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UNDERSTANDING SENTENCES

Parlindungan Pardede Universitas Kristen Indonesia

DEFINITION
A sentence is a group of words that express a complete thought or idea. A sentence must be about one thingthe subjectand some action that happens in relation to the subjectthe verb. S + V (+ O/C) In some situations, the verb, instead of expressing action, links or connects two parts of the sentence by using to be. S + TO BE (+ C)

MAIN FEATURES OF SENTENCE


Has a SUBJECT and a VERB (with its OBJECT or COMPLEMENT). Expresses a complete thought, or supplies enough information to give the reader the full meaning being expressed by the writer so that the reader is sure about: (1) what happened? and (2) who did it or to what something happened?
ruined many houses and farms. (What ruined them?)

The storm ruined many houses and farms. A good teacher (should what?, will what?)

A good teacher should keep on learning.

CORE PARTS OF A SENTENCE


The core parts of a sentence are the subject and the verb. They also carry its essential meaning.
Examples:

(1) The storm ruined many houses and farms. (2) A good teacher should keep on learning However, sentences can contain many other parts (modifiers), and they can vary widely in pattern and complexity. Example: When you learn a language, you learn the sounds used in that language, the basic units of meaning, such as words, and the rules to combine these to form new sentences.

SENTENCE MODIFIERS
Sentence modifiers are remaining parts of a sentence after the SUBJECT and VERBS. They provide the reader with further information about the core parts they modify. The modifiers modify one or more core parts by expanding, altering, or limiting its meaning
Example: Every student except those majoring in English is required to take Basic English, EAP I and EAP II classes.

SENTENCE WITH MULTIPLE CORE PARTS


Some sentences may have more than one subject and/or more than one verb. In such a condition, there are some subjects and/or some verbs in the sentences.
Examples: Dedication, determination, and diligence contribute to ones success.

S S S V S

V V V

He joined the competition, did his best, and won the trophy.

RELATIONSHIP AMONG IDEAS


1. Sentences That Combine Ideas. Two or more closely related and equally important ideas can be combined into a single sentence in order (1) to emphasize their relationship, (2) to indicate their equal importance, and/or (3) to make the material more concise and easier to read. The ideas are combined by using either a semicolon or a comma along with one of the following words: and, but, or, either-or, neither-nor. Examples: John wanted to go to Hawaii for vacation, but Ann had planned to go to Bali. Susan likes playing the piano, and her parents support her.

2. Sentences That Relate Ideas. When a writer adds a less important idea to modify the main idea, the formerstated in a dependent clause) is related to the latter. Without such a relationship, the meaning of the former is not complete. The relationship of the less important idea and the main idea could be easily noticed because the former describes or explains a condition, cause, reason, purpose, time, or place. Examples: Although Theo is still five years old, he can play a guitar very nicely. More and more people ride motorcycles after the rise of oil price.