You are on page 1of 39

Page

ACKNOW ACKNOWLEDGE LEDGEMENT


I take this opportunity to express my gratitude to the person, who has directly & indirectly helped to complete this training with a positive note.

I am greatly indebted to Mr. Gurvinder Singh (Training-In-charge) for his inputs & guidance throughout the training. I also express my thanks to Mr. Manoj for his timely inputs on the scope & presentation of the study. I am also thankful to the Training Department of International Tractors Limited, Hoshiarpur.

Last but not the least, I would like to thank all my friends who have helped me in the study by providing critical examination of the training & very co-operative behaviour.

Rupinderpal Singh Aulakh Aulakh

Page

DECLARATION

I, Rupinder pal Singh . 09109073 , Mechanical Engineering Singh Aulakh , bearing Roll no. Engineering student (Final Final Year) Year of Dr. B. R. Ambedkar National Institute of Technology, Jalandhar hereby declares that this Project Report entitled International Tractors Ltd. is an original work and the same has not been submitted to any other institute for the award of any other degree. The suggestions as approved by the faculty were duly incorporated.

Signature of Student

Page

CONTENT

Serial no.

Title
Company profile Introduction to Tractors Basic Terminologies used Working of an Engine Main Parts of an Engine Engine Performance Fuel System Engine Cooling Process of Engine Assembly Engine Trouble and Remedy Decodification Electrical Trouble and Remedies Braking System Lubrication Transmission 5S Formula Procedure of Final Assembly Practical Work During Training Bibliography

Page no.
5-6 7-9 10-12 13 14 15 16 17-18 19 20-21 22 22-23 24-25 26-27 28-30 31 32 33-37 38
Page

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

COMPANY PROFILE
We are pleased to introduce ourselves as one of the largest Manufacturer and Exporters of agricultural Tractors, implements and equipments in India.

SONALIKA has a current turnover of approx. Six hundred million USD with activities spread in various fields including Tractors and Automobiles; Hydraulic Systems; Engines; Forgings; Brake Systems; Component Manufacturing, etc.

Established 1969, Sonalika Group has been contributing towards green revolution since its inception. Sonalika Groups flagship company International Tractors Ltd is one of the largest tractor manufacturing companies in India manufacturing tractors in the range of 2090Hp.

International Tractors Limited with brand name Sonalika ventured into production of tractors in 1995 and has emerged as the fastest growing Tractors Company having sold more than 32,000 Tractors last year and counted among the Top Three-Tractor Manufacturers in India.

Product Range Tractors ranging from 30HP to 90HP in 2WD and 4WD, Tractor Mounted Combine Harvesters, Multi Crop Threshers, Harvesting Attachments. Ploughs, Harrows, Rotavators, Trolleys, Crop Reapers, Potato Planters.
Page

SONALIKA | HIGHLIGHTS 2010


Sonalika Tractors are now EURO III A Norms Compliant. Started Export of Tractors to Argentina & Serbia. Executed the export order to Cameroon worth 40 Million US$.

2009

Grand Launch of technical advanced Worldtrac series of tractors. The series comprises of tractors with advanced features. Developed in-house unique DIESEL SAVER UNIT FOR SONALIKA Tractors. Became only Company in India To Produce 90 Hp Tractors.

2008

Launch of RX Series of Tractors. Aesthetically appealing designs and shape accepted across the world & started Export of Tractors to USA.

2007

Joint Venture between International Tractors Ltd. and Magma Shrachi Finance.

2006

Successfully Developed Four Wheel Drive front axles and Transmission of tractor for Yanmar.

2005

Achieved turnover of USD 235 Million. Joint venture with Yanmar of Japan for manufacturing of Tractors in India.

2001
Page

Started in house manufacturing of engines for tractor application.

INTRODUCTION TO TRACTOR
TRACTOR: The word TRACTOR has been derived from traction which means pulling. A tractor is required to pull or haul an equipment, implement or trolley, which are coupled to the tractor chassis through suitable linkage. A tractor can also be used as a prime mover as it has a power outlet source which is also called Power Take Off or P.T.O. shaft.

The use of tractor in India was established with the help of Czechoslovakia. Then tractors were imported from European countries. But after knowing the use of it, the demand increased dynamically. So many industries started its production in India to compel with demand.

CLASSIFICATION OF TRACTORS TRACTORS:

We can classify tractors according to the following scale:

1. According to wheels: (a) Three wheeler (b) Four wheeler (c) Chain wheel(track type) 2. According to capacity: (a) Light tractor (b) Medium tractor (c) Heavy tractor

Page

3. According to engine fitting: (a) Front engine which pull the implement (b) Rear engine which pull the implement 4. According to drive: (a) Two wheel drive (b) Four wheel drive 5. According to use: (a) Utility tractor (b) Row crop tractor (c) Orchard type tractor (d) Industrial type tractors (e) Garden tractor (f) Rotary tiller (g) Implement carrier (h) Earth moving tractor

REQUIREMENTS OF A FARM TRACTOR

1. Greater clearance both vertical and horizontal. 2. Adaptation to the usual row width. 3. Quick and short turning ability. 4. Convenient and easy handling. 5. Quick and easy attachment and removal of field equipments. 6. Essential accessories such as hydraulic control and power take off. 7. More Front weight. 8. Larger Wheel Base. 9. High Torque Backup. 10. Aerodynamic Shape body for higher speed.
Page

CONSTRUCTION OF A TRACTOR

The tractor is made up of three distinct parts or assemblies as follows:

1. Power Unit: Unit: Engine and all accessories necessary for its operation such as ignition, fuel supply, cooling, lubrication, governing , starting and lightning system. 2. Transmission System: System: Clutch, gear box, differential, drive mechanism, belt pulley, power take off, power lift and control. 3. Chassis: Chassis: Frame, wheel and steering mechanism. It does not have body.

BASIC PARTS OF TRACTOR

1. Radiator 2. Water pump and fan 3. Front axle 4. Front and Rear tires. 5. Engine and Engine sump 6. Clutch and Gear Box 7. P.T.O. shaft 8. Differential 9. Lift lower link 10. Sensing spring 11. Gear lever 13. Diesel tank
Page

12. Steering box

BASIC TERMINOLOGIES USED: USED:


1. ENGINE: Heat engine is a machine for converting heat developed by burning fuel energy (chemical energy) & transforms into mechanical energy. 2. BORE: It is inside diameter of engine cylinder. 3. STROKE: It is a linear distance traveled by the piston top dead centre (TDC) to bottom dead centre (BDC). 4. STROKE BORE RATIO (L/D): It is a ratio of length of the stroke and the diameter of the cylinder. For tractor engine this ratio is 1:25. 5. SWEPT VOLUME: It is a volume displaced by one stroke of the piston. 6. COMPRESSION RATIO: It is the ratio of the volume of charge at the beginning of the compression stroke to that at the end of compression stroke. a) Diesel engine 14:1 to 22:1 b) Petrol engine 4:1 to 8:1 7. CLEARANCE VOLUME: Total cylinder volume-swept volume. 8. POWER: It is the rate of doing work & expressed in watt. 9. BLOW BY: It is the escaping of gases vapours. 10. INDICATED HORSE POWER: Power produced inside the engine cylinder is known as indicated horse power.

Page

10

11. BRAKE HORSE POWER: Actual horse power produced on fly wheel is known as brake horse power. 12. FRICTIONAL HORSE POWER: Actual horse power produced on fly wheel is known as brake horse power. 13. MECHANICAL EFFICIENCY OF IC ENGINE: It is the ratio of brake horse power to indicated horse power. It varies from 65 to 90 percent. 14. THERMAL EFFICIENCY: EFFICIENCY: It determines how efficiently fuel is utilized in the engine. 15. INDICATED THERMAL EFFICIENCY: It is the ratio of heat to work done by the gases in the cylinder to the total heat energy supplied by the combustion of fuel in the same time. 16. BRAKE THERMAL EFFICIENCY: It is the ratio of heat to work done by the gases in the cylinder to the total heat supplied by the fuel in the same time. 17. CRANK THROW: This is the distance between the center of crank pin and main bearing of the crank shaft. This distance is equal to the stroke length. 18. IDLE RPM: Revolution per minute at no load and no acceleration. 19. MAXIMUM RPM: Revolution per minute at no load and full accelerator. 20. RATED RPM: Revolution per minute at full load and full accelerator, where engine gives its maximum power.

Page

11

21. THOU: It is the thousand part of the inch a) 1 inch = 1000 thou = 25 mm. b) 1 mm = 40 thou 22. BUMPING CLEARANCE: Clearance between the top of piston and cylinder head, it remains 1.9 to 2.1 mm. 23. BACK COMPRESSION: Leakage of compression through the piston ring via. Crank case breather. 24. LIVE HYDRAULIC: The hydraulic system taking power directly from the engine i.e. hydraulic working is not affected by the position of clutch. 25. TRACTION: Force developed by wheels in the direction of motion. 26. SPEED DROP: Speed at no load-Speed at on load. 27. RPM: Revolution per minute. 28. VTU: Vary touch unit. 29. HSU: Hydro static steering unit. 30. CRDI: Common rail direct injection. 31. EGR: Exhaust gas recirculation. 32. TAPPET CLEARANCE: a) Exhaust: 0.4 mm b) Inlet: 0.3 mm
Page

12

WORKING OF FOUR STROKE DIESEL ENGINE

In four stroke diesel engine all events taking place inside the cylinder completed with four stroke of piston. Each cylinder has two valves for inlet and outlet. The opening and closing of valves are controlling by cam shaft. It is driven by crank shaft with the help of suitable gears. The cam shaft runs at half speed of crank shaft.

The four strokes of piston are: 1. SUCTION STROKE: STROKE During suction stroke air or mixture of air and fuel are drawn inside the cylinder. The air enters the cylinder through inlet valve and exhaust valve remains closed during this stroke. The pressure in the cylinder is less than the atmosphere pressure. 2. COMPRESSION STROKE: STROKE The air taken in the cylinder is compressed by the piston to a small volume of cylinder. The fuel is injected at the end of the compression stroke. The ignition takes place due to high pressure and temperature. After ignition a large amount of heat is generated in the cylinder which pushes the piston backward for useful work. Both valves remains closed during this stroke.

3. POWER STROKE: STROKE During power stroke the high pressure is developed due to combustion of fuel causing the piston to move forward or backward at regular intervals. Both valves remains closed during the stroke. 4. EXHAUST STROKE: During exhaust stroke the exhaust gases go out to exhaust and valve and the cylinder becomes ready to receive fresh air. The inlet valve is closed and exhaust valve remains open during this stroke.
Page

13

MAIN PARTS OF IC ENGINE AND MATERIAL USED 1. Engine cylinder: Aluminum, grey cast iron (with a cast iron linear or sleeve). 2. Cylinder head: Grey cast iron, aluminum alloy, cast iron. 3. Piston: Aluminum alloy, cast steel, cast iron, chrome nickel. 4. Connecting rod: Alloy of medium carbon steel. 5. Crank shaft: Forged steel. 6. Main bearing: These are made of white metal or leads to phosphorus bronze. 7. Fuel injectors: Steel. 8. Piston rings: Aluminum alloy. 9. Valve (Intake and Exhaust): Nickel chromium. 10. Cam shaft: Forged steel. 11. Crank case and Cylinder block: Aluminum with linear ferrous alloy , Semi steel. 12. Fly wheel: Cast iron. 13. Bed plate: Cast iron. 14. Cooling water jackets: Masonry foundation. 15. Spark plug: Electrode of nickel chromium steel & body is made of heat resisting material. 16. Fuel pump: Aluminum alloy. 17. Gaskets: Copper and asbestos.

Page

19. Exhaust manifold and inlet manifold: Cast iron and aluminum alloy.

14

18. Governor: Cast iron.

ENGINE PERFORMANCE :
INTRODUCTION: INTRODUCTION This topic describes different terms relating to engine measurement and performance such as cylinder diameter, length of piston stroke, cylinder volume and so on but also the engine rating, efficiency, head balance etc. WORK: WORK When an object is moved by the application of force, work is set to be done. It is measured by the product of the distance. The body moves and the force applied on it. ENERGY: ENERGY Energy is the ability or capacity to do work. When the work is done on object, energy is stored in that object. POWER: Power is the rate of doing work. The work can be done slowly or rapidly. The rate at which work is done is measured in term of power. HORSE POWER: POWER A horse power is the power of horse, or a measure of the rate at which horse can work. TORQUE: Torque is twisting or turning effort. The torque is equal to the product of the force and its perpendicular distance to the point of rotation. COMPRESSION RATIO: RATIO It is the ratio of the volume of the charge in the cylinder above the piston at Bottom Dead Center and the volume of charge when the piston is at Top Dead Center. r = clearance volume + displacement volume clearance volume SAE HORSE POWER: POWER The SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers) horse power rating of engine is used to compare engine on the basis of number and diameter of cylinder. SAE Horse power = D2N 2.5 D = diameter of cylinder in inch N = number of cylinders

Page

15

FUEL SYSTEM IN DIESEL ENGINE : During engine operation, the fuel is supplied by gravity from the fuel tank to the primary filter. Where coarse impurity is removed, the fuel is drawn by fuel transfer pump and is delivered to fuel injection pump through second filter. The fuel injection pump supplies fuel under high pressure to the injectors through high pressure pipe. The injectors atomize the fuel and inject it into the combustion chamber of the engine. The fuel injection pump is fed with fuel in abundance. The excess fuel is by passed to the intake side of the fuel transfer pump through a relief valve.

MAIN COMPONENT OF FUEL SYSTEM: 1. Fuel feed pump 2. Fuel filter 3. Fuel injection pump

1 FUEL FEED PUMP: It is a pump which transfers fuel from the fuel line to the fuel injection pump. It is mounted on the body of fuel injection pump. 2 FUEL INJECTION PUMP: It is a pump which delivers metered quantity of fuel to each cylinder at appropriate time under high pressure. 3 FUEL FILTER: It is device to remove dirt from fuel. Usually two filter primary and secondary filter are used in diesel engine.

Page

16

ENGINE COOLING: Properties of an efficient cooling system: An efficient cooling system removes 30 to 35% of the heat generated in the combustion chamber. Too much removed of the heat decrease thermal efficiency of the engine.

Method of cooling: (1) Air cooling (2) Water cooling 1) Water cooling: cooling In this method of cooling, the water is circulated though water jackets around each of the combustion chamber and cylinder valve stem. The circulating water when passes through the engine jacket in the block it takes heat. When it passes through the radiator, it is cooled by air drawn through the radiator. 2) Air cooling: cooling In this method of cooling, the heat is decreased directly to the air after being conducted through the cylinder wall.

Main component of cooling: cooling 1) Radiator: Radiator The radiator is the flat type with the core and water tanks combined in one integral unit. It is enclosed with the grill and fan housing which are removable for cleaning. 2) Fan and fan belt: belt A fan is mounted behind the radiator on the water pump shaft. It is driven by the same belt that drives the pump and generator. The purpose of the fan is to draw air through the radiator.

Page

17

3) Thermostat: Thermostat A thermostat valve is used in water cooling system to regulate the circulation of water in system to maintain the normal working temperature of the engine part during the different operating condition.

Valve open start = 70*-80*C Full open = 100*-110*C 4) Water pump: pump A pump is used in the water cooling system to increase the velocity of the circulating water. Impeller type pump is mounted at the front end of the cylinder block and the radiator. 5) Water jacket: jacket Water jacket is cast into the cylinder block and head. Jacket is simply the passage through which water circulated around the cylinder, valve port and seats. 6) Radiator pressure cap: cap Water normally starts boiling at 100 degree Celsius. In order to increase the boiling temperature of water, the cooling system is pressurized. The Radiator pressure cap is set at 0.9 bar so that the cooling system operates under a pressure of 1.9 bar. When the pressure exceeds 1.9 bar, the pressure valve opens and let out the excessive pressure along with some coolant. When the engine cools down, the vacuum valve opens and let in air so that the radiator does not collapse inwards due to vacuum. 7) Cooling Cooling Fan: Fan Cooling fan sucks in fresh cool air through the radiator, thus cooling the hot water.

Page

18

Process of engine assembly in plant plant: :

Crankcase washing

Crankcase loading & plugs fitment

Crankshaft assembly

Oil Pump & Suction tube fitment

Piston & connecting rod fitment

Camshaft & timing gear fitment

Cylinder head assembly & engine belt pulley fitment

Flywheel & oil pan fitment

Rocker arm assembly, push rod fitment

Alternator & valve cover fitment

Inlet & exhaust manifold fitment

Water pump, side cover & Thermostat fitment

Oil filter & fuel filter fitment

Breather assembly & starter motor fitment

Engine testing

Dispatch

Page

19

ENGINE TROUBLE AND REMEDY :


Probable causes Fuel line clogged. Air in fuel system. Fuel filters clogged. Incorrect injection timing. Engine sluggish. Remedy Flush and blow out with compressed air. Remove air with help of feed pump. Wash coarse filter element. Change fine filter element. Adjust injection timing Check injectors, rectify spray.

Trouble: Irregular engine running, Smoking, Loss of power. Air or water in fuel Remove air, prime with clean settled fuel Injector needle stuck or nozzle holes Wash nozzles, clean out holes (use clogged cleanout tool 0.25-0.28mm dia.) Incorrect injector operating pressure Adjust injector operating pressure Injector pump faulty Replace pump and have it repaired Pump delivery out of adjusting Have pump adjusted Valve stuck Remove cylinder head and valve decarbonizes Fuel filter clogged Wash coarse filter element or change fine filter element Fuel line clogged Flush and blow out Air cleaner clogged Wash out and refill with clean oil Cylinders, piston and pins worn Replace Engine overload Reduce load Engine cold Warm up Lack of compression Adjust valve clearance Crank case oil level high Check drain to dipstick upper mark Piston rings worn or stuck, cylinders or Replace or wash rings, if necessary piston worn replace cylinders and piston

Page

20

Trouble: Knocking noise : Probable cause Injection too early Valve clearance large Valve striking piston Piston slap(wall hard throughout cylinder, disappears when throttling up) Pounding from excessive crankshaft bearing clearance Trouble: Engine overheats : Probable cause Dirt on cooling fins Fan screen clogged Fan belt worn or broken Undue use of fan throttle plates Engine overload Trouble: Engine racing away : Probable cause Air cleaner oil bowel overfilled Injection pump faulty Remedy Remove bowl and empty excess Replace pump and have it repaired Remedy Stop engine and allow cooling off, remove dirt Clean Replace Remove throttle plate Reduce load Remedy Check and set time Adjust Investigate cause and correct Cylinder and piston worn, replace on earliest opportunity Regrind journals, fit replacements shells

Page

21

DECODIFICATION of Engine Model : Simpson Engine S-325 S - Simpson Engine 3 - Three Cylinder 25 - 25 X 100 cc ITL Engine 3100FL 3 Three Cylinder 100 Bore diameter in mm F Fuel Efficient Engine L Extra Length of Stroke (118 mm)

Electrical trouble and remedies:remedies:Trouble: Alternator (low or no charge) : Probable causes Fault in alternator to battery circuit Field coil open or short circuited Voltage regulator fault Trouble: Ammeter needle dancing: dancing: Probable causes Rectifier faulty Remedy Replace alternator Remedy Find fault and correct Have coil replaced Correct fault

Page

22

Trouble: Alternator noisy: noisy: Probable causes Pulley loose Ball bearing worn(excessive play or damaged rolling contact surface) Remedy Tighten pulley nut Have bearing replaced

Trouble: Starter will not run when switched on: on: Probable causes Heavily oxidized terminals Remedy Clean

battery

wire

Trouble: Starter will not stop after engine : Probable causes Solenoid contacts stuck closed Remedy Stop engine and immediately open earth switch (or disconnect wire from battery terminals) correct fault

Trouble: Starter Starter fails to crank engine :

Probable causes Engine at fault Battery low Commutator or brushes dirty Poor connection in starter circuit Solenoid contacts burnt

Remedy Find fault and correct Charge the battery Clean thoroughly Check and tighten Clean

Page

23

BRAKING SYSTEM: SYSTEM: Brakes are used to stop, stand or to turn tractor. There is different brake for every wheel. It is known as a mechanism to stop the moving vehicle in shortest time and in shortest distance. FUNCIONS OF BRAKE: 1) It helps operator to decrease the speed of machine. 2) It also helps during turn. 3) It helps in control in heavy traffic. 4) To stop a machine. TYPES TYPES OF BRAKES: 1) Mechanical brake 2) Hydraulic brake 3) Disk brake Mechanical brake: This is an internal expanding brake when the brake paddle is pressed the cam revolves with help of cable and link. It force the brake shoe, because of this force they expand and start to friction with brake drum, makes them slow and ultimately stop them with braking power. When the force is removed from paddle it is reset. Important parts in mechanical brake 1) Brake paddle 2) Brake shoe 4) Brake drum 5) Brake paddle 3) Brake shoe lining

Page

24

Hydraulic Hydraulic brake: brake The hydraulic brake is an arrangement of braking mechanism which uses brake fluid, typically containing ethylene glycol, to transfer pressure from the controlling unit, which is usually near the operator of the vehicle, to the actual brake mechanism, which is usually at or near the wheel of the vehicle. Disk brake: brake The disc brake is a wheel brake which slows rotation of the wheel by the friction caused by pushing brake pads against a brake disc with a set of calipers. The brake disc (or rotor in American English) is usually made of cast iron, but may in some cases be made of composites such as reinforced carboncarbon or ceramic matrix composites. This is connected to the wheel and/or the axle. To stop the wheel, friction material in the form of brake pads, mounted on a device called a brake caliper, is forced mechanically, hydraulically, pneumatically or electromagnetically against both sides of the disc. Friction causes the disc and attached wheel to slow or stop. Brakes convert motion to heat, and if the brakes get too hot, they become less effective, a phenomenon known as brake fade.

Page

25

LUBRICATION : Lubrication is essentially, required in tractor maintenance. To supply the lubricating oil between the moving parts is simply termed as lubricating. Lubrication of all moving parts is essential to reduce friction, wear and to prevent seizure. Properties of lubricants: 1) Viscosity 2) Flash points 3) Fire point 4) Cloud point Viscosity: Viscosity Viscosity is a measure of the resistance to flow or the internal friction of oil. Flash points: points The flash point has been defined as the lowest temperature at which the lubricating oil will flash when a small flame is passed across its surface. Fire point: point If the oil is heated further after flash point has been reached. The lowest temperature at which the oil will burn continuously is called fire point.

Cloud point: point The oil changes from liquid state to a plastic or solid state when subjected to low temperature. In some cases the oil solidifying which makes it to appear cloudily. The temperature at which this take place is called cloud point.
Page

26

TYPE OF LUBRICANTS: LUBRICANTS: There are three types of lubricants: 1) Solid: Graphite, mica, soap stone, or steatite. 2) Semi solid: Grease 3) Liquid: Mineral oil, vegetable oil, animal oil etc. LUBRICATION SYSTEM FAULTS : Trouble: Low oil pressure : Probable cause Oil pressure gauge faulty Oil pump intake strainer clogged Oil pressure relief valve clogged Unauthorized grade of engine oil Crank shaft bearing worn Remedy Check gauge, replace if necessary. Look for oil leaks, stop if any. Wash Wash Change to authorized oil Required journals fit replacements shells

Trouble: Excessive oil consumption : Probable cause Piston rings worn out or stuck Piston rings side clearance large Large intake valve stem clearance in guide Remedy Replace Replace or piston if necessary Replace worn parts

Page

27

TRANSMISSION: TRANSMISSION:
We know that the horse power, the rear wheel depends upon the turning effort and the speed of rotation. We need different torque and speed for different application at the rear wheel but engine speed and torque are between engine and rear wheel, which gives variable torque and speed. This mechanism is known gear box. Any combination of gear wheels by which power is transmitted one shaft to another shaft is called gear train. The direction of rotation of driver gear will be opposite to that of driving gear. TYPE OF GEAR BOXES: There are mainly two types of gear boxes. These are as under:

Sliding mesh gear box: In this type of gear box one moving gear is pulled out and
pushed to mesh another gear.

Constant mesh gear box: In constant mesh gear box, the gears on main and
counter shaft are always in engaged position. In this the splined sleeve is made to shift to mesh with the gear to right and left or kept in neutral position.

Synchromesh: It is similar to constant mesh gear box except synchronizing cones


which are provided on its hub sleeves for equalizing the speeds of gears. This type of gear box is being used in Worldtrac range. It overcomes noise, wear/breakage & hard gear shifting problems.

Page

28

PARTS OF GEAR BOX AND THEIR FUNCTIONS: FUNCTIONS: Input shaft: It transmits power from clutch plate to gear box Lay shaft: For maintaining the made of rotation of gears and changing the speed of gears on this shaft the gear remains fixed to prevent the gear slippage Intermediate shaft: Take power from lay shaft gears, in this shaft, gears remains sliding. Output shaft: Take power from immediate shaft and transmit to the tail pinion. Idler cluster: It gives reverse motion. Internal gear: It remains fixed on gear box housing and support the motion of planetary gear. Planetary assembly: It reduces the speed of working at heavy loads. HighHigh-low sleeve: It connects the output shaft to intermediate shaft and planetary assembly for high and low speed resp. Gear shifting lever: Shift the gears Locking wire: Lock the fork on shifter fork. Gear shifter rod: Given movement to the shifter fork and then gear while shifting them

CLUTCH :
The clutch is fitted in engine to connect and disconnect power stream in gear box and other components. The main motive of clutch is to make gearing easily and quick. It is located between engine and gearbox.
Page

29

There are following types of clutch : 1) Single plate clutch: This type is mostly used in motor cars, it is also known as with the name of DISC CLUTCH AND SOLID CLUTCH. It has following parts i) Flywheel ii) Clutch plate iii) Pressure plate iv) Clutch spring v) Clutch release bearing vi) Clutch fork vii) Clutch fork ball 2) MultiMulti-plate clutch: clutch As per name, this type of clutch uses multiple clutch and pressure plates. It also works as single plate clutch and all parts are usually similar. This type of clutch is used in light weight motors like bike, scooter etc. In it all clutch plates have lining in their radius and same numbers of pressure plates are fitted in it.

CLUTCH ASSEMBLY: ASSEMBLY: There are following parts in clutch assembly 1) Clutch lining 2) Cushion spring 3) Torsion spring

5) Hub flange

Page

30

4) Rivet

5 S FORMULAS:FORMULAS:1. Seiri 2. Seiton 3. Seiso 4. Seiketsu 5. Shitsuke

S. No. 1s

JAPANESE MEANING WORD SEIRI Sorting out, clearing, segregation, proper selection and remove the waste

2s

SEITON

Systematic arrangement, keeping things at proper place. A place for everything and everything in its place.

3s

SEISO

Cleaning. Keep all the work place area, equipment clean

4s

SEIKETSU

Standardizing, environment, cleanliness. Light, noise, punctuality. (Order and save time)

5s

SHITSUKE

Maintain discipline and standards To maintain above 4s,respect the rules.

Page

31

Procedure for Tractor final Assembly ssembly: : Assembly

Page

32

PRACTICAL WORK DURING TRAINING

Project: Project: Time Study at Differential Loop assembly and Gear box Assembly

Time Study: Time study is the process to establish a time for a qualified worker to perform specified work under stated conditions and at a defined rate of working. Average Cycle Time: Time: Average Cycle Time is defined as the mean of the different durations taken to complete one cycle of an operation.

Part 1 1 Differential Time Study Function of differential: A differential is used between the back tyres of the tractor. Its basic function is to provide different rotation to both the back gears during turning. Various parts used in differential assembly are: are:Trumpet Spur ,helical gears Break Cage Gasket

Page

33

Differential Assembly Loop:

Dropping the housing on trolley

B.P Shaft fitment (crown gear)

P.T.O Shaft fitment

OIB drum fitment on both sides

Bull gear placing

Punching Chasis No.

Pinion Fitment

Crown Gear preloading check

Trumpet Fitment

Trumpet & bull gear Fitment

P.T.O Shifter Fitment

Brake Lever fitment

Lifted by overhead crane

Suction pipe fitment

Testing Done at Differential Assembly : Pattern or %age Contact Test: %age contact required is 60% - 70% Pre-Loading Test: Cage assembly bearing 12 kg T.P. Shaft 6 kg Backlash Testing: .2 - .3 mm

Page

34

Total Cycle Time: Total cycle time taken by the process at differential loop = 637 sec or 10.61 minutes Recommendations: Recommendations: Dial gauge place needs to be changed. More workers are required. No place for stocking of PTO shaft in on-hold inventory. On-hold inventory racks were not placed at right place. Mismanagement among the workers.

Page

35

Part 2 Gear Box Time Study Function of a Gear Box: As per application/condition, different speeds and torque combination are required which can be achieved by a GEAR BOX. Various parts of a Gear box: Gear Box Housing Cover Plates High & Low Gears Shifter Rod & fork Input , Intermediate and Output Shafts Idler Cluster Planetary Assembly Locking Wire

Total Cycle Time: Total cycle time taken by the process at gear box assembly loop for manufacturing of single unit= 448.25 seconds or 7.47 minutes.

Page

36

Gear Box Assembly loop:

Gearbox housing on trolley

Lay Shaft fitment

Intermediate Shaft fitment

High Low gear fitment

Bottom plate fitment

Cover plate fitment

Shifter Rod & fork fitment

Input shaft fitment

C.A. guide & Bell housing fitment

Steering & accelerator fitment

Lay & Intermediate Shaft plate fitment

Lifted by overhead crane

Recommendations: Mismanagement among workers. Mandrel tools are not placed at right place More involvement of man then machine. Torquing of nuts should be divided at different sub stations.

Page

37

BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. www.sonalika .com 2. Search Engines Engines (Google and and Yahoo) 3. Sonalika Library material. 4. I. C. Engines book by V. Ganesan Ganesan 5. Production Management books books

Page

38

THANK YOU

Page

39