Daalkhaijav Damiran Enkhjargal Darambazar


April 2003


• The flag’s blue center symbolizes the eternal blue sky. • The two red sides symbolize progress and prosperity. • The golden Soyombo stands on the red stripe nearest to the flagpole.

National symbol
• The Soyombo is the Mongolian national symbol (it is attributed to Zanabazar, 17th century). A flame at the top represents the blossoming and continuation of the family. Its three prongs signify prosperity for the Mongolian people in the past, present, and future. The sun and crescent symbolize the origin of the Mongolian people. The triangles express the people's determination to defend the country's freedom and independence. The top one represents triumph over internal enemies, while the bottom symbolizes victory over external enemies. The rectangles stand for honesty, justice, and meritocracy. Two intertwined fish symbolize vigilance and wisdom, as fish never close their eyes. The two vertical rectangles on the sides signify fortress walls, a symbol of the Mongolian saying, "Two humans in friendship are stronger than walls of stone."

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• Archeological digs have uncovered human remains in the Gobi and other regions of Mongolia dating back nearly 500,000 years. • The Mongols were nomadic people of northern Asia and were little more than a loose confederation of rival clans. • In the late 12th century Chinggis khaan had united most of the Mongol tribes, and "all those who dwelled in feltwalled tents“.

This was the height of the Mongols' glory: the empire stretched from Korea to Hungary and as far south as Vietnam. . making it the largest empire the world has ever known. 1300-1405.History • The Mongol Dominance.

Mongolian Khaans Chinggis Khaan (1162-1227) Khubilai Khaan (1215 –1294) .

betrayed their lords to him. • Ghinggis Khaan’s grandson. unity. He is reputed to have put to death people who. ending the Song dynasty and becoming emperor of China's Yuan dynasty (1271-1368).History • The Genghis Khan imprinted in the memory of the west bears little relation to the Chinggis Khaan revered by Mongolians. Khubilai Khaan completed the subjugation of China. . he nonetheless also expected loyalty from everyone. thinking they would gain his good graces. it embodies strength. To Europeans. law and order. to the Mongolians. Chinggis Khaan was also generous and loyal. A highly charismatic man. the name epitomizes mercilessness and warmongering. including those who served his opponents.

•Their use of diplomacy was remarkable. •Advanced military tactics. The Mongols had a extensive network of spies and had extensive information of an enemy before they engaged them in battle. . •Psychological warfare. Many peoples found it easier to submit than to resist.History • •The success of the Mongol conquests should be attributed at least in part to the military intelligence.

independence from Manchu was declared. the Mongolian People's Republic (MPR) was declared.History • In the mid 14th century Yuan dynasty disintegrated and Mongols returned to Mongolia. • Chinese occupied the capital of Mongolia in 1919. retreating White Russian anticommunist troops entered Mongolia and expelled the Chinese. • In early 1921. . • On 1 December 1911. Together they recaptured Ulaanbaatar in July 1921. • Mongolian nationalists asked the Russian Bolsheviks for help. with a theocratic government under the leadership of the 8th Jebtzun Damba. • On 26 November 1924.


about a dozen other ethnic groups •Languages: Mongolian (official). Chinese •Religions: Tibetan Buddhism.566. Kazaks (6%). Kazakh.6 million People: Khalkh Mongols (86%).000 sq km Population: 2. Chinese (2%).Facts •Area: 1. Russian (2%). Russian. Shamanism . Muslim.

elected for four years. . Ikh Hural. with 76 seats. •Head of the State: President elected for four years. •Legislature: Parliament. •Government: Prime Minister appointed by Ikh Hural for four years.•Political system: Parliamentary Republic.

livestock. cashmere. wool •Major trading partners: Russia. Japan. South Korea.• •Major industries: Copper.US . China.

.Ulaanbaatar •The capital city is located along the River Tuul trimmed by Bogd Khan Mountain in the south and surrounded by •It is the home for the quarter of the nation’s three other mountain ranges. population. .

Lifestyle the five domesticated animals revered by nomads .

Lifestyle .

Culture and lifestyle Mongolians have a high regard for horses since. and companionship. . for centuries. they have relied on them for transport. sustenance.

. with an average elevation of 1580m (5180ft).350ft). and their highest peak is 4370m (14. • The Mongol Altai Nuruu are permanently snowcapped.Environment • Mongolia is one of the highest countries in the world.

• Its 380 cubic km of water make it the fourteenth largest freshwater lake in the world by volume. • The lake is 136 km long and 36 km wide. with about 2% of the world's fresh water. At its deepest.Environment • Lake Khovsgol is one of the country's largest and most spectacular areas. the lake dives 262 meters. .

• There are 33 different Gobi. snow leopards. • Wild asses. camels. . where sandy desert occupies only 3 percent of the total territory. as do different types of flora. • The Great Gobi Reservation established in 1975 was designated by the United Nations as the fourth largest Biosphere Reserve in the world in 1991.Environment • The southern third of Mongolia is dominated by the Gobi Desert. mountain sheep and gazelles flourish here.

Environment .

Environment • Dinosaur skeletons and their petrified eggs have been preserved here to the present day. •Tyrannosaur . • Mongolia is considered to be the origin country of ruminant animals.

Wildlife .

Wildlife • • Wild camel or Khavtgai Wild horse or Takhi • • Gobi Bear or Mazaalai Asiatic Wild Ass or Khulan .

Wildlife .

Domestic animals • The two . milk (up to 500 liters a year) and meat. but are slow (average about 5km/hour ). • . 000 camels in the country). can carry a lot of gear (up to 250kg). adaptable (a camel can survive the hardest winter). They were domesticated thousands of years ago and are closely related to the rare wild camel known as khavtgai. and provide wool (an average of 5kg/year). easy to manage (a camel can last for over a week without drink and a month without food).humped Bactrian camel (367. Camels are perfect for long distance travel in the Gobi.

. ascetic nomadic lifestyle.TRADITIONAL CLOTHES • Mongols do like to wear nice. richly decorated clothes which compensate the simple. • A harsh climate and uneasy life demand attention to the smallest details of clothes.

Women costume • Mongolian women traditionally have had long hairs. To maintain and decorate elaborate hair. .do. • So exotic and colorful are Mongolian clothes that French artists working on the latest episode of the Star Wars could not resist but to adopt a full dress of a Mongolian woman for Queen Amadala. often precious stones. women used many types of golden and silver hair-pins and slides.

• Since 1990 there’s been a revival of Buddhism (and other religions). there were about 700 monasteries. • There is a significant minority of Sunni Muslims in the far western regions. . but after the communist takeover in 1921 monasteries were closed and all religious worship and ceremonies outlawed.Religion • • • In Mongolia. most of whom are ethnic Kazaks.

the order of the oceanic khan of the people of the Great Mongols. The Seal of Guyug Khaan (1206-1248) . the conquered people must respect it and fear them.Culture • In the power of the eternal heaven.

Culture • Mongolia’s paintings. music and literature are dominated by nomadism and Tibetan Buddhism. • Example: . • Trio singing a folk song. Mongolian national musical instruments: horsehead fiddle and khuuchir.

It is a theatrical art performed by skilled dancers bearing the external appearance and characters of different apostles and devils.Culture • The ancient religious mask dancing "Tsam" is one of the significant religious rituals reflecting buddhist teaching through correct apostolic images and essence. . animals or real people. The "Tsam" dance ceremony was first introduced into Mongolia in the VIII century when the famous Indian Saint Lovon Badamjunai was invited to Mongolia to sanctify the construction of the first Tibetan temple Samya. It requires magnificently ornamented costumes. • • • .

• The leader of Tibetan Buddhism Dalai Lama’s visited Mongolia several times. .Relations • Mongolians have always taken wholeheartedly to Tibetan Buddhism.

it runs for three days in all parts of the country and highlights the greatest athletes in horse racing. • Usually occurring in July. . and wrestling.NAADAM FESTIVAL • The Nadaam festival is the biggest festival of the year for Mongolians. as an annual sacrificial ritual honoring various mountain gods. • This festival has been held for centuries as a form of memorial celebration. archery.

For example. • The race is conducted on the open grasslands with no set track or course.000 horses can be chosen to compete. • The horse races are broken down into six categories based on the age of the horses. . two-year-old horses race for 10 miles (16 km) and seven-yearolds for 17 miles (30 km). up to 1.Horse race • During the races.

.Horse race • Children from the ages of 5 to 13 are chosen as jockeys and the race tests the horses skill and the riders.

• A stone monument raised during Chingis Khaan times states that a marksman named Esukhei hit a target at 355 ald or more than 500 meters distance. Strength.Archery • Archery was an inseparable part of Mongolian history ever since it was invented some 20. People of that time were very strong and bows were well made.000 years ago. concentr ation and shar p eyes are vital for a good archer .

. With proper arrows it will be possible to shoot for as far as 350 meters.Archery • Today we use 60-72 gram arrows and this is 10 times heavier than those needed for distant shooting. • Women participate in all but the wrestling category.

Wrestling • There are no weight divisions and no time limits. • A small wrestler can be pitted against someone two times his weight. • A fall is when any part of a wrestlers body. • Titles are given to winners of a number of rounds: Falcon to those winning five rounds. touches the ground. Elephant for seven rounds. and Lion to the one winning the whole tournament. except his hands or feet. .

Mongolian wrestlers in Japanese sumo Makuuchi Banzuke. • Asashoryu-Yokozuna • East #1 The winning moment .

Mongolian sumo wrestlers in Makuuchi Banzuke • Kyokutenho • Kyokushuzan • Komusubi. West#4 • Maegashira #3 • Asasekiry • Maegashira #13 .

com/ http://www.un-mongolia.htm http://www.Reference • • • • • • • • • http://baatar.freeyellow.html http://www.php http://www.html

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