monthly Technical Re­ view (page 46). that of bottling. “Experts Dissect Effective Labels” (page 42). wrote this one with two co-authors. researchers and winemakers mentioned above have— please give me a call at (415) 453-9700. The 8 W in es & V i ne s O C TOB E R 20 13 There isn’t enough room on this page to mention everything in this issue. and we will continue that coverage through early November. otherwise known as the Inquiring Winemaker. Labels and Winemaking Introducing a new issue theme as harvest 2013 ramps up s I write this letter in mid-September.

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marking the seventh month of continuing growth this year. except for the traditional highs in November and December.com 50 50 50 Jan Apr July Oct Dec The August increase in winery job postings was driven by a surge in hospitality jobs that buoyed the index despite less activity in the winemaking and sales/marketing categories. Winery Job Index 250300 300 $240 200 Winejobs. Wines & Vines Apr July Oct Dec Table wine and sparkling wine produced in the United States grew 7% in sales in August compared to August 2012. $4 99 0$5 9. . totaling $67 million.com Index 250 250 200 200 $120 2011 150 150 $80 $200 $160 2012 2013 August marked the fourth month in a row that direct-to-consumer shipments exceeded their $50 Up 7% from 2012 $0 <$ $2 20 0$3 9. Direct-to-Consumer (DtC) Shipments $250 250000000 $200 200000000 $ Millions $150 150000000 $100 100000000 $50 50000000 Source: 0 Wines & Vines/ShipCompliant Model The sharply rising value of direct-toconsumer shipments highlighted the positive Wine Industry Metrics in August. —Jim Gordon 2013 Up 23% from 2012 DtC Cabernet Sauvignon Sales by Price Segments $200 12 months through August 2013 2012 2011 $150 Jan Apr July Oct Dec $ Millions $100 300 levels from the same months of 2012. The same 7% growth was recorded for 52-week sales.041 Domestic Wine Sales Up 7% from 2012 DtC Shipments Lead Positive August Metrics 500000000 $400 400000000 Source: Jan .075. according to the Wines & Vines/ShipCompliant Model.com. 10 W in es & V i ne s O C TOB E R 20 13 For Cabernet Sauvignon. Off-premise sales of domestic wines stayed on track. $8 99 0$9 9. $6 99 0$7 9. 99 $1 00 -p lu s Source: Wines & Vines /ShipCompliant Model 150 $40 100 100100 $0 Source: Winejobs. The Winery Job Index also rose 7% from August 2012. This metric has shown few monthly changes during the past year.METRICS Wine Industry Metrics 800000000 $750 $700 700000000 $650 $ Millions $600 600000000 $550 $500 $450 2012 2013 Latest Metrics Complete metrics data is available at: winesandvines. with 7% monthly growth in value. the value of direct-to-consumer shipments by bottle price differs markedly from off-premise store sales (see opposite page). according to Winejobs. which publishes the index. Hospitality job hiring activity was the fastest growing category. according to the Wines & Vines/ShipCompliant Model.com/metrics 533. DtC shipments rose 23% in value from August 2012. DtC shipments of Cabernet at the highest price points generated the most revenue in the 12 months through August.

as sales rose by 13% and volume climbed 11%. forming a slightly concave top on the classic bell curve.28 billion in sales during the 52 weeks ending Aug. Sales at the two lowest price points dropped both in dollars and volume. Volume No. while Chardonnay rose just 4% in sales. $5 99 -$ 7 $8 .. Its sales growth rate of 7% beat Chardonnay’s 4% and matched the overall domestic wine sales growth rate. Italy is the No. although it performs nearly as well in the two segments just above. Wines & Vines 52 weeks through Aug. Domestic wines have held their 80% market share while growing at a rate of 7%.-based market research firm. It may have come at the cost of brand prestige in some cases.com Since 1957 hat’s not to like about Cabernet Sauvignon? From the off-premise perspective it is the second largest-selling varietal—behind Chardonnay in overall sales. the $5$7. California accounted for 72% of table wine sold and grew by 7% in sales. 11.5 0. 2013 200 N. Imports grew by just 2%. Liaison Negotiations or Footwork TTB Reasonable Hourly Rates $250 15% $200 Percentage $ Millions 10% TRADEMARK SEARCHES As Low as $185 Your trade names or designs are searched at the U. $2 99 0pl us Source: .9 9 5$1 9. Glebe Rd. The average price rose by 21 cents.GovtLiaison_Dir08 11/29/07 2:00 PM P METRICS Cabernet Grows in Sales. Washington state accounted for 5% and grew by 9%.99 brands. 5 . -5% < $3 $3. selling more than $522 million worth of wine annually in IRI’s data. Australia is the most popular import country. The second-fastest growth for Cabernet came in $11-$14. in volume and in price per bottle. a Chicago. 11 at stores tracked by IRI.99 -$ $1 10 1. $5 99 -$ 7 $8 . But Aussie wines decreased 5% during the past year.0 $4 . $2 99 0pl us $0 < $3 $3. Over 100 years’ total staff experience handling every government liaison need for industry. 1% in volume and 16 cents in bottle price. Domestic Cabernet grew fastest in the $20-plus segment. Cabernet Sauvignon reached $1. 5 . Oregon wine sales grew at 13% to account for 1%. but faster in sales growth. since the average bottle price dropped 10% (or $2. Import competition Looking at Cabernet by price.93) along the way.99 -$ $1 10 1. Cabernet increased in volume by 4% and price per bottle by 23 cents. Virginia 22203 Phone: (703) 524-8200 Fax: 525-8451 TOLL-FREE 1-800-642-6564 Major Credit Cards Accepted www. Cabernet’s best-selling segment W increased 32%.36. $150 5% $100 0% $50 Phone or write for details.9 9 5$1 9. Suite 321 Arlington.99 segment is the varietal’s best seller.S.99 $1 $1 4. however.47. The average sales price for Cabernet overall is $7.5 0. Ill..99 $1 $1 4.. 2 varietal increases by 7% and 23 cents per bottle Cabernet Sauvignon by Price Segments $300 Sales 20% Growth Rates LABEL APPROVALS Low per-label costs Gov’t. 2 importer with $492 million and 4% growth.0 $4 . —Jim Gordon Win es & Vin es O C TO B E R 20 13 11 . but in 750ml bottles the average rises to $9.trademarkinfo. Patent Office to help establish valuable ownership or avoid costly legal liability. where sales increased 19% during the past year and volume Domestic wineries selling mostly in off-premise channels appear to have few immediate worries about foreign competition.

METRICS

The Flash Report
Flash SiteS COMPARED FOR AUGUST
Flash Reseller No. of Domestic August Offers Average Flash Average Pageviews* Price (750ml) Discount (000)

Latest Flash Data
Complete flash data is available to subscribers: winesandvines.com/flash

Flash Offers Drop to 2011 Level
33% 39% 43% 43% 34% 32% 41% 53% 34% >1 233 65 19 274 10 310 271 96

Cinderella Wine Invino Last Bottle Wines Last Call Wines Lot18 The Wine Spies Wine Woot Wines Til Sold Out WineShopper

16 45 19 58 31 32 23 59 28

$26.89 $23.31 $30.08 $21.69 $17.79 $25.44 $16.10 $18.75 $15.46

Source: Wines Vines Analytics, winesandvines.com/flash *Source: Compete.com, Aug. 2013

Flash websites offered a total of 366 domestic wines in August, and that total is just five offers more than in August 2011 and 72 offers less than in August of last year. The 16% decrease in the number of flash offers from last year continues a decline that began in January. Wines Til Sold Out and Last Call Wines offered the most domestic wines in August with 59 and 58, respectively. Just as Cabernet Sauvignon is popular in the offpremise and direct-to-consumer segments, the varietal represents a quarter of all wines offered by flash websites in the past 12 months. Of the 5,088 total offers for domestic wines, 1,246 were for Cabernet Sauvignon and almost all (93%) of these wines were from wineries in California. —Andrew Adams

No. of Offers for Cabernet Sauvignon by Flash Price

Offers for Domestic Cabernet by Flash Resellers
Invino

$100plus $60$99.99

49 115 163 424 492 0 100 200 300 400 500
12 months through August 2013

Last Call Wines Lot 18 Wine Spies Wine Woot Wines Til Sold Out WineShopper All Others 0 200 400 600 800 1,000 1,200

Cabernet Sauvignon All Other Wines

Price

$40$59.99 $20$39.99 $6$19.99

Source: Wines & Vines /ShipCompliant Model

Source: Wines & Vines /ShipCompliant Model

12 months through August 2013

Flash Discounts for a Sample of cabernet sauvignon wines Offered in AUGUST
Discount Winery/Brand Winery Varietal/Type Vintage Winery State Retail Flash Price Winery Size Flash In Cases Site

13% Shafer Vineyards 25% Robert Hall Winery 33% Woodward Canyon Winery 51% Fortino Winery Inc. 52% Murphy-Goode 56% Martellotto Wine Productions 56% Michel-Schlumberger 64% Artesa Vineyards & Winery
Source: Wines Vines Analytics

CA CA WA CA CA CA CA CA

Cabernet Sauvignon Cabernet Sauvignon Cabernet Sauvignon Cabernet Sauvignon Cabernet Sauvignon Cabernet Sauvignon Cabernet Sauvignon Cabernet Sauvignon

2010 2010 2010 2009 2010 2010 2010 2010

$76.00 $65.97 $24.00 $17.99 $54.00 $35.97 $80.00 $38.99 $24.99 $11.99 $45.00 $19.99 $45.00 $19.99 $70.00 $24.99

32,000 70,000 15,000 15,000

Wired For Wine Good Juice Direct Wired For Wine Wine Spies

225,000 Last Call Wines 5,000 Lot18 10,000 80,000 Wines Til Sold Out Wines Til Sold Out

leading Flash sites
Company Name URL Principals Affiliation Operation
Releases one wine at noon and one at 9 p.m. M-F. Buys only from distributors. Offers two to four new wines daily for 48-72 hours, or until the wine is sold out. Offers one wine until sold out. Offers four to six wines per day, available until sold out. Advertising platform for wineries to sell directly to consumers. Sells one wine each day, 365 days per year. One deal daily M-F. Emphasizes interactivity. Winery controls price. Sells one wine at a time from midnight EST until sold out. One new event per day, with one to five products. Cinderella Wine cinderellawine.com Gary Vaynerchuk Wine Library Invino invino.com Tony and Danielle Westfall Good Company Wines Last Bottle Wines lastbottlewines.com Cory Wagner Blicker Pierce Wagner Wine Merchants (BP Wine) Last Call Wines lastcallwines.com Michael Rockower Canals Hamilton Wine Store, N.J. Lot18 lot18.com Philip James, Kevin Fortuna The Wine Spies thewinespies.com Jason Seeber, Brandon Stauber Wine Woot wine.woot.com David and George Studdert Amazon Wines Til Sold Out winestilsoldout.com Joe Arking Roger Wilco (liquor store) WineShopper wineshopper.com Rich Bergsund, Mike Osborn Wine.com Source: Wines Vines Analytics

12 W in e s & V i ne s OC TOB E R 20 13

Next time, drink New York.
New York State is the second largest wine–producing state in the country, receiving a record number of top medals and rave reviews. In fact, New York wines have won 80 Double Gold, 565 Gold and 88 Best in Class awards in international competitions in the last year alone. With distinctive varietals and award–winning wineries, there’s so much to love about New York wine. So next time you’re at a restaurant or liquor store, ask about New York wines.

taste.ny.gov

Headlines
Oregon Continues to Draw Investment
Resonance purchase follows Soléna Estate buy

OCTOBER NEWS

NEWS BYTES
Tero owners buy Waters Winery Trout Wines, acquired Waters Winery in Walla Walla, Wash. As part of the deal, Roskelley and Tembreull announced that Waters’ original winemaker Jamie Brown would return as winemaker for the well-known Washington winery. The deal also included the 21 Grams brand, which is now wholly owned by Roskelley and Tembreull. GROWERS seek AVA changes

D

oug Roskelley and Mike Tembreull, owners of Tero Estates and Flying

M

cMinnville, Ore.—Oregon’s wine industry is set for a banner year of transactions, with two additional major winery purchases announced in August. Burgundy’s Maison Louis Jadot acquired Resonance Vineyard, a 20-acre property in the Yamhill-Carlton AVA, from Carla and Kevin Chambers for an undisclosed sum. Originally planted to Pinot Noir in 1981, the vineyard is Jadot’s first foray outside Burgundy. Grapes from the vineyard will go to Trisaetum Vineyards near Newberg, Ore., for processing this fall under the supervision of Jacques Lardiere, formerly winemaker at Louis Jadot’s operations in France. Lardiere will also oversee vineyard operations. “I can’t think of a better steward to hand off the property to than the Jadot team,” winesandvines.com Kevin Chambers Learn more: told Wines & Vines. Search keywords “Resonance Vineyard.” “The timing was very good for us. The Oregon industry as a whole right now is on a new growth curve.” The owners of Maison Louis Jadot in the United States initially approached International Wine Associates of Healdsburg, Calif., regarding potential acquisition opportunities. Resonance surfaced as a possibility, and the deal proceeded. “They were looking for a small, worldclass Pinot Noir property,” said Robert Nicholson, principal of International Wine Associates. “Oregon is graduating from small, boutique status to being recognized as a world-class producer of great Pinot Noir,” he said. Chambers, whose family has been farming in Oregon for five generations, plans

T
Kevin Chambers Robert Nicholson

he TTB has accepted a petition by Martha Cunningham of 3 Horse

Ranch Vineyards in Eagle, Idaho, to crewould consist of 67 acres currently in the Snake River Valley AVA. The Willow Creek petition came after growers led by Dr. Alan Busacca refiled a petition for the creation of the Lewis-Clark Valley AVA, which would encompass eight

ate the new Willow Creek AVA, which

to buy a new, 80-acre vineyard in the EolaAmity Hills south of McMinnville, which will also allow them to refresh their housing. But given his farming heritage, the vineyard is key for Chambers. Chambers won’t betray his love for Pinot Noir, which he’ll plant at lower elevations of the new south-facing property, but he’s keen to put Chardonnay and Riesling at the middle elevations, graduating to Riesling alone on the higher elevations. The Jadot deal comes on the heels of an announcement that Jackson Family Wines will purchase a 15,000-case winery and 35-acre vineyard from Yamhill, Ore.-based Soléna Estate, owned by Laurent Montalieu and Danielle Andrus Montalieu. Soléna sold the property in connection with its move to a new production facility in the Dundee Hills. The deal (for an undisclosed amount) gives Jackson Family Wines a small-scale facility that will serve its recently acquired vineyards in the area. “In order to fulfill our vision for creating world-class Pinot Noir from the Willamette Valley, we need a winery capable of producing artisan wines,” Hugh Reimers, executive vice president and chief operating officer of Jackson Family Wines, said in a news release. —Peter Mitham

counties surrounding Clarkston, Wash., and Lewiston, Idaho.

Carneros Brewing Co.

Ceja brothers open brewery

who own and manage Ceja Vineyards, and Manuel, an engineer based in Los Angeles, to open the Carneros Brewing Co. near Sonoma, Calif. A building adjacent to the brewery will house a winery and custom-crush operation run by Armando and Pedro Ceja. The brewery uses several types of hops that are grown on site.

E

xperienced brewer Jesus Ceja teamed with brothers Pedro and Armando,

14 W in es & V i ne s O C TOB E R 20 13

Eyler’s forecast results partly from the increasing demand and wages for workers in nearby counties.com Eyler. —Henry David Thoreau Our barrels are works of art. for example.—Economist Robert Eyler predicts the labor situation in Napa Valley may get increasingly challenging. } 8 route de Canteloup—33750 Beychac & Caillau www. He also noted that winery wages are generally lower than the average Napa County wages. plus limited housing in the Napa Valley. Interestingly.  Eyler said Napa County’s growers and vintners might need to pay higher wages in a competitive market for skilled workers who will likely be living outside of the county. while high housing costs in Napa force many to live elsewhere. Relatively cheap fuel encourages them to come from the larger population centers nearby. the president of Economic ForenLearn more: sics and Analytics and a professor at SoSearch keywords “Napa labor. yet many winery job skills are transferable to other industries. Partner with Tonnellerie Quintessence to create your masterpiece. The good news is that many people want to work in Napa. They’re also paying workers better and providing benefits like insurance to create a stable work force. The booming businesses of nut and fruit producers in California’s Central Valley provide increasing competition for seasonal labor. retail. crafted with expertise and perfection to honor wine. has a mobile work force that can easily switch into hospitality or administrative jobs such as bookkeeping. Continued improvement in the Mexican economy. More and more workers are coming from outside the county—including the contract workers. Napa County’s mix of employment hasn’t changed much since 2000. 29 Impact Napa conference hosted by the North Bay (California) Business Journal. —Paul Franson N Winery wages are generally lower than the average Napa County wages. Eyler said. forcing wineries to pay higher wages and adopt more mechanization. Eyler cited this among the factors that may force wine industry wages to rise. that is the highest of arts. Calif. winesandvines. so there’s not likely to be a worker shortage developing.” noma State University. professional services.tonnelleriequintessence. The sales sector.OCTOBER NEWS Labor Trends May Challenge Industry Economist: Wages. and changes in immigration policy and enforcement would only make things worse. Six industries dominate hiring: hospitality. Some are adding olives and other crops that complement vineyards. { THE ART LIVES ON… To effect the quality of the day. Eyler said one clear trend in Napa Valley is that the rise in grape tonnage since 2000 suggests outside contract labor and mechanization are filling local labor gaps. which is growing at 3% per year. but employers may have to pay them more. but many Napa wineries are trying to train their personnel for other positions to keep them employed year-round. winery.fr Win es & Vin e s O C TO B E R 20 13 15 . lack of housing will force Napa to get competitive apa. health care and government. delivered his sobering message at the Aug.

technical representative “Fermentation seminar. it’s because someone did something to cause it. the presence of toxic substances. Toxic substances include acetic acids produced by stressed yeast or other microbes. —Andrew Adams 16 W in e s & V i ne s O C TOB E R 20 13 D . ethanol toxicity. and Hall suggested winemakers should run a complete nutrition check after cold soak. The host of other microbes usually present in cold soak can rapidly deplete the amount of nutrients. said specialty strains offer nuances in mouthfeel.” Bisson said. Linda Bisson. YAN. a yeast strain that’s ill suited for the particular must or juice. a technical representative with Scott Laboratories. VA production and the ability to mask green flavors.” Learn more: Search keywords Darren Michaels. if there is an abrupt stop. Sluggish or slow fermentations indicate there’s something out of balance with the fermentation. But yeast can only impart those characteristics if it has the nutrients it needs and is within its pH.” for Laffort USA. “Usually. Bisson said. low pH and temperature shock. it would be hard to say that strain is going to give you what you want. Linda Bisson encouraged growers whose vineyards are prone to stuck fermentations to send juice samples to the University of California. organized the seminar and provided an overview of problematic fermentations. Calif.—In a session appropriate for the pre-harvest season. going so far as to say a YAN analysis prior to winesandvines. aroma. temperature and alcohol comfort zones. Davis. Dr. The acids may have occurred in the vineyard but don’t cause problems until the fermentation has produced a certain level of ethanol. Bisson said stuck or sluggish fermentations are often caused by insufficient or imbalanced nutrients. Nichola Hall. “If you can’t control fermentation temperature. professors and yeast experts offered insights into the best practices to ensure an efficient and healthy fermentation during a daylong seminar in August. color and other more specialized considerations such as less foam production (good for barrel-fermented Chardonnay). Hall said yeasts also require several nutrients working in tandem so that they can process wine sugars effectively.com cold soak “is almost a waste of analysis. a panel of University of California.” he said. Dr.OCTOBER NEWS Dr. Davis. a yeast expert with UC Davis. said the yeast assimilable nitrogen. requirements for one strain of yeast to consume 1 gram of sugar could be twice that of different yeast. while a complete stop is likely the result of a misguided step such as making a pH adjustment in the middle of fermentation. Yeast Nutrition Vital For Wine Fermentation Enology experts discuss research and best practices at UC Davis avis.

750 18.C. which totaled $178 million in 2012. Canada’s strong dollar in 2011 and 2012—it’s traded at near par with the U.6 $938.615 18. Wine Institute.C.C. The shift comes despite a rise in sales of B. MADE IN USA! 21 day trial ISPENSA-MATIC DLabel Dispensers NOT A CHEAP. the latest numbers from the B. but we’re not making as much money (per bottle). while market share dips ancouver. peak at 20.9%— and despite rising in June.9 * 12 months ended this month June 2013* $951.640 $176. 31 suggest their share of the market had dipped to 18. the pie is getting bigger faster than our piece. which was featured at this year’s Vancouver International Wine Festival and poses a formidable challenge to B. told Wines & Vines.C. BOTTLE-MATIC-II 3 YEAR WARRANTY INCLUDED BC Liquor Distribution branch Front and Back! $1800 for Wines & Vines Readers! Front & Back! Label any cylindrical container fast and accurately from ½” to 8” diameter. “We’re selling more juice. stall. executive director of the B.” Competitors include California.322 19.-grown grapes that meet established quality standards—saw their share of dollars spent on wine in B.4 $901.C.551 17. up from $15. Rocky Mount.C. British Columbia—The economic impact of the British Columbia wine industry is significant—more than $2 billion.S.com make it an attractive Learn more: Search keywords export market.354 $145.C. “While we continue to grow our piece of the pie. preliminary V British Columbia Wine Sales Period Wine Sales BC VQA Sales Market Total ($000) Total ($000) Share 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 $829.6 $819.8 $863. STOP 28220 Playmor Beach Rd.201 $181. Consumers keen to buy local have supported an overall rise in the average price of a bottle of B.bottle-labeler. VQA wines.com Web: http://www. with the average price through the BCLDB now approximately $15. —Peter Mitham The original. @ Speeds of 1200 Pcs. producers.OCTOBER NEWS B.711 $177.C. dollar—has helped winesandvines. Wines bearing the B. VQA wine.392 20.42 in 2010.710 $176. By the end of 2012.” mestic buyers have used their buying power to snap up foreign wines at prices much cheaper than at any point in recent years. E-mail: info@dispensamatic. MO 65072 Call Toll Free: 1 (800) 325-7303 or (573) 392-7684 FAX:(573) 392-1757.65. VQA designation—granted to wines made entirely from B. hosted by the British Columbia Wine Institute.6%. Liquor Distribution Branch (BCLDB) indicate that wines entering the market face stiff competition.705 19. Wines Stall in Home Market Sales revenues are up in British Columbia. per hour. IMPORTED KNOCK-OFF! Wasting Time Labeling by Hand! Price subject to change without notice. market share had fallen to 18.4% in 2010 (BCLDB figures do not include cellar door sales).com 2/01/10 Win es & Vin e s O C TO B E R 20 13 17 .C.1 numbers for the 12 months ended Aug.507 $153. according to a study released earlier this year—but local producers are facing equally significant challenges holding their own against a tide of foreign competitors. While more than 90 labels showed up at this week’s fall release event in Vancouver.” Miles Prodan.C. Do“B. up from $146 million in 2008.

which include Cabernets from famed Pritchard Hill in Napa Valley. which is being financed by Bank of the West. “There are also opportunities for expanded hospitality and events. the colorful sculpture Faribolous by Jean Dubuffet is visible at far right. By comparison. —Paul Franson 18 W in e s & V i ne s O C TOB E R 20 13 S .—Vintage Wine Estates announced Aug.000 cases.com Ray’s Station after a pioneering local vintner. pioneering direct-to-consumer Windsor Vineyards. “It has very good vineyards. who celebrated his 83rd birthday in July.” his firm’s model of mostly low-asset acquisitions but says. Vintage also bought the former McDowell Valley Vineyards & Cellars in Hopland. it only makes 25. Vintage bought the winery and property including vineyards in Calistoga as well as a lease on Carneros AVA vineyards that total 450 acres. most of its acquisitions had been troubled or secondary properties. Vintage Wine Estates Buys Clos Pegase Famed architectural property marks a deviation from previous purchases anta Rosa.. The Clos Pegase wines are priced slightly above Vintage’s current Girard flagship wines.” Though Clos Pegase has a permit for 80. Pegasus. including bankrupt Cosentino Winery in Yountville. Other than Girard. naming it after the famous mythical flying horse. Celebrated architect Michael Graves designed the winery after an architectural competition hosted by the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art.” He added. and Clos Pegase is one of Napa Valley’s iconic wineries. Roney plans to add Clos Pegase wines to the sales force of Vintage’s own portfolio and expand distribution. 21 its purchase of Clos Pegase Winery from Jan Shrem. Sonoma Coast Vineyards and the Cartlidge & Browne Winery brand.000 cases last year. including growing the business. The acquisition. Included is a 40-acre parcel across Dunaweal Lane from the winery that is now planted in vineyards. famous for its architecture and art collection as much as its estate wines.000 at present. Calif. but which Roney admits would be a great site for a new Girard Winery. Learn more: Search keywords Roney admits Clos Pegase didn’t seem to fit “Clos Pegase. “We saw the possibilities. a special strength of Vintage. Vintage produced about 700.OCTOBER NEWS Clos Pegase is known for its distinct architecture and modern art work. from Weibel Winery and upgraded the facility to make part of its portfolio of wines including a brand called winesandvines. is a big departure for Vintage. Jan Shrem founded Clos Pegase Winery in 1984. Calif.. Calif. We could do a lot more with them. Vintage is a collection of wine brands owned by Pat Roney and Leslie Rudd.” He said that Clos Pegase is strong in direct-to-consumer sales.

non-Hispanic population. according to a new report by Rabobank’s food and agribusiness research group. Yet that is changing. But despite the many contributions of Mexicans and other Hispanic groups to the wine industry.S.S. which is why we spend so much time crafting a barrel you can count on to complement your fruit.5 million cases of wine per year by 2033. A study by the Wine Market Council found that Hispanics represented 3% of “core wine drinkers” in 2008 but 5% in 2012.S.S.5 grow to 22% of the total U.6 Rabobank 96. Calif.W. That growth rate is double that of the U.S. This elevated standard of excellence honors four generations of coopering expertise while celebrating the passion of the wine world.OCTOBER NEWS 50 Million-Case Wine Opportunity Rabobank analyst sees opportunity to boost U. population in 2033. full transparency and guaranteed consistency. wine sales to Hispanics an Rafael. the alcoholic beverage of choice in most Hispanic homes remains beer. Napa and Sonoma counties are home to some wineries such as Ceja Vineyards and Robledo Family Winery in the Carneros AVA and Mi Sueño and Alex Sotelo Cellars in Napa Valley that are owned by Mexican immigrants. Nielsen predicts an annual 6% growth rate of Hispanic wine and spirits consumption through 2015. The white non-Hispanic population is expected to only account for 54% of the U. The low rate of Hispanic wine consumption is one of the biggest ironies in the wine industry. Census Bureau. The report predicts that Hispanics may buy 96. Win es & Vin es O C TO B E R 20 13 19 . down from 64% in 2011.S. Boswell collection embodies our commitment to excellence – it is defined by meticulous standards. The growth in wine consumption by Hispanics could account for as much as 40% of the total growth in wine consumption during the same period. population by 2033. the Hispanic population is expected to Million cases S U. The T. but (it) may be critical for the wine industry’s continued growth in the long term. Offering information in Spanish on a winery website or ensuring someone in the tasting room can speak Spanish would help a winery connect with Hispanic consumers. According to the U. —Andrew Adams Great wines’ silent partner Attention to detail is inherent to every great wine. the report’s author and Rabobank’s wine industry analyst. Rannekleiv noted. Tapping into that market could result in wineries selling an additional 50 million cases over the next 20 years. Hispanic population still consumes far less wine per person than the general population. Many of the men and women working in the vineyards and cellars producing wine are Mexican immigrants who don’t drink much wine themselves. We understand your effort. the U. “Driving consumption growth among Hispanics will not necessarily be easy.S.” said Stephen Rannekleiv. Hispanics’ Wine Consumption 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 2013 2033 46.—While Americans are drinking more wine than ever.

—Jon Tourney 20 W in es & V i ne s O C TOB E R 20 13 . oversees the annual research trial that has been conducted in the same Chardonnay vineyard for 28 years in cooperation with grower John Baranek of Herzog Ranch in the Clarksburg American Viticultural Area. A general recommendation is that different classes of fungicides with different modes of action be used alternately during the growing season and from year to year in an integrated program to prevent disease resistance and improve efficacy. which work as contact fungicides with a smothering or barrier effect to PM growth. but they of California. Calif. Douglas Gubler noted that (UCCE) vineyard field trial organic oils continue to be very conducted by the University effective against fungus. pest control advisors (PCAs) and ag chemical suppliers inspected the results of 90 different fungicide spray treatments to control powdery mildew Aug. particularly when used early in the season to knock back the fungus. UC Davis plant pathologist Dr. biological and organic fungicides in different combinations. Copies of annual PM field trial reports going back to 2003 are currently posted at plantpathology. 7 as part of a University of CaliUC Davis plant pathologist fornia Cooperative Extension Dr. as the oil will block and shut down leaf stomata to reduce carbohydrate accumulation. Douglas Gubler.edu/cooperative_extension. The vineyard near the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta is an excellent test site.— Grapegrowers.OCTOBER NEWS Options to Control Powdery Mildew Annual field day looks at efficacy of fungicide treatments C ourtland. Soft chemistry. and final treatments were applied the week of July 15. with powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator) disease pressure each season because the weather in the area is cooler and the vineyard is near a body of water. One caution with these oils is that they can slightly delay fruit maturity. consultants. continue to be very effective products. natural and biological products can be used when disease pressure is low to moderate to practice good integrated pest management (IPM) and still get good disease control.ucdavis. an expert on grape fungal pathogens and diseases and a frequent lecturer at industry meetings. and with varying application rates and timing. A final report with results of disease severity and incidence for each treatment will be posted on the website for the UC Davis Department of Plant Pathology within the next two months. Davis. ment of Plant Pathology. Departcan slightly delay fruit maturity. vineyard managers. PureSpray and Safe-T-Side. Gubler noted that organic oils such as JMS Stylet Oil (a paraffinic oil). Applications were made beginning in early April. The 90 treatments tested in 2013 included synthetic.

Items may be edited for clarity and brevity. Helena acquired the Hopland winery that is the current location of Rack & Riddle Custom Crush Wine Services. Merus and Foley Johnson. online marketing and data metrics. director of winemaking at Rack & Riddle Custom Crush Wine Services in Hopland. •D  irect-to-consumer (DtC) and wine flash sales analysis. Details: jlohr. Langtry Estates. partnered with members of his family to purchase the Sierra Nevada Foothills winery that had been the original home of Stevenot Winery. The $4. inside sales.com Sign up today! Email trf@winesandvines. also based in Napa. from announced that second-generation family Champagne Piper in member and co-owner Steve Lohr would Reims. Buoncristiani is also part owner and winemaker for Buoncristiani Family Winery.7 million deal included a neighboring ranch. Best Practices & Trends: A newsletter for managers of tasting rooms. Foley acquires stake in distributor Wines & Vines welcomes news items from wineries. Lohr Vineyards & Wines in San Jose four continents. in St. Lohr Vineyards making operations on J. vineyards and industry suppliers located in the wine regions of North America. The company now represents Sebastiani Vineyards.com/TRF Win es & Vin e s O C TO B E R 20 13 21 .com. Backstage Americans’ Drinks of Choice CONTENT PREVIEW September advertisers Left Coast Oils Wine Country Lifestyle Magazine Olde Tradition Spice Trailscape Inc. owner of Forlorn Hope Wines in Napa.com alainfouquet@aol.com Or visit winesandvines. 10:57 to conAlainFouquet_Aug06 5/17/06 AM Page 1 Raphaël Brisbois assume the posts of CEO and chairman sulting at wineries in Jay Buoncristiani is the new winemaker at Krupp Brothers Estates and Stagecoach Vineyards in Napa. Send us your latest news by emailing edit@winesandvines. Robert Prough announced the deal in a statement and said he will remain president and CEO of the distributor based in Capitola. Duckhorn bought the property from Entertainment Properties Trust and plans to use it to expand the production of its second brand. Decoy. Brisbois oversaw wineTransition at J. EOS Estate. for a total of 350 acres near Murphys. Lancaster Estate. France. • Featured tasting room suppliers. Duckhorn Wine Co. Lincourt Winery. A mortgage company owned the property after taking control from the former owner. which added several of the Foley Family Wines brands to its portfolio. Guenoc.com. wine clubs. Jack Munari. Roth. Sparkling wine production expert Raphaël Brisbois. Paso Robles and the new winery in Greenfield. Kuleto. Founder Jerry Lohr will manage the firm’s estate vineyards. and that Jeff Meier was promoted to president and will continue as COO overseeing winemaking at the company’s facilities in San Jose. Before joining Rack & Riddle. Sparkling wine expert dies Bill Foley purchased a minority share in Epic Wines. Distinctive Wine Frames www. Krupp hires Buoncristiani as winemaker of the board. Tasting Room Focus Analysis. wine clubs and DTC wine sales. A monthly email newsletter with the latest: •E  xpert advice about tasting rooms.OCTOBER NEWS CALI FO R N I A New owners for old Stevenot winery News Briefs Duckhorn acquires Hopland winery Matthew Rorick. leadership. September features Front Stage vs.alainfouquet. died in August.

Liz Thach. Chateau Potelle opens tasting ‘house’ VGS Chateau Potelle Winery opened its new tasting “house” and garden in St. Krausmann is the former winemaker for Esterlina Vineyards & Winery in Philo. at Olivet Lane Vineyard in Healdsburg. was selected for a Fulbright Specialists project in Mendoza.OCTOBER NEWS Chile.com. New assistant winemaker at Fess Parker the winery as winemaker coming from Beringer Vineyards in Napa. Francis Winery & Vineyards in Santa Rosa announced that Chris Louton joined Chenin Blanc and Petite Sirah conference Stewart Cameron was promoted from the The organizers of the first-ever Chenin 22 W in e s & V i ne s OC TOB E R 20 13 . at the National University of Cuyo. generation X and baby boomer consumers. Thach will teach Dr. Brisbois came to California in 1987 to work for Iron Horse Vineyards and Rémy Cointreau. MW. Helena. Louton joins St.com.99 as plush and full-bodied. “Our memories of his dedication. Details: ancientpeaks.com. wine marketing and wine tourism classes in March 2014. SSU professor earns Fulbright position of associate winemaker to winemaker at Ancient Peaks Winery in Santa Margarita.com. where he was an associate winemaker. India and elsewhere. Details: benoviawinery. Nova Scotia. New winemaker for Pellegrini Jen Walsh is the new assistant winemaker at Benovia Winery in Santa Rosa. Cameron has been with Ancient Peaks since 2006. Lynn Krausmann St. The new tasting room features seasonal wine and food pairings. Francis as winemaker Dr. New winemaker at Ancient Peaks Lynn Krausmann is the new winemaker for Pellegrini Wine Co. Baird is the former cellar master at Justin Vineyards in Paso Robles. OffBeat launches Zin-phomaniac label David Baird is the new assistant winemaker at Fess Parker Winery in Santa Barbara.com. The company. Details: fessparker. describes the wine with a suggested retail price of $18. Details: vgschateaupotelle. Argentina. Walsh was the enologist at Miner Family Winery in Oakville before joining Benovia. Mike Sinor remains the director of winemaking. his eternal optimism and his wit will forever be etched in our hearts. Benovia names assistant winemaker OffBeat brands in Petaluma launched its new Zin-phomaniac brand. an old-vine Zinfandel from Lodi. Louton will work with winemaker Katie Madigan and oversee the winery’s Bordeaux variety program. Details: pellegrinisonoma.com. Details: stfranciswinery. a wine business professor at Sonoma State University in Rohnert Park. Liz Thach wine business. which makes wines targeted for millennials.” Rack & Riddle founders Rebecca Faust and Bruce Lundquist said in a statement.

Faury comes to the winery after working at wineries in France. after owners and brothers Michael and David Phillips. Washington auction raises $2 million New assistant winemaker at Merryvale Simon Faury joined Merryvale Vineyards in St. “From Bubbles to Boardrooms. of which 56 are planted with Bordeaux-variety vines as well as Chardonnay.OCTOBER NEWS Blanc & Petite Sirah Wine Conference aim to “share with the world two of the most unrecognized and yet highly versatile grape varietals. Australia and Italy as well as Harlan Estate and The Napa Valley Re- The 26th annual Auction of Washington Wines raised more than $2 million through various events held Aug.C. Winery exec publishes memoirs Michael David launches namesake brand serve in California.2 billion (Canadian). Proceeds from the auction support the Se- Win es & Vin es O C TO B E R 20 13 23 . Helena as assistant winemaker. which Constellation Brands Inc. The new releases are the first wines branded with the name Michael David.com. Riesling and what the owners say is the first Grüner Veltliner to be planted in the Okanagan Valley. Details: michaeldavidwinery. The winery is designed for gravity-flow winemaking and is situated on 100 acres. Christopher Barefoot Donald and Elaine Triggs opened their new Culmina Family Estate Winery in Oliver. which will also feature trade and consumer tastings. managers and those starting their careers.” The two-day conference takes place Nov. The winery is known for its brands such as 7 Deadly Zins. Experts will discuss best practices for growing and winemaking at the conference. Michael David Winery in Lodi released a Chardonnay and Sauvignon Blanc under a new “Michael David” label. Christopher Barefoot joined Opus One Winery in Oakville as the vice president of public relations and guest relations. Details: Sapporo cheninpetiteconference. Osaka shima n Former winery executive Michaela Rodeno published the first of her two-part book recounting the founding of Domaine ChanTokyo don in 1973 and her 40 years of working Nagoya in the wine industry. Earthquake and Freakshow.” delves into the heady days of the winery’s first years of business and the lessons Rodeno learned from founding president John Wright. A red varietal wine will be released in 2014. 15-17.com. acquired in 2006 for $1.com. Rodeno says her book features amusing anecdotes that she hopes also provide lessons for entrepreneurs. Act I: Startups are Such Fun. Donald Triggs founded the wine company Vincor.C. Details: merryvale. 14-15 at the Old Sugar Mill in Clarksburg. Barefoot most recently was the sales and marketing director for Flowers Vineyard & Winery in Cazadero. B. Opus One names VP of PR N O RTH WEST Culmina winery opens in B.

V.com. Peninsula Cellars 2011 Cabernet Franc (dry red). Recipients of the award are Purdue alumni who have demonstrated excellence in food science. head winemaker at St.” according to a statement by Diageo. The center currently bottles approximately 31 million cases of Diageo products per year. Chile. Karma Vista Vineyards 2012 Devils Head Red (semi-dry red) and Brys Estate 2011 Dry Ice Riesling Ice Wine (dessert wine).000. Details: fcv. Mich.’s 2011 Norton won top honors at this year’s Missouri Wine Competition. Stone Hill wins top honors in Missouri Stone Hill Wine Co. The top lot of the auction gala was a South African safari offered by Betz Family Winery that sold for $58.M. Julian Wine Co. 24 W in es & V i ne s O C TOB E R 20 13 .com. Texas. the C. N. Riley award for best Norton and The Governor’s Cup for the best wine of the year. Ill. Diageo North America announced in early August it had completed a $120 million investment in its bottling facility in Plainfield. 10. the Plainfield location is also home to Diageo North America’s brand technical center. which “helps to turn new liquid and packaging ideas into commercial products. Cuadra worked for 19 years in the Chilean wine industry.com. Julian winemaker honored Purdue University announced that Nancie Corum-Oxley. Detail: stjulian.OCTOBER NEWS attle Children’s Hospital and the Washington State University Viticulture & Enology Program. Bethel Heights hires national sales director C E N T RAL Diageo invests in Illinois bottling plant Nels Becker is the new national sales director for Bethel Heights Vineyard Inc. Details: stonehillwinery. The top wines were: Black Star Farms 2012 BeDazzled (sparkling).. Becker is the former national sales director of Gruet Winery in Albuquerque. Chateau Fontaine 2012 Pinot Blanc (dry white). St. in Paw Paw. spending a Sergio decade with Concha y Cuadra Toro. Most recently he was the winemaker at Anakena Wines in Santiago. Texas winery hires Chilean winemaker Sergio Cuadra is the new winemaker for Fall Creek Vineyards in Tow. The wine received Best of Class for dry red. Boathouse Vineyards 2012 Knot Too Sweet Riesling (semi-dry white). would receive the school’s Outstanding Food Science Award in a ceremony to be held Oct. Corum-Oxley joined St. of Salem. Julian in 2002 as lab manager and enologist. Top winners in Michigan competition The judging panel of the Michigan Wine Competition tasted 450 wines from 55 of the state’s wineries and awarded “best of class” honors to six wines from a group of 42 gold medal winners. after a series of promotions she became head winemaker in 2010.. In addition to three high-speed lines. Ore.

Online wine retailer NakedWines. Details: kemmeterwines. The nursery stated in a news release that it has 30 million rootstocks and 50 million scion buds certified and virus tested for 2014 grafting. which is also located in Penn Johannes Yan.com.com. Details: nakedwines. Keuka Spring. Calif.com.com. 6-7 at the college. which won Best of Show honors in the 2013 New York Wine & Food Classic competition. opened the tasting room of his own winery. winemaker for Anthony Road Wine Co. NakedWines. of Hughson.com. The conference will feature educational workshops and seminars by winemaking and indus- Johannes Reinhardt. for their 2012 Riesling. and Viticulture Enology Science and Technology Alliance will hold the Southeastern United Grape & Wine Symposium on Nov. in Penn Yan. Andrew Cuomo presented the Governor’s Cup award to Len and Judy Wiltberger. Winery & Vineyards in Sapporo Borden... N.OCTOBER NEWS Indiana wine named ‘Wine of the Year’ The 2012 Vignoles from Huber’s Orchard. The investment came from WIV Wein International AG.300 entries Tokyo from around the United States and the Nagoya world Osaka in the competition. Reinhardt plans Reinhardt to stay at his post at Anthony Road while building his own winery and planting vineyards nearby. honors Duarte Nursery Inc.. McCall win top N.Y. Japan try experts as well as a tour of nearby North Carolina vineyards and wineries and a grand wine tasting. Winemaker opens tasting room S U PPLI ERS Nursery expands production E AST Southeastern grape. Kemmeter Wines. announced it expanded its grapevine production for the 2014 delivery season to meet the demand from growers looking to expand or replant. The Vignoles Huber topped 2.. Ind. owners of Keuka Spring Vineyards.Y. received “Wine of the Year” honors at the Indy International Wine ComDana petition. Details: ncviticulturecenter. N. Details: huberwinery. SureHarvest honored for sustainability The California/Nevada Chapter of the Soil Win es & Vin es O C TO B E R 20 13 25 . wine conference Surry Community College in Dobson.C.com announced it received a third-round investment of $10 million to increase the company’s business in the United States and Australia. Winery of the Year honors went to McCall Wines on Long Island.com announces funding New York Gov. which used 44 Hiroshima international judges and a blind tasting format. which is a founding shareholder of the firm and owns a majority interest in the company. Details: duartenursery.

Details: unipack. Andrew Walker as the Louis P. the item on Maritime Wine Trading Collective should have listed its case volume as 150. announced it had completed a $1. Details: sauryusa.com 26 W in e s & V i ne s O C TOB E R 20 13 .com. the Viewpoint article on page 82 should have identified Dr. He joins Saxco after working as a sales consultant for Cork Supply USA in Portland. Packaging firm makes invests in facilities Roll Global LLC..500 locations Brianne Day joined Saury USA’s North American sales team and will be responsible for mainly Washington and Oregon. New rep for AWS/Prospero In the September 2013 issue of Wines & Vines. Calif. Also in the September 2013 issue. Calif. announced its purchase of Vintage Nurseries in Wasco. The company is also Steve Felten is now representing AWS/ Prospero in the Central Coast and Southern California. owner of Fiji Water.biz. table grape and raisin industries. Calif. Wright will handle dayto-day sales and new accounts for the glass bottle distributor based in Oakland. Ore. SureHarvest’s vice president of professional services and Wines & Vines columnist Cliff Ohmart accepted the award on behalf of the company.2 million investment in its Canadian production plant in Vernon.300 square feet of production and growing facilities and 1. and other enterprises. Details: vintagenurseries. Day has eight years of experience in wine production. Details: freeflowwines. The acquisition includes 755. In the same table. Martini Endowed Chair in Viticulture in the Department of Viticulture & Enology. hotels and other venues in the United States. Calif. Saxco adds sales account manager Universal Packaging Corp. University of California. Wash.bacchuswinefund. Roll Global buys Vintage Nurseries moving into a new 22.com FOOD DIAGNOSTICS Effortless & accurate wine testing Tests Available Include • • • • Acetic Acid Citric Acid Ethanol Glucose / Fructose • • • • Lactic Acid Malic Acid NOPA Total Sulphites (TS02) E enquiries@randoxfooddiagnostics.ca. Details: caswcs. Wonderful Pistachios. The firm specializes in filling kegs for wineries to offer their clients a “wine on tap” option. The company. Free Flow Wines announced that more than 250 wines are on tap at more than 1.000 cases and its vineyard acreage as none.000-square-foot location in Napa.C. Felten is the former gen- strategic capital and expertise for the wine industry www. reports the investment will increase its capacity by 50%.500 restaurants. B.OCTOBER NEWS and Water Conservation Society presented SureHarvest with an award recognizing the company’s development of technologies and sustainability and certification programs. Justin Vineyards & Winery in Paso Robles.com. CORRECTIONS Carson E. Saury adds to North American sales team eral manager and winemaker at Norman Vineyards in Paso Robles and makes his own wine under the Felten Cellars label.com. Details: saxco. Davis.com (415) 828-8898 bacchuscapital@bacchuswinefund. Free Flow pouring at 1. which decorates bottles with screen-printing.com. the table on page 38 titled “The Bacchus Portfolio” should have listed DeLille Cellars’ location as Woodinville.169 acres of owned and leased land in California’s San Joaquin Valley. Details: prosperocorp. Wright joined Carson Wright Saxco International LLC as its sales account manager for the Northwest. Vintage Nurseries produces grafted grapevine rootstocks for the wine grape.org.

Find Wineries 2.Looking for new winery clients? 1.COM/OMS • (866) 453-9701  Call today for a free demo . Get Results The Wines & Vines Online Marketing System (OMS) is a web-based application that lets you search all 8. and then export data into custom reports.137 North American wineries by specific criteria. Download Data 3. WINESANDVINES.

OCTOBER NEWS

Product News
G.W. Kent offering Syntek closures

selection. The Cool Climate Series is available for the 2013 harvest. Details: twboswell.com.
‘Over the Top’ tannins

Send us your latest offerings and announcements by emailing edit@winesandvines.com. Items may be edited for clarity and brevity.

Synthetic closures from French firm Syntek are now available through G.W. Kent. Syntek is the second-largest synthetic closure manufacturer in the world, and G.W. Kent is offering the firm’s I-Tek closure. According to product information from G.W. Kent, the closure offers a consistent oxygen-transfer rate, and its outer coatings are made of a food-safe mixture of paraffin and silicone for good sealing and extraction. G.W. Kent is carrying 38x22 mm closures in bags containing 1,000 closures. Details: gwkent.com.
Cool-climate wine barrels by T.W. Boswell

Scott Laboratories announced its new Over the Top (or OTT) line of tannins to “provide a final stylistic touch to wines.” The new Tannin Bold can add wood, caramel and vanilla notes and a touch of sweetness, while Tannin Finesse adds a perception of sweetness while reducing the perception of alcohol or “biting acidity” in white wines. Both are available in 500-gram packages. Details: scottlab.com.
Wingman 2.0 sales support program

Groove, a digital and social marketing agency, released Wingman 2.0, a tablet- and smartphone-enabled digital “sales book” for the wine, spirits and beverage industries. Wingman 2.0 provides sales reps with up-to-date brand information, plus improved ordertaking and order-transmission capabilities. “The days of walking into an account armed with glossy sell sheets and a pencil are winding down,” Groove managing director Sean Dunn said in a statement released by the company. Details: sfgroove.com.
FFA licensed work gloves by Ranchmate

Cooperages 1912 announced that it is expanding the T.W. Boswell barrel line to include three new barrels as part of its Cool Climate Series. “Cool-climate wines tend to be very fruit focused, with higher acidity and delicate overall tasting notes,” Jason Stout, the company’s international sales director, said in a news release. “Our team researched and experimented to carefully develop a line of barrels that responds perfectly to this style.” The low-impact barrels featured in the series are made with 36-month aged, extra fine grain oak as part of T.W. Boswell’s “special reserve” premium wood

Preformed Line Products released Ranchmate brand work gloves bearing the logo of the Future Farmers of America, FFA, to support the national youth agricultural education organization. The full-grain, cowhide gloves are available in four styles and feature the FFA logo and motto: “Learning to Do, Doing to Learn, Earning to Live, Living to Serve.” Details: ranchmate.com.

UNIFIED
WINE & GRAPE S Y M P O S I U M
January 28 – 30, 2014 exhibits: January 29 & 30 Sacramento Convention Center Sacramento, California Registration and Housing open in October. Check our website for details as they become available.

www.unifedsymposium.org

by the industry — for the industry
28 W in e s & V i ne s O C TOB E R 20 13

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OCTOBER NEWS New ticket platform by CellarPass Real-time irrigation data

CellarPass announced the launch of its new ticketing platform that enables wineries and event organizers to create, manage, promote and sell tickets for their events. Wineries can offer tickets for purchase or via a reservation. The free system employs an embedded, secure and PCI-compliant credit card processor for selling tickets. Details: cellarpass.com.
Bulk depalletizer by A-B-C

MapShots Inc. and AgSense announced a joint effort to offer realtime irrigation data for growers. The new relationship pairs MapShots’ AgStudio suite of agronomy software with AgSense’s WagNet cloud-based wireless network. The system “provides growers with real-time access to irrigation status and machine health, as well as the ability to collect watering records for agronomic analysis,” said Ted Macy, vice president of operations at MapShots.
New mannoprotein products by Scott Labs

A-B-C Packaging says its new 108HL high-level bulk depalletizer “transfers containers from the pallet stack and sweeps them gently onto a high-level discharge conveyor at speeds of up to four layers per minute.” The unit is designed to provide container handling and quiet operation at discharge levels of up to 144 feet. To ensure “positive container handling,” the 108HL offers four containment devices, tier sheet stabilizer and a precision chain and sprocket sweep mechanism to maintain stability even with lightweight containers. Details: abcpackaging.com.
Orion adds point-of-sale features

Scott Laboratories introduced UltiMA Fresh and UltiMA Soft for the 2013 vintage. The two products are mannoprotein/gum arabic blends developed through a three-year research and development program at the Institut de Oenologique de Champagne. The company reports that UltiMA Fresh helps ensure stability and improve perceived volume while reducing perceptions of bitterness and acidity. UltiMA Soft can soften, enhance body and lower astringency in white wines. In red wines, UltiMA Soft maintains fruity aromas while helping to round out the mid-palate. Bench trials are recommended prior to use. Details: scottlaboratories.com.
Enzymes, filter bags by Eaton

Orion Wine Software updated its integrated point-of-sale system to include a new function designed to help wineries provide table service and enable their staff to accept gratuities. “By adding our new table-service feature, we offer a fresh avenue for wineries to connect with customers,” said Jay Hall, Orion’s general manager. Details: orionwinesoftware.com.

Filtration equipment manufacturer Eaton unveiled the latest generation of its enzymes including Panzym YieldMASH as well as special bentoniteactivated charcoal for ultrafiltration and Cleargraf filter bags at the recent Drinktec trade show in Munich, Germany. Details: eaton.com.

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Faces& Forums
Wine Library Association Annual Tasting
of the Silverado Resort and Spa. Winemakers and staff from 75 Napa Valley wineries poured samples of current releases and special library wines for association members. The tasting followed an Aug. 10 winemakers’ seminar featuring several next-generation winemakers and industry professionals. Panel members included Angelina Mondavi, winemaker and co-owner of Dark Matter Wines; Danny Fay, director of brand management at Envolve Winery in Sonoma, Calif.; Jordan Kivelstadt, co-founder of the wine-on-tap firm Free Flow Wines in Napa; Maggie Pramuk, sales and marketing for Robert Biale Vineyards, and Tony Leonardini, winemaker with the BNA Wine Group. Chelsea Prince, author of “Rock and Vine,” moderated the panel discussion that explored industry issues from a younger perspective. Each of the panelists griped at the frustration of having to deal with the United States’ outdated, tedious and burdensome alcoholic beverage laws. Kivelstadt recounted his experience of flying to Tallahassee, Fla., as part of a lobbying effort to convince lawmakers there to pass a law allowing wine to be served on tap. The effort was successful, and wine kegs are now legal in Florida. —Andrew Adams
30 W in e s & V i ne s O C TOB E R 20 13
all photos: TEPLIN NUSS

NEWSMAKERS

N

apa, Calif.—The Napa Valley Wine Library Association held its 51st annual tasting Aug. 11 on the grounds

Jo Ann and Tony Truchard, owners of Truchard Vineyards, greet guests at the Silverado Resort and Spa in Napa, Calif.

NVWLA board member Angelina Mondavi and her sister, Alycia Mondavi, unload bins to ice the white, rosé and sparkling wines.

Tamra Lotz, assistant winemaker at Mumm Napa, offers the winery’s sparkling selections.

Chelsea Prince, author of “Rock & Vine,” moderated a discussion about wine industry issues from the perspective of young professionals.

Lang + Reed winemaker John Skupny (right) opens bottles while his father, Bob, pours for guests at the tasting event.

Calif. Luciana Souza Alves is assistant winemaker at J. and an icon on their signs alerted consumers that they had bottles for sale. A larger number of wineries opted this year to offer wines for purchase at the tasting. the iSip Lounge was opened to wineries producing bottles that sell for more than $75. 17-18 this year. Wilkes. priority bills of interest to family-owned California wineries. Family Winemakers of California lobbies on behalf of its members for state policy issues. Calif. Mario Bazán. Wineries signed up for one-hour shifts in the iSip area. During the 2012-13 legislative session. Winemaker David Coventry represented Puma Road Winery. Family Winemakers focuses primarily on wineries producing less than 5. which he runs with his brother. the organization identified 51 Mary Rocca of Rocca Family Vineyards embodies the Family Winemakers concept: She is founder and vintner at the Napa winery. On Aug.Faces& Forums Family Winemakers holds 23rd annual grand tasting Charles Smith is the winemaker at SmithMadrone Vineyards & Winery.000 cases per year. NEWSMAKERS A Family Affair In San Francisco S an Francisco. Trey Fletcher is winemaker at Bien Nacido Vineyards. vineyard manager Stu Smith. more than 215 wineries participated in the 23rd annual event at Fort Mason in San Francisco. Finally. Chardonnay and Pinot Noir from the Santa Maria Valley. with at least 40 of them pouring for the first time. although some larger producers participated in the grand tasting. —Kate Lavin Win es & Vin e s O C TO B E R 20 13 31 . Others indicated they were looking for distribution either in California or out of state. which produces Pinot Blanc. started his own wine label: Mario Bazán Cellars.—The inaugural Family Winemakers of California tasting in 1991 featured 46 wineries pouring their wares. As the voice for family-owned wineries in California. Extra tickets were required to access the lounge. These wineries were identified in the all photos: kate lavin program. Decades after starting work as a vineyard laborer in Napa. which is owned by a fifth-generation farming family in Santa Maria. which participated in the grand tasting for the first time this year. where between eight and 10 wineries were pouring at any one time. pictured with wife Gloria.

the beverage testers sorted through an a collection of 50-60 standout packages they had accumulated throughout the year. this is hardly your granny’s wine label.” he said. Founded in 1981 with the objective of producing fair and impartial wine reviews for consumers. according to Jerald O’Kennard. page 42 Seminar explores Counterfeit protection. and tries to help winery owners.C PO AV CEK R ASG TO IN RY G Special Report Bottles and labels Editor’s note: This is the first Bottles and Labels Issue of Wines & Vines. is the state’s oldest and largest winery. The special report that starts here and continues for 14 pages recognizes that wine packaging is experiencing an extremely rapid period of change. collaborating with suppliers and attention to detail are always key when adopting a new package. the Beverage Testing Institute completed its most recent wine packaging judging.” O’Kennard said. page 40 Experts dissect effective labels. we’re judging the books by their covers. We followed up on their choices and spoke with the wineries that produced the most outstanding packages of 2012. Earlier this year. page 38 Guide to Packaging Suppliers. “We wrap up the year with the packaging competition. •U  se the entire 360° surface of a bottle to showcase your brand.” As their last project for the year. Historic winery adopts sexy new look Founded in 1890. Almost shockingly modern. “We flag those bottles as they come in. •E  ven older wineries can profit from fresh designs for new products. page 44 BOTTLES &LABELS Best of the Bottles We examine the elements of winning packaging By Jane Firstenfeld ine packaging plays an important role in the industry and in Wines & Vines’ editorial coverage. with distribution in 29 states. BTI director. Winner of BTI’s 32 W in es & V i ne s O C TOb e r 20 13 . The criteria include all kinds of packaging. we identify trends among our audience of winemakers and suppliers in order to share technologies and techniques that bring effective wine packages to the shelves. This year. W The packaging adjudication began in 2004. page 32 Optimizing Labels for Marketing Purposes. Rather. marketers and operations people better understand how to capitalize on the changes. O’Kennard explained. bottles claimed the top spots. •T  he lowly shipping case is also worthy of design attention. Meier’s Wine Cellars in Cincinnati. but this magazine does not normally rely on competitions for our reporting. The diversity of choices accurately reflects the options available to wineries of any size across the continent and beyond. Award-Winning Packaging. highlights •P  lanning ahead. Ohio. “Instead of rating wines. BTI has since branched out into the spirits and beer industries as well.

Merrill said. and would love to use it again. being able to bypass conventional labeling allows us to bottle more and waste less. It is 95% sold through the tasting room. used on the Yago Sangria from its spirits division. Luxco/Meier’s believes in best practices and learning from the rest of industry. “Working with the entire surface area of a bottle allows one to tell a brand story in three dimensions. is appropriately named “Seduction. The full-wrap effect is accomplished with a PVC-coated bottle. We appreciate being recognized.COVER STORY Best Bottle award. From a branding standpoint.” Dunn commented. Dunn said. Of 94 cases originally produced.” Pomar Junction Vineyard & Winery in the Paso Robles AVA of California is smaller (6. Packaging design is always time consuming.” Pomar Junction’s boss look cial. Co-designed by Denise McClean of Mode Communications and Pomar Junction managing partner Matt Merrill. The sleeve is applied as a cylinder and then steam heated until it contours the bottle. Everything about the bottle evokes quality. “From a manufacturing standpoint.000 cases per Wines Vines Analytics) and younger (founded 2002) than Meier’s. The UV protective coating helps to preserve the wine. Luxco had previous experience with this packaging technique. He worked with McClean. Purple Wine Co. I would go over ideas with her.” —Lisa Erlich. You simply treat the image the way as you would a paper label.” Merrill recalled. The full-wrap PVC decoration of Meier’s Sinful Sangria (far left) snagged BTI’s Best Bottle award. The winery’s bottle for its 2010 Reserve Late Harvest Viognier took BTI’s award for Best Embossed Label. “as much as it is about branding and creating something completely different. exterior relations manager for Meier’s.” The wine recently earned Best in Class for the White Dessert Wines at the Central Coast Wine Competition. while Pomar Junction adopted a special package worthy of its ‘exceptional’ late-harvest Viognier (above). it also employs a wrap-around effect. attention-grabbing grasp.” This precisely designed package makes use of the cork to reinforce branding. I wanted to utilize the possibilities of silk-screening the label. This emulated the effect of a full bottle decoration. according to Mary Beth Dunn. former tasting room manager at Meridian Winery. Merrill said. steam-shrunk onto a glass bottle. and she would have something for me for the next week based on my input. gray and a 22-karat gold. We decided to get a gold that matched the gold Win es & Vin es O C TO b er 20 13 33 .” Merrill said. “My original idea was to have the train coming at you and wrap around the bottle. “We look at any way we can bring added value to a category. So we told them we did indeed want to include those clusters. “We had heard from our winemaking team that they thought they had an exceptional late-harvest Viognier that needed to be separate from our regular late-harvest Viognier. I thought the gold would help make it pop more and even reflect back some light. scarlet-nailed hands in a sensuous. We processed the grapes  separately and kept them separate throughout the entire process. a historic railroad hub. Meier’s also shares this technology with private bottling clients through its Business Services division.” he said. This meant that I had to figure out a whole new label that would be different than the other label. “We used different color inks—black. Belmark the shrink sleeve.” Merrill said. The screwcap comes from G3. we have not tried to sell this outside the tasting room.” she added. BTI defines “embossed” differently: This is in fact a screen-printed bottle that reflects its $85 per 500ml bottle price. “The material is PVC. I’m not saying this cannot be done with a single-face label. I believe we had known around January of 2011 that we were going to bottle this lot with a different label. Designing the package with Jeff Schmidt and Robert Jeffreys took about 10 months from inception to completion.” Merrill said. The closure is. “I wanted to create something that was as special as the wine. I feel that this method of labeling is inventive and fun. “If the tasting room was slow. It’s a core competence. Calif. “The capsule is a wax treatment. but already it has earned a big reputation. a spirits specialist. and the sleeve is made of 100% recyclable plastic. “I was actually somewhat disappointed. so I used that time to work on the label and let it evolve. but Denise was having trouble making it happen and came up with having a train on the back that can be seen on the front. Informed by the winemaker that the botrytis-infected wine was extremely spe- There is no difference in label approval time (for screenprinting). but being able to utilize more surface area on a bottle means you can expand the ways you reach your target consumer. “The highest grade cork that MA Silva produces for this wine and all of our reserve-level wines.. so I knew that it would take some time. “Since it is such a special wine. Dunn said of the packaging competition: “The BTI program helps give visibility. It’s not about the means. “Sometimes you have to innovate. Unfortunately neither company can measure how much impact the package has on sales. Pomar Junction takes its name and branding image from its home base in Templeton. she said. I knew that I needed to have an exceptional silkscreened bottle to match the amazing wine. The only reason we have this wine is because the harvest crew started picking and leaving the botrytis-affected grapes out of the picking bins. “We have another lateharvest Viognier called Amber Moonlight. The bottle.” Adam Peltier of Peltier Glassworks did the screen printing and helped finish the artwork. only 50 cases remain. Dunn said.” Anchor Glass supplied the bottle. Merrill told BTI. imported from France by TricorBraun WinePak.” Sinful Sangria is a new brand developed after Meier’s was acquired about two years ago by Luxco. who is conveniently keeping her hand in the industry in by working Thursdays in the Pomar Junction tasting room. While we expected to see an elaborate embossed paper label. Meier’s Sinful Sangria is encircled by graceful. Dunn said.

000 cases annually.. Mondavi & Family. “We needed a label that was unlike any other. Cryptic 2010 Red Wine.000 cases of the original 2010 vintage hit the market in August 2012 and are already sold out. “So the decorating cost can be 25%-50% more than a paper label. if you decide to bottle less or more wine than planned. Ehrlich said that “flamingo red” was the “color of the year. in theory.-based Onyx Design. You simply treat the image the same way as you would a paper label—but you do need to show an image of how the finished bottle will look. a new label from Napa’s venerable C. money in production. from Purple Wine Co.” Ehrlich concluded.” she said. you simply don’t use the labels—or ask for an additional label run from the printer. and that’s not just dazzle from the 24-karat gold ink.” Ehrlich offered a few more considerations for those pondering a change.” Ehrlich said. Cryptic is one of more than a dozen distinct brands.” Merrill said. Ehrlich pointed out.COVER STORY on the label.” Since screen-printed bottles come to the bottling line ready to go. so we hand dip the bottle so that part of the cork can still be seen. “Indeed. But I think it works best when the design comes from a place where you have screen printing in mind from the start. the process does save bottle than traditional labels. Purple stoked the enthusiasm with a large format. director of public The packaging on Purple Wine Co. which helped spark curiosity.” said Elaine Mellis.” Ehrlich said. their production run might not happen in time.” Ehrlich cautioned.” This pre-planning requires close collaboration with glass suppliers and coordinating delivery to the bottle decorators. chose the name “blood-orange” for their blazing polylaminate capsule from Maverick in Ukiah. depending on the number of colors and type of inks. it costs more to produce a screen printed bottle than a paper label.F. Calif. Cryptic’s suggested retail price is $16 per bottle.” but she and her collaborator. “There is no difference in label approval time. We liked how the clear bottle shows the artwork on our cork. It’s necessary to factor in additional lead time—three months ideally—ensuring that the glass is purchased in time to allow the bottles to be printed before the bottling date. The 15. “If wineries wait until the last minute. the final decision is whether the impact of a silkscreen design outweighs the costs. If you don’t have enough.” said Lisa Ehrlich.” The package looks expensive for a moderately priced wine. Calif. vice president/marketing at Purple.” 34 W in es & V i ne s O C TOb e r 20 13 I Screen-printing tips from a pro f a label costs 20-30 cents per bottle.’s Cryptic 2010 red blend elicited a strong response from the restaurant trade. with no need for sometimes-tricky label Decorating costs can be 25%-50% more per application. The Divining Rod 2010 Cabernet Sauvignon. “Cryptic was designed with screen printing in mind.” Purple produces more than 400. “Screen printing requires more planning. there is limited flexibility. earning the Creativity Gold award for paper labels. starting with the essential label approvals. Working with Napa’s Bergin Glass Impressions. is more time-sensitive and less flexible than a paper label. If you have too much decorated glass. along with some of our key terms for our brand. “Our team drew on the experience of our designer along with the skill of the in-house designer at Bergin to make the concept come to life. of Graton. “We had a very strong response from the restaurant trade. all sold through Purple’s distributor network. is a classic design with a regal inspiration: The Cryptic wheel emblem printed in metallic gold was inspired by a “cipher machine” bearing the coat of arms of France’s King Henri II.” said Lisa Ehrlich. With all these factors to consider. photo courtesy of bergin glass J.” Cryptic message Another screen-printed bottle took the award for Graphic Design Embossed Label. Divining design BTI did not overlook more traditional labels in its decision process. With a paper label. combines quirky and traditional. The screen printers who work with the wine industry have excellent in-house designers who can translate a paper label concept to screenprinting. Ehrlich discussed how the screen-print process differs from paper labeling. whatever number of bottles get printed are the number you have. “We’re now into the 2011 vintage. Paul Morales of San Francisco. “Finally. vice president/ marketing at Purple Wine Co. With silkscreen. 3-liter bottle for display. the decorators may need more lead time. you’ll need to scramble to get more glass decorated in time. Calif. In periods of high demand. . For Cryptic. that same design converted into a screen print could cost 35-60 cents per bottle. “It doesn’t really take longer. We’ve had experience with this before.” Ehrlich explained. we knew from the start that screen printing was the way to go. you have to discard it if it’s vintage dated. “since the screen-printed bottles run faster and more efficiently on the bottling line. “We have train tracks that wrap around the cork.

Tr a n sp or tat ion . CA. All rights reserved.©2012 G3 Enterprises. Modesto.

which continues to evolve with the brand story.PACKAGING relations. so it’s rare that imported brands make it to our pages. (retailing at $15. the Indaba brand is proudly South African. For this new brand. and Canada for $11. A foreign affair Covering the North American wine industry is a full-time endeavor for Wines & Vines. so we contacted Courtney Luick. The colors chosen for the varieties are based on what you see in the Cape: slightly muted hues. Mondavi’s mobile site. shortly after South Africa transitioned to a democratic republic. directing purchasers to C. the Technikote had to order special from Argentina so that it would not have the pressure-sensitive material on the back of the paper. “At the core. “Cape Classics set out to design a package that echoes that sentiment. Indaba’s Chenin Blanc is a simple looking bottle with a screwcap. We also decided to use minimal coloring. For the first vintage of some 17. “Indaba” is the C.S. 36 W in e s & V i ne s O C TOb e r 20 13 . The whole line retails in the U. Mondavi.” BTI’s O’Kennard noted that the judging panel was impressed by the package’s sustainability.000 cases. we selected recycled and biodegradable—as well as pH-neutral (acidfree)—paper. communications manager at Cape Classics in New York. and the bottles are screwcap. “It needed to communicate the magic. planning ahead was vital. mystery and history of water witching.99 per bottle.99 for Chardonnay. The new brand design is reflective of the rich diversity of the Western Cape’s floral kingdom: The smallest. Again.” Luick said.” With her first design for C. ‘what’s the story?’ We wished to open a dialogue with consumers and begin telling that story. The package is representative of Indaba’s 2012 rebranding. South African winery Indaba adopted colors found in the landscape of its native country for the awardwinning label at left. As recycling is a social priority in South Africa.” Mellis recalled. BTI. the process started about six months prior to bottling.99 for Cabernet) a neck-hanger tag carried a quick response (QR) code on the label. the way the light falls on the mountains. It needed to grab consumers’ attention and inspire them to ask. however. This required a much longer timeline to receive the paper. Ben Franklin (now Tapp) handled the special order and printed the labels. Mellis said. $17. Future bottlings will include the QR on the back label. Luick commented: “The new brand image also draws on the region’s commitment to sustainability. The face stock is an aged-looking Liso Crudo.” The Indaba brand launched in the United States in 1996. for the backstory. gave its gold in Best Paper Label design to Indaba 2012 Chenin Blanc from South Africa. applied with cold glue. yet most diverse of the six plant kingdoms in the world. Mondavi wanted to communicate the process of water witching with its label for The Divining Rod (above). “Because the labels were to be sheet fed. Chanda Williams perfectly hit the requirements. that sun-faded effect caused by the strength of the African sun.

tastes like a million bucks but doesn’t cost a million bucks.” promises wines of a value “far beyond their affordable price tag. president/ owner Roy Cecchetti challenged CF Napa Brand Design with his concept: “Create a new wine brand named Austerity that looks like a million bucks. “In today’s highly competitive wine market. Although it’s more expensive than a generic case shipper. Consumers’ eyes are drawn to new concepts.” or a traditional gathering of tribal leaders for sharing ideas. “The printing application allows the fine detail of the logo to be well defined on a black background. Rather. packaging evolves with technology and the market. Most notably.99. A branded shipper with attractive artwork will compel the wholesaler/retailer to display the wines on the floor. retailing at $16.PACKAGING Zulu word for “a meeting of the minds. he said. “These wines had to look and feel as if they would deliver luxurious taste at a modest price. BTI is attracted to shiny things). The deadline for BTI’s 2013 packaging competition is Dec. but BTI bought the case for Cecchetti Wine Co. and from its inception the wines have conveyed the spirit of South Africa to American consumers.” The tag line. A packaging award may not increase your sales or your price-point. 1.” Dave Schuemann at CF Napa also created the complementary bottle. “Wines of the highest discipline. “The brand was created as a celebration of the democratization process in South Africa. According to its website.’s Austerity are works of art in themselves. but a refreshed look may indeed bring in new buyers. despite the name. it’s a sleek black package with gold stamping (obviously. According to BTI. this is not a stripped-down brown cardboard carton.’s Austerity 2011 Proprietary Red brand. you need to get on the floor for brand awareness and to increase sales.” Cecchetti said. just as wine changes with every vintage. Whether a century-old winery or totally new brand. Printed directly on a corrugated cardboard box with a “state-of-the-art press. cases of Cecchetti Wine Co. An essential component of the wineselling process.” Best-case scenario A far cry from traditional kraft paper or white boxes.” He wanted a package that was the antithesis of the name itself. 2013. he noted.400 cases of Austerity. wine shipper cartons rarely are recognized in packaging competitions. Contact BTI for details. Cecchetti bottled 5. Visit our new webpage! Win es & Vin es O C TO b er 20 13 37 .” Cecchetti already is using a similar process for his Exitus brand.

1 tool is right in front you: your wine label. and which acts as a business card displaying their website and phone number. There are several innovative ways to leverage the space on your wine label. I try to collaborate with clients early in the concept stage. 38 W in es & V i ne s OC TOb e r 20 13 . They have an extra panel that provides recipes from restaurants that serve their wines by the glass. One of the main reasons is to ensure our clients are optimizing their labels: Do our clients’ labels differentiate them from the competitive set? Do they speak to their brand identity? Do they engage with their consumers? Are they going to increase sales and build a solid consumer base? Your label is the reason that you will sell your first bottle to a consumer. As the director of marketing at ASL PrintFX. and the employment of sheep and goats to graze weeds in the vineyards. your wine is the reason they will buy a second. enrichment with crushed volcanic rock and oyster shells. •P  eel-away features and QR codes are excellent options that enable two-way conversations with consumers. more efficient way for a consumer to recall that special bottle of wine enjoyed at a restaurant. Cline also includes information about their farming practices—solar power. if you include a peel-away label. • It’s important to track the results of marketing activity sparked by your label. The peel-away label can be treated like a business card: a smaller. Some wineries will use the tear-away label to increase brand recall with consumers who have enjoyed the wine outside their home (such as the Durbanville Hills label shown below). Work with your designer and label printer early in the concept stage to achieve the The peel-back label on Durbanville Hills bottles acts as a business card consumers can keep to help them remember the wine. soil Cline Cellars’ peel-away label features an extra panel printed with recipes from restaurants that offer their wines by the glass. Calif. and their shopping methodology evolves to be more information-based. It may become a mini flyer that your consumers look for. One option to investigate is a peel-away or label-on-label feature. They have a small peel-back label that consumers can keep. Customers can easily place the peel-away portion into their pocket instead of having to write down the brand. make sure you include a call to action or reason for someone to peel it back. small wineries can find it challenging to make their products stand out. highlights • Wineries have several innovative ways to leverage the space on their wine labels so they can increase brand recall and build relationships with consumers. so you can start to increase your brand recall and build that relationship. how can your small winery engage with consumers and begin to build lasting brand relationships with minimal expenditure? The No. Your label should be treated as your billboard.PACKAGING Message on a Bottle How to optimize your label to build relationships with consumers By Toni Hamilton-Edwards BOTTLES &LABELS W ith a growing number of wine brands crowding the shelves. This hidden feature can be used to drive consumers to a mobile website. promote other varietals or even include a special promo code with access to pre-buying for new releases. including the number of people responding and the amount of time they are spending with your brand. such as “Look behind the label for information about…” or “Peel back for an exclusive chance to…” A great example of a peel-away label is one used by Cline Cellars in Sonoma. Also. As the age profile of wine consumers changes. vintage and varietal. It is a great way to increase brand retention and initiate engagement. it can show food-pairing ideas. You have about five seconds to grab a consumer’s attention and convince them to pick up your bottle. Ensure continuity with all your varietals and update the information on the peel-away label regularly.

49% of millenials (the emerging wine customer born in the early 1980s to 1990s) who see QR codes will scan them. test. 2 3 Make sure your code is large enough and in a convenient location on your wine label to scan. Things to do Scanning the QR code on Osprey’s Dominion labels and advertisements takes users to the winery’s website. So leverage your wine label and engage with your consumers. or placed on event flyers or ads reason. Placing the code on the inside of the bottle won’t help. make sure you have the resources (both staff and technology) to properly support this two-way communication. The more informaeither from their ad or the wine bottle. what happens after to “be ahead of the curve. Make sure to propurchase…” vide enough content about When your QR code is the event (text and visual) on done. Win es & Vin es O C TO b er 20 13 39 . Peter Carey from Osprey’s Make a list of what to track: who scans. on label and/or your QR code. where she collaborates with clients to provide the best marketing solutions for their brands. how your consumer started their engageOne winery has fully embraced ment with your brand. Toni Hamilton-Edwards has 10 years of marketing experience with some of the world’s leading alcoholic beverage companies such as Diageo and Constellation. N. test. thus tracking back to Jacob’s Creek label (above right). where. Your QR code can take on brand. tising. You your flyers and give people would assume once coman incentive to sign up. Each of your activities can have a interesting shapes such as the unique URL code. but these options give you more opportunities to have two-way conversations and provide insights into how your consumers think. different proto scan and take them viders. “for exclusive going to get people to want discounts on your next to register. the that particular advertiseharder it is for smartphones ment or varietal—whether it to read. ensure your QR QR codes can also be code has a call to action. worked (response rate) and the amount of time they with Pitney Bowes and their Smart are spending engaged with your brand. The minimum size of a QR code should be one square inch.. Success can be meaQR codes in a majority of their sured in two ways—the number of people activity. works consistently. Your label printer can help marketing activity so you can ensure your you create this code and work with you to budget is spent effectively in growing your ensure success. the last QR codes can be built into your initial important piece is to track your results. “for information register to attend. Codes. When a customer scans the codes Keep your URL short. as they will be able to provide the results of activity. Osprey’s Dominion Vinewho are responding to your activity yards in Peconic. There are some key tips to ensure success: 1 Ensure it has a purpose. Don’t send consumers to a desktop site. Dominion implemented QR codes how often. Ensure that the code mailing list. Ensure your site is up to date and mobilize your landing page. It’s important the code Now that you’ve incorporated your label is easily accessible always. She is the director of marketing at ASL Print FX. Be sure to work with have included QR codes on their your website provider when developing the wine labels and within their adverQR codes. when. where consumers can buy wine or find local retailers that carry their products. they tion your code is trying to relay and the are provided with more information about more dots on the code. applications.Y. Include a quick response (QR) code. is the latest award received Give your consumer a reaor upcoming events at the son to scan. How often will the content be updated? What reason does a consumer have for scanning the code? The QR code needs to be a quick connection to exclusive information that has an immediate payoff. using different ters. For to help direct consumers to example. You pleted your QR code should can also use QR codes to Australian winery Jacob’s be up and running. different angles and directly to be added to your different distances.” They the scan and so forth. Wrong. Romance copy and descriptions of your production are still essential. away label. test. direct people to easily sign Creek proves that QR codes Test your code with differup to receive your newsletdon’t have to adhere to a ent phones. Build a strategy and content plan when implementing the QR code. The code can be set up boring box shape. Another option to initiate consumer engagement is to make your wine label interactive. It’s design or can be applied later by making a important to track the results of all your smaller sticker. beside the code. As with the peelwinery.PACKAGING most efficient way of incorporating this feature with your current design. If you choose to include a QR code. Rememabout the best food pairber: A QR code alone isn’t ings…” or.

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us maverickcaps. Watermark Labels West Coast Bottles Wine Appreciation Guild Wine Packaging by Naylor World Wine Bottles & Packaging Wright Global Graphics Website labelworldusa.com topitoffbottling. Custom Labeling Service X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Win es & Vin e s O C TO b er 20 13 41 Company Name Label World Labeltronix Loggerhead Deco MA Silva USA MALA Closures Systems MacDay Label Systems Markem-Imaje Business Group Maverick Enterprises McDowell Label & Screen Printing McMillan Design Group Mode Communications Monvera Glass Décor Napa Fermentation Supplies O-I (Owens-Illinois) Onyx Design PakSource Paragon Label Peltier Glassworks Phoenix Packaging International Corp.com/wine xiberta.com watermarklabels.com paksource.com westcoastbottles. Presque Isle Wine Cellars Primera Technology Pitney Bowes QuickLabel Systems Rich Xiberta USA Robert Jeffreys Ryan Mobile Bottling Saverglass Saxco International Signature Mobile Bottlers Spirited Shipper Stanpac Sterling Creativeworks Synergy Glass & Packaging Tapp Label Technologies Technicote Top It Off Bottling TricorBraun TricorBraun WinePak TriStudios UPM Raflatac Verallia Vintage 99 Label Vitro Packaging WS Packaging Group Waterloo Container Co.com naylorpackaging.com wrightlabels.com.com wspackaging.com signaturebottlers.com mcdowelllabel.com spiritedshipper.com saverglass.com napafermentation.com technicote.com vitropackaging.com pb.com upmraflatac.com masilva.com tri-studios.com loggerheaddeco.com peltierglassworks.com wineappreciation.com piwine.com macday.com waterloocontainer.verallia.com ryanmobilebottling.com labeltronix.com saxco.com us.com vintage99.com mcmillandesigngroup.com monvera.com phoenixpackaging.com synergygp.com stanpacnet.com sterlingcreativeworks.com onyxdesignsf.com o-i.com tapplabel.com/smb/qr-codes quicklabel.com primeralabel.PACKAGING For more information about packaging suppliers.com tricorbraunwinepak.com tricorbraun.com robert-jeffreys. see Wines & Vines 2013 Buyer’s Guide in print or online at winesandvinesbuyersguide.ca markem-imaje.com mala-usa.com Bottles Design Services X Label Printing X X X Packaging Printing X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X .com worldwinebottles.com paragonlabel.com modecommunications.

shop differently from baby boomers. “is a fine line to walk. citing IRI’s Top 10 New Brands of 2012: Skinny Girl. •New materials and printing techniques offer limitless opportunities for standout label design. Mysterium’s sophisticated packaging was designed to appeal to patrons of night clubs. ridges. where its name glows under black light. included the industry’s continued strong growth. will buy their first bottle because of the label. Add personality. Acronym. Bella Bolle. Reeling them in Toni Hamilton-Edwards. she stated. mountains and chateaux. growth of the market means that packaging wines for instant shelf-appeal is vital. she pointed out.” Hamilton-Edwards suggested. They won’t pick up chateaux. “They prefer more modern design: large. wine labels must be striking. though. moderated by Labels & Labeling North America editor Danielle Jerschefske. “Forget about the juice inside: What makes the label pop on the shelf?” JIM GORDON: “There has never been as exciting a creative explosion of unusual names and labels.150 extra brands in all.558 wineries (including brick and mortar and virtual wineries) in the United States. 42 W in es & V i ne s O C TOb e r 20 13 “It’s a lot of competition. There has never been as exciting a creative explosion of unusual names and labels. Take the time to collaborate with all concerned to maximize impact and minimize costs. which took off after the millennium. The agenda. is now the No./Canadian wine industries during the past decade. More impressive than the market growth is the growth of U. buying patterns of baby boomer vs. Wine Sisterhood. Appealing to buyers across generations. Maron. Consumers shop with their eyes first.” While boomers with fading eyesight are drawn to large type. •Don’t rush into rebranding or relabeling your product. bold type. bold bright colors. Light colors printed on dark bottles can be difficult to read. but they shop differently than baby boomers. “There is no one best type of printing.” The package must reflect the wine and its selling points. Newer brands.” Label printers and designers must partner with wineries to optimize sales. interest and abundant dollars of younger buyers. “Wineries typically used to be named for trees. materials and the current market By Jane Firstenfeld BOTTLES &LABELS highlights • The proliferation of wine brands means competition is fierce—both for shelf space and buyers. the intricacies of planning and producing effective labels and improving technology and materials. unique pictures. even faster than sales.” Gordon said. “This sets the stage for great packaging and labels.” Many of these wineries have more than one wine brand.S. unique shapes. “Go to the store as a consumer. Make it memorable and fun. A clear idea of your market is essential. and fueled by the proliferation of wineries and brands across the continent.” Hamilton-Edwards stressed. succeed with quirky. On a store shelf. Fancy Pants. humorous names designed to capture the eyes. you have just three seconds to grab a buyer’s attention. HamiltonEdwards said. and 529 total wineries in Canada. director of marketing for ASL PrintFX. Wines & Vines editor Jim Gordon set the stage during the live June 18 web seminar by presenting data demonstrating the recession-defying steady growth of the U. Be.” Gordon said. “Boomers need legible typography with larger fonts. Our data shows more than 7.” Gordon said. speed and convenience of digital printing make that process great for low-volume labels. she said. . •Millennials buy lots of wine. “The U.PACKAGING Experts Dissect Effective Labels Digital conference explores design.” The emergence. “Millennials put more value on fun: quirky humor.S. amounting to an additional 3. Consumers. L abels & Labeling Maga­ zine assembled a diverse professional panel recently to con- duct a digital conference focused on the North American wine industry. “The label is your billboard. and it is a target for imports.” Millennials. 1 market in the world. interesting names. Thorny Rose.S. it must reflect the personality of your winery and be something you’re proud of. millennial consumers. planning. Driven by increased sales and consumption. wineries. said that with all the competition. Flirt and Ooh La La. “What’s inside will sell the second bottle.

” Dudulka recommended. reflection of the company’s portfolio. the design process continues in four key stages: Concept presentation: Make sure the concept answers the brief. waste footprint and use of trees in their production. involving the printer. “You don’t need to use all of them. and wineries of any size.PACKAGING each has its benefits.” For Constellation. or transparent windows where the wine peeks through. Varnish can provide protection or draw attention with spot varnish. “A clearly defined process is integral to success. “We now can do all the technology in one pass” rather than multiple printing passes. “easy to set up and maintain on the bottling line. philosophy. uniquely grained. QR codes can be used as an integral part of the package design. It provides an immediate payoff. are “material sandwiches assembled of the face stock. adhesives for removable labels and special PS materials providing the security of tamper evidence.” Design requirements: Check them all. and can be top-coated for compatibility with flexo. “Test it.” Their advantages: shelf appeal and impact.” 3 4 .” Win es & Vin es O C TO b er 20 13 43 Word from a winery PS: Stuck on your bottle Label stocks aren’t just paper anymore. among other things. Forty-nine percent of millennials will scan a QR code if they see one. serving as a canvas for visual effects.” Hamilton-Edwards described current options for standout labels such as embossing or debossing to create 3D effects with a premium look.” Label-on-label or peel-away label addons can suggest action. director of creative services for Constellation Brands Canada. Review the file. requiring clarity and buy in from all parties. tactile and sensory effects. a self-contained glue adhesive and a liner to protect the individual labels on their rolls. “Remember to leave enough space between the letters for embossed printing. make sure the design aligns with the printer’s capabilities. test the labels before running the labels. Press approval of the final label: Your last chance to make slight adjustments.” Some PS labels are now mounted on PET liner rolls. textured papers to provide distinct visual. Rampala said.” she said. described recent advances in pressure-sensitive (PS) labels offering ease of application and countless design opportunities for wineries. stated. On the other hand. definition of the audience. however.or digital printing processes. PS labels are. Collaborate with your printers to get the right process. or combination of processes.” upgrade wet-strength face stocks suited for white wines and sparkling bottles. design team and owners. Rampala said. Foils provide metallic highlights.…Make sure to mobilize your landing page. or it will cost more. water use. more user friendly to bottling line operators. subsurface printing for striking “no label” designs and varied label shapes. Watch these wine industry and design professionals share the best and worst of wine packaging. she said. Preproduction meeting: A must. brand and shape are significant elements to make the connection harmonious and deliver the right information. Test the drawdowns. “Labels play a critical role in the success of a wine product. texture. “The role of design in business is to address the needs of consumers and visually express the values and beliefs of the business. though. matte or gloss. “Design is not a mysterious ritual. This collaborative effort between the brand owner and the design team will build a solid foundation. The labels can be stained or charred. make sure you have the resources to support it.” Didulka said. holographic patterns are alluring to the eye and still rare.” Most commonly seen on back labels. Die cutting produces unusual shapes for labels. “Color. a category review of comparably priced brands. one of the freshest ideas from Avery Dennison is a label faced with genuine wood veneers instead of paper. North America. add a novel look and texture. This should include. make sure you have the resources to support it. “If you decide to use QR coding on your labels. Thin layers of birch and cherry wood can be stained and used as facestock for wine labels. collaboration and planning are essential. “Foil and varnishes will not be replicated” in this step. View video in the Wines & Vines Digital Edition. symbols and images. Matt Rampala. “It means the structure and organization of visual information to aid in communication and orientation using words. he explained. Hamilton-Edwards cautioned. food pairing or offer promotion codes. Hamilton-Edwards said. wine and spirits business development manager for Avery Dennison Label & Packaging Materials. How does your label break through? Knowing the process can help to give your label confidence. Didulka recommended starting the process with a brief defining the project’s parameters and scope and the story behind the label. values and business objectives. Label manufacturers continue to Catherine Didulka. toni hamiltonedwards: “If you decide to use QR coding on your labels. Thin layers of birch and cherry wood.” 1 2 catherine Didulka: “The role of design in business is to address the needs of consumers and visually express the values and beliefs of the business. Avery Dennison’s Aquastick range is especially adapted for application on chilled bottles of sparkling wines. Make sure it delivers. arguably more sustainable than traditional paper rolls because of reduced greenhouse gas emissions. This can be costly. “Invest in time. PS labels. After the brief is finalized and approved. make it valuable. (See the related article by Hamilton-Edwards on page 38).

cheaper version). which is years ahead in terms of protecting brands. that doesn’t mean companies should ever stop working to protect their brands. 44 W in e s & V i ne s O C TOb e r 20 13 . he says. Gooder was one of several speakers featured at the first Wine Anti-Counterfeiting Seminar (WACS) that Wines & Vines and the Napa Valley Vintners hosted at the Silverado Resort & Spa in Napa. Turn your attention to one corner. J.. but as the bottle found in a Beijing international marketplace supermarket proclaims has opened up.PACKAGING Protecting Your Reputation By Kate Lavin BOTTLES &LABELS Wines & Vines and Napa Valley Vintners co-host Wine Anti-Counterfeiting Seminar W hen it comes to tracking down fake bottles of alcoholic beverages.” Gooder says. •T  he first person to register a brand in China is entitled to protection. “The Rothschild example is a good one: (It’s said that)more Lafite sells in China than is produced in France. to refilling (a genuine bottle is refilled with another product and then resealed) to all-out fakes. Many kinds of fraud take place in the beverage industry. the largest stateattended the inaugural Napa-based law firm owned food company in Wine Anti-Counterfeiting Dickenson Peatman & China. David Gooder says the challenge is like pulling weeds in a garden. from on-premise substitution (a customer orders—and pays for—a glass of one brand and is presented with another. According to Gooder. Meandeaux with an almost sinwhile. Wines & Vines editor Jim Gordon (from right) introduces speakers during the inaugural Wine Anti-Counterfeiting Seminar including Marietta Bartoletti. “We’ve seen entire brands literally tank in a country.” while the business of wine fraud. Fogarty.” adds Gooder. every counterfeit bottle represents potential erosion of confidence in that label. “Refilling is far and away the biggest issue. who also serves as managing director and chief trademark counsel for Jack Daniels Properties/BrownForman Corp. •1  08 participants Property Department at COFCO. But for a winery with a brand to protect. back label explains the Scott Gerien.” The French paradox Wines made in China but emblazoned “Valley Napa” prompted the Napa Valley Vintners to take legal action that would help protect the reputation of California’s Napa Valley. Scott Gerien and David Gooder. Calif. registered the desigSeminar in Napa. the chairman of the International Federation of Spirits Producers (IFSP) contends. in August. who theorizes that copycats opt into counterfeiting alcoholic drinks because it’s profitable and not complicated. and more interlopers will spring up behind you.. Calif. so has the “Valley Napa. the front label on a gular focus. claims the refilling of bottles is the biggest threat. points to the nation “Nava Valley” for highlights •O  ne expert from the spirits industry. whether it is their brand or not. the spirits industry has been fighting counterfeiting for about 15 years. example of wines selling in China emblaUntil recently wine counterfeiters in China zoned “Panfaids” with the same red script and elsewhere targeted first-growth Borused by Australian winery Penfolds. And while he told the audience of 108 attendees that the job of tracing fakes is never-ending. who wine inside is produced in heads the Intellectual northwest China.

According to Philippe Mathevon of Advanced Track & Trace. “We can’t trademark a silhouette. plus additional expense for the software and data storage. For brands with costly wines like Opus One. “You really need to encourage the consumer to scan the code.” Pearson says. This process is employed by Chinese wine distributors to hold U. Gerien’s legal team challenged the registration but was unsuccessful. “We can track a bottle from winery to destination as long as it’s being scanned. “I do believe the Chinese government wants to get away from being known as the counterfeit capital. are that the cost makes it worthwhile only for wineries looking for brand protection in three or more member According to Marietta Bartoletti.” Having spent a career uncovering counterfeit bottles from high-end wine collections and verifying the provenance of legitimate wines. though historically the place’s name (Penglai) bears no resemblance to the phrase.” Bertoletti says. ‘Defensively register your mark’ countries. négoçiants. Of course sending such a letter requires tracking down the party responsible for producing the wine.” Most of the exhibitors in attendance agreed that solutions can range from 2 cents to 30 cents per bottle. If the final owner scans the bottle with an Internet-enabled device. is that inaccuracies on copycat labels make a trademark infringement claim difficult to litigate. Opus One winemaker Michael Silacci appears on video discussing the vintage of the newly purchased wine. to a person who wants to talk to us.” A restaurant and wine bar in Thailand called Shala One offers a house wine with a label undeniably similar to the one used by Opus One. Gerien says. “If you know that a certain wine is not available there. We know it passed through distributors. and we can’t trademark a signature. that person can sue you for selling your own wine. if someone registers your brand before you do.” For David Pearson. Playing it close to the chest Napa Valley’s Opus One has identified international counterfeiting and replication attempts such as this comical likeness Shala One from Thailand.” he says.” Pearson says.S. import inspection and food safety. 75% of counterfeits come from China.PACKAGING wine. Every time a bottle is scanned. and the Chinese Special Administrative Regions of Hong Kong and Macau are not included. you could report it right away. “You have to think about the cost (of anti-counterfeiting technology) and the reduction of actual risk that you have. founder of private wine collection management firm Chai Consulting. the location is relayed to a server at Opus One. wineries captive. Downey says. the profile that adorns Shala One’s label appears more like Alfred E.” Many French wine exporters have been campaigning for restaurants to break the bottles after use so they cannot be refilled. he says. we can’t trademark a squiggly line. “Anything you can do to make sure that capsules don’t get re-used is great. but Maureen Downey. CEO of Opus One Winery and one of the speakers at WACS. And simply packaging with anti-counterfeit technology isn’t enough.“If you’re selling wine in the Chinese market. Opus One embeds technology in its back label and uses custom light-sensitive ink on its capsules. and you see it. “When you disseminate information about what you are doing. Department of State. ensuring that bottles end up in consumers’ hands unadulterated is worth an investment. “You can defensively register your mark. Opus One employs other anti-counterfeiting protection technologies. “Who ever gets to the trademark office first will get to protect the rights. emphasizes the value in keeping such details secret. before trademark poachers register their brands first. the fight against counterfeiters has been not so much against exact duplicates but “near misses. According to Erik Harvey. and you don’t have a trademark registered there.” she says. the Chinese agency charged with accreditation. Neuman from Mad magazine than it does Robert Mondavi or Baron Philippe de Rothschild. Often. Wineries that already hold a registered trademark in the United States are eligible to apply for international trademark registration through the Madrid Protocol (China is among the member countries).” In fact. distributors are able to ensure that all of the brand’s distribution in China happens through them or not at all. The problem with such cases. The need for protection prompted the Napa Valley Vintners to have Gerien register the Napa Valley appellation as a geographical indicator with the AQSIQ. although comically. by owning the trademark for a wine brand.” Win es & Vin es O C TO b er 20 13 45 .S. the money that would be spent bringing the case to court. “you’re just giving (counterfeiters) a road map. a strongly worded letter encouraging a label makeover proves sufficient. Gerien says companies don’t have to be exporting wine to China in order to register for a trademark there. Downey says. you’re not protected.” Gerien says. Outsmarting the counterfeiters For individual wineries looking to protect their names. project manager at Napa-based iProof. Ask customers and members of the distribution channel to be part of the solution. and according to Pearson copycats make the ownership structure intentionally difficult to navigate. Using technology In addition to QR codes. Downey also advocated the use of layered technologies that combine low-tech solutions such as unique glass and keeping track of wine lots with high-tech tools. senior economic/commercial officer for the U. which has been using the label design since the 1980s.” says Pearson. “We get to connect instantly with the consumer. who adds that when such imitations arise he consults a trademark attorney and weighs the possibility of winning vs. Both feature blue profiles printed on white paper and feature signatures underneath. Pearson says. The winery uses anti-counterfeiting technology as both a visible way to communicate the bottle’s authenticity to consumers (the back label contains a chip as well as a QR code that can be scanned with a smartphone) as well as a vehicle to track bottles after they leave the winery. Gerien encourages clients looking to enter the Chinese market in the next three years to apply for protection now. The caveats.

Michael Miroballi (assistant winemaker). along with several small side projects. Hugh Margerum (web/wine club). include (back row.. It’s a practice Margerum learned from one of Highlights •M  argerum Wine Co. but a place that offers hot meals for visiting trade members and journalists? Now that’s my kind of winery. but you can’t take the kitchen out of the restaurateur. Warehouse wineries may lack the architectural pizzazz and high-tech bells and whistles of fancier places. multi-label operation inside a no-frills warehouse space. The winery shell is a generic warehouse space in a generic warehouse park. but it’s still possible to give a barebones operation its own personality. the part he worried most about was making sure it had a kitchen. on a street with the picturesque name “Industrial Way.. (front row) Evan Margerum (Doug ’s son) and Brooks Van Wingerden (general manager). runs a complicated. Calif.’s high-end. Jason Barrette (winemaker). a small but serviceable kitchen got priority treatment. ou can take the restaurateur out of the kitchen. •T  he keys to making this work are strong temperature control and plenty of small. offering a long roster of well-regarded small-batch wines. the approach to winemaking is anything but industrial. •T  he facility turns out more than 10. and one that traces back to the vignerons of Burgundy. Despite the address. Sam Smith (cellar hand).” But when it was retrofitted a little over a year ago as the new production facility for the Margerum Wine Co.WINEMAKING TECHNICAL REVIEW A Winery With Personality Former restaurateur Doug Margerum outfits a Santa Barbara warehouse By Tim Patterson all photos courtesy margerum wine co.000 cases in 2012. former owner and impresario of Santa Barbara. his network of relationships meant he had ready access to some of the best vineyards . as boxy as the day is long.000 cases of wine per year for three labels. 46 W in es & V i ne s OC TOb e r 20 13 his winemaking mentors. When Doug Margerum. finally got the chance to design his own winery. Jim Clendenen of Au Bon Climat. in the Santa Ynez Valley. So as he transitioned from home winemaking to trial production to 20. turning out daily staff lunches that bond the operation together. Tanks are tanks and barrels are barrels. Moving into the business and the winery What got Margerum out of the restaurant industry and into the wine business was seeing up close that the Santa Barbara winemakers whose wines were prominently featured at the Wine Cask were having more fun than he was. Y The people behind Margerum Wine Co. Christina Panameno (office manager). Calif. vinocentric Wine Cask restaurant. in Buellton. Doug Margerum (owner). variable-capacity tanks. from left) Travis Enholm (harvest intern). with no vineyards in sight.

And Doug Margerum moved himself to Montecito.’ and he’d say. there are two reds and a white. which yields some fruit for the winery. Riesling. Australian winemaker Jason Barrette joined Margerum in 2010. one reason Margerum brought in Aussie winemaker Jason Barrette (with credentials from Penfolds) with the 2010 harvest. “I could go to someone like Steve Beckmen.” The new facility comes after six years of making wine in some spare space at the Curtis Winery in Los Olivos. Calif. Chenin almost every grape and a total of 300 tons. Wines produced for the Happy Canyon Vineyard include several Bordeaux reds and blends and a Sauvignon Blanc. Flooring also had to be re-engineered to hold the weight of Margerum’s two largest (17. the other at 55º for maturation.. ‘I want that row and that row and that row. and dry ice can burn grapes. I’m not a farmer. ‘Sure. The Margerum website. The lowered temperatures slow down wine kinetics and help maintain some level of CO2 in many of the wines. currently lists 30 offerings—23 of them under the Margerum label—and that doesn’t count things that are sold out or not yet released. in the hills above Santa Barbara. who owns Purisima Vineyard (a source of premium Rhone variety wine grapes) and say. For Cent’anni. “It’s more natural. “We do burn a fair amount of electricity in the summer.200 for Happy Canyon and 2. “is not the plan. The core Margerum label focuses on Rhone reds and blends as well as Sauvignon Blanc. Some new production equipment was picked up at the same time. but it also turns out small lots of Pinot Gris. tanks can get cold spots. The humble Buellton facility houses what has become a quite complex operation.000 for Cent’anni.” Grapes arrive at the facility and currently get hand-sorted on a Westec Hosting daily staff lunches is important to winery owner Doug Margerum.’ I still have those contracts.000-liter) tanks.000—but that. No one is talking about making fewer wines. but he describes that project as mainly “a labor of love. just on the cusp of harvest time in 2012.” Margerum does own and farm a small vineyard near Klickitat. a new forklift and several new tanks. from harvest to case goods storage.wW in IN eE mM aAk KiI n Ng G in the area. a highend Italian project in which Margerum is a partner.” —Doug Margerum Blanc and two rosés. Another space in the same complex became available for case goods. turning the former guest room into the kitchen. moved to the winery. In 2012. Both of the 5. Margerum says. is temperature control: “I like ambient temperature winemaking. an entirely amicable move was in order. 3. Margerum’s office park exterior belies the vibrant cellar activity taking place inside.” He admits.500-square-foot spaces already had some cooling capacity in place. the offices. Moving grapes through their paces The one constant thread that runs through the entire workflow at Margerum Wine Co. which had been on the property where Margerum lived in Happy Canyon. warehouse park and made it into the new winery. Calif. Win es & Vin es O C TO b er 20 13 47 .. however.. including a Della Toffola press.000 cases for Margerum. the total case output was above 20. (though) we do burn a fair amount of electricity in the summer. which boasts all the wines for sale. an Italianstyle fortified herbal digestif and a lot of one-off custom projects. Calif. And then there’s an Amaro. but upgrades were part of moving into the new configuration. leaving this still a very intricate undertaking. One part of the production area is kept at 45º for ambient temperature winemaking. as did the production Margerum oversees for Happy Canyon Vineyards. As Curtis grew and Margerum grew and got more complicated. naturally.” he says. something Margerum wants. “I like ambient temperature winemaking. just smaller lots. Margerum took what had been the company’s case good storage space in a Buellton.” The normal targets are more like 6. Wash. with bountiful harvests of keeping things quite cool. This elaborate shuffle came.

us Laboratory services Terravant Wine Co.com Barrel racks Barrel washing Tank cleaning Western Square Industries. (dba Westec Tank & Equipment).com. Santa Barbara County Average $8 California Average $9 U.000 California Average 44.000 U. vinperfect.com Ramondin USA. westectank.com Packaging Bottling service Bottles Cork Screwcaps Capsules Label design and printing Castoro Bottling Co. (primarily flooring) robbinsreed. several smaller distributors in single states and Japan Vintegrated Solutions. Enartis Vinquiry.com Della Toffola USA. Cunningham Parris Construction..000 Margerum Wine Co. Demptos Glass Co. ramondin.. scanjetsystems. he needed to consolidate two production facilities.com Wine club fulfillment Website design eCommerce/ Compliance software Tasting room Banking services Filtration Della Toffola USA. The restaurateur-turned winemaker also made sure to convert a room into a small kitchen to provide team-building lunches for the winery staff. nexternal.com Tapp Label Technologies. vintegratedsolutions. San Luis Obispo County.com Tank refrigeration Pinoli’s Refrigeration Co. caroline@ ermitageusa.com TricorBraun. 93427 (805) 686-8500 • margerumwinecompany.com Grape and Wine Processing Sorting Destemmer-crusher The Belli Corp. cunninghamparris.com 813 Anacapa St. bottigamba.000 Santa Barbara County Average 80. Ermitage. Happy Canyon of Santa Barbara.com Hugh Margerum and Bodhi Oser (in-house) Nexternal Solutions. American 2001 Winery Average Bottle Price 10% 30% $29 Winery Case Production 6. 59 Industrial Way. administrative offices and case goods storage. Calif.com Scanjet. thevintnervault. Retrofitting the Winery Facility Facility owner Buellton Industrial Partners (20-year lease). pinolis. Calif. tapplabel. Robbins|Reed. Santa Barbara (since 2001) American Riviera Bank.000 80. americanrivierabank..com.com. Santa Ynez. demptos. Tonnellerie Ermitage.us Forklifts Toyota. tricorbraun.. Average $0 $10 $20 $30 Source: Wines Vines Analytics $28 the challenge When Doug Margerum moved his expanding wine business into a generic warehouse in a business park in Buelton. terravant. Cunningham Parris Construction. aquatools. chamberswines. Calif.com Owners Doug Margerum Winemaker Jason Barrette WINERY AVA Santa Barbara County. ShipCompliant.com Electrical Chuck Cunningham. Average 0 40. Gamba USA/Botti Generazioni. knoxbarrels. Contractor Chuck Cunningham.com Engineering Craig Shallanberger.com.. enartisvinquiry.S. Buellton.com.com Aqua Tools. masilva. cunninghamparris. toyotaforklift.. Gamba.com MA Silva. three wine brands. Lompoc. castorobottling.com Barrels François Frères and Taransaud. dellatoffola.000 Margerum Wine Co.S.us Press Della Toffola USA. dellatoffola.WINEMAKING TECHNICAL REVIEW year bonded DtC SALES on-premise sales Margerum Wine Co.com Distribution and Sales Distributors In California: Chambers & Chambers.com Tanks The Vintner Vault. 9. (plate and frame) dellatoffola.com 48 W in e s & V i ne s OC TOb e r 20 13 . westernsquare. Mel Knox Barrel Broker.com VinPerfect. shipcompliant.com.

Our portfolio of services and supplies VA Reduction* 4EP/4EG Reduction* LO-Crossflow Filtration Cold Stabilization Wine pH Reduction without acid addition Oenological Products Yeasts. The Della Toffola destemmer-crusher is mainly used just for destemming. Margerum tries not to use too much sulfur. General practice is to prevent malolactic in all the whites. get picked at 18º or 19º Brix. unless it’s necessary to reduce overly high acidity. Reds go into a room full of open-top fermentors—from 3/4 ton to 2 tons—and get multiple daily punch downs.com www. bryan@vafiltration. gets done indoors. around 80ºF. and most reds are pressed still turbid. Margerum aims for restraint on the alcohol front. slightly sweet and finished off in barrel along with malolactic fermentation. a goal made easier by generally having high-acid.WINEMAKING table. the biggest production wine. etc Trials available Juice/Must Concentration FOSMOS Forward Osmosis pouches Large scale service available Ultrafiltration Heavy press color removal Bitter tannin reduction Lees Filtration Sweetspotter Rental and sales Smoke Taint Reduction* TCA/TBA Removal Alcohol Reduction Ion exchange RO and NF Equipment manufacture & sales *US Patent 7651616 & 7828977 Tel : 800 577 1220 Margerum uses barrels for some white varieties and malolactic fermentation for all white wines. low-pH wines and by stringent sanitation practices. make it possible to handle a dizzying number of small batches and start thinking how to combine them within a few weeks of harvest. though Margerum hopes to sell it and move up to a shaker-style table.000-liter—variable-capacity stainless tanks. for both reds and whites.com Win es & Vin es O C TO b er 20 13 49 .5º. 1. and none of them higher than 23. from four hours to an entire day. nutrients. the successive waves of Sauvignon Blanc get increasing amounts of skin contact time. plus some barrels for certain white fermentations. Tannins.vafiltration. The various lots of Pinot Gris get whole-cluster pressed. most of the pressing. Target red fermentation temperatures are slightly on the low side. some lots of Sauvignon Blanc. Margerum’s ample supply of small—300-liter.

Margerum suggested I not tell anyone about this press. One corner of the facility is a very basic lab. AWRI 796. Yeast choices are the subject of ongoing discussions at Margerum.O. More advanced testing. though nothing too exotic comes into play. period. Fat Man and Tall Man. Margerum does not do routine YAN testing but does standard nutrient additions. iv. Ermitage (for the Rhone program). who then loaned it to Margerum. TA.” though wine-tracking software is somewhere on the horizon. for fear others would adopt it. Napa. Among the oldest are two blending tanks. selected by the Australian Wine Research Institute.Paso Robles WINEMAKING TECHNICAL REVIEW San Luis Obispo County CALIFORNI San Luis A Obispo Pismo Beach Santa Maria Santa Barbara County Margerum Wine Co. Taransaud (for the Happy Canyon Bordeaux varieties) and Gamba (for the Italianate wines). Coopers represented on the barrel racks include François Frères.000 liters. CA. including for malolactic completion. & W I N E I N D U S T RY N E E D S T H R OUG H T H E CALI S S U P P O RT R E S E A R C H AMERICAN VINEYARD FOUNDATION Finding Solutions Through Research For a wealth of useful viticulture and enology research and information. and one named Rick Longoria—a tank borrowed several years back from that Santa Barbara winemaker by someone else. Box 5779. Given the prominence of small lots. Margerum goes a little wider than that. on all its reds. visit AVF. Doug Margerum is a partisan of French oak. enologyaccess.org. it’s Margerum’s tanks that show more personality. which would increase the number of parameters that could be tested as well as the throughput.ucdavis.org for information on funding and current research projects 50 W in es & V i ne s OC TOb e r 20 13 . Jason Barrette noted that the giant Penfolds winery uses a single yeast strain. AMERICAN VINEYARD FOUNDATION P. or ngwi.avf.org. Visit our Web site at www. perfectly serviceable for running Brix. Margerum is particularly fond of one feature of his Della Toffola press: Its pressure bag is in the center of the press tank. Santa Barbara Pacific Ocean Ojai Vent Cou Margerum’s interest in small-batch fermentations is made possible by an ample supply of small. too.. but the choices are industry favorites. chosen for their performance characteristics. Keeping track of all these batches and all these numbers is currently handled. from supermarket staples to the Grange. and here it still sits. says Barrette. In fact. pH and sulfur dioxide tests over and over.org. variable-capacity stainless tanks ranging in size from 300 to 1. with “a pencil and a piece of paper. The winery wish list includes something like an Enofoss analyzer. gets farmed out to one of two local service labs.edu. 94581 • T: (707) 252-6911 • Email info@avf. not on one side. which means equal pressure on all the contents and a thinner layer of must getting pressed.org.

A. reds get filtered only when they don’t get clear enough on their own. the idea was fresh eggs in the kitchen for the staff lunches.ca Doug Margerum’s longtime connections in the wholesale and retail wine trade are undoubtedly one reason his wines receive California exposure through Chambers & Chambers. a high-end distributor. finished with screwcaps for most of the whites and M. The label has arrangements with smaller distributors in several states. Silva corks for the reds. A top-of-the-line kitchen was among the top priorities when designing the new winery facility near Santa Barbara. which just takes up space most of the year. There’s no trace of grapevines outside the Margerum warehouse winery. but there is a new chicken coop and some chickens just off the parking lot.com Canada: Frank Neufeld +1 905 938 2368 f. He brings in a mobile line from Castoro a couple of times per year and packages the wines in TricorBraun or Demptos glass. PIONEER INNOVATOR PARTNER Natural Corks Champagne Corks Twinline Corks Sales Representatives: USA West Coast: Luciano Muselli +1 415 668 6134 luciano@gueltig.000 liters. and on-premise sales another 30%. One tiny design wrinkle the Margerum crew is proud of is a wall where hoses and tools of all kinds are hung. They’ll certainly have plenty of wine to choose from for pairing with those omelets. Cleaning is largely accomplished with percarbonate. Margerum thinks it makes no sense for a small operation to own a bottling line. rather than sit on the floor. as well as Japan. Website sales and a 500-member wine club account for about 10% of sales. Ramondin capsules and Tapp labels round out the list of packaging suppliers. Margerum says this is a definite incentive to keep the use of chemicals to a minimum. neither has builtin wastewater-handling capacity.neufeld@sympatico. but Margerum said no. and direct relationships with res- Win es & Vin e s O C TO b er 20 13 51 . coiled and full of whatever. Calif. Moving product taurants in some key cities. Whites generally get filtered with a plate-and-frame filter.com Bartops VISION Synthetic Corks G-Cap® Screw Caps USA East Coast: Christopher Stamp +1 607 535 9252 stamp@gueltig. Water is pumped out of the winery and into an outdoors holding tank. Although both of the Buellton spaces had previously been used one way or another for winemaking. which gets picked up and emptied periodically. gravity means less cleaning is needed.WINEMAKING The largest tanks in Margerum’s cellar have capacities of 17. I asked if the idea was to produce estate-grown fining agents. letting them all drain clean.

” he said. Wood keeps getting pricier. Since the home building collapse in 2008. “It’s becoming a real problem. This will be our biggest year since 2007. causing forest owners to simply hold on to their trees. have concerns about American oak supply By Andrew Adams R obust barrel orders for the 2013 vintage provide another sign the wine industry has made it through the economic doldrums of recent years. Sales of Bourbon and craft whiskeys have also surged in the United States. because if wineries aren’t buying barrels they’re not making money. which produces only barrels made from American oak. and with a good vintage in 2012—and one expected for 2013— wineries in the United States are looking to take advantage of growing domestic and global demand for fine wine. including oak.” said Phil Burton.. ’09. cheaper and don’t have to worry about quality as much. Remy said the entire U. Barrel Orders Herald Winery Optimism Coopers report strong activity. noting the cooperage raised its prices 3%-5% this year.” he said. The mills. ’10. fewer loggers cutting wood and the mills being picky about what staves they want to produce. said the company had posted a double-digit sales increase of “good. fueling greater demand for whiskey barrels.BARRELS Coopers reported a price increase of 1%-5% this year. with the promise of another good vintage prompting wineries to order more barrels. Remy said winemakers in Australia like 300-liter hogshead American oak barrels. said orders are up 5% from 2012. “We are missing wood. solid. partly because of the ever-increasing cost of raw materials like this stave wood piled at a seasoning yard in France. wood market has stalled. mills prefer to run wood for whiskey barrel staves because they can cut them quicker. Calif. organic growth from our core customer base. who owns Barrel Builders in Napa Valley.” Jason Stout. and Remy said Canton saw an opportunity to order long staves to meet this growing demand. “Certainly the American wine industry has really bounced back from the recessions of ’08.S. We’re up 15% over last year. Napa-based international sales director for Cooperages 1912.” Stout said wineries have cleared out back inventory. Strong demand for American oak Bruno Remy. and it has not been easy to secure oak. aren’t eager to take a contract for the longer staves because they have to readjust their machines. that is not interesting. For example. vice president of sales for Canton Cooperage in Windsor. Remy said there’s a bottleneck in the supply chain from forest owners being less willing to sell. It is crazy because the wood is there. “This is a big year. however.” Remy said he’s noticed more of his clients are opting to lease their barrels through a third party such as H&A 52 W in e s & V i ne s O C TOb e r 20 13 . has had issues with supply. and the staves require stringent quality control. But Remy said the French-owned cooperage. “It speaks well for the industry in general. And on the tail end of the supply chain. “For them.” he said.

Demand and prices strong for French. European dollar has weakened through the summer. He said the cost of French wood went up slightly. and Stout said the rainy summer endured by the Midwest interfered with logging. Mel Knox. with much of that growth fueled by exports. it’s to show the fruit. Calif. Stout said the “low-impact” barrels are a direct response to the growing popularity of that winemaking style.” he said. and Hansen said he’s waiting for more orders to come in as winemakers get a better sense of what their red varietal grape yields will be. wineries for French barrels is still most dependent on the dollar to euro exchange rate—and the For more information contact your sales representative or email us at info @seguinmoreau. Burton. coopers also report wineries are ordering more barrels. “The purpose of an oak barrel is never to be front and center in the bottle of wine. partly because of the popularity of Bourbon and craft whiskies.” he said. Chris Hansen.BARRELS Financing and Services.5%. respectively) and he also said it’s a bit harder to find American oak. owner of Barrel Builders. •T  onnelleries de France released a report in July that France’s barrel production was up 3% over last year. Tree harvesting is also subject to the weather. “I don’t know if I would say the spirits industry is stealing oak from the wine industry. part of Cooperages 1912. San Francisco.” he said. and Remy said the cooperage is experimenting with a 60-month seasoned barrel.” Stout said. He said he was in Missouri a few weeks ago and suppliers there said they just didn’t have logs to cut.” Stout said American oak is in high demand but pointed out that barrels represent just 6% to 7% of the entire market for American white oak. Cooperages 1912 did make a slight price increase that Stout said was in line with the Consumer Price Index. sells Tonnellerie Marchive barrels and vats. He said the price of Hungarian has stayed stable. In addition to French oak. • American oak stave wood is in greater demand. said his prices for French and American oak rose slightly (by 2% and 1. T. “This year compared to last year we have a lot more orders in at this time. Boswell. Canton is offering a new 36-month seasoned “Vintage Premium” barrel. “These barrels are a little more conscious of that. but the price to U.S.com Win es & Vin es O C TO b er 20 13 53 . Burton also sells Hungarian and American barrels. Winemakers also seem to be more interested in a lighter touch of oak for their wines. Francois Frères Hungary and Kadar Cooperage said his prices went up Highlights •W  hile prices are up slightly for new oak barrels. Francois Frères.W. but American oak is up between $5 and $10 per barrel. general manager of Seguin Moreau Napa Cooperage. Seguin Moreau has sold out of its Icone specialty barrels for this vintage. “This has been one of those years when climate has been a real factor in getting wood. Barrels for higher acid wines This summer. released its “Cool Climate Series” of barrels designed to showcase the fruit of higher acidity wines.-based representative for Taransaud.

he said.” Paul Frommelt.1405 whj wine print.walterjelly. with American oak climbing up closer to 5%. 2nd Fl Rochelle Park. said his prices went up in the range of 3% to 4%.indd 1 2/6/13 5:59:47 PM SERVING THE WINE INDUSTRY FOR OVER 20 YEARS! about 2. Australia and Spain. “This is above last year already. though.BARRELS www. Member coopers produced 525. printing process. who sells barrels made by Francois Frères’ subsidiary cooperages Trust Hungarian. released a statement based on remarks by the organization’s president Jean-Luc Sylvain on 2012 barrel production at the group’s annual meeting. we’re in paradise now. Because it’s coopered in Hungary. CA 90403 In July the Tonnelleries de France. Treuil and AP John. He mentioned that Trust just released its new 100% French oak Ingénieux barrel available in Rouge and Blanc versions. stock. Like the other barrel suppliers. So far. W I N E S A N D V I N E S B U Y E R S G U I D E .net Contact info Ph: 201-599-0909 Fax: 201-599-9888 East Coast 151 W Passaic St. we’re pleased with the sales of all the brands.” French barrel production figures We are an independent solutions provider for pressure sensitive labels. Italy.4% increase in volume and a 9.com 608. The wine economy is very strong and very competitive. “We’re having a very good year right now.” he said.100 barrels in 2012. We provide our customers with what they need not what we have to sell Web Page www. We research your requirements and find the perfect solution. Frommelt also said 2013 has been a good year for orders. recording just less than 330 million euros (or $441 million) in sales. Total exports represent a 5. a trade group representing coopers in various regions of France.5% increase in value.85% for French oak and 1% for Hungarian oak due to supply costs and the exchange rate. We match your design. The association reported 66% of total production was exported to its major markets of the United States. the barrel offers a bit of a discount for French oak. Knox had an optimistic view.labelsolutions. “Compared to where we were four years ago. which takes our prices up. C O M Winery Supplies 54 W in es & V i ne s OC TOb e r 20 13 . “Whiskey takes a lot of American oak.831. Search Online for BARRELS Winery Suppliers Cooperage Packaging Tasting Rooms Winery Equipment Winery Services ONLINE SEARCH W W W. NJ 07662 West Coast 854 18th Street #3 Santa Monica. delivery schedule and manufacture to your needs.” he said. which is good.

Josh Jensen at Calera. he fell in love with viticulture and decided to switch to the environmental studies department. Cobb worked at Ferrari-Carano. but I found I had a preference for the wines made by everyone I just mentioned. For Pinot. I found wines above 14% (alcohol) a bit clumsy for my palate and not as ageable. est months (June. I didn’t have a lot of experience with Burgundy.200 feet in elevation. Often. in the late 1980s. Over the next decade. we don’t have issues with extreme heat on the ridge tops. On the flipside. which was buying fruit from Coastlands Vineyard. his father. where he studied agroecology and sustainable agriculture. In Freestone/Occidental. W&V: Why are your vineyard sites in the Freestone/Occidental area well suited for this type of Pinot? Cobb: Everyone talks about cool-climate Pinot Noir. but not completely above it. Steve Doerner at Cristom in Oregon. In making Pinot Noir from my early 20s to early 30s. I started to appreciate wines that were in the alcohol range of 12. the relevant weather for the growing season is basically March through October. Freestone/Occidental has a little lower elevation than other coastal areas like Fort Ross/Seaview. Tom Dehlinger. At 30. I also tasted a lot of Oregon. the coastline of Sonoma is inundated in a summer fog. I took my first trip as an adult to Burgundy and spent two weeks tasting incredible Pinots ranging across the style spectrum. Cobb joined Flowers Vineyard. I especially appreciated the more elegant style and subtle expression of Sonoma Coast Pinot specialist details his approach W ripeness in the wines that Ted Lemon and Burt Williams were making. more extracted wines that were also going in and out of vogue in California to wines that were modern and not too rustic. Jeffrey Patterson at Mt.800 feet. In my early days. but the truth is there is a huge difference in the temperatures throughout the various regions. which are closer to 1. Sonoma and Central Coast Pinots. Cobb and his father started Cobb Wines. we have less fog in September. including Coastlands. But I also tasted a lot of elegant wines that showed less winemaking influence. During what are typically the warm- Ross Cobb embraces low alcohol for his Sonoma County Pinot Noirs. David. in 2001. Steve Kistler and Tom Rochioli. The vineyards in Freestone/Occidental are mostly between 400 and 1. July and August. we can get temperatures in the 50s in June. We typically pick two to three weeks later than Fort Ross/Seaview. Wines & Vines: Why did you decide to pursue a more elegant. So in Freestone/Occidental. we don’t have many frost issues.WINEMAKING Winemaker Interview ROSS COBB By Laurie Daniel hile winemaker Ross Cobb was studying biology at the University of California. lower alcohol style for your Pinot Noirs? Ross Cobb: I was introduced to Pinot Noir through people like Burt Williams at Williams Selyem. Santa Cruz. Because of our elevation. October and November. July and August) for many areas. In 2000. Jack Hill. Ted Lemon at Littorai. Eden. was establishing Coastlands Vineyard in the Freestone/Occidental area of California’s Sonoma Coast. After graduating in 1993. and that these were wines capable of aging for 10 to 15 years. Cobb Wines now works with four vineyards.500 cases of Pinot Noir per year. Rice-Spivak and our own Coastlands Vineyard) are above the heavy fog.5% to 14%. while still at Flowers. the wines that were more extracted and showy in the short term were not as long-lived in the bottle. but working at Williams Selyem gave him an additional opportunity to work with Coastlands fruit. In contrast. we have relatively mild weather in the 60s from March through May.400 to 1. they pick early to mid-September. Win es & Vin es O C TO b er 20 13 55 . As a result.200-1. Bonny Doon Vineyard and Williams Selyem. This included everything from the sort of riper. We usually pick in early October. I took nine or 10 more trips Burgundy. and produces 1. with Ross as the winemaker. most of the vineyards I work with (Emmaline Ann. I found that the beautiful expressions of Pinot at lower ripeness were almost always the ones from great vineyards and vintages. and tend to be above the cooling summer fog. and because of our proximity to the ocean. Cobb had remained involved in the family vineyard and had made some noncommercial wines from the site. As he helped his dad on weekends and during the summer.

200 feet and just 3.5% (alcohol). Personally. Since many restaurants immediately put the wines on their list. He deals with six to seven coopers and several forests.” L. W inemaker Ross Cobb ages his Pinot Noirs longer than most of his California colleagues do—typically 20 months or 56 W in e s & V i ne s OC TOb e r 20 13 . shoot thinning.5% seems to be suitable for most varieties of wine. but when given at least two years to rest. “I definitely make wines that can be very beautiful within six months of bottling. We pay very careful attention to canopy management including leafing. It’s at 1.5% and 14.D. I think it is very important that restaurants are showing the wines when they are at the beginning of their most optimum time. they show most elegantly and expressively. He found and planted the land for our Coastlands Vineyard in 1988 and 1989. Pinot does especially well within these ranges. green dropping and véraison fruit thinning. we have acquired long-term contracts on three other Freestone/Occidental vineyards near Coastlands. If you were to pick at four different times. Over the past 15 years of Cobb Wines. I like to pick earlier in October. Cobb says. Especially the green and véraison fruit dropping. then I’m able to pick the vineyard at beautiful maturity and full flavor at 22º to 24º Brix. Cobb sources from four vineyards to produce a total of 1. The use of sustainable viticulture and being as organic as possible (without losing crop) allows for minimal intervention during fermentation.200-1. you could make four completely different wines—from underripe to overripe. 90% of winemaking is the picking decision.5 (tons) to a maximum of 3 tons per acre. The level of detail achieved in the vineyard determines your ability to pick the fruit at moderate ripeness profiles. I have a lot of leeway as a winemaker to choose when I want to pick. “I have also found that one to two years in bottle before release is best. I don’t really enjoy any wines over 14. W&V: How do you decide when to pick? Cobb: The picking decision for Oak exposure offers complexity to Pinot Noir more in barrel and an additional one to two years in bottle.500 cases per year. all French. and two years before releasing to restaurant and retail customers. I have found that if the work is done meticulously in the vineyard through canopy management and green dropping. I age my wines for at least one year in bottle before releasing them to my mailing list.5 miles from the ocean. Because of the lack of fog at these sites in September and October.W INEM A KING My father thought the climate and soils on the uplifted marine terraces directly in from Bodega Bay and Jenner would be ideal for elegant Pinots. W&V: Have you identified what you think is a sweet spot for the alcohol ranges in your wines? Cobb: The alcohol level between 12. W&V: How do your vineyard practices help you achieve the style you’re looking for? Cobb: The yields on the far west Sonoma Coast and at our vineyards are typically 1.” He adds. Beyond what I do in the vineyards. He uses about 30% new oak and prefers tight-grained wood that’s been air-dried for three years. which can be done two to three times between July/August and pre-harvest. Whereas some wineries may include additions of yeast food. Some winemakers pick later by choice unless rain is coming. He declined to identify the coopers. enzymes and fining agents. Barrels receive a light to medium toast. After bottling.

there have been a few years with excessive heat events. it is to precipitate out the excessive potassium from the juice.5% to 14%. where the integration of oak and fruit seems to be the ideal. equipment and transportation are all arranged. I’ve experimented with longer aging and less new oak. and setting the exact day of harvest. and water back to 24º. where our vineyards are.WINEMAKING Pinot Noir in Freestone/Occidental near Bodega Bay. The ability to pick when you want to pick—at the exact day. I have found that the work I’ve done in vineyard. so if I am working with an outstanding vineyard I can pick a little before the perceived ripeness has been reached. For some winemakers. while the Brix. In my 25 years of winemaking. On the rare occasions when I do. for me. it still tastes like 29º. This influence can be seen in the new oak. Besides. then I’m interested in picking low—22º to 23. I use approximately 30% new oak. This said. It was more due to shrivel of dehydration in a hot growing season. W&V: How do your winemaking practices help you achieve the Cobb style? Cobb: As I’ve mentioned. may be different than picking decisions in other appellations. I usually give the vineyard manager seven to 10 days’ notice to make sure that the picking crew. versus a more common 50% for high-end Pinots. where one or two lots needed to be adjusted. Over the years. Also. I very rarely use organic tartaric acids. because of the quality and maturity of the vineyards I work with. acids and nutrients for yeast in the fermentations. On a practical note. W&V: Do you ever add water or acid in your winemaking? Cobb: Adding water isn’t necessary due to my picking decisions. the vineyard manager/owner and I have to be in great communication three to four weeks before harvest. picking decisions are most important. even if you pick at 29º Brix. By three days before. A resident of the Santa Cruz Mountains.5º Brix achieves a natural alcohol level of 12. Having established a rough picking date. allows me to do very little manipulation in the winery. time and fruit temperature—can only be achieved with excellent communication. Picking between 22º and 23. Also. Win es & Vin es O C TO b er 20 13 57 . enzymes for extraction. Assuming that the viticultural work was done. assuming that the vineyard management and upkeep are of highest quality. it is not to increase acidity or tartness. pH and TA are still in balance. Laurie Daniel has been a journalist for more than 25 years. I have also found that aging my wines from 15 to 22 months in 30% new oak—the period of élevage—achieves a beautiful elegance. I typically like to pick on the cusp of strawberry to cherry fruit aromas. She has been writing about wine for publications for nearly 15 years and has been a Wines & Vines contributor since 2006. That’s not my approach. and the season provided desirable weather (no major heat spikes in between fog coverage). I have established an exact time.5º Brix—if the flavors are complex and the acidity is not too aggressive. but not due to excessive ripeness or late picking. there are many things that can create a larger impact. I have found that both the Brix and fruit expression can continue to elevate during cold soak. I will fine-tune the time as I get closer. their influence on the final wine (beyond picking decisions) is more like 50%60%.

they tell 500 friends. Therefore. it’s all you can do to keep your head above water. Staff is the most important component of success. Always remember that your winery produces some of the premier wines in your area. Helpful sales enhance the visitor experience and tasting room profits. 1. throughout the year there are numerous times in most tasting rooms when asking for the sale will greatly increase profits. However. 3. Please keep in mind that not all of these techniques listed below are possible all the time. they tell 10 friends. it is important to ask for the sale with a sentence as simple as: “Would you like to buy some wine today?” However. This drags the experience down and diminishes the effect of the great architecture. It is the worst possible public relations we could provide next to outright rudeness. Sometimes you are so busy. they tell five friends. We in the tasting room are the last in a chain of events before the wine is presented to the customer. I don’t mean to imply that you should ask for the sale with every single customer. If Highlights •T  he author. you are actually enhancing peoples’ lives by encouraging them to consume your winery products and join the wine club. you need to set the stage by interacting with customers so that this question comes off as constructive rather than pushy. asking for the sale may feel inappropriate. If you haven’t achieved a very good rapport with the guest. they refused the money and instead handed you a big check. second only to wine quality Good staff can overcome bad architecture. there are numerous other times during the course of a year when these techniques can be very effective. The importance of the tasting room: TV ad Imagine that you successfully ran advertising on a TV station for your product. To “pour and ignore” is like being the last person in a relay race and deliberately dropping the baton. I tell them that at some point during their interaction with customers. •S  taff must remember that a helpful sales approach enhances both visitor experience and tasting room profits. Chances 58 W in e s & V i ne s OC TOb e r 20 13 . The best way to think of helpful sales is to remember what you do the day after you have seen a great first-run movie. Now. henever I coach tasting room personnel I bring up how to ask for the sale. Tasting rooms are not just profit centers. for example. You are trying to enhance your friends’ lives. Remember: You are not just selling wine. you are also selling memories. Helpful sales W are that you tell all your friends about it. There are reasons it may not happen. a former tasting room manager and veteran consultant to wineries. or your retail shop is some distance away from the tasting counter.” They don’t act interested in the customer.SALES & MARKETING Sales and Customer Service What tasting room staff should know before asking for the sale By Craig Root people have a good time. However. Many impressive wineries offer very poor service with staff that “pour and ignore. if they have a bad time. Lasting positive impression Just because you didn’t make a sale doesn’t mean that you dropped the ball. 2. When you went to pay the bill. with social media. if you are working in a tasting room. and they expect all the energy to come from the customer’s side of the counter. It also shows disrespect for all the hard work that goes into making a bottle of wine. great architecture can’t overcome a bad staff. they are also highly effective public relations vehicles. lays out his rules for customer service. •T  he author’s 12 points about sales and customer service cover critical points that make wineries stand out from their “pour and ignore” peers.

what. Obviously. While many wineries have maintenance teams to help accomplish this goal. Another technique is to talk with cellar workers as often as possible. Do continue to pour and describe the wines with enthusiasm. but the person 10 feet away. clean it up. However. such as having your wines removed from a wine list of a restaurant you just insulted. we want to be talking about the winery’s wines. Educate yourself There are a number of low-cost ways to continually educate yourself in addition to search engines. c. particularly by the novice wine taster. 7. One trick to always maintaining proper decorum: Pretend that everyone you are dealing with is a mystery shopper. Fifteen-second rule It’s absolutely necessary that people be greeted within 15 seconds of coming into your area. which can cause problems. you still need to work the rest of the counter and support your colleagues. Open-ended questions A closed-ended question would be: “Do you like sparkling wine?” This calls for a yes or no answer and does not lead to dialogue. cash register staff or performing any other duties on the floor. very often in tasting rooms. don’t correct them but pronounce it correctly a couple of times in the ensuing conversation. Please read them religiously (especially Wines & Vines). 4. Production can also provide you with trade magazines they subscribe to that are devoted to winemaking. And finally. Also. but they will remember who was nice to them when they do have more money. not snobby (31 flavors): Americans go into BaskinRobbins and don’t have any trouble . you may wish to ask: “What are your favorite types of seafood?” The trick is to ask at least three open-ended questions in order to get the conversational ball rolling. and this kind of hospitality can be draining. Women by themselves/younger visitors: Women by themselves and younger visitors continuously report poor treatment in tasting rooms. 10. whether you are a pourer. Be informative. For example. b. Being asked about themselves also makes the customers feel cared about. 9. 5. When the customer trusts you. Also. 6. who can hear you. stocker. however. choosing from among the 31 flavors. might be. I know of numerous examples of tasting room staff being rude or negative because they didn’t know who was in front of them. Talk with. and you visit the rest room and it is trashed? Chances are that it doesn’t make you feel good about the food. Check out books from the library about food and wine. think about the employees whom you like to work with and who make you laugh. rapport or sales. Focus on the quality of the product you are about to pour and the wonderful ambiance of your winery. Just be careful not to enjoy yourself so much with one couple that you forget the other customers—and your duty to support your colleagues. using open-ended questions can lead to lively conversation. Without continually educating yourself. Challenge yourself to sell at least one or two wine club memberships. This work is like performing arts. you will stand out in relation to all the other tasting rooms that did not. Being “on” Have you ever gone to a concert where the crowd started dancing five minutes before the band started playing? It doesn’t work that way. read the food and wine sections of major newspapers in print or online. people: There’s a big difference between listening and waiting for your turn to talk.SALES & MARKETING For example. But we are not just paid to pour wine and conduct tours. For example. d. people may be on bicycles and not want to carry wine. For example. grounds and rest rooms are all parts of creating a lasting positive impression. Maybe the person you are talking to isn’t a friend of the manager of that establishment. they will be more apt to buy your wine the next time they see it at a store or restaurant in their hometown. and you ask: “Would you like to buy some wine today and/or would you like to join our wine club?” you are much more apt to make a sale. a better rule of thumb is: When you find a mess. Some people don’t want conversation: If visitors do not seem to want to engage in conversation after you’ve asked two or three open-ended questions. you need to psych yourself up and consider being engaging and animated as an extremely important component of your work. to repeat. “What kind of food do you like with white wine?” It’s best to use follow-up open-ended questions. if you do have a good conversation with visitors.” and it is up to us to provide energy—both initial and ongoing. if you are coming to work and are feeling a little blue. if they leave with a positive impression. Open-ended questions use who. whether it is on the grounds or in the facility. not at. Therefore. In this case. we are also paid to be upbeat and charming. when. where. 8. let the conversation go where it has the most energy. if a customer mispronounces the name of a varietal. you are planting seeds for your winery’s future sales. In the case of younger visitors. Always remember: We in the tasting room are the “band. Win es & Vin es O C TO b er 20 13 59 The whole point of asking open-ended questions is that they lead to dialogue. You never know to whom you are talking Never be negative about any other establishment. It is particularly important when working in the tasting room that you acknowledge customers in the second row because. If you cater to them. rest rooms and cluttered counters How do you feel when you are out dining. If the answer to “What kind of food do you like with white wine?” is seafood. a friendly good-bye is very important. and ask them what is going on in production. they can be totally ignored. dialogue leads to rapport. which makes the day go by faster for you. they may not have as much money now. They go next door to the wine shop and feel intimidated. Whatever you can do to take wine off its pedestal will be greatly appreciated. Clean workstations. you run the risk of becoming stale: a real turnoff to customers and sales. and rapport leads to trust. For example. Be adjustable a. why and how. Grounds. don’t pursue any more dialogue.

Helpful sales vs. which you wouldn’t have had if you had only bought six.” These gentle tips for the visitor are a non-pushy way to increase sales. I say: “Buy 12: The you of tomorrow will thank the you of today. One line I use: When a couple is debating whether to buy a smaller or larger amount of wine.SALES & MARKETING 11. you get our half-case 10% discount. and all you could taste is the rosemary. and you will appreciate that you were generous to yourself. milk 60 W in es & V i ne s OC TOb e r 20 13 2% milk . I could save you quite a bit of money with the club discount. If you join our wine club. Remember: sales are what pay for staff wages. C.” Or: “Eventually the oak barrel wears out—not because the wood gets weak.” And: “The oak barrel is like the cinnamon stick you use to add flavor to your hot chocolate.” Or: “You are making a big purchase there. You’ll be drinking that 10th bottle.” Or: “I can tell that you really like that wine. we are almost sold out. manipulative sales Examples of helpful sales would be: “You are buying five bottles: If you buy a sixth. but because the flavor gets weak—just as the cinnamon stick in the fifth cup of hot chocolate doesn’t provide as much flavor.” The importance of analogies C ompare these two statements for the average wine drinker: “The oak barrel adds flavor to the wine. Please note that analogies usually have the word “like” or “as” in them. That would be like cooking some rosemary chicken.” Which of these two statements is more easily understood by the visitor to your tasting room? Clearly. and 2% milk doesn’t have as much body as whole milk.R. the second one.” There are many more examples of analogies. so you may wish to buy a few extra bottles.” Or: “The body of wine is just like milk: skim milk doesn’t have as much body as 2% milk. Making the customer feel comfortable once again leads to trust and sales. such as six or 12 bottles. It’s the same principle with the oak barrel. but the point is that they take wine out of a mysterious world and put it smack-dab in the middle of everyday life. Other examples: “You don’t want to over-oak the wine.

in essence. In addition. 12. Wine club sales Wine club sales deserve a dedicated section of this article in addition to the specific training you will be receiving from the club manager. If you remember this scenario. as noted in the introduction.SALES & MARKETING After using the many techniques discussed here. which make their lives more fun and joyous. there is a twopack from your favorite winery sitting on the table. and you should reconsider working at your winery. They also frequently share the wine with friends and relatives. Davis. which influences those folks to purchase our products. Here are some tips on selling clubs: You can say the following to potential club members: 1) You get 20% off. If you don’t truly believe this. That is a wonderful sales impulse. Encouraging people to buy your winery products is part of helpful sales—because you are enhancing their lives with superior wine at a great price. You need to know the club backwards and forwards in order to sell it. Always keep this scenario in the back of your head: You are a gal in Sacramento. Craig Root has 30 years experience working with tasting rooms. it is extremely difficult to be an effective sales rep for the winery. and you just had a rotten day at work. it is easy to sell the club because. the past 17 years as a consultant. He has helped create more than 80 tasting rooms and 150 wine clubs all over the United States. The other component is that there are excellent monetary and other incentives for you. Or. you have a flute of cold sparkling wine. He analyzes current operations and teaches tasting room design and management at the University of California. for example. membership benefits and terms and conditions of the club. the staff member. In summary. When you finish. He still works one day per month in a busy tasting room in order to stay in touch with the public and the work. which means you save $40 on a $200 purchase. being guides to local attractions and restaurants and being engaging. 4) For a party of four. you need to remember to ask for the sale. But never forget that we are sales reps as well. It’s a great way for you to enhance your income on a regular basis. 3) Any shipment you don’t like. we have many tasks such as being wine educators. When you go into your kitchen. Also keep in mind that wine clubs are one of the most profitable parts of the wine business—and a tremendous asset to your tasting room sales picture. Does this make you feel better about the day or worse? Next. when we work at a tasting room. your first savings will be $40 (the cost of tasting for four people). you can say: If just one of you joins the wine club. Now you are feeling even better.) 2) You can quit anytime you want: This isn’t like a CD club (for those who remember them). you can send back. Your boss was a jerk. your feet hurt and you got caught in traffic on the way home. you can quit anytime after you receive two shipments (if your winery has such a stipulation). the customers are paying to be reminded about the winery. Win es & Vin es O C TO b er 20 13 61 . (The point is: It makes the discount more concrete. You are representing a premier brand. you start chilling the sparkling wine while you change your clothes and take a shower. you are helping the customer give themselves gifts in the future.

is not solely about nutrients. Department of Treasury’s Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau (TTB) issued an interim policy that allows alcoholic beverage suppliers to voluntarily include information such as the amount of calories. when the U.1g . the Center for Science in the Public Interest and a number of other organizations petitioned the TTB to issue regulations that would require the inclusion of an “Alcohol Facts” panel on all alcoholic beverage products. “Americans are generally unaware that standard servings or drinks of beer.5% alcohol by volume. the wine industry has by and large opposed such labeling requirements. . Schwartzburg and Andrew L. the number of servings per container and the amount of calories and ounces of alcohol per serving on all alcoholic beverages containing more than 0.” thus allowing them to make more informed . the distilled spirits industry has positioned itself as the champion of “nutritional labeling” for alcoholic beverage products. Calif. During the past 10 years. the percentage of alcohol by volume disclosure on alcoholic beverage products is “inadequate” and “arguably misleading.S. alcoholper-serving information provides consumers with a clearer understanding of “how much alcohol and how many drinks they are consuming. Dickenson Peatman & Fogarty. According to the petitioners. wine and a shot of distilled spirits each contain the same amount of alcohol. TECHNICAL RESOURCE FOR GROWERS & WINERIES 65 Effect of aeration treatments prior to/during fermentation By Linda F.6 oz Among other things.6 oz * 5 oz Wine 12 oz Beer .5 oz Spirits 150 0g 13.practicalwinerylibrary. carbohydrates. TTB requested public comments regarding this proposed Serving Facts panel.” Why the debate over le nutrition labeling has l li it t t le to do with nutrients BY John Trinidad. Figure 2: In 2005.”1 They argue that. Bisson.1 Diageo. Lauren A.com Access Practical Winery & Vineyard article archives online. Napa. the National Consumers League.5 ounces of ethyl alcohol.2 According to petition supporters. 62 p r acti c al w i ne ry & v i ne yard O CTO BER 20 13 Calories Fat Carbohydrates Protein Alcohol A standard drink contains 0.1 Serving Facts Serving Size 12 fl oz Servings Per Container 1 Amount Per Serving R ecent debate about federal nutrition labeling for alcoholic beverages dates back at least 10 years. Waterhouse 77 Vineyard irrigation. In contrast. the world’s largest spirits producer. under current labeling laws. however.6oz 1. The nutritional labeling debate.2g 1. The latest chapter in this ongoing regulatory saga occurred in May 2013. A serving of this beverage is 1 standard drink. Decade-long regulatory history Malt Beverage (5% ABV) In 2003. * = * = .6 oz Figure 1 is an image of the petitioners’ proposed Alcohol Facts label for a 750ml bottle of wine. the petition called for mandatory disclosure of serving size for a standard drink containing 0.6 fl oz of alcohol. fat and protein per serving on “Serving Facts” statements on their labels. At the heart of the split between distilled spirits companies and wineries is how consumers will be presented with information that would allow them to compare the alcohol content of spirits and wine. the Smart way By Richard Smart wine labeling has taken credit for backing this petition.

In addition. TTB proposed new regulations that would require alcoholic beverages to carry a Serving Facts panel listing the calories. simply is inadequate. TTB requested input regarding serving size and alcohol-perserving disclosures. TTB issued another Advanced Notice of Public Rulemaking regarding Serving Facts statements. the TTB concluded that even though disclosure of alcohol in fluid ounces may not be “inherently misleading. the Council stated that requiring a statement of calories.5 ounces to be the standard serving size for all wines with more than 14% ABV. but only if the ABV was also included on the panel. producers could choose to include the number of fluid ounces of pure alcohol per serving. the Institute claimed that statements of fluid ounces of alcohol per serving were inherently confusing and should be prohibited.”4 TTB also concluded that the “equivalency” graphic found in Figure 2 could be misleading and therefore would not be included in any proposed Serving Facts panel. In addition. access to markets (and) advertising. In 2007. The Institute opposed making the inclusion of a Serving Facts panel mandatory and also argued that TTB should not consider 2.”1 TTB responded to the petition by issuing an “Advanced Notice of Proposed Rulemaking” in April 2005. The Wine Institute submitted a 34-page response to Notice No.” consumers were accustomed to seeing alcohol content expressed as a percentage of alcohol by volume (ABV) and may be “confused by a statement of alcohol in fluid ounces. without some context in which to evaluate the information. carbohydrates. “without requiring a similar statement about the amount of alcohol in that serving. 4 TTB noted that wineries had “strongly opposed” the graphic and pointed out that the distilled spirits trade association often used such equivalency statements in an attempt “to achieve parity with wine and beer in various regulated areas such as taxes.wine labeling “responsible drinking decisions. 41 solicited commentary from industry members regarding the petition and the inclusion of a “Serving Facts” panel on alcoholic beverage products that would list the amount of calories. In Notice No. and the agency specifically requested feedback regarding the inclusion of the graphics at the bottom of this label (see Figure 2). CA 94901 • 415-457-3955 • Fax 457-0304 • www. 3 Notice No. the Institute argued that the 5-ounce serving size was appropriate for all wines up to 16% ABV.5 ounces for wines with more than 14% ABV.6 In its letter to TTB. 41. 73 in January 2008. 5 Instead. fat. Figure 3 is an example of a 750ml wine bottle label that includes the alcohol by volume (ABV) and amount of alcohol per serving. carbohydrates and protein per serving on alcoholic beverage labels. 145 Jordan Street • San Rafael.” Several years passed without any further rulemaking action from TTB regarding the Serving Facts issue. The Distilled Spirits Council disagreed. After reviewing the public comments responding to Notice No.boswellcompany. fat and protein per serving. and 2.com pr actica l win ery & vin eya r d O CTO B ER 20 13 63 .” 4 In addition. TTB also proposed two different reference serving size for wines: 5 ounces per serving for wines of 14% alcohol by volume or less. carbohydrates. fat and protein per serving. 73.

proteins and fat per serving.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-200707-31/pdf/E7-14774. And naturally that is a stalking horse for an argument that the beverages ought to be taxed at the same level as well. PWV John Trinidad is a Napa. Third. Calif.. recharged the Serving Facts debate. Labeling and Advertising of Wines. available at gpo. Calif. the FTC issued an administrative complaint alleging that Phusion had falsely claimed that the 23. Distilled Spirits and Malt Beverages. available at cspinet. a serving contains 0. 41860 (July 31. The TTB made clear that the rulemaking process for Serving Facts statements is far 64 p r acti c al w i ne ry & v i ne yard O CTO BER 20 13 from complete. Prior to joining Dickenson. 73: Labeling and Advertising of Wines. Wine Institute. a representative for the Center for Science in the Public Interest acknowledged that the distilled spirits industry has “probably for 30 years now been promoting the concept that all of these beverages are equivalent in terms of alcohol content per drink. 70 Fed. 6.com/apps/new s?pid=newsarchive&sid=a7TTibpZ6HfA (stating that the petition was “backed in large part by Diageo” after it was filed).gov/#!documentDetail. Dietary Guidelines. thus providing some context for consumers.org/files/SFLPC. First. Fourth. 27. available at gpo. Letter re: Notice No.pdf. available at wineinstitute. Reg.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2005-04-29/ pdf/05-8574. 41860 (July 31. the TTB issued an interim policy allowing for voluntary inclusion of Serving Facts statements on alcoholic beverage products. 2.S. 2005). Distilled Spirits and Malt Beverages. The panel would include the container size. The policy includes many of the changes recommended by the Wine Institute in its 2008 response to Notice No. pdf (hereinafter. Diageo and the distilled spirits industry will continue to push for mandatory Serving Facts statements and mandatory disclosure of alcohol per serving. Reg.7 In an interview with the Wine Spectator. number of servings per container and the following statement: “According to the U. Center for Science in the Public Interest and National Consumer League. “Diageo Marks Sixth Anniversary of Petition to Allow Serving Facts on Its Bottles. D.com. Second. 2009). TTB interim policy . 2008).5ounce can of 11%–12% ABV Four Loko contained the equivalent of one or two 12-ounce beers and could safely be consumed on a single occasion. Press Release.” (Dec. TTB stated that if a producer decides to include the amount of alcohol per serving on the panel. TTB adopted the 5-ounce referenced serving size for wines from 7% to 16% ABV. Distilled Spirits and Malt Beverages (72 Fed..pdf. He is a graduate of Harvard College and the New York University School of Law. Letter re: “Notice no. the FTC issued a final order in February 2013 requiring Phusion to seek approval from TTB for an Alcohol Facts panel to be included on Phusion’s products.”7 On May 28.” (Feb. 22274 (April 29. and a 2.” The day after the FTC issued its order. 22. 27.” (Dec. “Petition to Improve Mandatory Label information on Alcoholic Beverages. “2003 Petition”). Bibliography 1. and worked harvest for wineries in Burgundy.wine labeling Federal Trade Commission weighs in The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) settlement with Phusion Project LLC. 2008). 2007). 7. 2007)). 16. If the past is any guide. Diageo and the original petitioners again pressed TTB to adopt Serving Fact regulations. Business and Intellectual Property departments.pdf.-based wine law attorney at Dickenson Peatman & Fogarty. available at bloomberg. where he works with the Alcohol Beverage.C. France. although any Serving Facts panel must include calories.D= TTB-2007-0062-0434. Labeling and Advertising of Wines. available at regulations.com/webfeature/show/id/48072. Ben O’Donnell. 2003). 72 Fed. 16. 2013). The long history of Serving Facts statement rulemaking shows that the disagreement between industry members is largely about alcohol content. the inclusion of Serving Facts panels remains entirely voluntary. available at winespectator. Calif. there is no requirement that the panel include ounces of alcohol per serving. the producer of a malt beverage energy drink called Four Loko. Any attempt to couch this debate as a fight to provide consumers with nutrition information is flawed. carbohydrates. Request for Public Comment.6 ounces of pure alcohol. 73 – Labeling and Advertising of Wines. “Labeling Cold War Heats Up Again.5-ounce serving for wines from 16% to 24% ABV. Distilled Spirits Council of the United States. org/booze/031216IngLabelingPetition. Trinidad served as a litigator in Washington.” (Jan.” (Jan. Reg. 73. it must also include the ABV on the panel. As part of a settlement. 4. 5. 3. and San Francisco. In 2011. Distilled Spirits and Malt Beverages. percentage alcohol by volume. 2013. and Healdsburg.

26 direct inoculation.6. competition of microbial activity with enzymatic oxidation occurs. dation reactions add complexity to the In white wine production. but this is not always successful. The use of sulfur dioxide to inhibit grape polyphenol oxidases further olecular oxygen and oxidative reduces the competitiveness of enzyconditions influence the commatic oxidation for oxygen introduced position and quality of a wine prior to and during fermentation. Hyper-oxygenation may be ties of both desirable and undesirable performed with the goal of converting microbes. Department of Viticulture & Enology. microbial popula- BY Linda F. grape oxidases are made inactive by the ethanol produced by the microorganisms.32 During fermentation. may also be introduced with cap manageAlthough the impact of oxygen in wine Figure 2: Oxygen Reduction Steps ment and extraction procedures such as has been studied intensively. Oxygen exposure may occur at browning potential into brown products any point in wine production. Here we will address oxidation reactions and outcomes of enzymatically catalyzed oxidation. OH 2 At wine pH juice with a low microbial bioload Hydroperoxyl Hydrogen peroxide Water is via the phenol radical oxidases. Oxygen cally. so mold-infected fruit will also display active enzymatic oxidation in the wine. but most of the oxygen will be metabolism. others lead to off-character or offof oxygen early in processing can lead to color formation. consequences of that exposure differ. Similarly. Enzymatic oxidation is generally more of a concern in juices and musts than in wines. élevage have been less well delineated. tions. if microbial activity is occurThere are three primary fates of oxygen ring.26. function as a oxygen in the early stages of red wine fersubstrate for grape and microbial oximentation on the skins with the hope that dases. Oxyand therefore play important gen will be consumed by organisms in roles during the entire winemaking the juice and must even in the absence of process. However. the most active consumption switches to microbial metabolism. In must.18. These compounds are able to participate in oxidation/reduction reactions. given the higher Figure 2: Oxygen reduction steps. Processing decisions can also impact wine and juice oxidation. Mold-produced laccase is a phenol oxidase that retains activity in the presence of ethanol.16. Oxygen and non-enzymatic or chemical oxidation Oxidation/reduction or redox reactions pr actica l win ery & vin eya r d O CTO B ER 20 13 65 . oxygen can wine is not held on biologically active have both positive and negative impacts yeast lees.– OH O2 and microbial conPeroxide Hydroxyl Superoxide sumption. and actively fermenting cultures consume oxygen efficiently blocking both enzymatic and chemical oxidation. oxygen plays an important role as a yeast nutrient. Schwartzburg.13. and the microbes are no longer active so the principal consumption of oxygen is non-enzymatic (Figure 1). stimulate phenolic compound tannin formation and structure will be polymerization and influence microbial modified. the winemaking operations such as press-toadded oxygen may be consumed biologitank and tank-to-tank transfers. Bisson. Micro-oxygenuct formation. Barrel fermentation and/or élevage contribute oak wood ellagitannins to wine.14. may in contrast lead to chemion juice and wine composition. so the specific microbial responses to addition of oxygen will vary for wine and juice/must. If popuOxygen exposure occurs during normal lations of microorganisms are high. Waterhouse. the presence off-color formation in the juice and resultof oxygen stimulates the metabolic activiing wine. survivability and end prodconsumed biologically.33 the role of oxygen treatments prior to pump over. Andrew L. but the that can then be removed from the wine.29. In finished wine. assuming the From a quality perspective. the oxygen introduced will most introduced to the winemaking process: likely be consumed by the organisms non-enzymatic oxidation. ation during wine aging. cap irrigation or délestage.winemaking OXYGEN IN WINEMAKING 2 M present and not available for chemical reactions or enzymatic oxidation. Lauren A. wine and juice harbor different microbiota. introduction wine.12. radical The most active +H+ +H+ +H+ consumption of oxygen in fresh H2O2 HO2. enzy– – – +e +e +e +e– matic oxidation O2 2OH – O2. In addition.8 Both biological and chemical impacts of oxygen are due to its ability to function as an oxidant in oxidation/reduction reactions. Once microbial populations build in size. Oxygen can participate directly in Many winemakers try to introduce chemical redox reactions. Some oxical changes in the wine. UC Davis Relative Values Effect of aeration treatments prior to/during fermentation O Oxygen Consumption Comparison Juice Enzymatic PPO Must Yeast/Microbial Metabolism Wine Non-enzymatic chemical oxidation Figure 1: Fates of oxygen during winemaking.

In complex solutions such as juice and wine. for example). oxidation mostly occur in wine without directly involving participation of molecular oxygen. “Redox” is a term that derives from a combination of the words “red uction” and “oxidation. meaning it has a higher affinity for electrons. intermediates are produced that have a higher affinity for electrons than molecular oxygen. but involve transfers of electrons between other atoms moving electrons from a compound with low affinity for electrons to one with a higher affinity. for instance the superoxide radical (Figure 2). The compound that loses electrons is in an oxidized state. The Fenton Reaction and Acetaldehyde F thought of as being dependent upon exposure of the juice or wine to molecuFenton Reaction reduction reactions lar oxygen. as long as there is a catalyst. an equilibrium is reached with compounds having highest affinity for electrons being in their reduced (gained electrons) state. Oxidation and reduction are therefore mutually dependent reactions. altering the chemical properties of both compounds. changing the chemical nature of those compounds. Those with the weakest hold on electrons are in their oxidized state (carbon. having lost electrons to those compounds 66 p racti c al w i ne ry & v i ne yard O CTO BER 20 13 . although it will react with good reducing agents such as SO2. and generally these electron movements are a cascade involving a series of intermediates by way of 1-electron transfers. and the compound that gains electrons is in a reduced state. In such a mixed solution. OH O OH O2 Fe+2 O + H 2O 2 H2O 2 Fe+2 CH3CH2OH HO · Hydroxyl radical CH3 C ·HOH HO · Ethoxyl radical CH3CHO CH3 C ·HOH Fe+3 Acetaldehyde Figure 3: The Fenton reaction and acetaldehyde formation. and it is a stronger oxidizing agent than molecular oxygen. either chemically or in enzymes. Without iron (acting as the catalyst) hydrogen peroxide is not very reactive.” Molecular oxygen is a good oxidizing agent on its own (Figure 2). Hydrogen peroxide is an early intermediate in the chemical reduction of molecular oxygen. while reduction is the gain of electrons by an atom or molecule. The reduction potential of a compound is a measurement of its ability to gain electrons. in addition to serving as a substrate in many enzymatic reactions that take advantage of its oxidant activity. Many oxidation reactions do not involve oxygen in any way. Although oxidation is commonly Figure 3. Non-enzymatic oxidation in juice and wine refers to direct exchanges of electrons between chemicals. Oxidation refers to a loss of electrons by an atom or molecule. Oxygen attracts electrons from other molecular species.winemaking are those in which there is a transfer of electrons from one compound to another. Such exchanges are usually facilitated by the participation of catalysts such as iron. many compounds can participate in oxidation/reduction reactions. In chemical oxidation reactions.

Anthocyanin Reacting with Glyceraldehyde to Form a Wine Pigment dant compound after water. Napa Fermentation Supplies 4 pr actica l win ery & vin eya r d O CTO B ER 20 13 67 . allowformation of aldehydes with a bridging 5. dissipate due to volatilization or become dized components of wine.ww in in e e lm aa bk e il n in gg with a higher affinity for electrons (oxybe oxidized to acetaldehyde. Figure 5: Enzymatic formation of quinone and oxidative coupling. catalyze oxidation reduction reactions bridges between anthocyanins and tanIn the glass. hyde is an important compound in pounds. 11 During Oxidative color stabilization requires élevage. such as H2S. As the wine breathes in the known to be reactive (Figure 4). these compounds either and impact the extent and nature of oxinins leading to color stabilization. Enzymatic of Quinone and Oxidative helps to catalyze the reduction of oxygen ing other aromas that wereCoupling present to be capability. hydroxyl radical from hydrogen peroxglass. the loss of sulfur volatiles leads to “Reduced” and “oxidized” are also comide that are so powerful in attracting electhe expression and detection of fruity mon terms used in wine aroma descriptrons that they will oxidize the first tion. and a suppression of fruit character that accompanies the Metal ions may also participate in and élevage as it will lead to formation of presence of these compounds. are generally charIn wine. the Fenton reaction (Figure 3) oxidized to a non-aromatic form. Acetaldeassociated with reduced sulfur comgen. and manyFigure aldehydes are Formation and produces oxygen radicals such as the detected. ethanol will aromas typically PPO Catechin GSH Grape reaction product Brown products Figure 4: Anthocyanin reacts with glyceraldehyde to form a wine pigment. Reduced wines compound they come in contact with. for example). since ethanol is the most abunacterized by having O2 Figure 4.

25. (Z)-whiskey lactone. Polyphenol oxidase is classified as a mono-oxygenase. Caftaric acid o-quinone then undergoes coupled oxidations with other compo- nents of the juice such that caftaric acid o-quinone is reduced back to caftaric acid (Figure 6). particularly in the absence of SO2.7 Although non-enzymatic oxidation is possible in juice and must.29. qui- 68 p r acti c al w i ne ry & v i n e yard O CTO BER 20 13 . thiols that contribute varietal character to Sauvignon Blanc and many red varieties are sensitive to oxidation. and these undesirable color changes are also associated with the term oxidized in reference to wines. the wine’s freshness is lost and fruit complexity decreases. In reductive élevage. Specifically. phenylaldehyde and o-aminoacetophenone.21 This class of enzymes requires two substrates to serve as reductants of the two oxygen atoms of O2. As a result of polyphenol oxidase activity in the juice.36 Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity (Figure 5) is the primary enzyme responsible for oxygen consumption by juices. In grape juice. polyphenol oxidase catalyzes the oxidation of caftaric and coutaric acid to caftaric acid o-quinone.20 Similarly.winemaking and other varietal aromas. In the case of juice. The main substrate accepts one of the two oxygen atoms. The most abundant aldehydes found in oxidized wines are acetaldehyde. Grape tyrosinase. furnaneol. the affinity of PPO for molecular oxygen effectively prevents chemical oxidation. Oxidized wines also display distinct aroma and color changes. wine is protected from oxygen. 21. by definition. Addition of SO2 will block enzymatic oxidation but can also block some forms of non-enzymatic oxidation. is active in grape juice upon crushing of the fruit. Here it is assumed that wines with deliberate oxygen exposure during élevage will display some positive effects of that exposure in polymerization of tannins. élevage is described as “reductive” or “oxidative. Thus PPO generates reactive intermediates that then participate in subsequent electron transfer and coupling reactions.3. Restriction of oxygen may be needed to prevent unwanted microbial activity. and this enzyme consumes O2 at a rapid rate. more commonly called polyphenol oxidase. PPO is a complex mono-oxygenase present in many fruits and vegetables including wine grapes. The sherry aroma attributed to oxidized wines is due to formation of aldehydes from their respective alcohols. Mono-oxygenases are a group of enzymes that.31 For example.” depending upon exposure of the wine to oxygen. furfural. followed by oxidation of diphenol to the corresponding quinone. softening of mouthfeel and stabilization of color. 5-hydroxymethylfurfural. (Z)-2-nonenal. Enzymatic oxidation in juice and wine Enzymes known as oxidases can catalyze oxidation/reduction reactions and transfer of electrons among substrates. which is able to have an oxygen atom inserted in the ortho position to an existing hydroxyl group in an aromatic ring. catalyze reactions in a way that one of the two oxygen molecules of O2 is incorporated into the organic substrate and the other is reduced to water (Figure 5). dodencanal. PPO consists of a dinuclear copper center. methional. and a co-substrate furnishes hydrogen atoms to reduce the other oxygen atom to water (Figure 5).2 As these aromas overwhelm the fruity aromas over time. Oxidation reactions can also lead to formation of yellow and brown pigments. (E)-2-octenal.21 Browning in both juice and wine is the result of quinone formation and formation of substituted polymers that are brown in color. oxygen can be consumed nearly as rapidly as it is introduced.

Our hikes through numerous forests in countries on two continents have yielded findings some winemakers consider treasure. and therefore the tendency to brown varies.1 It is also possible that sulfur dioxide interacts directly with the enzyme.8. Winemaking processes that increase extraction. hard pressing and high temperature exposure during processing increase the tendency of a wine to brown. Because even the most delicious wines don’t always taste the same. and pyruMany organisms are obligate aerobes. P.34 H2O2 is not a direct product of enzymatic oxidation. Energy generation in biological systems takes advantage of the energetic favorability that accompanies the movement of electrons from molecules with low affinity to those with high electron affinity.35 and browning may also occur.Box 1693. passing will use organic compounds as electron electrons along a chain and capturing acceptors. can use oxygen in this role if it is avail.Figure 6: Oxygen and enzymatic oxidation of phenolics.” thereby trapping the quinone and preventing it from reacting with other juice components.1 Oxidation of phenolic compounds to quinones can occur non-enzymatically and co-produce a strong oxidant. the corresponding quinones polymerize and precipitate as brown pigments. it is autocatalytic. The process of respiration uses oxygen For over twenty years we’ve searched the world to source the very finest oak known to wine. and the importance of variety.5 It is suspected the sulfur dioxide acts by reacting with o-quinones or other intermediates in the browning reaction. which then oxidizes other components.CA 94966 (415) 331-7849 f (415) 331-0516 stavin. Sulfite can interact with other oxidants and can impact non-enzymatic and enzymatic browning. inhibiting it. ® StaVın Inc. Sausalito.com pr actica l win ery & vin eya r d O CTO B ER 20 13 69 . if it is not.winemaking nones are largely formed by the action of PPO in wine that are formed from nonenzymatic oxidation reactions. H2O O2 Other organisms.29 Once browning is initiated.30 Microbial consumption of oxygen as a terminal electron acceptor. Browning of juices increases with the level of phenolic extraction. Levels of 25 – 75 mg/L of SO2 in clarified juices led to inhibitions of 75% and 97% of polyphenol oxidase activity. sugtriphosphate (ATP). hydrogen peroxide or H2O2. Such travels have shown us the rewards of perseverance. Grape glutathione can also inhibit PPO-induced browning. meaning “brown begets brown” due to creation of intermediates that are more reactive than their substrates in leading to formation of brown polymers. they © 2013 StaVin Inc.29 Sulfur dioxide is an inhibitor of PPO. forming GRP or the “grape reaction product. Thus simple inhibition of PPO might not prevent oxidative damage from occurring in juice or must if there is significant oxygen exposure. such as pomace contact. ars are converted to pyruvate. Caftaric acid o-quinone can bind to glutathione. unless laccase is present.O. able. In red musts and juices. When flavanols are oxidized by caftaric acid o-quinone. energy released in the form of adenosine During grape juice fermentation. meaning oxygen must be present to serve as an electron acceptor. preventing formation of colored complexes (Figure 6). such PPO as many found in wine.27 There is significant variation in the levels of both PPO and caftaric and coumaric acids in cultivars. PPO activity has been shown to lead to a loss of color.

29 but also leads to an increase in perceived bitterness in white wines. it seems that the same effect may be achieved by not adding SO2 and allowing unfettered PPO activity. especially with respect to compounds with a sensory impact. With respect to microbial activity. These components are also needed as growth factors for yeast cells.5 Formation of these unsaturated long-chain fatty acids and sterols are termed “survival factors. In this situation. These effects are indirect and can be difficult to predict. oxidation-reduction reactions.winemaking vate is cleaved to form carbon dioxide and acetaldehyde. Oxygen addition can enable metabolic activities of non-Saccharomyces microbes present and stimulate the yeastfermentation process.27 This is particularly important in over-extracted white juices that may result from mechanical harvesting. Oxygen can be both a direct participant in electron-transfer reactions or used in enzymatic-oxidation reactions in microbial systems. by the enzyme desaturase. thereby stripping the wine of browning potential and protecting the wine against further browning during élevage post-fermentation. alcohols and aldehydes—that can participate in the oxidation-reduction reactions occurring in the juice or wine. 27 In many cases. which. the folding of the precursor compound into the sterol form. catalyzed by squalene oxidase.com . oxygen availability will impact metabolic activities of the yeast and yeast cell composition.27 Hyper-oxidation and polymerization may also lead to precipitation of bitter and astringent compounds in white juices.27 Oxygen exposure in white juice increases browning10. The activity of those microorganisms can have an impact on wine composition independent of any direct role of oxygen. Some ® 707-938-1300 70 p r acti c al w i ne ry & v i n e yard O CTO BER 20 13 info@acrolon. becoming converted into ethanol.5 Molecular oxygen is also required as the hydrogen acceptor during introduction of double bonds in the generation of unsaturated fatty acids. will impact the contribution of yeast to the sensory profile of the finished wine. Oxygen has additional roles in the yeast cell and is involved in many biosynthetic reactions that require electron movements. Many key biological reactions are. yeast would not be able to overcome the ethanol toxicity of high-ethanol concentrations that develop during fermentation. Considering the potential impact of these metabolites. Thus.7. in fact. pressi ng or tank-to-tank transfers—or it may be deliberate as in the case of juice hyperoxidation to force oxidative changes to occur early in the wine.9. Molecular oxygen is necessary to act as the hydrogen acceptor in the first reaction of sterol biosynthesis. Impact of juice/must aeration prior to fermentation Many winemaking techniques introduce molecular oxygen into the juice prior to the onset of fermentation. or that can be substrates of oxidation such as fatty acids.” Without survival factors.23 Hyper-oxidation is generally employed to force polymerization and precipitation of phenolic compounds as insoluble brown pigments in white wine production. oxygen can impact both the viability and metabolic activities of microorganisms. much more information is needed about how oxygen affects the production of yeast metabolism. in turn. This introduction may be unintentional and a consequence of crush i ng. The microbes can also produce endproducts—such as sulfur compounds. acetaldehyde rather than O2 serves as the terminal electron acceptor.

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Poor removal of brown sediment is thought to explain variable experiences with hyper-oxidation in white wine production. if it occurs via oxidation in juice. Reductive conditions formed by yeast metabolism can lead to a dissolution of insoluble complexes. Electrochemical micro-oxidation. has been explored as an alternative to micro-oxygenation in wine. which involves passing a current into a wine to add electrons. Polymerization. so it is important to rack the hyper-oxidized juice off of the brown sediment prior to initiation of fermentation. as will SO2 addition following clarification. and which enables a greater control of the nature of the compounds that will be reduced/oxidized. Superb craftsmanship and strict attention to detail make our products the most desired among today’s prominent winemakers. measurement of dissolved oxygen is difficult. If laccase is present in the finished wine. Often it is difficult to quantify how much oxygen has been consumed by a juice during aeration treatments. PPO is able Fine Wine Begins With Mueller ® Synchronizing Wine with Wood Paul Mueller Company designs and manufactures equipment for all aspects of winemaking.29 Enzymatic oxidation and production of quinones leads to a disappearance of anthocyanin mediated by the quinones. in juice.27 The impact of hyper-oxidation obviously depends upon the composition of the juice and presence of sufficient reactants to obtain efficient polymerization and avoid damage to varietal aromas.winemaking to compete for oxygen under these conditions and limits the availability of oxygen for grape microbes and acetobacter. However. However. Aeration in red musts is often associated with loss of color. PPO activity consumes O 2 so quickly that it often cannot be detected in Figure 7: Hypothesized anthocyanin degradation by PPO. in others it was neutral or detrimental. or if a technique such as flotation is used for juice clarification. In juices.7. there would be no available ethanol to yield acetaldehyde. In wine.com for all your winemaking needs! ©2013 Paul Mueller Company 380-9 72 p racti c al w i ne ry & v i ne yard O CTO BER 20 13 . color change is significant when oxidative conditions have been altered. Yeast metabolic activity leads to a more reduced juice environment and can alter the oxidation state of molecules in the juice. However.19. acetaldehyde is not formed in appreciable concentrations because ethanol has not yet been produced and because hydrogen peroxide is not a product of PPO-mediated activity. when there is no enzymatic activity consuming oxygen. It is important to monitor and limit these operations to avoid growth of undesired microbes in the juice. color stability and changes in tannin composition.27 In some cases the juice may need to be filtered to remove brown pigments. Hyper-oxidation can be achieved by tank-to-tank or within-tank transfers using an air diffuser. comparing juices with active polyphenol oxidase activity to wines lacking oxidase activity. it will generate quinones in the wine that will also lead to loss of color. if they are still in solution and have not precipitated. and oxygen levels change slowly.5 The difficulty of measuring dissolved oxygen in juice makes it complicated to define precise starting conditions with a quantified amount of dissolved oxygen. Call us at 1-800-MUELLER or email sales@paulmueller. Immediate inoculation with yeast can prevent unwanted microbial activity. Sensory analysis of wines made from hyper-oxidized juices has yielded varying results. even if PPO activity was effectively eliminated via SO2 addition. The juice released from grapes at crushing will initially be saturated with oxygen from the air.35 The proposed mechanism of color bleaching is thought to involve formation of unstable colorless phenolic acid and aldehyde derivatives of the anthocyanins catalyzed by quinones.19 and the loss of color is irreversible (Figure 7). Thus there are fundamental differences in the impact on both color and polymerization reactions involving anthocyanins. seems to lead to colorless or brown products. hyper-oxidation does not result in microbial deterioration of the juice or wine. If done with sufficient speed. Oxygen levels are easily measured in finished wine in the form of dissolved oxygen. In some studies hyper-oxidation was beneficial to wine quality.17 but has not been investigated for use as an alternative to juice hyper-oxidation. rather than polymerized pigment formation and color stabilization. of these reactions can be reversible. the formation of hydrogen peroxide and subsequent oxygen radicals leads to the presence of acetaldehyde which plays a key role in polymerization. The mixing of oxidases and their substrates in the juice will generally result in complete consumption of this dissolved oxygen in a matter of minutes under natural conditions. air can be introduced instead of nitrogen.

A third factor affecting the balance of PPO versus microbial consumption of oxygen is the presence of SO2. at lower temperatures. penetration and impact including the temperature at which the wine or juice is stored.winemaking juice following transfer or manipulation. CO2 production during fermentation can also cause oxygen to be sparged out of the wine. In addition. USED BY THE FINEST WINERIES TO ACHIEVE THE BEST RESULTS Call Now to Schedule Design Appointments! 1650 Almar Parkway Santa Rosa. In red juices. It influences the rate of O2 consumption.4 Thus the fate of oxygen in juice is dependent upon the relative ratios and activity of the microbes present and PPO activity. OR Contractor’s #180330 WA Contractor’s #PLSPELS923BZ S O L U T I O N S • E X P E R T I S E • Q U A L I T Y • S AT I S F A C T I O N pr actica l win ery & vin eya r d O CTO B ER 20 13 73 .5 Addition of diammonium phosphate (DAP) can greatly impact fermentation behavior. particularly the bacteria and molds. they compete with PPO for oxygen in juice. the amount of oxygen necessary to saturate wine or juice increases. or if the juice contains a high bio-load. due to volatilization.com CA Contractor’s #803431.16 Impact of aeration treatments during fermentation Saccharomyces. New technology using fluorescent materials may provide rapid enough analysis to observe oxygen in must. California 95403 P 707 573 3141 • F 707 573 3140 www. These organisms can compete with PPO for the oxygen present in juice. oxygen availability allows a more rapid development of COMPLETE CRUSHPAD SYSTEMS LT™ & LT 2+2™ MOG Separators Fruit Receiving Systems Bin Dumpers Sorting Tables Belt Conveyors Screw Conveyors Vibratory Conveyors Presses Destemmers & Peristaltic Pumps Destemmers. and of its fate.29 As microbial populations build. Mohno Pumps & Crush Rollers In addition to PPO activity. the ethanol of fermentation inhibits PPO activity. there may be more microbial competition with PPO than would occur normally. Saccharomyces and nonS a c c h a ro m y c e s y e a s t s . the appearance of brown pigment can be used as an indication of the level of oxygen pick-up by the wine. these organisms will also consume oxygen to synthesize cellular components required for growth and to aid in the transition from respiration to fermentation as the mode of energy generation. Many organisms present on the surface of grapes. During fermentation. blanketing and consumption in the presence of a more active biomass. however. As these populations grow. It appears. are obligate aerobes. However. and in wines the appearance of aldehydes is correlated with oxygen level. loss of color can be monitored. consumes more oxygen than microbial activity early in juice. utilizable by yeast. There are several factors impacting how long oxygen remains in the juice environment during fermentation. A l t h o u g h fermentative. because the large volume of CO2 being created during fermentation absorbs oxygen and sweeps it out of the fermentation as it forms gaseous bubbles. once established. so its use can also reduce microbial demand on the oxygen supply. outcompetes PPO for dissolved molecular oxygen. especially bacteria and some wild yeast such as Hanseniaspora.22 Use of DAP is to avoid fermentation issues such as sluggishness or sticking by providing extra nitrogen. the micro­ organisms present in juice also consume oxygen. Other factors in red and white wine influence oxygen uptake. SO2 is also toxic to microbes. Nitrogen supplementation to increase fermentation rate and CO2 production can lead to a more rapid O2 depletion. that PPO activity. Saccharomyces is resistant to SO2 and is able to detoxify this compound and grow in its presence. from the rapid production of quinones under these conditions.pnlspecialties. with the rate declining dramatically with SO2 addition due to PPO inhibition. Grape surfaces also contain fermentative organisms.16 leaving oxygen-available microbes. if uninhibited by SO 2. In the case of oxidation of white wines and juices.

while non-enzymatic oxidation can lead to color stabilization due to formation of different reactants and ultimate end-products.28 Five different yeast strains were examined. Micro-oxygenation of wine has been shown to increase activity of malolactic bacteria and lead to color stabilization.28 and confirmed that the primary benefit of oxygen during fermentation is the enabling of biosynthesis of growth requirements. A better understanding of how oxygen affects these metabolic activities and metabolites of sensory importance is needed. PPO consumption of oxygen dominates unless the enzyme is inhibited via SO2 addition. we examined the impact of oxygen addition in juices that were supplemented with ample nutrients. heat or fining treatments. During active fermentation. removing “reduced” aromas. For example. and non-enzymatic oxidation will occur simultaneously with malolactic (ML) fermentation.winemaking cell biomass due to the ability to synthesize an array of cellular building blocks that depend upon oxygen as a catalyst. The timing of aeration and therefore oxygen exposure is critical. once in the fermenting juice. In addition. and inducing chemical oxidation. Oxygen exposure showed little to no impact on fermentation behavior in all trials. inorganic sulfur from a vineyard will be reduced to hydrogen sulfide due to reductive conditions created by yeast. Under élevage conditions. Addition of large amounts of oxygen during fermentation can “reverse” these reductive products by overwhelming the yeast’s ability to absorb oxygen. Oxygen can also participate in both enzymatic and non-enzymatic oxidation reactions with differing outcomes for the wine. can participate as reducing agents. The resulting quinones will then quickly react with H2S that is present. the bacteria will use molecular oxygen for biosynthesis.5 In a recent experiment. This means that end products of metabolism are good electron donors and. Enzymatic oxidation leads to destabilization of wine color. yeast consumption is the dominant form of oxygen utilization. The goal of this study was to determine if oxygen would have an impact during juice fermentation if the cellular components requiring oxygen for their biosynthesis were plentiful in the environment. Oxygen is an important component in winemaking. The optimal amount of oxygen exposure will vary by grape variety and wine style being produced. Lactic acid bacteria can also impact the fate of oxygen in wine. and introduction of oxygen will stimulate both growth and metabolism of the organism. yeast also creates a reductive environment in the fermenting juice. 15 suggesting that metabolic activities of malolactic bacteria can contribute or consume compounds participating in oxidation/reduction reactions. non-enzymatic reaction products produced will differ if microoxygenation occurs before or after ML fermentation. PWV Conclusions 74 p racti c al w i ne ry & v i ne yard O CTO BER 20 13 . nonenzymatic oxidation becomes more prevalent in the wine. Oxygen can stimulate the growth and metabolic activities of microorganisms impacting microbial contribution to wine aroma and flavor. In juices. Like yeast.24 suggesting that the bacteria are not as competitive in oxygen consumption as the yeast are during alcoholic fermentation. In addition to direct consumption of molecular oxygen.

com pr actica l win ery & vin eya r d O CTO B ER 20 13 75 .” Am. 1996. M.M.E. A. L.. V. Arroyo. V.. N-N Liang.A. Cacho.” Am. 11. Enol. CA 95403 P. Winterhalter.N. & Vit.” Am. Monomeric anthocyanins and their color expression. Laguna. G. Enol. and C-Q Duan.. 55: 115–120. Riponi. Danilewicz.M. Du Toit.. Azanar. Cheynier. Koopmans.E. & Vit. J. polyphenols. Castellari. I. Masson. Q-H Pan.” Am. Cilliers. and N. and M. Kilmartin.F. Fell. Darriet.L. Esteban.. Balboa-Lagunero. du Toit.C. Chapman and Hall. 1999 “Stuck and sluggish fermentations. 58: 53– 60. 64: 527–535. & Vit.” Plant Food for Human Nutrition. 15. 27: 76–94. J. 9. 18 Fulcrand. Boulton. H.” Am. Durner. & Vit. 6. 12. 1990 “Must browning in relation to the behavior of phenolic compounds during oxidation. and D. Rigaud. M. Cheynier. G. 19. Reeves. L. & Vit. 17.” Am. Central role of iron and copper. and M. Enol. 50: 107–119. 2010 “Sensory and color changes induced by microoxygenation treatments of Pinot noir before and after MLF. J. Mu.com E. Enol. S. Cheynier. 1989 “Effect of pomace contact and hyperoxidation on the phenolic composition and quality of Grenache and Chardonnay wines. & Vit. 41: 84–86. M. and M. 49: 91–94. Danilewicz. and oxygen in a wine model system. Moutounet.. J.M. 2012 “Review of oxidative processes in wine and value of reduction potentials in enology.. & Vit. L. Enol. 4. 16. J. J. Barillere. J.” Am..J. and U. 2007 “Electrochemical microoxidation of red wine. P. B. 1995 “The control of polyphenol oxidase in fruits and vegetables.” S. 14. P. Nicolau. Souquet. 7. 1993 “Estimation of must oxidation during pressing in Champagne. Enol. Cheynier. 40: 36–42. & Vit. Enol. Herbst-Johnstone. Salas. J. & Vit. Principles and Practices of Winemaking. Amati. Kunkee. Afr. J. Duprat. D. F.” Am. Marais. J. Picking Lug Washers • Custom Cellar Equipment 1650 Almar Parkway. and J. Enol. T. M. Weber. phenolic fractions. 2012 “Anthocyanins and their variation in red wines I. J. 57: 289–297.” Am. F. L. J. J. and M. M. J. & Vit. 10. Singleton.L. and P. V. Pretorius. 57: 289–297. Fischer.. R.. Rigaud. 2011 “Sensory and olfactometric profiles of red wines after natural and forced oxidation processes. 61: 474–485. 63: 1–10. L. J. 8. and A. 2011 “Stability of varietal thiols in commercial Sauvignon 2 BARREL STEAMING MACHINE AUTOMATED STEAMING! W NE ! 2 & 4 Barrel Washing • 2 & 4 Barrel Steaming Barrel Processing Lines • 1/2 Ton Bin Washing Systems 35 lb. Neddermeyer.. 2006 ”Oxygen in must and wine: a review.. & Vit. F. Enol. J. Enol. ArteLli. 47: 245–246. Enol.” Am. V. and M. 707-573-3150 F. J. J. J. 3.” Am. Souquet.. A.” Am. Nogueira. 46: 380–384. Vitic. Dykes. 1998 “Evolution of phenolic compounds in red winemaking as affected by must oxygenation. Enol.M. Dubourdieu. 2. J. W. & Vit. Moutounet.L. E. Moutounet. 2003 “Review of reaction mechanisms of oxygen and proposed intermediate reduction products in wine: Central role of iron and copper. J. & Vit. 707-573-3140 www. Enol.F.M. and sulfur dioxide. J. Nicolau. He. 2007 ”Interaction of sulfur dioxide. Blanchard. Enol. 13.I. 20. J. J. Singleton. Enol.J. 1995 “Iron. and P. T. Almeida. 5. L. Danilewicz.C. Rigaud.A. 2004 “Reactivity of 3-mercaptohexanol in red wine: Impact of oxygen. J. 54: 73–85. Santa Rosa. Cabellos. 1990 “Nonenzymatic autoxidative reactions of caffeic acid in wine. Castells. Dueñas. J.” Molecules 17: 1571–1601. and V. copper and manganese influence on wine oxidation.” Am.. 44: 393–399.C. & Vit.E. jmendoza@tombeard. Bisson. 41: 346–349. J. Sagrista.tombeard. J. Wang. Kilmartin. and V.” Am. 2006 “Phenolic reaction during winemaking and aging.” Am. Bisson.B. K.winemaking Bibliography 1. Enol.. J. J. and R. J. & Vit. J. R.

22. 57: 306–313. 47: 103–107.com 76 p r acti c al w i ne ry & v i n e yard O CTO BER 20 13 . Oliveira. and A. 1979 “Oxidation of wine.com info@conetech. Enol.” Am. 1992 “Nitrogen supplementation of grape juice. J.L. Trousdale. 43:134–138.” Am.F. 1974 “The production of aldehydes as a result of oxidation of polyphenolic compounds and its relation to wine aging.” Am.-D. 1996 “Role of oakwood ellagitannins in the oxidation process of red wines during aging. D.M.” Am.A. Enol. Silva. Nguyen. 50: 137–143. A. & Vit. J. and K. Vivas.M.S. J. wines and model systems: Observations and practical implications. and A. Trousdale. 30: 49–54.R. Monteiro. and Y.A. Enol.com FEELING STUCK? We can help avoid VA side effects. Singleton. A. Moving? Be sure to send your new address to subs@winesandvines. 2006 “Polyphenol Oxidases in plants and fungi: Going Places? A review. and J. Kilmartin. 1998 “Must hyperoxidation: a review. Enol.” Am. & Vit. Yokotsuka. 36. & Vit. & Vitic. Dykes. Enol. 39: 1–4. Int.   ConeTech has helped countless winemakers solve this serious problem. J. Nicolau. V.” MS Thesis. Fujiyama. 21. Calderone. & Vit. Enol. Schwartzburg. 35. 33. S. J. Enol.L. 28.M. Zaya. 24. Pue. 43: 1–10. 34.” Am. 25: 119–126. V.” Am. & Vit. 44: 1115–1126.” Am.. Zapata. University of California.L. J. 49: 65–73.. J. V. Nagel.” Food Res. Enol. and L.F.. 48: 13–25. & Vit. 1997 “Disappearance of anthocyanin as grape juice is prepared and oxidized with PPO and PPO substrates. A. Schneider. Mayer. T. 1987 “Oxygen with phenols and related reactions in musts.L. 23. J. and P.M.” Am. C. 2011 “Oxidation mechanisms occurring in wines.L. Only ConeTech can reduce the alcohol in fermenting must. 2006 “Oxidation of wine phenolics: A critical evaluation and hypotheses. E.” Am. J.A.W. Singleton.winemaking blanc wines. L. Laurie.L. 2010 “Influence of microoxygenation on reductive sulfur odors and color development in a Cabernet Sauvignon wine. F. Glories.” Phytochemistry 67: 2318–2331. 60: 459–502. 36: 50–56. Munoz. Effect on amino acid utilization during fermentation. and E. K. 31. R. Enol. I. and V. Singleton. Bisson. Yokotsuka. 38: 69–77. Enol. J. 29. Waterhouse. & Vitic. Graber. 1992 “Oxidation of natural hydroxybenzoic acids by grapevine peroxidases: Kinetic characteristics and substrates. J.” Am. Singleton. without the slightest negative effect on the wine. Zaya. J. & Vitic. I. Singleton..” Am. 1999 “Purification and characterization of polyphenol oxidase from Muscat Bailey A grape juice. J. Enol. K.” Am. De Freitas. Wildenradt. J. and V.I. Ros Barcelo. V. H. J.L. A. Davis.conetech. Silva Ferriera. 2012 “Impact of Oxygen Alterations in Chardonnay Juice on Fermentation Behavior and Bound Sulfur Formation. 25. A.” Am. V. Enol.. and W. To see how we can help you call us at (707) 577-7500. Enol. 27.C. www. & Vitic. 30. Salgues. Young white wines periodically exposed to air. & Vitic. 1998 “Effect of must oxidation on quality of white wines. & Vitic. and V. & Vitic. L. C. M. 26. 61: 457–464. N. 1985 “Caftaric acid disappearance and conversion to products of enzymatic oxidation in grape musts and wine. J. 32. & Vitic. Enol. Okuda.

com pr actica l win ery & vin eya r d O CTO B ER 20 13 77 . But this is not to say that the vine’s physiology is being manipulated in the most water-efficient way. so many hours of irrigation per week. to have a desired grape yield/grape composition/wine quality outcome. Davis. due to rapidly growing internodes. I want to applaud the excellent research and extension efforts of Dr. At best this will be a suggested procedure rather than an outcome supported by research. It is my considered opinion that irrigation of wine grapes. Typically the vines are over-irrigated due to irrigation starting too early in the season. When we irrigate wine grapes we should have a very specific goal in mind. I have been traveling around wine grape vineyards for more than 40 years. at fixed intervals. In my opinion this is to create a desired level of vine water stress at appropriate points in the growth cycle. In my opinion we can do much better than this. I want to propose some reasons for this. especially in winter-rainfall areas and where soils are deep.calspl.S M A R T V I T I C U L T U R E by Dr. richard smart Actively growing shoot tips: Note that the shoot tip is well in advance of young leaves. His studies have provided a basis Photos by dr. I can hopefully provide a “smart twist” as to how this approach may be tweaked to better irrigate wine grapes. the Smart way for this column. The reader may wonder why I am critical of much commercial irrigation. and that water stress might be greater for red than white varieties. 3556 Sankey Rd Pleasant Grove CA 95668 | www. Further. with quality outcomes paramount. Richard Smart Vineyard irrigation. I recognize that these strategies may differ between red and white wine grape varieties. is typically poorly done. Larry Williams of the University of California. That is. and applying the same over the majority of the growing season. to keep it looking healthy and to produce reasonable crops. irrigation tends to be applied using a “cookiecutter” approach. although widely practiced. How can so many people be performing irrigation in a not-so-efficient manner? I think the answer to this is that it is relatively easy for an irrigation manager to apply water to a vineyard.

which is available at practicalwinery. Note that internodes behind tip are shorter. Williams’ irrigation studies in California. and that young leaves can reach in front of shoot tip. He was able to use a weighing lysimeter to estimate accurately the amount of water lost by vineyard evapotranspiration. Williams took his studies of irrigation back to first principles. 78 p racti c al w i ne ry & v i n e yard O CTO BER 20 13 . This extension article is one of the finest I have ever read and should be compulsory reading for vineyard irrigators. Summary of the Williams’ approach Williams’ studies have recognized the difference between Californian wine grape growing regions in the evaporative This shoot tip is stopping growth. He has been able to develop irrigation methods for this range of viticultural environments. He extended his studies to wine grapes in the coastal valleys of California.htm. He developed his ideas from initial research at the Kearney Ag Center with Thompson Seedless. Larry Williams’ studies I have long been a fan of Dr. for example. He was able to manipulate vines.s m a r t v i t i c u lt u r e Dr. I am particularly impressed that he was not content with only scientific publication of his results but brought them together in a very comprehensive extension article published in the November/ December 2001 issue of PWV. relating vine water use to the current environment in addition to characteristics of the vineyard. to show the effect of exposed leaf area on the amount of water lost by vines.com/ novdec01p42. from the North Coast down to Santa Maria. and for vineyards of different vine-row spacing and trellis systems.

both of which have higher amounts of exposed leaf area per acre. Examples of these differences include a growing season potential water use of 51 inches in Fresno to 44 inches in the Paso Robles region and 36 inches in Santa Maria. Williams’ paper covers many pages in PWV. and this column is only a few hundred words. A particularly useful part of the research was to develop a relationship between the canopy’s shaded area at noon and the crop factor kc. I have been able to quantify the appearance and growth rate of shoot tips to a numerical score. Therefore. The ratio between the actual vineyard water use and the potential evapotranspiration is defined by the factor kc. His paper documents simple methods as to how kc can be calculated from the noon shadow area. a grapevine stress index if you will. I have developed two scorecards. as quantified by visual scorecards. and also varies with vine row spacing and trellis system. I have found the appearance of the vine to be a more useful indicator for irrigation management. sunnier and less humid regions have higher potential evapotranspiration. I am used to working in environments where intermittent cloud cover may occur. as an indicator of vine-water status. This factor varies with stage of the growing season. about which time shoot trimming has usually occurred. I do not feel comfortable with this. and where the effects of dayto-day temperature and humidity variations on mid-day pressure-chamber readings can be dominant. Williams to develop irrigation strategies for vineyards of different row spacing and trellis systems and row orientations at various times of the year. Following véraison. The first describes shoot tip growth rate and can be used from fruit set through véraison. It is higher later in the season. Hotter. shoot tip growth should not occur.s m a r t v i t i c u lt u r e climate. so the reader should refer to the original article for details. and well-irrigated crops will lose more water. This allowed Dr. my approach has been to use the appearance of grapevines. and I have developed a second scorecard that relies on the pr actica l win ery & vin eya r d O CTO B ER 20 13 79 . The factor is higher for close vine rows and for divided trellis systems. Smart proposals for wine grape irrigation Williams has used pressure-chamber readings as a first point of reference for vine water stress. when vines have reached their full exposed leaf area.

vine appearance scorecards are used to provide an indicator of grapevine SUPPORT RESEARCH AMERICAN VINEYARD FOUNDATION & WINE INDUSTRY NEEDS THROUGH THE Finding Solutions Through Research Drs. Visit our Web site at www. This modified value is called kcs (or kc stress). The irrigation interval is normally fixed. One makes a guess at the irrigation amount to be applied based on the soil moisture measurement reading and/or the vine scorecard reading and uses this guess to establish a modified value of kc.org. Normally. 94581 • T: (707) 252-6911 • Email info@avf. For a wealth of useful viticulture and enology research and information. Fine root distribution can be assessed as a function of depth. Zalom. With several years experience. Moisture stress is induced by reducing the value of kc in the calculations of vineyard water use and hence the amount of irrigation water to be applied. they may need little irrigation anyway. P. a couple of points are relevant. Napa. depending on soil moisture content readings. at say two to three times per week. visit AVF. enologyaccess. 6. to indicate water stress. Following véraison. when there is still plenty of moisture retained in the subsoil. Both of these scorecards return a numerical value between one and five. Their work has provided viticulturists with insight and direction concerning the consequences of applying various spray materials on general and regional mite populations.org for information on funding and current research projects 80 p r acti c al w i ne ry & v i ne yard O CTO BER 20 13 . This can be achieved with backhoe pits made parallel to the vine row and about 12 inches from the line of the trunks. iv.ucdavis.org. 2. for example greater than 2–3 feet. a relationship will be developed for the vineyard that relates soil moisture content readings in the maximum root amount depth to the scorecard value. 4. For red wine grape varieties. Let me summarize the “Smart” approach to vineyard irrigation for wine grapes: 1. the majority of the roots are within the top 2–3 feet of soil. Following several seasons of application of this technique. The “Smart” approach to wine grape irrigation is iterative. water stress should be moderate so as not to impair the ripening process. or ngwi. 8. However. are mostly depleted. the irrigation amount is varied.org. Use the Williams approach of shaded area measurement at noon to estimate seasonal values of kc for the vineyard. (Depleting subsoil reserves is difficult in very deep soils. When moisture stress is applied. The soil moisture depletion graph can then be a template for future use. the soil moisture readings of the root zone can be related to water stress readings on the scorecards. Conclusion In a brief column like this it is not possible to go through all the details of this proposed new irrigation schedule. by using a modified kcs.edu. the aim is to commence water stress after fruit set to achieve the cessation of shoot growth a couple of weeks before véraison. Moisture stress is induced by lowering the value of kc to less than the value providing for optimal water status.O. I suggest the definition of the root zone (measured from the soil surface) that contains about 60% of the root volume. 3. Linda Bisson and others have helped vintners understand the yeast dynamics in high sugar musts and how to deal with “stuck” fermentations. appropriate for drip irrigation. Use average local data for potential evapotranspiration as a basis for calculating irrigation amounts. The work has led to the development and commercialization of specialized wine yeast and her lab is currently working on yeast that produce less ethanol.s m a r t v i t i c u lt u r e appearance of the grapevine. related to water stress. Be prepared to modify this value further. 7. However. Box 5779. The approach is iterative in the sense that the changes in vine water status as recorded by the scorecard should track toward the desired outcome of final water stress. Mills and others have completed comprehensive pesticide trials on spider mites and mite predators. Typically vineyard managers begin irrigation too early in the growing season.) 5.. Assess root distribution profiles for the vineyard prior to the commencement of the irrigation season. Dr. CA. it is this root zone depth that we need to monitor closely for soil-moisture content. My suggestion for a first guess of the modified value is to make kcs say 50% of kc. especially the leaves.avf.org. Begin irrigation when soil moisture measurement indicates subsoil moisture reserves. First.

• Allow bins to be removed without the use of a forklift.au.com You can find Western Square on and PracticalWineryLibrary.” He is happy to receive statements from growers and winemakers about their commercial success with various aspects of canopy management. This should avoid the common practice of over-irrigating wine grape vineyards and potentially reduce wine quality. PWV Dr. • Have wheels under the frame. Richard Smart is rewriting and thoroughly revising “Sunlight into Wine.0921 • Fax: 209. and consulting appointments also can be made by email. half-ton or quarter-ton plastic bins interchangeably. contact: WESTERN SQUARE I N D U S T R I E S 1621 North Broadway • Stockton. Green and Made in America pr actica l win ery & vin eya rd O CTO B ER 20 13 81 . Smart visits the U. Smart by email at richard@smartvit.944.com.s m a r t v i t i c u lt u r e water stress. These have been found to work quite reliably and are easy to assess with experience and can be integrated over many vines. The second feature of the Smart proposal is that irrigation should be practiced with a view of vine water status in mind. Dr. For specifications and a detailed brochure. Interested persons should contact Dr. CA 95205 Telephone: 209.au.367. locked position.944.S. Rear adjustable ramp shown above in down position allows bin(s) to slide to the ground and below in upright. Self-Tilt Trailer The self-tilt trailer allows you to remove bins without any extra machinery. trailers NARROW ROW FROM WESTERN SQUARE carry 4-foot bins down 6-foot rows Western Square Narrow Row Trailers: • Carry valley bins.8383 Visit our website: WesternSquare.com Lean. frequently.com. Two-bin Trailer The two-bin trailer is easily tilted at the hitch with a tractor. Strip of hard plastic allows bins to slide off without forklift. Single-subject articles on a wide range of topics From the archives of Practical Winery & Vineyard NEW Practical Winery Library! Small stepping board with tapered corners for minimal turning radius. See smartvit.0934 Toll-Free: 800. Western Square manufactures several models of trailers including other narrow row trailers.

along with commercial yeast inoculation. Turns out they do a brisk business in products explicitly packaged for use with white wine skin contact. it shows up in the wine instead. sparkling clear and fault-free. There are. resulted in a massive upgrade in the quality of the world’s white wines. Davis: “The goals for white wines differ from red wine production in several respects. If the skins are separated from the juice quickly. Then there are the unknown-unknowns. Somewhere along this continuum is the advice offered in this excerpt from the lecture notes to Enology 124. Clearly. it means intensified aromatics and fuller body. which is insufficient time to allow polymerization and softening of the phenolic content. oxidized. But this advice. In addition to bitterness. if this is an unknownunknown. and even though such uncontrolled microbial orgies are considered dangerous to your wine. We know. As recently as a couple decades ago. The longer the time of contact. Modern white winemaking protocols just say no to skin contact. Introduction to Wine Production. and possibly more aging potential. I’m sure the lecture notes at Montpelier or the guidelines at the AWRI say pretty much the same thing. the modern approach works. at the University of California. however well Highlights •P  re-fermentation skin contact for white grapes runs contrary to current winemaking doctrine. cool fermentation temperatures. but we have no idea how many or how often. most of them succeed anyway. •W  hite grape skins yield both aromatic and phenolic compounds. In that same Rumsfeldian space is the officially unfashionable technique of intentional skin contact for white grapes and juice. It can be easy to assume that these practices fall into the “nobody does that anymore” category. This color change is generally undesirable in white wines… “Skin contact refers to the length of time the juice is left in contact with the skins and seeds. a mix that can make wines more intense or simply coarse. Many white wine styles are designed to be consumed relatively young (less than five years of age). far more “wild” fermentations conducted every harvest than you might imagine. but many winemakers use the technique anyway. Generally little to no skin contact is desired. Since the microbial flora of the grapes is located on the skins. This is because the principal flavor and aroma compounds are located in the pulp of the grape with the skin providing little other than bitterness and astringency. for example. the microbes also are separated. Now you might ask. murky. when it works. not in the skins. phenolic compounds lead to off-color production under oxidizing conditions. as Donald Rumsfeld might observe. . It doesn’t show up on the label. the majority of the important sensory components of white grapes are in the pulp. for example. Today even low-end box wines are fresh. Fear of phenolics S Abe Schoener ferments white wine varieties with the skins for the Scholium Project. since neither winemakers nor the supplier will talk about it in public. that a lot of wineries use Velcorin to sterilize their wines. In contrast to red wine production. plenty of white wines were flat. successful innovations in winemaking go from experimental to trendy to dominant to something more like dogmatic. squeaky-clean sanitation. minimizing their numbers in the primary fermentation. skin contact also increases the contact of these organisms with the juice. It’s high on the “not the best practices” list. it has. funky or some combination of the above. reductive strategies. While that package may sound somewhere between conservative and paranoid.”1 (See related article on page 65. However many that may be. •S  kin contact holds promise particularly for aromatic whites and is relatively common in Alsace and Bordeaux. though I did some of that. including practices that are out of official favor but still in some use anyway. but from talking to enzyme suppliers and looking through their catalogs. which suggests somebody out there must be soaking their exocarps. the greater the extraction of the components of the skins into the juice. Inevitably. fruity.) I don’t mean to pick on Davis here. yet they persist and even grow. Skin shunning is a 82 W in es & V i ne s OC TOB E R 20 13 core element of the reigning textbook approach. heat and cold stabilization and sterile filtration. are knownunknowns. how do I know about it? Not from talking to winemakers.Inquiring Winemaker T i m P a tt e r s o n The Skinny on Skin Contact for Whites ome aspects of commercial winemaking. to be fair. but a lot of people do it anyway.

when in fact they can also add positively to mouthfeel and perceived body. it suggests that all you get from white skin contact is phenolics. minimizing or eliminating maceration simultaneously reduces the uptake of varietal flavorants located in the skins. such as provided by pneumatic presses or whole-grape pressing. To offset this deficiency. This trend was encouraged by the widespread adoption of mechanical harvesting. “Unfortunately. depending on the tendency of the grapes to rupture. and that doesn’t stop us. And second. decreasing the need for protein stabilization products. precipitation and degeneration of compounds during maceration. Surely there can be excessive phenolic extraction with white grapes. due to the complexities of temperature and duration on extraction. However. this became increasingly important with the adoption of gentler pressing. use of the first and second press-run fractions increased. fruit-fixated white winemaking. does it? So why the ban on showing some skin? In Wine Science. The shift to light. First. that can happen with reds. and he is on the mark about how pressing techniques help to Win es & Vin es O C TO B E R 20 13 83 . it suggests that all the phenolics can add is bitterness and astringency. though in fact the skins of at least some varieties are home to a wide range of aromatic goodies and goodie precursors.winemaking intentioned. This option is often easier to manipulate than maceration. some inevitable maceration occurred on the way to the winery—its extent depending on the duration separating harvest and crushing/ pressing and the temperature of the grapes. seems a bit one-sided on at least two counts. Canadian researcher/writer Ronald Jackson provides some intriguing historical context for the emergence of grape skin phobia as the introduction to a section about white grape maceration. Nevertheless.”2 Jackson nicely captures what got lost in the transition to hyper-gentle. For wines dependent on aromatics extracted from the grapes. fruity white wines in the 1970s resulted in minimizing skin contact. —Ronald Jackson “The shift to light. but then. Reduced maceration also diminished the uptake of heat-unstable proteins. too. such as S-cysteine conjugates in Sauvignon Blanc. fruity white wines in the 1970s resulted in minimizing skin contact. the addition of press fractions augments the wine’s phenolic content.

potentially creating an aromatic “bloom” well after fermentation is finished or even later in the bottle. More important. But the skins of certain grape varieties can be home to substantial concentrations of monoterpenes (linalool. Potassium: Skins are rich in this substance as well. the absence of anthocyanins changes the normal rules for how tannins polymerize.) In fact. Phenolics: Here we get from white skins flavonoid-type phenols. Since the general practice with skin contact 84 W in es & V i ne s OC TOB E R 20 13 . The good news is that they become less prominent and less problematic as grapes approach full maturity. Lipids: These fatty acids can be friend or foe. Machine harvesting guarantees some level of juice ooze on the way to the press. cysteine conjugates (which lead to the thiols in Sauvignon Blanc) and glycoconjugates (sugar-bound potential volatiles). “Like most choices in winemaking. Elevated phenolic content may also help with the ageability of white wines made with skin contact. skins bring all manner of bugs into the mix—and not just earwigs or fruit flies. with most of them requiring fermentation to develop. Chances are any skin soak will mine some combination of the following: Aromatic compounds: Fully formed aromatic compounds are scarce in grapes. but how much.winemaking make up for what maceration doesn’t extract. Wines & Vines hereby offers a cash prize (amount to be determined) to any winemaker who can extract the juice from a ton of grapes without incurring any skin contact. and skin extraction can raise pH and lower acidity—a good reason not to try skin contact on already high-pH juice. the right question about skin contact is not whether. and even whole-cluster-pressed grapes mix skins and sauce during the press cycle. the bad and the hard-to-tell than the simple strategy of avoidance. Nitrogen: Skins are the biggest repositories of nitrogen in grapes. which function as precursors for later volatile phenols. depending on their concentration and composition. In other words. anthocyanins are not to be found. things you might want (or not want) in your wines. Unlike the case of red skins. catechins and the like. each decision has its pros and cons. geraniol) and grassy methoxypyrazines. (Notice the color in cluster-pressed pink wines. hand-harvested grapes piled atop each other in bins do the same. skin contact increases the pool of available nutrients during yeast fermentation. Microbes: As the Davis discussion notes. caftaric and fertaric acids). and under what conditions and toward what stylistic end? Extraction roulette Jackson’s next sentence is. These include carotenoids (which can morph into rosy damascenone). except in small concentrations in pinkish/gris grape varieties. how they precipitate and how astringent the tannins are—much less so in whites than reds. and by extracting amino acids.” True enough: Intentional white skin maceration yields a more complex bundle of the good. White skins also contain some amount of hydroxycinnamic esters (coutaric. how those polymers react with oxygen. the factor that gives skin contact its bad reputation. Along the way he also touches on the Catch-22 of rampant skin avoidance: It’s impossible. many of these compounds take their time in maturing. (Color modification in skin-contact whites comes from carotenoids and other non-anthocyanin compounds.) Catechin monomers can produce bitterness. Aromatic precursors: This is the bigger treasure trove for skin contacters. Just to keep things interesting.

and all of them do a mix of things besides pulling goodies out of the skins. His favorite method is to leave crushed grapes in the References 1. Tim Patterson is the author of “Home Winemaking for Dummies. with most practitioners on the low side. the drivers of extraction are time and temperature. Fruit also needs to be fully ripe. the value isn’t so clear. but one that can have definite impact on flavor and texture. for the record. Calif. how white wines were made for thousands of years. All of this is a different path from the road to so-called orange wines (some of which are not orange). sometimes producing wines that are undrinkably coarse when young but come around nicely after four years or so in barrel. For overripe fruit. For more neutral varieties. Talking with Shirley Molinari of Lallemand and Peter Salamone of Laffort. Enzyme-aided skin contact times are even shorter. the addition of bitter phenols is no help. only in this case we can actually measure what it accomplishes. Skin contact is common for the aromatic whites of Alsace. And not just in the more experimental small wineries but now and then with the big boys. already headed for high pH and high alcohol.winemaking is to postpone sulfur dioxide additions until after pressing—the presence of SO2 increases phenolic extraction—feral critters that come in on the skins will have a few more hours to play. potentially adding a whiff of yuck. for eight to 12 hours. the skin contact techniques discussed here are simply a variation on the modern theme. too. The universe of such products is all derived one way or another from the versatile fungus Aspergillus niger.” One more thing that makes white skin contact an unknownunknown is that there’s not much research done about it.org/Resources/VEN124/VEN124_07. composition and health. sometimes masked by residual sugar.” it gets less attention. Worth a trial press. Jackson notes that the categorization of German whites according to their harvest ripeness also happens to correlate nicely with their phenolic content. of course. white grapes may have been harvested in your area. which slows down the pace of extraction and keeps spontaneous fermentation activity at a minimum. Think of it as a Pinot Noir cold soak. but known and increasing.htm. more troublesome phenolics. with the outlet valves turned off. well under 60ºF. and it’s one reason why those heady wines are so heady and why many of them deliver a trace of bitterness on the finish. or a minus. including increasing juice volume and speeding clarification. since extraction rates are higher. since those are the grapes that have noseworthy stuff to extract. particularly over time. Veteran winemaker John Buechsenstein remembers a fad for skin contact with Chardonnay in the 1980s. Most of the major additive suppliers offer an extractive enzyme specifically recommended for use with skin contact regimens. In a sense. casting a critical eye on conventional wisdom in the process. Academic Press. winemaker Abe Schoener does full-on fermentations with the skins on some whites. since Viognier can so easily get out of balance and become overbearing. Morten Hallgren at Ravines Wine Cellars includes a portion of skin-contacted fruit in most of his white wines. Wine Science. Contact time varies from a few hours to overnight to maybe 24 hours. Ever since the method earned the status of “nobody does that any more. make him interested in getting to the bottom of wine stories. Temperatures are generally held quite cool. and a lot of puzzles are left unsolved. Key among the gaps is a full understanding of how white skin phenolics behave and transmogrify in the absence of anthocyanins. reverse osmosis may be more appropriate than skin contact. For underripe fruit beset with green flavors. which can mean more lovely aromatics. 336-7. This is. A  vailable online at http://enologyaccess. How much of what comes out depends. the percentage is higher in warmer/riper years and lower in cooler ones. Gewürztraminer and Sauvignon Blanc. By the time you read this. only more so. Winemakers have to judge whether that’s a plus.” He writes about wine and makes his own in Berkeley. 2. skin contact is alive and well out there in winemaking land. Winemakers are all over the map regarding the value of skin contact. Win es & Vin es O C TO B E R 20 13 85 . an approach that yielded no aromatic boost but did extract enough phenolic material to require fining for drinkability. or both. Skin contact is generally practiced on already aromatic varieties like Muscat. Orange winemaking offers a comprehensive alternative to the conventional white wine wisdom. potentially adding a touch of complexity.  Ronald S. which hold onto their skins all the way through fermentation. In the Finger Lakes. Once skin contact is under way. on grape variety. Santa Barbara Viognier queen Morgan Clendenen. 2008. It’s common as well in the trendier precincts of Bordeaux for both Sauvignon Blanc and Sémillon. but not overripe. Riesling. combined with a contrarian streak. Salamone describes the practice as “not mainstream. on the other hand. gets rid of the skins ASAP. At the Scholium Project. but there is plenty of time to rig up a trial on some promising batch of grapes next year. Jackson. they do what natural grape enzymes do. Years of experience as a journalist.

A For the past two years. winesandvines. Department of Agriculture).com Innovation for impact 86 W in e s & V i ne s OC TOB E R 20 13 . making it appear as if the name is carved out of the main label. Heavy de-bossing creates visual depth for the Caliza brand signature. • Single-source supplier for pressure-sensitive and glue-applied labels.NE W S O F GRA P E S AN D W INE S IN EA S T ERN NOR T H AMERI C A Tasting Wine Grape Cultivars by Region Researchers in the Northeast evaluate wines from the multi-state NE 1020 project eneva. growers and industry researchers eschewed time in the vineyard or the lab Aug. The “Cultivar by Region” tasting provided the first opportunity to taste and compare wines made from grape cultivars grown at various sites in New York. A scuff varnish further enhances the details of the script. Pennsylvania and Connecticut as part of the G the U. reLearn more: Search keywords total of nine flights were arranged searchers at Cornell. Learn more at www. or is it powerful. 15 in favor of attending a wine tasting in Geneva. The NE 1020 project.—Thirty-three winemakers. along with application equipment. N.wspackaging.) HEADLINES p86 GRAPEGROWING p90 Is your label just ink on paper. small.” by variety and by processing trials and the Connecticut Agricultural such as different yeasts. cost-effective marketing? • Dedicated to serving the wine industry with rotary offset. sheet-fed offset.com several varietal plot vineyards. • Award-winning wine labels and sustainability solutions. Penn State “NE 1020.com/casestudies/caliza.wspackaging. a comprehensive study Cultivar by Region tasting was set up to exthat involves researchers in 24 states from plore the site differences between California to Vermont. and they included Experiment Station have worked together to 46 wines made from v ­ inifera and hybrid produce wines for the project (initially funded through the Viticultural Consortium via (Continued on page 88.Y.com 1-877-977-5177 marketing@wspackaging.S. www. and UV flexo printing capabilities.and large-format digital. • 22 facilities strategically located nationwide to reduce transportation costs and provide manufacturing redundancy and security.

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had the light peach-citrus flavors and crisp finish often associated with Vidal wines.7° Brix) or Connecticut (18.3000 • WWW. The Pennsylvania and New York wines.3 g/L in one of the New York wines.psu. on the other hand.542. Additional information about the NE 1020 project is available at extension. Elixir. looked at the differences between a monoculture (a single commercial yeast strain) and dual culture (inoculation with two commercial yeast strains at one time) in the Cabernet Franc rosé wines. Dress them accordingly. Participants in the tasting were requested to give sensory input about the various samples such as each wine’s “likeability” and its “commercial potential. —Linda Jones McKee . and the total acidity in the finished wine varied from a high of 9. which seemed to make them show fewer characteristics typical of Vidal. the white varietal Aromella and the red varietal Arandell. Other yeasts including Cross Evolution. 2011 and 2012.4° Brix) than that from either New York (17.COM specialty papers digital printing flexo printing hot & cold foil screen printing embossing 88 W in es & V i ne s O C TOB E R 20 13 each region and differing grape and wine chemistries. One of the attractions of attending the Cultivar by Region tasting was the chance to taste samples of wine made from two recently named New York hybrid grapes. The wines from 2011 included samples from both own-rooted and grafted vines grown on each training system. extension enologist at Penn State. a yeast strain that is known for its ability to release thiol-related volatile compounds that are important to aromatic varieties. The two wines made with the Vin 13 yeast strain definitely reflected that yeast’s reputation for enhancing the aromatic qualities of the resulting wines. Rhone 4600.08 g/L in the Pennsylvania wine to a low of 7. You fill your bottles with the very best. including wines fermented with Vin 13..WineEastNews (Continued from page 88.7° Brix).edu/enology. with floral and Muscat characteristics. ICV Opale and NT 116 were evaluated in wines from all three states.. EC 1118.” The wines made at Cornell involved several wine yeast trials.) grapes. The fruit from Erie County in Pennsylvania was higher in sugar (21. GRE. The wines in the Arandell flight came from two vintages. and they reflected the differences in climate of Cultivar participants taste Pennsylvania Cabernet Franc rosés and Cabernet Sauvignon. Denise Gardner.NIAGARALABEL. The variables under consideration in these wines were whether the vines were own-rooted or grafted and which trellising system the vines were grown on—VSP or high-wire cordon. Vidal Blanc was the only flight where the wines came from all three states. while in 2012 the wines came only from grafted vines. ES 488. 716. The wines made from grapes grown on grafted vines on high-wire cordon in both vintages had berry fruit flavors with some hints of black pepper as well as a good tannin structure. The researchers associated with the NE 1020 project in the three states have not yet determined when or how the data from the tasting will be compiled. The Connecticut wines were much higher in malic acid than tartaric acid. The Aromella wines were quite aromatic. Top Floral.

—Paul Franson Win es & Vin es O C TO B E R 20 13 89 . cordons and grapes. He found parts of it downstream.” trellises. “We can use it to ferment Waterloo_Nov10. which he was told was the flood of the century. on a 4-foot foundation. All other winemaking equipment. All that is left at 500-case Railway Winery are the trunks of the vines.com almost all equipment Learn more: Search keywords and even its vine “Railway Winery. It didn’t help: This onslaught was three or four times higher. half of which was planted to hybrid vines with a bit of Cabernet Franc planted in 2009. Of the thousand bottles of wine that went downstream. the only other winery nearby. They looked like beer cans a giant had stepped on. case goods and memorabilia in the winery were destroyed or missing except for a basket press Schneider was able to salvage. a converted workshop and storage area. the owners of Keels Creek Winery. Ark.WineEastNews Arkansas Winery Swept Away by Flood New tanks ‘looked like beer cans a giant had stepped on. A fund to help Railway Winery recover from the flood has been established at Cornerstone Bank. He had 1. the Schneiders found fewer than a dozen. and they were destroyed along with their existing tanks. burying the trunks of the vines.” Schneider said. Because of the earlier flood. Doug Hausler and Edwige Denyszyn. “We found some of the tanks downstream. winesandvines.qxp 8/26/10 11:36 AM fruit wines. The winery sat on 15.” E Railway Winery’s 4-foot foundation couldn’t keep it safe from a flood in northern Arkansas. have offered space for Schneider to make and sell wines. Schneider lived through another flood of Butler Creek a few years ago. Schneider said he will rebuild.100 grapevines planted and 400 cuttings growing in a nursery. The floodwater also washed gravel out of the creek bed and deposited it on part of the vineyard. but he plans to do so on higher ground. Owners Greg and Vicki Schneider had just received three new stainless steel fermentation tanks the week before. 7. He found one fermentor and pounded it back into approximate shape. Schneider built the winPage 1 ery.5 acres. Schneider hopes that the vines will regrow. washing away the building.’ owner says ureka Springs.—A small winery in rural northern Arkansas was swept away during a flood Aug. which will have to be made with purchased grapes.

spacing and root system impact yield and fruit composition By Justine E. 8 feet. with root system (own-rooted vs.Y.SIHA YEAST OAK ALTERNATIVES .DECAN T E Eastern Distributor for Beco Filter Sheets. low cordon with vertical shoot positioning (LVSP). in a block with deep. and root systems were own-rooted vs. as the main plot high-wire cordon (HWC) vs. 2006) describes the growth as semi-upright to semi-trailing and reports that Noiret is smaller than both Concord and GR7 with respect to yield and vine size. grafted on 101-14 Mgt) randomized among the sub-plots.BECOPAD S TERILE FILTRATION . Rows were spaced 9 feet apart and oriented north-south. The experiment was replicated five times. N2 Generators. Vanden Heuvel WineEast Grapegrowing N oiret is an interspecific red hybrid wine grape that was released by Cornell University in 2006.Establishing a Noiret Vineyard Vine training program. Should the vines be own-rooted or grafted? What training system should be employed? How close or far apart should the vines be spaced? The objective of this field study was to investigate the impact of training system. However. • Early results suggest that the inherent vigor and downward growth habit of Noiret make it unsuitable for a VSP trellis system in the early years of the vineyard. EvOAK Oak Alternatives. and vine spacing as the subplot (6 feet vs. yield components.WATER FILTRATIO N . The treatments were training system. vine spacing and rootstock on vine growth. but there is little research to provide guidance about the appropriate viticultural practices for Noiret. vine spacing was 6 feet vs. Chillers. Materials and methods Vineyard site and experimental design. Siha Yeast. Parker-dh Membranes. • High-wire cordon was compared to low cordon with vertical shoot positioning. grafted on 101-14 Mgt rootstock. The original cultivar description (Reisch et al. The planting was established in 2007 at the New York State Agricultural Experiment Station in Geneva. fruit composition and consumer preference for Noiret wines produced from a young vineyard. 8 feet). Many growers are interested in planting this cultivar. anecdotal reports from Finger Lakes growers suggest that Noiret vines can be vegetative and unruly. Panels were 24 feet Wine East HIGHLIGHTS • A New York field study about the recently introduced red hybrid wine grape Noiret investigated the impact that planting and training decisions have on grape and wine production.. . N. Zander Air Products 90 W in e s & V i ne s OC TOB E R 20 13 R CENTRIFUGES - . well-drained Honeoye fine silt loam.

. Winemaking. miwinebarrel Stainless Steel & Oak Wine Barrels. Fermentation was performed with skin contact in 114-liter jacketed stainless steel fermentors with automated temperature control. Cap management consisted of manual punch down performed twice daily throughout fermentation.27 g/L. NY 14891 lakewoodcork. A panel of guard vines was planted at the end of each row. Midwest.. The 20-cluster sample was thawed at room temperature and crushed by hand. Custom Stainless Steel Tanks! 734. pruning weights were also collected. During the first three days of alcoholic fermentation. so no nitrogen supplement was added beyond the GoFerm Protect (0. after which the temperature was held between 20º and 30ºC. Noiret clusters were not fully ripe in mid-September 2013. Fermaid K at 0. and cluster number per vine was recorded. grafted LVSP/6’. Wines were cold stabilized at 2ºC. East Coast.1 g/L and Goferm at 0. Field replicates for each grafted treatment (grafted HWC/6’. Natural Corks Champagne Corks Twinline Corks Bartops VISION® Wine Stopper G-Cap® Screw Cap We now also provide. all lots were found to have at least 200 mg/L. grafted LVSP/8’) were combined and then separated into two lots for replicated fermentations. Fruit was destemmed. Diammonium phosphate (DAP) was added at a rate of 1 g/kg. Yield components. crushed and treated with 50 mg/L sulfur dioxide added as potassium metabisulfite. data was collected for grafted vines only in 2009. Due to the significantly smaller size of the own-rooted vines. racked into standard 5-gallon glass carboys and inoculated with Alpha to start malolactic fermentation (MLF). The slurry was pressed through cheese cloth to yield a juice sample. as measured by Clinitest tablets.5%. When yeast-assimilable nitrogen was measured in 2010.WineEast Fruit composition. A random sample of 20 clusters per experimental unit was collected at harvest and stored at -40°C until analysis.com 607-535-9252 607-535-6656 Fax Win es & Vin es O C TO B E R 20 13 91 . Vine survival was excellent. and Oct. When residual sugar reached <0. but for all vines in the experiment in 2010. 4. in length and contained either three or four vines. depending on the vine-spacing treatment.com As good As it gets.. 2009. and all vines were established on the training systems by September 2008. 2010. wines were dejuiced.com Lakewood Cork 4024 State Route 14 Watkins Glen. grafted HWC/8’. Great Lakes..15 g/L in 2009. Vines were pruned during the winter to five nodes per foot of canopy during the spring of 2009 and six nodes per foot of canopy during spring 2010.3 g/L) at yeast rehydration. miwinebarrel. the must was warmed slowly from 20ºC to a maximum of 30º-35ºC.. The must was brought to 20ºC and inoculated with ICV-GRE to 0.2028 Sales Representatives Chris & Liz Stamp info@lakewoodcork. pH and TA were determined using standard practices.. Soluble solids. Canada. and drip irrigation was installed in the planting. potassium metabisulfite was added to maintain 40 mg/L free sulfur dioxide.398. Fruit from each vine was hand harvested Nov. 22. Yield per vine was quantified using a hanging scale. Upon completion of MLF.

63 2.4 3.46 10.3 18.WineEast Treatment Yield (Tons per Acre) Cluster Number per Foot Average Cluster Weight (Pounds) Pruning Weight (Pounds per Foot) 2009 Training System LVSP HWC 2009 Vine Spacing 6 feet 8 feet 2010 Training System LVSP HWC 2010 Vine Spacing 6 feet 8 feet 2010 Root System Own-Rooted Grafted /101-14 Mgt.1 4.6 17.2 3.52 11. HWC: high-wire cordon.3 18.66 0.67 0.7 6 6 0.4 3.67 0.8 18.55 5.9 4.3 17.61 2.7 5.57.5 9 7 0. 0.2 18.5 17.26 0.9 5.22 0.6 4.24 0.8 4.5 LVSP: low cordon with vertical shoot positioning.9 3.51 3. an indication of vine balance.64 2.51 3.6 4.31 0.8 5.22 0.56 3. H&W_Dec10.qxp 10/12/10 92 W in es & V i ne s OC TOB E R 20 13 .56 3.1 3. 3.22 0.3 11.6 18.62 Page 1 5.31 0.2 5 6 0.9 4.2 18.2 3. Cropload ratio = yield/pruning weight.9 3.7 3.35 0.26 0.3 10:59 AM 3.1 3.60 3.1 12.5 Grapegrowing Impact of Training.57 5.24 0.70 0.62 3.6 3.60 3.4 4.2 6 6 0.6 9 8 0. Vine Spacing and Root System Cropload Ratio Soluble Solids (oBrix) pH TA (g/L) 17.1 3.

Wine serving order was randomized within and across participants.6 tons per acre more fruit than vines growing in the LVSP system by producing bigger (not more) clusters.qxp WineEast 1/22/09 9:47 AM Page 1 In 2009.com • www. Results Yield components and vine growth. with a five-minute break between flights. For each vintage.6 tons per acre more fruit. so there was little carryover effect of treatments from the previous growing season. Yield was 0. all panelists reported consuming red wine at least once per month. wines produced in 2009 and 2010 were evaluated in two separate flights of four wines each. served at room temperature in 300ml ISO tasting glasses labeled with random three-digit numbers and covered with petri dish lids. Twenty-six sensory panelists were selected from a list of volunteer subjects maintained by the Cornell Enology Extension Lab based on their availability and frequency of red wine consumption.com Win es & Vin es O C TO B E R 20 13 93 .COM Ph 609-859-4302 Cell 609-668-2854 AOAC Member chemist@easternwinelabs. and in our experience unfinished red hybrid wines are generally poorly rated by consumer panels. Wines were not ranked for gustatory properties. Panelists were seated in sensory booths and presented with 30ml samples of each wine. Yield components were minimally impacted by training system or vine spacing in 2009. the same acid level was achieved with the addition of tartaric acid post-cold stabilization.5 g/L through the addition of potassium carbonate prior to cold stabilization. Consumer wine preference.EASTERNWINELABS. in 2010. Pruning weight was 0. The wines were screened for faults by an expert panel prior to bottling in standard 750ml glass bottles closed with screwcaps. Panelists were asked to smell all the samples prior to indicating aroma preference by ranking wines from one (most favored) to four (least favored). and the crop-load ratio (an indication of vine balance) was greater. Training system and spacing had little impact on fruit composition in either year of the study. wines produced from the four treatments were compared through preference ranking. while wines from the two LVSP EASTERN WINE LABS Serving the Analytical needs of East Coast Wineries WWW. likely due to vine age. but fruit from grafted vines was 0. and the crop-load ratio was higher compared to own-rooted vines. Grafted vines produced 0. As we were not interested in preferences for one vintage over another. while root system had no impact on soluble solids or pH (see table on page 92). titratable acidity was adjusted to 6.EasternWineLab_Mar09. as research wines are generally unfinished so that viticultural differences among treatments are not masked by cellar practices such as oak exposure or tannin additions. Sensory analysis of the wines using a tool called rank sum analysis indicated that wines from the 2009 vintage produced from the HWC/8’ treatment were significantly preferred to wines produced from the LVSP/6’ treatment based on aromatic preference. vines in the HWC system produced approximately 1. In 2010. Wines from both vintages were evaluated over two days during late July and early August 2011. each panelist evaluated both flights during a single session. Wines from the two HWC treatments were ranked first and third preferentially.com Need a Better Cork Supplier? All Natural Cork Closures Fresh Corks Directly From Portugal 4th Generation Family Cork Producer Free Branding Free Shipping Free iS Better Ask about our Progressive Discounts Experience the Slimcork® Advantage CALL TODAY phone (203) 681-7743 Cell (860) 335-0667 email: reliablecork@gmail. Fruit composition. Consumer wine preference.9 pounds per foot lower in the 8-foot treatment. vines had been minimally cropped during their second growing season to encourage vegetative growth.6 tons per acre greater in vines spaced at 8 feet compared to those spaced at 6 feet as a result of having larger clusters.4 g/L lower in TA compared to own-rooted vines.reliablecorksolutions.

tighter vine spacing (6 feet) and own-roots. which differs from results reported for other hybrids. Analysis of wines produced in 2010 indicated that the wine from the HWC/6’ treatment was significantly preferred to wine produced from LVSP/6’ and ranked first and fourth.and 10-year period. the young vines in this study were overly vegetative and did not produce enough fruit. 2004). 8 bags in attractive box.qxp 9/2/09 9:26 AM Page 1 Mulling Spice For Wine In Tea Bags! An ideal compliment for your wine sales. 24 boxes per case. However. vine spacing and root system all impacted yield and the crop-load ratio with LVSP. and the Arts Washington DC * (202) 349-4172 * traphagenlaw. over a six. However. all resulting in lower crop-load ratios and lower yields through reduced cluster weights. 2008). Yields reported here for HWC were in a similar range as those reported by Reisch et al. respectively (Reisch et al. (7. respectively. Ind. In this study.5). OldeTraditionSpice_Oct09. where increased spacing had limited influence on yield of Chancellor (Reynolds et al. Wassle or Gluvine. OLDE TRADITION SPICE 800-977-1117 www. Crop-load ratios in this study were in a similar range to those reported in the cultivar description for a New York planting. but were considerably lower than crop-load ratios reported for Noiret in Vincennes. no sugar! Can be used to make: Glogg. 1995) and reduced yield of Seyval Blanc (Reynolds et al. Management practices to increase the yield of Noiret need to be pursued. pruning weight per foot of canopy was considerably lower in those studies compared to the pruning weights reported here for Noiret. 1995) and Seyval Blanc (five-year average of 18-22) (Reynolds and Wardle 1994).com 94 W in e s & V i ne s OC TOB E R 20 13 Traphagen Associations Law PLLC Discussion In 2010. This may indicate that vines in this study were considerably more vegetative than those in comparable studies. Pruning weights in this study suggested that Noiret vines can grow much larger than initially reported in the cultivar description. a suggestion supported by the exceedingly low crop-load ratios reported here (approximately 3-4) compared to those reported for Chancellor (five-year average of 11-16) (Reynolds et al. Although the cultivar release bulletin suggested that cluster thinning may be helpful in some years.4). yield per foot of canopy increased with greater spacing. (2006).oldetraditionspice. Ind. yield of LVSP was considerably lower than HWC in 2010.com Trademarks Copyrights Marketing Merchandising Social Media Internet Intellectual Property for Business. Noiret in this study was larger than every hybrid cultivar other than Corot Noir and Chancellor. 2006). Media. treatments ranked second and fourth. The tea bags are all natural. . (6. training system. and West Lafayette.WineEast Noiret on HWC/6-foot spacing exhibits excessive vigor. While there is no specific recommendation for an appropriate crop-load ratio for Noiret—or for hybrids in general—recommendations have ranged from 8 to 12 (Bordelon et al. Vertical shoot positioning has been repeatedly demonstrated to reduce yield as a result of excessive canopy density in other hybrid cultivars unless the canopy is divided with a training system such as Scott Henry. Compared to other hybrid pruning weight data reported in the academic literature.

P.” HortTechnology.com Single-subject articles on a wide range of topics from the archives of Practical Winery & Vineyard. D.” Am. “Impact of training system and vine spacing on vine performance and berry composition of Chancellor. Coquard Lenerz. is an associate professor of viticulture at Cornell University. Enol. Cliff and M.E. D. as in our study vines in the 8-foot spacing treatment had lower pruning weights and greater yields on a per foot of canopy basis. Enol. J. “’Noiret’ grape.naylorpackaging. where she is actively involved in both research and teaching. S.K. These early results provide the first guidance about choosing a training system and vine spacing for Noiret. PA 17363 (800) 292-3370 sales@naylorwine. Henick-Kling. Additionally. Our automatic bottom wine carriers are the perfect sturdy solution for your retail sales! Wine Packaging by Naylor 4138 Vineyard Rd. B. resulting in complete coverage of the fruiting zone with downward growing shoots. J.D. berry composition and wine sensory attributes of Seyval and Chancellor. Meyers and A.. R eynolds. Vitic. as the consumer wine panel preferred the aroma of an HWC wine to the LVSP/6’ wine in both years of the study. “Impact of training system on vine performance and fruit composition of Traminette. Vitic. Her research is focused around improving both the environmental and economic sustainability of wine grape production systems in cool climates. B. 55: 84-95. suggests that the preference for the HWC wines may be a function of the higher yield.” New York State Agricultural Experiment Station bulletin 160. “Training system and vine spacing impact vine growth. as shoots would grow over the top catch wire and then downward. 1994. We found the LVSP on 6-foot vine spacing to be exceedingly difficult to manage due to the general propensity of Noiret for vegetative growth. PracticalWineryLibrary. 46: 88-97. Due to the excessive vegetativeness of vines in the 6-foot spacing treatment.H. Enol. J.WineEast The significant preference of the panel for the aroma of an HWC wine compared to the aroma of a LVSP wine in both years. 59: 39-46. C. Enol. www. combined with the lower yield and crop-load ratio reported for the LVSP in 2010 compared to the HWC. References B ordelon. Wardle.A. Mansfield. M. R eisch. Win es & Vin es O C TO B E R 20 13 95 Naylor Wine Cellars . B.. 2013.S. and wine & spirits shops.M. Wardle.G. V anden Heuvel.P. Lerch. Stewartstown. 1995. “Impact of training system and vine spacing on vine performance. and they suggest that the inherent vigor and downward growth habit of the cultivar make it unsuitable for training to a vertically shoot-positioned system during the early years of the vineyard. Vitic. the raising of catch wires in the LVSP system generally resulted in unintended but significant leaf removal as the foliage was so dense and confined. Wardle and A. R eynolds.” Am. Luce.com is a lifetime member of Wine America.A. every other vine was removed from the 6-foot vine-spacing treatment in the study in early 2011 to investigate the impact of 12-foot vine spacing with this cultivar. 2008. A.com Ask about discounts for Wine America & Ohio Wine Producer members. Bordelon and T.. and D. “Impact of training system and vine spacing on vine performance and berry composition of Seyval Blanc. A..A.A.A. FREE to all current subscribers! Just log in with your email address. 2004. The LVSP canopies required multiple hedging passes (minimum of three passes in each growing season). Naylor. and fruit composition in a vigorous young Noiret vineyard. Wine Packaging by Naylor WPN is a premier supplier to over 2.P. King. Preference testing conducted with wines from this study also supports the suggestion that vertically shoot-positioned systems be avoided. 45: 444-451. R..” Am. A. Vitic. J. Ohio Wine Producers and the NY Wine & Grape Foundation.000 wineries.. Pennsylvania Wine Assoc. R eynolds. Conclusion Noiret vineyards planted on fertile soils in regions with ample precipitation can be extremely vigorous with low crop-load ratios. J. W E ——————————————————————————————— Justine Vanden Heuvel. J. Skinkis and P. 23(4):505-510.G. yield. 2006. Greater vine spacing should also be considered for Noiret.I.com Practical WineryLibrary. Howard.G.” Am.

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Helena.COM (707) 968 .BASTOSLLC. Although our specialty is indeed capsules (tin. some international and of all types of volumes and sizes -. and exclusively.5008 We are a GREEN Company! .000 cases.from 25 to over 500.Bastos LLC is a family owned company that was launched in 2009. decided to take the leap and started the company in the heart of Napa Valley -.St. After 13 years working at the supplier level and having created a vast circle of personal and business relationships with North American wineries. WWW. there is also a winemaking component that is covered by Loureiro and Marques French oak barrels. polylam and screwcaps). the company also carries other high end packaging products such as premium cork. Rui "Eduardo" Bastos Amaro. some local. In addition. glass and solid metal labels.  Our customer base is vast and embraces over 350 customers. We are focused in great service and delivering phenomenal quality products  which our customers have come to expect over the years.