Mafia

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For other uses, see Mafia (disambiguation). Mafia is a term used to describe certain clan- or culturally-based organized crime enterprises. The original and best known Mafia is the Sicilian Mafia in Italy. When used alone, typically refers to either the Sicilian Mafia or the American Mafia. The term is sometimes used for other organized crime groups in Italy and around the world, e.g. "the Russian Mafia" or "the Japanese Mafia". These terms are applied informally by the press and public; the criminal organizations themselves have their own terms (e.g. the Sicilian Mafia calls itself "Cosa Nostra" and the "Japanese Mafia" calls itself yakuza). Virtually all groups that can be considered mafias are criminal organizations that use violence to practice extortion and protection racketeering. They often engage in other illicit activities such as drugtrafficking, loan-sharking, and fraud. Mafias are often bonded together by a code of honour, in particular the code of silence (or omertà in southern Italy), to safeguard the organisation from outside intrusion and law enforcement action.[1]
Contents
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1 Etymology 2 Definitions

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2.1 Mafias as private protection firms 2.2 Mafia-type organizations under Italian law

3 Mafias around the world

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3.1 Italy 3.2 Other countries

4 References

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4.1 Sources

Etymology[edit]
There are several theories about the origin of the term "Mafia" (sometimes spelled "Maffia" in early texts). The Sicilian adjective mafiusu (in Italian: mafioso) may derive from the slang Arabic mahyas (‫)صايهم‬, meaning "aggressive boasting, bragging", or marfud (‫ )ضوفرم‬meaning "rejected". In reference to a man, mafiusu in 19th century Sicily was ambiguous, signifying a bully, arrogant but also fearless, enterprising, and proud, according to scholar Diego Gambetta.[2] In reference to a woman, however, the feminine-form adjective "mafiusa" means beautiful and attractive.

it is typically by comparison to the Sicilian Mafia that other criminal groups earn the label. Scholars have observed that many other societies around the world have criminal organizations of their own that provide essentially the same protection service through similar methods. Nevertheless. criminal gangs played an essential role in the economy by enforcing the contracts and protecting the properties of businessmen because the state security .. protection[3] The public's association of the word with the criminal secret society was perhaps inspired by the 1863 play "I mafiusi di la Vicaria" ("The Mafiosi of the Vicaria") by Giuseppe Rizzotto and Gaetano Mosca. an initiation ritual.. The word made its first official appearance in 1865 in a report by the prefect of Palermo. For instance.Other possible origins from Arabic:   maha = quarry. I am no longer willing to accept the habit of speaking of the Mafia in descriptive and all-inclusive terms that make it possible to stack up phenomena that are indeed related to the field of organized crime but that have little or nothing in common with the Mafia. and talk of "umirtà" (omertà or code of silence) and "pizzu" (a codeword for extortion money). nowadays people have gone so far in the opposite direction that it has become an overused term . cave[3] mu'afa = safety. The play is about a Palermoprison gang with traits similar to the Mafia: a boss. whose primary business is protection racketeering: they use their fearsome reputation for violence to deter people from swindling or robbing those who pay them for protection. The term was never officially used by Sicilian mafiosi. The words Mafia and mafiusi are never mentioned in the play. an anti-Mafia judge murdered by the Sicilian Mafia in 1992. The generalizing of the term has not been welcomed by all scholars. 1990 Mafias as private protection firms[edit] Scholars such as Diego Gambetta[7] and Leopoldo Franchetti have characterized the Sicilian Mafia as a "cartel of private protection firms". Giovanni Falcone. who prefer to refer to their organization as "Cosa Nostra".[6] —Giovanni Falcone.[5] Definitions[edit] A formal definition of "mafia" can be hard to come by.[4] The play had great success throughout Italy. Filippo Antonio Gualterio. they provide an essential service when they cannot rely on the police and judiciary to enforce their contracts and protect their properties from thieves (this is often because they are engaged in black market deals). the use of the term "mafia" began appearing in the Italian state's early reports on the phenomenon. in Russia after the collapse of Communism. Soon after. they were probably put in the title to add a local flair. objected to the conflation of the term "Mafia" with organized crime in general: While there was a time when people were reluctant to pronounce the word "Mafia" ... For many businessmen in Sicily.

system had all but collapsed. With the [Russian] state in collapse and the security forces overwhelmed and unable to police contract law. defines an association as being of Mafia-type nature "when those belonging to the association exploit the potential for intimidation which their membership gives them.. under which all criminal organisations are prosecuted. operating in the region of Campania 'Ndrangheta in Calabria Sacra Corona Unita in Apulia Stidda in Sicily Other countries[edit]      Albanian mafia Black Mafia Family in the USA Bosnian mafia Bulgarian mafia Chaldean mafia . and the compliance and omertà which membership entails and which lead to the committing of crimes. concessions. the direct or indirect assumption of management or control of financial activities. These gangs are popularly called "the Russian Mafia" by foreigners. permissions. the term associazione di tipo mafioso ("Mafia-type organisation") is used to clearly distinguish the uniquely Sicilian Mafia from other criminal organisations – such as theCamorra.] most businessmen had to find themselves a reliable krysha under the leadership of an effective vor." [10][11] Mafias around the world[edit] Mafia-proper can refer to either:   Sicilian Mafia American Mafia Italy[edit] Other Italian criminal organizations include:     Camorra..[9] Article 416-bis of the Italian Penal Code. enterprises and public services for the purpose of deriving profit or wrongful advantages for themselves or others. cooperating with the criminal culture was the only option [. —excerpt from McMafia by Misha Glenny. the 'Ndrangheta.[8] Mafia-type organizations under Italian law[edit] In Italy. the Sacra Corona Unita – that are structured like the Sicilian Mafia. but they prefer to go by the term "krysha".

also known as Gundal/Jopok. also called "La Eme" Mungiki in Kenya Romanian mafia Russian mafia (Organizatsiya) in Russia Serbian mafia Triads in China [12] Yakuza in Japan .               Chechen mafia Corsican mafia Dixie Mafia in the southern USA Indian mafia in India Irish Mob in the USA Jewish-American organized crime Kkangpae. in South Korea Macedonian mafia Mexican Mafia in the USA.

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