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# Applications of Taylor Series

Lecture Notes

These notes discuss three important applications of Taylor series: 1. Using Taylor series to find the sum of a series. 2. Using Taylor series to evaluate limits. 3. Using Taylor polynomials to approximate functions.

## Evaluating Infinite Series

It is possible to use Taylor series to find the sums of many different infinite series. The following examples illustrate this idea. EXAMPLE 1 Find the sum of the following series: "
_ 8!

## " " " " " " 8x "x #x \$x %x

SOLUTION

Recall the Taylor series for /B : " " " # " \$ " % B B B B /B . "x #x \$x %x

The sum of the given series can be obtained by substituting in B ": " " " " " /. "x #x \$x %x

In the above example, note that we get a different series for every value of B that we plug in. For example, " and
_ " " " " a"b8 " " " /" . "x #x \$x %x 8x / 8!

# ## #\$ #% /# . "x #x \$x %x

EXAMPLE 2 Find the sums of the following series: (a) " " " " " . # \$ % & (b) " " " " " \$ & ( *

SOLUTION

(a) Recall that B Substituting in B " yields " (b) Recall that B Substituting in B " yields " " " " " 1 tan" a"b . \$ & ( * % B B B B tan" aBb. \$ & ( * " " " " lna#b. # \$ % & B B B B lna" Bb. # \$ % &

## Limits Using Power Series

When taking a limit as B !, you can often simplify things by substituting in a power series that you know. EXAMPLE 3 Evaluate lim
SOLUTION

sin B B . B! B\$

We simply plug in the Taylor series for sin B: sin B B lim lim B! B! B\$ B " \$ " " B B & B ( B \$x &x (x B\$

lim
B!

" \$ " " B B& B( \$x &x (x B\$ " " " " " B# B% \$x &x (x \$x '

lim
B!

## EXAMPLE 4 Evaluate lim

SOLUTION

B # /B . B! cos B "

We simply plug in the Taylor series for /B and cos B: B # /B lim lim B! cos B " B! " B # " B B # # " # " % " ' " B B B " # %x 'x

" B# B\$ B% # lim " # " % " B! B B B' # %x 'x " " B B# " # # lim " " % " # B! "# B B # #% 'x

Sometimes a limit will involve a more complicated function, and you must determine the Taylor series: lnacos Bb . B! B#

## EXAMPLE 5 Evaluate lim

SOLUTION

lnacos Bb are:

Using the Taylor series formula, the first few terms of the Taylor series for " " % lnacos Bb B# B . # "#

(Really, we only need that first term.) Therefore, " " B# B% lnacos Bb " " " "# lim lim # lim B# # # B! B! B! B B # "# #

Limits as B + can be obtained using a Taylor series centered at B +: ln B . B" B " " " a B " b # aB " b\$ # \$

SOLUTION

## Recall that ln B aB "b

Plugging this in gives " " a B "b a B " b # a B " b\$ ln B # \$ lim lim B" B " B" B" " " lim " aB "b aB "b# " B" # \$

Taylor Polynomials
A partial sum of a Taylor series is called a Taylor polynomial. For example, the Taylor polynomials for /B are: X ! aB b " X " aB b " B

X # aB b " B

" # B # " " X \$ aB b " B B # B \$ # ' You can approximate any function 0 aBb by its Taylor polynomial: 0 a B b X 8 aB b If you use the Taylor polynomial centered at +, then the approximation will be particularly good near B +.

TAYLOR POLYNOMIALS

Let 0 aBb be a function. The Taylor polynomials for 0 aBb centered at B + are: X ! aB b 0 a+ b X " a B b 0 a + b 0 w a + b aB + b X# aBb 0 a+b 0 w a+baB +b You can approximate 0 aBb using a Taylor polynomial.

0 ww a+b a B + b# #x

Note that the 1st-degree Taylor polynomial is just the tangent line to 0 aBb at B +: This is often called the linear approximation to 0 aBb near B +, i.e. the tangent line to the graph. Taylor polynomials can be viewed as a generalization of linear approximations. In particular, the 2nd-degree Taylor polynomial is sometimes called the quadratic approximation, the 3rd-degree Taylor polynomial is the cubic approximation, and so on. EXAMPLE 7 (a) (b) Find the 5th-degree Taylor polynomial for sin B. Use the answer from part (a) to approximate sina!\$b. X " a B b 0 a + b 0 w a + b aB + b

SOLUTION

(a) This is just all term terms of the Taylor series up to B& : X & aB b B " \$ " " " & B B& B B\$ B \$x &x ' "#!

" " (b) sina!\$b X& a!\$b a!\$b a!\$b\$ a!\$b& !#*& &#! #& ' "#!

EXERCISES
12 Find the sum of the given series. 1. " " " " \$x &x (x 1# 1% 1' #x %x 'x 11. lim
B1

## " cos B aB 1b#

12. lim

B"

ln B B "

13. (a) Find the 3rd-degree Taylor polynomial for the function (b) Use your answer from part (a) to approximate lna""&b. 14. (a) Find the 4th-degree Taylor polynomial for /B . (b) Use your answer from part (a) to approximate /!\$ . 15. (a) Find the quadratic approximation for the function (b) Use your answer from part (a) to approximate a%#b\$# . 16. (a) Find the quadratic approximation for the function \$ 0 aBb B centered at + ). \$ (b) Use your answer from part (a) to approximate )'. 0 aBb B\$# centered at + %. 0 aBb ln B centered at + ".

2. "

312 Evaluate the following limits. cos B " 3. lim B! B# 5. lim lna" B b B! B#
#

B 4. lim \$B B! / " 6. lim B B! tan" a%Bb cos B " " B# # B! B% tan" aBb B B! sinaBb B

7. lim

8. lim

9. lim

10. lim