Business Analysis of Magazines Advertising and Readability

1. Abstract
The manager of advertising Company is interested to know about the popularity of magazines types and the average number of words in advertisement. In a market there were nine different types of magazines where advertisements are given. Six magazine advertisements were randomly selected from each of three magazines selected from magazines grouped into three classes according to educational level of their readers. For each advertisement selected the number of words of advertising copy, the number of sentences in the advertising copy, and the number of three plus syllable words in the advertising copy were observed.

2. Problem Statement
Questions arise as to whether significant differences exist in the characteristics of advertising copy among the magazines or the groups of magazines. Also relevant to readability are the number of words per sentence and the proportion of three syllable words in the copy. We can formulate following hypothesis to meet the objective of the study Hypothesis 1: The nine groups of magazines have equal number of advertisement. Hypothesis 2: The thirty selected magazines have equal average number of advertisements for three ranked educational level. Hypothesis 3: The average number of sentences in advertising copy in three educational levels is same. Hypothesis 4: the average number of sentences in nine magazines is same.

3. Description
Thirty magazines were ranked by educational level of their readers. Three magazines were randomly selected from the first, second, and third, ten magazines from each group. Six advertisements were randomly selected from each of the nine selected magazines. The magazines were Group 1 Highest educational level: 1. Scientific American 2. Fortune 3. The New Yorker Group 2 Medium educational level: 4. Sports Illustrated 5. Newsweek 6. People Group 3 Lowest educational level: 7. National Enquirer 8. Grit 9 True Confessions For each advertisement, the data below were observed.

Number of cases: 54 Variable Names: 1. WDS = number of words in advertisement copy 2. SEN = number of sentences in advertising copy 3. MAG = magazine (1 through 9 as above) 4. GRP = educational level (as above) The data(1) is shown in appendix

4. Analysis
4.1 Graphical Presentation
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10

Std. Dev = 5.02 Mean = 12.4 0 5.0 7.5 10.0 12.5 15.0 17.5 20.0 22.5 25.0 N = 54.00

Number of sentences in advertising copy

The above figure is histogram for the distribution of number of sentences in advertisement copy. It shows mostly advertisements have ten sentences. There is very advertisement which contains 25 sentences. The shape of the distribution is positively skewed and low peaked.

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14

12

10

8

6

4 Std. Dev = 65.88 Mean = 122.6 0 40.0 60.0 80.0 100.0 120.0 140.0 160.0 180.0 200.0 220.0 240.0 N = 54.00

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Number of words in advertisement copy

In the above histograms shows the number of words shown in different advertisement copies. The most of the advertisement have 200 words. The shape of the distribution is positively skewed and low peaked. The distribution of number of words in advertisement copy is less skewed and low peaked then the distribution of number of sentences in advertisement copy.

14

12

10

8

6

4

Percent

2 0 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00 7.00 8.00 9.00

magazine (1 through 9 as above)

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It can be observed from the above bar chart that almost all magazines have equal number readers. The magazines one has more number of reader.

40

30

20

10

Percent

0 1.00 2.00 3.00

educational level

In the above bar chart it can be concluded that the educational level three have more readers as compared to other levels of education. 4.2 Descriptive Statistics
De scriptiv e Statistics N Statistic number of sentences in advertising copy number of words in advertisement copy Valid N (listwise) 54 54 54 Minimum Statistic 4.00 31.00 Maximum Statistic 25.00 230.00 Mean Statistic 12.4259 122.6296 Std. Deviation Statistic 5.0155 65.8770 Skewness Statistic Std. Error .423 .295 .325 .325 Kurtosis Statistic Std. Error -.401 -1.483 .639 .639

In the above output the descriptive statistics are calculated by running SPSS. This output shows that these fifty four observations of number of sentences in advertisement copy and number of words in advertisement copy are selected. The minimum number of sentences in advertisement copy is four and maximum number of sentences is twenty five in an advertisement copy. The averages number of advertisement copy is 12.42 and the average change in number of sentences in advertising copy is 5.0155. The coefficient of skewness is 0.423 which shows that the distribution of number of sentences in advertisement copy is positively skewed. The coefficient of kurtosis is – 0.401 for the distribution of number of sentences in advertisement copy. This coefficient of kurtosis indicates that the distribution is low peaked.

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There are minimum thirty one and maximum two hundred thirty numbers of words in advertisement copy. The average number of words in advertisement copy is 122.63 and average change in number of words in advertisement copy is 65.877 which is very high, it indicates that there much variation in number of word in advertisements. The skewness coefficient is 0.295 which show that distribution of number of words in advertisements is positively skewed but is less skewed than the distribution of number of sentences in advertisements. In the distribution of number of sentences in advertisements kurtosis is – 1.483, this value indicate that the distribution of number of sentences in advertisements is low peaked. Comparison between the distributions of number of sentences in advertisements and number of words in advertisements The distribution of number of sentences has less variation than the distribution of number of words in advertisements. The distribution of distribution of number of sentences is more positively skewed than the distribution of number of words in advertisements. The distribution of distribution of number of sentences is high peaked than the distribution of number of words in advertisements. 4.3 Hypothesis Assumptions For testing the suggested hypothesis following assumptions are made. Analysis of Variance methods have in common a set of two assumptions: 1. The standard deviations (SD) of the populations for all groups are equal - this is sometimes referred to as an assumption of the homogeneity of variance. Again, we can represent this assumption for groups 1 through n as

2. The samples are randomly selected from the population. Testing of Hypothesis 1: H0: The average numbers of words in advertisement copy for all the magazines are equal. H1: at least one magazine has different average numbers of words in advertisement copy. Level of Significance = 0.05

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By using WDS as response variable and magazines as grouping variable ANOVA is run by using SPSS and following output is yielded.

ANOVA number of words in advertisement copy Sum of Squares Between Groups 99217.259 Within Groups 130791.3 Total 230008.6 df 8 45 53 Mean Square 12402.157 2906.474 F 4.267 Sig. .001

Conclusion: From the above out put the p-value is 0.001, which is less than pre-assigned level of significance. Thus it can be concluded that the average number of advertisements for nine magazines levels are significantly different. Further it is necessary to observe which magazine has significant different average number of advertisements. The following output will help to discuss this issue.

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M ultip le Co mparison s Dependent Variable: number of words in advertisement copy LSD Mean Difference (I-J) 45.1667 145.3333* 55.8333 85.8333* 104.6667* 114.0000* 121.1667* 55.8333 -45.1667 100.1667* 10.6667 40.6667 59.5000 68.8333* 76.0000* 10.6667 -145.3333* -100.1667* -89.5000* -59.5000 -40.6667 -31.3333 -24.1667 -89.5000* -55.8333 -10.6667 89.5000* 30.0000 48.8333 58.1667 65.3333* .0000 -85.8333* -40.6667 59.5000 -30.0000 18.8333 28.1667 35.3333 -30.0000 -104.6667* -59.5000 40.6667 -48.8333 -18.8333 9.3333 16.5000 -48.8333 -114.0000* -68.8333* 31.3333 -58.1667 -28.1667 -9.3333 7.1667 -58.1667 -121.1667* -76.0000* 24.1667 -65.3333* -35.3333 -16.5000 -7.1667 -65.3333* -55.8333 -10.6667 89.5000* .0000 30.0000 48.8333 58.1667 65.3333*

(I) magazine (1 through 9 ) 1.00

2.00

3.00

4.00

5.00

6.00

7.00

8.00

9.00

(J) magazine (1 through 9 ) 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00 7.00 8.00 9.00 1.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00 7.00 8.00 9.00 1.00 2.00 4.00 5.00 6.00 7.00 8.00 9.00 1.00 2.00 3.00 5.00 6.00 7.00 8.00 9.00 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 6.00 7.00 8.00 9.00 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 7.00 8.00 9.00 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00 8.00 9.00 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00 7.00 9.00 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00 7.00 8.00

Std. Error 31.1259 31.1259 31.1259 31.1259 31.1259 31.1259 31.1259 31.1259 31.1259 31.1259 31.1259 31.1259 31.1259 31.1259 31.1259 31.1259 31.1259 31.1259 31.1259 31.1259 31.1259 31.1259 31.1259 31.1259 31.1259 31.1259 31.1259 31.1259 31.1259 31.1259 31.1259 31.1259 31.1259 31.1259 31.1259 31.1259 31.1259 31.1259 31.1259 31.1259 31.1259 31.1259 31.1259 31.1259 31.1259 31.1259 31.1259 31.1259 31.1259 31.1259 31.1259 31.1259 31.1259 31.1259 31.1259 31.1259 31.1259 31.1259 31.1259 31.1259 31.1259 31.1259 31.1259 31.1259 31.1259 31.1259 31.1259 31.1259 31.1259 31.1259 31.1259 31.1259

Sig. .154 .000 .080 .008 .002 .001 .000 .080 .154 .002 .733 .198 .062 .032 .019 .733 .000 .002 .006 .062 .198 .319 .442 .006 .080 .733 .006 .340 .124 .068 .041 1.000 .008 .198 .062 .340 .548 .370 .262 .340 .002 .062 .198 .124 .548 .766 .599 .124 .001 .032 .319 .068 .370 .766 .819 .068 .000 .019 .442 .041 .262 .599 .819 .041 .080 .733 .006 1.000 .340 .124 .068 .041

95% Confidence Interval Lower Bound Upper Bound -17.5242 107.8575 82.6425 208.0242 -6.8575 118.5242 23.1425 148.5242 41.9758 167.3575 51.3091 176.6909 58.4758 183.8575 -6.8575 118.5242 -107.8575 17.5242 37.4758 162.8575 -52.0242 73.3575 -22.0242 103.3575 -3.1909 122.1909 6.1425 131.5242 13.3091 138.6909 -52.0242 73.3575 -208.0242 -82.6425 -162.8575 -37.4758 -152.1909 -26.8091 -122.1909 3.1909 -103.3575 22.0242 -94.0242 31.3575 -86.8575 38.5242 -152.1909 -26.8091 -118.5242 6.8575 -73.3575 52.0242 26.8091 152.1909 -32.6909 92.6909 -13.8575 111.5242 -4.5242 120.8575 2.6425 128.0242 -62.6909 62.6909 -148.5242 -23.1425 -103.3575 22.0242 -3.1909 122.1909 -92.6909 32.6909 -43.8575 81.5242 -34.5242 90.8575 -27.3575 98.0242 -92.6909 32.6909 -167.3575 -41.9758 -122.1909 3.1909 -22.0242 103.3575 -111.5242 13.8575 -81.5242 43.8575 -53.3575 72.0242 -46.1909 79.1909 -111.5242 13.8575 -176.6909 -51.3091 -131.5242 -6.1425 -31.3575 94.0242 -120.8575 4.5242 -90.8575 34.5242 -72.0242 53.3575 -55.5242 69.8575 -120.8575 4.5242 -183.8575 -58.4758 -138.6909 -13.3091 -38.5242 86.8575 -128.0242 -2.6425 -98.0242 27.3575 -79.1909 46.1909 -69.8575 55.5242 -128.0242 -2.6425 -118.5242 6.8575 -73.3575 52.0242 26.8091 152.1909 -62.6909 62.6909 -32.6909 92.6909 -13.8575 111.5242 -4.5242 120.8575 2.6425 128.0242

*. T he mean difference is significant at the .05 level.

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LSD test
In above output LSD test is applied to test the significance of magazines. This test makes pair wise comparison between different magazines. The magazine one and three have significant different average number of advertisement because the p-value against this pair is less than the level of significance. Similarly the average number of advertisement of magazine one is significantly different from the average number of advertisements magazines five, six, seven and eight. The magazine two is significantly different average number of advertisement from magazines three, seven and eight. The magazine four is significantly different from magazines three and eight’s average number of advertisements. The magazine three has significantly different average number of advertisement from one, two, four and nine magazines. The magazine four is significantly different average number of advertisement from magazines three and eight. The average number of advertisement of magazine five differs only with group one. The magazine six is only significantly different average number of advertisement from the magazine one. The magazine seven is significantly different from magazines one and two. The magazine eight is significant different from average number of advertisement of one, two four and nine magazines. The magazine nine differs from group three and eight magazines’ average number of advertisements. From the above discussion it can be inferred that magazines one and eight are significant different average number of advertisement than other magazines. Thus due to Magazine 1 (High educational level) the average number of advertisement differ from other magazines. The number of average advertisement can be highly affected by the Magazine 8 (Grit) magazines are almost different from other magazines. Testing of Hypothesis 2 H0: The thirty selected magazines have equal average number of advertisements for threeranked educational level. H1: at least one educational level has significant different number of advertisement from three ranked educational groups. Level of Significance = 0.05 By using WDS as response variable and ranked educational level as grouping variable ANOVA is run by using SPSS and following output is yielded.

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ANOVA number of words in advertisement copy Sum of Squares Between Groups 10141.815 Within Groups 219866.8 Total 230008.6 df 2 51 53 Mean Square 5070.907 4311.113 F 1.176 Sig. .317

Conclusion: In the above out put the p-value is 0.317, which is greater than pre-assigned level of significance. Thus it can be concluded that the average number of advertisements for three ranked educational levels are equal. It can be inferred from ANOVA output that educational level does not affect on the number of advertisement in magazines. Testing of Hypothesis 3 H0: The average number of sentences in advertising copy in three educational levels is same. H1: At least one educational level has significant different number of sentences in advertising. Level of significance = 0.05 By using SEN as response variable and ranked educational level as grouping variable ANOVA is run by using SPSS and following output is yielded.
ANOVA number of sentences in advertising copy Sum of Squares 6.370 1326.833 1333.204 df 2 51 53 Mean Square 3.185 26.016 F .122 Sig. .885

Between Groups Within Groups Total

Conclusion: the p-value in above table is 0.885, which is greater than the assigned level of significance. It can be concluded that the average number of sentences for the three educational levels are same.

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Testing of Hypothesis 4 H0: The average number of sentences in advertising copy of nine magazines is same. H1: At least one magazine has significant different number of sentences in advertising. Level of significance = 0.05 By using SEN as response variable and GRP (ranked educational level) as grouping variable ANOVA is run by using SPSS and following output is yielded
ANOVA number of sentences in advertising copy Sum of Squares 301.370 1031.833 1333.204 df 8 45 53 Mean Square 37.671 22.930 F 1.643 Sig. .140

Between Groups Within Groups Total

Conclusion: In the above out put the p-value is 0.140, which is greater than pre-assigned level of significance. Thus it can be concluded that the average number sentences in advertisements for nine magazines are equal. It can be inferred from ANOVA output that educational level does not affect on the number of advertisement in magazines.

Recommendations
Following are recommendations are suggested from conducted study  The average number of words for three educational levels is same.  The average number of sentences for the ranked three educational levels is equal.  The average number of sentences for the nine magazines is same.  The average number of words for the nine magazines is significantly different. The magazine one and eight have significant numbers of words in advertisement than other magazines. Reference: 1. http://lib.stat.cmu.edu/DASL/Stories/magads.html

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Appendix Data: WDS 205.00 203.00 229.00 208.00 146.00 230.00 215.00 153.00 205.00 80.00 208.00 89.00 49.00 93.00 46.00 34.00 SEN 9.00 20.00 18.00 16.00 9.00 16.00 16.00 9.00 11.00 13.00 22.00 16.00 5.00 18.00 6.00 6.00 2.00 MAG 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 2.00 2.00 1.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 GRP 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00

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39.00 88.00 191.00 219.00 205.00 57.00 105.00 109.00 82.00 88.00 39.00 94.00 206.00 197.00 68.00 44.00 203.00 139.00 72.00

5.00 12.00 25.00 17.00 23.00 7.00 10.00 9.00 10.00 10.00 5.00 11.00 18.00 18.00 9.00 9.00 17.00 13.00 11.00 6.00 5.00

3.00 3.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 5.00 5.00 5.00 2.00 5.00 5.00 6.00 6.00 6.00 6.00 2.00

1.00 1.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00

2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00

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67.00 162.00 31.00 85.00 111.00 88.00 60.00 97.00 169.00 78.00 68.00 32.00 50.00 208.00 81.00 83.00 195.00 111.00 208.00

7.00 14.00 6.00 11.00 12.00 11.00 15.00 6.00 12.00 14.00 11.00 4.00 9.00 18.00 12.00 12.00 17.00 11.00 20.00 9.00 8.00 7.00 7.00

6.00 7.00 7.00 3.00 7.00 3.00 7.00 8.00 8.00 8.00 3.00 8.00 8.00 9.00 9.00 9.00 9.00 3.00 9.00

2.00 3.00 3.00

3.00

3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00

3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00

3.00

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