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# ELET2460 Signals and Systems Lecturer: Dr. Andr Coy andre.coy02@uwimona.edu.

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Preliminaries
Texts:
Signals, Systems and Transforms Fourth Edition; Philips, Parr and Riskin Schaums Outline: Signals and Systems Fundamentals of Signals and Systems Using Matlab; Kamen and Heck

Preliminaries
Online Resources
Rice University Lecture Notes:

## http://cnx.org/content/col10064/latest/ Youtube Videos from IITs, for example:

http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Signals_and _Systems

Preliminaries
Online Resources Free Book and Solutions from StonyBrook:
http://www.ece.sunysb.edu/~ctchen/

Course Evaluation
2-Hour Written Exam 1 Hour Written In Course Test Term Paper Graded Tutorials 60% 20% 10% 10%

Preliminaries
In Course Test: TBD Format: Two or Three Compulsory Questions Exam Format: Four Questions For You To Choose Three Term Paper: Details to follow

Preliminaries

Preliminaries
Mathematics Required
Full Understanding of Graphs Complex Numbers Vectors and Matrices Calculus Sequences and Series Differential Equations Partial Fractions Decomposition

Course Outline
Introduction to Signals and Systems Basic Signals and Signal Operations Convolution Fourier Series Description and Classification of Systems System Modeling and the Laplace Transform Transfer Functions Block Diagram Reduction Frequency Response

Outline Continued
Introduction to Discrete-time Signal Processing Discrete-time signals and their properties Discrete Systems Linear time-invariant systems Linear constant-coefficient difference equations Frequency domain representations Discrete-time Fourier Transform Z-transform

A simplified view of Signals and Systems is that it is the study of the relationship between cause and effect The relationship between cause and effect is embodied in almost every aspect of the physical world Principles learned here are applicable to many varied fields

## Real-world Examples of Cause and Effect

Acceleration of a car Electromechanical systems (motors) Economics, stock market Biological processes (Speaking)

## A More Structured Definition

The common sense understanding of the relationship between cause and effect is too imprecise for scientific purposes. ELET2460 seeks to establish these relationships on a foundation which is scientifically sound. The language used to describe these relationships is mathematics.

## A More Structured Definition

In the scientific definition: Cause becomes the Input SIGNAL Effect becomes the Output SIGNAL The entity which Cause acts upon to produce Effect is known as the SYSTEM

Input Signal

SYSTEM

Output Signal

## Relating ELET2460 to Other Electronics Courses

In ELET2480/3480 you will study Communications Systems, i.e. a number of linked input-output systems. eg:
\

System
Input Signal
Source Coding
Channel Coding

T/X

## Detection And Decision

Channel Decoding

Information Recovery

Output Signal

In ELET2410/3412 you will study circuits such as a number of linked i/o systems:

System

Input Signal

Output Signal

Definitions
A signal x(t) is a real-valued , function of the time variable t which carries information (Any quantity which varies with time, or indeed in space, and is measurable can be thought of as a signal)

Examples of Signals
audio signals such as speech or music waveforms

Examples
Bioelectric signals such as a sonogram or electrocardiogram (ECG) or an electroencephalogram (EEG);

## Current And Voltage Waveforms in an Electrical Circuit

Definitions
System - An orderly arrangement of components assembled, joined or connected together for a common purpose This is a general definition of a system

## A more precise definition of a System

An ordered arrangement of components with clearly identifiable input(s) - which can be manipulated from outside the system and clearly identifiable output(s) which are observable(or measurable) from outside the system.

Systems
A system transforms an input to produce an output

## E.g., An amplifier with gain A

A times input

= Ax(t)

SUMMARY
1. Relationship between cause and effect is a feature of our everyday lives. 2. ELET2460 translates this relationship into one between Input Signal, System, and Output Signal. 3. Relationship is described in mathematical terms. 4. We can then analyze and design systems based on actual or desired performance
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