# Lecture 47 Objectives In this course you will learn the following What is an Antenna? When do structures radiate?

Magnetic vector potential Lorentz gauge condition Green's function Spherical wave Antenna is transducer which converts electrical signals into electromagnetic waves and vice versa. So, if an antenna is excited with a voltage/current it generates electromagnetic waves, and if placed in front of an electromagnetic wave, it extracts power from the wave and delivers to the load connected to it.  The phenomenon of electromagnetic radiation is related to the acceleration of electric charges. An accelerated charge corresponds to the time-varying current (a steady flow of charge gives the DC current and the AC current requires acceleration of charges). In principle, every time-varying current can give EM radiation no matter how small the frequency of the current is.

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An antenna however is a structure which generates EM radiation with high efficiency. Also it will be seen subsequently that the antennas do not generate EM waves uniformly in all direction. Every antenna preference for certain directions and no preference for other directions. Antenna design therefore focuses on two issues 1. How to get highest possible radiation efficiency from an antenna 2. How to design antenna structure to achieve desired spatial distribution of the EM waves Let us investigate the characteristics of basic antennas. Theory Potential Functions Here we solve the Maxwell's equations with electrical sources to obtain the electromagnetic fields. The four Maxwell's equations with sources are given as

The solution of the Maxwell's equation for electric and magnetic fields is rather difficult. Instead, one can define potential functions related to the fields and find their solution.

Eqn. is identically satisfied by a vector A defined as

Substituting in the curl equation, we get

This eqn can be identically satisfied if we define the quantity inside the bracket as the gradient of some function as

The vector A is called the magnetic vector potential and the quantity V is called the electric scalar potential. Laurentz Gauge Condition and Wave Equation If we substitute for B and E in the remaining two Maxwell's equations we get

The two equations are coupled equation for V and A. The equations can be decoupled using what is called the Laurentz gauge condition given as

The decoupled equations for the electric scalar and magnetic vector potential are

Two things can be verified from these equations: 1. For the non-time varying (static) case the equations reduce to well known Poisson's equation. 2. For the source free case the equation reduce to the wave equation discussed earlier.  Since the magnetic vector potential and the electric scalar potential are related through the Laurentz gauge condition, solving the wave equation for one of them is adequate.

 

Generally we find the solution for the magnetic vector potential. For sinusoidal variation of the current and potential with angular frequency equation becomes , the

Noting that the quantity equation becomes

, the phase constant of the wave, the wave

The equation is solved by using the Green's function technique. Green's Function Technique  The Green's function is a solution of the differential equation with the driving term replaced by the function. The Greens function , G therefore satisfies the equation -

 

The most appropriate coordinate system for analyzing EM radiation is the spherical coordinate system. The Green's function for the -function located at the origin of the coordinate system is obtained as

It can be noted that  The expression represents a traveling wave in r direction.  The amplitude of the Greens function is inversely proportional to r.  The constant phase surfaces for the traveling wave are spheres.  The phenomenon therefore represents a outward traveling spherical wave as shown in the following Fig.

Let now the current be distributed over a volume denoted by primed quantities and let the location of the observation point be denoted by the un-primed quantities (see Fig.)

Once the vector potential is known. The analysis of Hertz dipole is important as any complicated radiating structure can be decomposed into Hertz dipoles. In practice a linear Antenna can be approximated by a Hertz dipole if the linear antenna is of size much smaller the wavelength. . and subsequently the power radiated by the antenna can be obtained in a rather straight forward manner Obtaining current distribution on an antenna structure is a rather complex task antenna is beyond the scope of this course. the electric and magnetic fields.  Lecture 48 In this course you will learn the following Hertz Dipole Magnetic vector potential due to Hertz dipole Fields due to Hertz Dipole Electrostatic Induction and Radiation fields Near and Far-fields Power radiated by the Hertz Dipole Radiation resistance of the Hertz Dipole   Hertz Dipole Antenna An infinitesimal element excited with an alternating current is called the Hertz dipole.  So the antenna analysis problem reduces to finding the vector potential from the current distribution on an antenna. A Hertz dipole is shown in Fig.The total magnetic vector potential due to the current distribution is then given  Note that the integral is a convolution of the spatial impulse response (the Green's function) and the driving source function . Here therefore we will assume a current distribution and then proceed to find the fields radiated by it.

Since the coordinate system used for the antenna analysis is spherical. Substituting for H in the source-free Maxwell's curl equation the electric field can be obtained as . the magnetic field loops around the z-axis. the components of the magnetic vector potential in spherical coordinates are Fields due to the Hertz Dipole The vector magnetic field is  The magnetic field components can be obtained as   The Hertz component has only -component. Since the Hertz dipole is small the vector potential at point P is almost same as the Green's function multiplied by the volume integral of the current density. That is. has length and current . Vector potential due to the Hertz dipole The vector potential due to the Hertz dipole is therefore given as  Note that the magnetic vector potential is in the z-direction and it has same direction every where in the space.The Hertz dipole is oriented along the z-axis.

and the radiation fields are called the Far Fields. This field is therefore practically absent at low frequencies. The field which varies as . As the frequency decreases. The electrostatic field is due to this oscillating dipole. is called the far-field zone.  The radiation field is proportional to the frequency. This field is essentially due to the accumulation of charges on the tip of the antenna. This is the field which extends over farthest distance from the antenna and is responsible for the radiation of power from the antenna. This field extends little further than the electrostatic field but still decays rapidly as a function of distance. When the current flows in the dipole. As the frequency of the current approaches zero.  The Induction field is independent of frequency. the opposite charges get accumulated on the tips of the antenna giving a dipole. The electrostatic and the induction fields together are called the Near Fields. the magnetic field has only -component. The three fields become equal in magnitude at a distance of The distance within Near Field is called the near-field zone and the distance as shown in Fig. Types of Fields  For the Hertz dipole. The fields can be divided into three categories depending upon their variation as a function of distance. this field diverges to infinity. This field has same behavior as the magnetic field obtained from the Biot-Savart law. This field is dominant in the close vicinity of the dipole since its amplitude decreases rapidly as function of distance. The electric field lies in the  -component and the electric field does not have the plane.The -component of the electric field is zero. is called the induction field . The electrostatic field is inversely proportional to the frequency. . This field is essentially a high frequency phenomenon. is called the electrostatic field. The field which varies as . the accumulated charge for a given current increases and therefore the electrostatic field increases. With the reversal of the current (every half cycle) dipole reverses its polarity giving an oscillating dipole. and hence the name given to the field. The field which varies a is called the radiation field.

 The far field components of the electric and magnetic fields are given as Important things to note about the far field (radiation field ) are. The electric and magnetic fields are in time phase and they are in phase quadrature with the current.The electric field for the dipole is given as (only terms) The total near field is given as  The Near field is minimum in the direction and maximum in the directions . That is. . However. 1. The ratio of the electric and magnetic field at every point in space is equal to the intrinsic impedance of the medium. these fields are proportional to the rate of change of current or acceleration of charges. 2.  The near field essentially stores the electromagnetic energy around the dipole but does not contribute to the power flow from the antenna. along no direction the near field is zero. Far Field  In the far field region only fields are the radiation fields.

the electric field is in the -direction and the magnetic field is the -direction. The average Poynting vector t herefore is The total power radiated by the antenna can be calculated by integrating the Poynting vector over a sphere of any radius enclosing the antenna. The wave travels in the r-direction. The fields are not uniform in all directions. they are perpendicular to each other. Power Radiated by the Hertz dipole  The power flow density in the space can be obtained by the Poynting vector. we get the total radiated power as The total radiated power of the Hertz dipole is proportional to the square of the normalized length (normalized with respect to the wavelength) of the dipole. The Hertz dipole hence does not have any radiation along its axis. The total power radiated by the antenna is After substituting for and doing some manipulations. (See Fig. These fields therefore represent transverse electromagnetic wave albeit spherical in nature. and noting that the intrinsic impedance of the medium = . The field strength is maximum along along . That is. .  The average Poynting vector is given by .3. and zero The filed which contribute to the power flow are essentially the radiation fields.) 4.

 The two principle sections are obtained by planes one containing the electric field vector and the other containing the magnetic field vector. The two radiation patterns for the Hertz dipole are shown in Fig. the two planar radiation patterns are called the Eplane and H-plane radiation patterns respectively. Invariably therefore two principal sections of the 3-D radiation patterns are given as the radiation patterns. Consequently. with we get  The radiation pattern of the Hertz dipole is like an apple. .  For the Hertz dipole any vertical plane passing through the z-axis is the E-plane and a horizontal plane passing through the antenna is the H-plane. The above equation when plotted in the spherical coordinate system ( a three dimensional figure as shown in Fig.  At times a full 3-D description of the radiation pattern may not be needed. NOTE: In a radiation pattern the physical shape and size of the antenna do not get reflected. The antenna is merely a point at the origin of the radiation pattern A typical radiation pattern for a general antenna is shown in Fig.

 If the radiation pattern is normalized. The Directivity therefore is  The directivity is parameter solely defined by the radiation pattern of an antenna.  It is a measure of how the antenna guides power in the desired direction compared to the other directions. Since the Hertz dipole has only one maximum in the radiation pattern. there are no side-lobes for the Hertz dipoles. and solid angle.  The directive gain of an antenna is defined as  Where is the radiation intensity defined as the power per unit solid angle. Directivity of an Antenna (D)  The directivity is a parameter which quantifies the radiation focusing capability of an antenna. the maximum field strength is unity and the directivity can be written as For the Hertz dipole the directivity is . We then have is the average value the radiation intensity over  The maximum value of the directive gain is called the directivity of an antenna.

The antenna does not receive any power from the radiation arriving from the direction of a null. 2. . The efficiency of an antenna is  The antenna gain is G = Directivity X Antenna efficiency Effective Aperture 1. It can be shown by the reciprocity theorem that an antenna has same adiation characteristics while transmitting and receiving.  Effective aperture of an antenna is a parameter defined for the receiving antenna. It tells the capability of an antenna to tap power from a radiation arriving from certain direction. 3. and the direction from which the antenna receives maximum power are the same. The full power supplied to the antenna is then not radiated. For the large antennas with single main beam like the parabolic dishes. the directivity is approximately Antenna Gain  Due to Ohmic losses on the antenna surface a part of the power supplied to the antenna terminals is lost in heating of the antenna.  For an antenna with circular beam. and if the power transferred to a matched load connected to the terminals of a receiving antenna under matched polarization condition is . That is The direction in which an antenna radiates maximally. the main beam is very narrow and the directivity can be approximately written as  The directivity is generally given in dB ( = 10 log D). the effective aperture is given as  Effective aperture in general is direction dependent.  If an antenna is placed in a radiation field with power flow density S. An antenna maximally responds to that polarization which it generates while transmitting. however when there is no specific mention.

 The effective aperture is directly proportional to the directivity. .5. its effective aperture is Note that the effective aperture of a Hertz dipole is independent of its length Lecture 50 Objectives In this course you will learn the following Dipole antenna. However. Radiation pattern of a dipole antenna. the effective aperture is equal to the physical aperture weighted by the aperture field distribution.it is its maximum value. Higher the directivity higher is the effective aperture. Input impedance of a dipole antenna.  The effective aperture has no direct relation to the physical aperture of an antenna. Half-wavelength dipole antenna. parabolic dishes.  The Effective aperture and the Directivity of an antenna are related through a relation.  Since the directivity of the Hertz dipole is 1.  The effective aperture has dimensions of area and generally has units . for aperture type antenna like horns.

For these antennas since the length is comparable to the wavelength.Monopole antenna. the current distribution can not be uniform as we assumed for the Hertz dipole. The Hertz dipole has a limitation that its radiation resistance is too small and consequently is not a very In practice dipole antennas of lengths comparable to the wavelength are used  A dipole antenna of length 2H oriented in the z-direction with its center at the origin of the coordinate system. the total field at a point is given as Where we have defined . However. obtaining the current distribution is a difficult task and is beyond the scope of this course. as we mentioned. The current distribution is given as Assuming that . The rigorous analysis show that the current distribution on a linear dipole antenna is sinusoidal with zero current at the ends of the antenna.

and hence gives the E-plane Since the electric field is independent of of the Hertz dipole. The three dimensional radiation patterns for the dipole antennas of length In general a dipole antenna has multiple beams and multiple nulls. The directions of the nulls are Where Input Impedance of a Dipole Antenna  Since the current has to be zero at the tip of the antenna.  . We therefore obtain the directions of the nulls and place one maximum approximately half way between two adjacent nulls. Generally. finding the directions of the nulls is easier compared to finding the directions of the maximum radiation. . The directions of the nulls can be obtained by equating to zero. the H-plane radiation pattern is a circle which is same as that are shown in Figs.The function gives the variation of the electric field as a function of Radiation Pattern of a Dipole Antenna The current distribution and the radiation pattern . the current at the input of the antenna changes as the length of the dipole changes.

 This antenna offers many advantages like (1) Reasonable size (2) Radiation pattern with single maximum (3) Manageable input impedance  A -dipole is shown in Fig.   The input impedance of the dipole is given as   The input impedance is a function of the dipole length and can vary from When In this case the input . In other words. Half Wavelength Dipole antenna  The most commonly used dipole is the half wavelength dipole ( -dipole). the terminal impedance (input impedance) of the dipole is a function of length. to . . For the -dipole . When NOTE The input impedance of a dipole antenna is not a monotonic function of length as it was in case of the Hertz dipole. impedance is . The current distribution on the dipole is The radiation electric field is given as The radiation pattern for the dipole is shown in Fig.

. The dipole due to the near fields has a reactance of about 34 ohms which can be removed by reducing the length of the dipole to about . other hand sets and cars. A monopole antenna is vertically mounted above the ground and is excited at the base as shown in Fig.  The -dipole dipole has an impedance which can be easily matched to 50 ohms using impedance transformers  For the -dipole dipole we have following parameters: Radiation pattern very similar to the Hertz dipole BWFN = 180 deg HPBW = 78 deg Directivity = 1.The total power radiated by the -dipole is Solving the integral numerically the total radiated power and the radiation resistance of the -dipole are  The radiation resistance of the -dipole is about 73 ohms.15 dB Input resistance = 73. They also find application in walkie-talkies.64 = 2.1 ohm Effective Aperture = Monopole Antenna The monopole antennas are commonly used for the medium wave radio broadcasting.

Lecture 51 Objectives In this course you will learn the following What is an antenna array? Why antenna arrays are required? Uniform linear array. because for that wavelength the earth behaves like a good conductor and therefore supports only vertical polarization. A monopole antenna is equivalent to a dipole as shown in the above Figure.  The monopole antenna naturally provides vertically polarized waves and an isotropic radiation pattern on the ground which is most suited for broadcasting applications.  Since the monopole antenna radiates only in half space (above the ground). End fire and broadside array. Amplitudes of side lobes. Half Power Beam Width (HPBW). . directions of nulls and sidelobes.  The monopole antennas find applications at low frequencies where the wavelengths become excessively long. Direction main beam. it radiates half the power compared to the corresponding dipole and consequently has the radiation resistance half of that of the corresponding dipole.  The radiation characteristics of a monopole antenna and a dipole of double its length are identical except the radiation resistance and the radiated power.  This antenna is also suited for medium wave transmission.

Also for a far away point. Inter-element spacing. Then by definition the phase of the field due to antenna 1 is zero. Progressive phase-shift. . Let us define the following for the array.  The total field at the observation point is  The RHS of the equation is a geometric series with summation given by  After some algebraic manipulation. : This is the phase shift between currents on any two adjacent antenna elements of the array The field due an antenna is proportional to its current. let us assume that the electric field due to individual antennas has unit amplitude at the observation point P. If the observation point P is in a direction which makes an angle with the array axis. the propagation phase difference between radiation from two adjacent elements is Uniform Linear Array (contd. the fields due to individual antennas have equal amplitude but different phases. Also let the first element be the reference element. The phase of the field has two components: (1) The phase due to the phase of the excitation current. : This the spacing between any two adjacent elements of the array.  Without losing generality. we get the electric field at the observation point as . (2) The phase due to propagation. between the fields due to adjacent elements is algebraic sum of the current and the propagation phase difference.)  The total phase difference.Let the array have N elements and let the antennas be isotropic (this condition will be relaxed later). All the antennas are excited with equal amplitude currents.

is given as  Which can be simplified as . An array is said to be Broadside array if the main beam is perpendicular to the axis of the array.  An array is said to be End-fire array if the main beam is along the axis of the array. (2) The direction of the main beam can be changed from 0 to by changing the progressive phase shift from .  The directions of the nulls. (1) The direction of the maximum radiation is independent of the number of elements in the array. The array phase in terms of the direction of main beam is written as Two things can be noted from the equation.  There are two end-fire directions for an array but the broadside is a plane perpendicular to the array axis (see Fig below) Directions of Nulls  The nulls of the radiation patterns can be obtained by equating the array factor to zero.

The direction of a side lobe is given as  The amplitude of the side lobe is obtained by substituting the value of  The amplitude of the side lobe is in the AF. For finding the directions of the nulls all possible values of have to be tested. the directions of the side-lobes are taken approximately half way between the two adjacent nulls. there is a side-lobe in the radiation pattern.  There is one side lobe between two adjacent nulls except the main beam.  For a large array and the side lobe amplitude is approximately .  Generally.  Whenever the numerator of the AF is maximum. Directions of Side-lobes  Local maximum in the radiation pattern is called the side lobe.

third side lobe amplitudes are respectively.  For a given array the HPBW is a function of the direction of the main beam. the HPBW is approximately taken as half of the BWFN. Grating Lobe . The important thing to note: The side lobe amplitudes are independent of the array size and the direction of the main beam. Larger the array narrower is the beam i.e. smaller HPBW.. the integral can be approximated by the solid angle of the main beam and the directivities for the broadside and end-fire arrays are given as Important Observation:  The HPBW of the broadside array is less than that of the end-fire array but the directivity of the endfire array is larger than the broadside array. The HPBW is minimum for a broadside direction and maximum for the end-fire direction. Directivity  The directivity of the uniform array is given by For a large array. The first. second.  The HPBW for the broad-side array and the end-fire array are approximately given as  The HPBW is inversely related to the array length. The beam width monotonically increases as the main beam tilts towards the axis of the array. Half Power Beam Width (HPBW)  For large arrays.

Radiation pattern = Primary pattern X Array Factor  While analyzing the array of non-isotropic but identical elements therefore first find the AF assuming the elements to be isotropic and then multiply the AF with the primary pattern to get the total radiation pattern. The power efficiency in the direction of the main beam is consequently reduced.  Using this concept the arrays can be analyzed by dividing the array into sub-arrays. . We can conclude that to avoid grating lobe in the radiation pattern for any array the inter- Effect of Antenna radiation pattern on the array  The radiation pattern of the antenna elements used in the array is called the ‘primary pattern'. A grating lobe should be avoided in the radiation pattern.  If the array consists of non-isotropic but identical elements. the total radiation pattern of an array is the product of the primary pattern and the AF. .  The power radiated by the array gets divided between the main beam and the grating lobe. the effect of the primary pattern can be accounted for very easily.  A grating lobe appears when Where is an integer. Lecture 52 Objectives In this course you will learn the following . and for the end-fire array it appears when  For broadside array the grating lobe appears when element spacing should be .  Since the radiation due to every element is weighted by the primary pattern. A grating lobe or grating beam is a beam identical to the main beam but in undesired direction.

. Array synthesis.  In general we have to control the complex currents of the individual elements of an antenna array to get the desired radiation pattern. A user specifies the radiation pattern and the antenna engineer is asked to design an array which can give the radiation pattern as close to the specified pattern as possible.  The interfering signals can be suppressed by placing nulls of the array factor in the directions of their arrival.Array specified by only its nulls. Here we discuss only the synthesis of linear arrays. In practice we need to design a variety of radiation patterns with a very tight control over the nulls and the side lobe amplitudes. the array factor of the array is --------------.  The array synthesis problem is not a very straight forward problem as there may not be unique array for a given radiation pattern. (i. Criterion for choosing number of elements in synthesized array.(A) .e. currents are normalized with respect to The array phase is Writing . Radiation pattern of a general array.  Array specified by its nulls In an interference prone environment the arrays are to be designed to suppress the effect of the interfering signals. Let there be an array of where elements with complex currents ) respectively.

Expand the polynomial. when . an array can be synthesized for given nulls in the radiation pattern.e. i. .(B) binomials where are roots of the polynomial. The nulls in the radiation pattern occur for The array currents can be obtained from the knowledge or the nulls of the radiation pattern i. ) (  3 Find ) . Array Synthesis Procedure (  1 Given directions of nulls ) (  2 Select appropriate inter-element spacing. 6 ) Note : In this case there is no control over the direction of the main beam of the array and the array is completely defined by its nulls. Radiation Pattern of a General Array Let there be an array of (2N+1) elements with conjugate excitation as shown in Fig. (  Coefficients of the polynomial give the array currents. Generally is chosen to be . . The polynomial can be factorized in --------------.e. corresponding to nulls : where (  4 Find roots of the array factor ) (  5 Substitute ) in equation (B).The as is a polynomial of of degree .

The excitation currents are complex in general.e. Larger the array (i.e. . the AF is expanded with a truncated series of N terms. i. and . Let us define the array phase is The array factor then can be written as . whereas in practice the radiation pattern is specified as a function of . The array synthesis problem therefore reduces to the Fourier expansion of the AF. However. The elements around the center have conjugate symmetry. The Fourier coefficients give the complex currents of the array. The conjugate terms can be combined to get the array factor as Writing the complex current . more elements in the array) better is the approximation to the desired pattern. Consequently. equal amplitudes but opposite phases. we get The RHS is the Fourier series expansion of the array factor in with having period . The center element of the array is the reference element and its phase is zero by definition. in general the Fourier series has infinite terms. the synthesized radiation pattern is an approximation to the prescribed pattern. Note: To represent a periodic function. and .  The synthesized pattern is the least square fit to the desired radiation pattern  The Fourier synthesis needs the radiation pattern specified in the -domain.

(5) The excitation currents are the Fourier coefficients. i. there is uncovered range of within to . (3) Get radiation pattern as a function of . expansion the period is always The array synthesis steps are as follows: (1) Specify the radiation pattern for . the array designer has to select a-prior the inter-element spacing. .  For the visible radiation pattern the angle visible range of . . therefore the inter-element spacing . d. For a unique synthesis.e. d. For the Fourier synthesis. Some times the number of elements are not decided a-priori but the rms error between the synthesized and the desired pattern is specified. whereas for the Fourier . (4) Find the Fourier series for the function and retain only (N+1) terms including DC. This is called the The visible range of should be equal to is a function of the inter-element spacing. (2) Select the inter-element spacing. In this case the rms deviation between the two patterns is calculated for different values of N and satisfactory choice of N is made. d and the number of elements N in the array. Chose some arbitrary function over the uncovered range of . If . . Conversion from to needs the knowledge of the inter-element spacing.