3D Textile Structures – Technology Overview

The Institute of Textile Science 107th Scientific Session “New Generation of Textiles: from Fibres to Recycling” September 16th 2010

Boris Tsvetanov, ing.jr, M.Ing

Presentation Outline
• Synopsis:
– Definition of 3D textiles and their manufacturing methods – Application scope of 3D textiles

• Development potential at CTT Group
– – – – Warp knitted Weft knitted Embroidery Woven structures

3D Textiles - Definition and Manufacturing Methods
• Formal definition:
– Flexible textile products exposing a substantial third dimension compared to the other two planar dimensions.
• • • • Hollow / Tubular Bulk structures Dome shaped p shells Complex assembled shapes

Definition • Aspects of 3D: – 3D geometry • spatial form and/or orientation without previous p e o so or s subsequent bseq e forming o g s steps eps – and 3D structures • spatial p interlacing g between multiple p systems y of threads .3D Textiles .

3D Textiles .Manufacturing Methods • Manufacturing methods: – Braiding B idi – Weft knitting – Warp knitting – Weaving – Stitched assemblies – Combined proprietary technologies .

Used for the production of tubular textiles.Braiding • Braiding : – Interweaving I i in i a diagonal di l way. textiles – Hollow or filled volume – In a consequent step the braid might be moulded in a matrix into a more complex shape . to obtain b i an overlapped structure.Manufacturing Methods .

A.r.M. . S.l.Manufacturing Methods .Braiding Example E l of f a braiding b idi machine: Yarn carriers moving in a circular path Interlacing yarn ends into a tubular hose Image Source: O.

• Multilayered circular braids • Cross-sectional profile • Component-shaped braids . The mobile threads move around a specified path thus bonding in three dimensions.Braiding • 3D braiding: –M Mobile bil braiding b idi strands t d moving i around d static t ti braiding strands.Manufacturing Methods .

Manufacturing Methods .Braiding Image Source: Herzog Braiding Machines Image Source: MYM Technologies Ltd .

Application Scope – Braiding • Advanced applications: – Biomedical Bi di l – vascular l stents – 3D net-shape reinforced composites – diff different t cross-section ti profiles fil are possible .

Knitting Simulation Software • General properties: – The specific p shape p of the individual loops p results in an elastic l ti material t i l – Fabric thickness is low – 3D geometry – Patterning allows manufacturing of tailor-made shapes .Manufacturing Methods – Weft Knitting • Basic technique: – Forming a loop through previously formed such loops. One y yarn makes one row of the fabric.

F b i F Fabric Formation ti El Elements– t Weft W ft Knitting Individually controlled needles Consecutive knitting on every e e y next e t needle eed e One thread per row .

thickness reinforced (spacer knits) and some complex structures as a combination of these • Patterning of shape and loop architecture – Circular • Tubular and spacer tubular fabrics . shells.Manufacturing Methods – Weft Knitting • Two kinds of machines: – Flat Fl bed b d • Possibility to make tubular products.

pipe. T-Pipe) T Pipe) .Application Scope – Weft Knitting • Weft Knitting: – Somewhat S h limited li i d 3D D application li i d due to the relatively low thickness of the material • Biomedical • Composites (formable matrix) • Reinforcement (Y (Y-pipe.

Manufacturing Methods – Warp Knitting • Basic technique: – Fabric formed by interconnecting loops loops. • General properties: p p – Less elastic fabrics – Products with considerable thickness – 3D structures – Patterning allows repeated structures to be manufactured . A set of individual yarns for every needle.

F b i F Fabric Formation ti El Elements– t Warp W Knitting Guide Bar. Warp p bar Eylet Cast-off bar. . stitch comb Needle row Spacing Image Source: LIBA Maschinenfabrik GmbH .

F b i F Fabric Formation ti El Elements– t Warp W Knitting All needles move simultaneously One thread per needle Image Source: Jakob Müller AG .

Application Scope – Warp Knitting • Warp Knitting: – Composite C i materials i l • Aerospace industry – composite matrix • Civil engineering – concrete reinforcement. reinforcement acoustic insulation – Military .ballistic protection – Biomedical – vascular stents .

.Manufacturing Methods – Weaving • Weaving: – A classic l i technology h l f interlacing for i l i warp and weft threads in plane at straight angle.

Image Source: Biteam Image Source: ScotWeave 3D .3D Weaving • 3D weaving uses an additional thread system perpendicular to the first two directions to obtain a consolidated fabric structure.

.Manufacturing Methods – Stitched assemblies • Stitching: –A Assembling bli together t th layers l of f material. t i l – Piling-up layers with different shapes allows for obtaining a complex cross-sectional profile of the final product.

Manufacturing Methods – Stitched assemblies • Applications: –B Build-up ild of f a complex l cross-section ti b by stacking material – Joining separate components in a 3D shape – Directional reinforcement .

Manufacturing Methods – Proprietary Technologies • A combination or a modification of methods: methods – Often developed on the basis of existing technology and with a product-specific product specific objective: • Directional reinforcement • Shape versatility .

Manufacturing Methods – Proprietary Technologies • Multiaxial warp knit • Robotic b i stitching i hi • Shape – oriented profiles of braided and woven structures .

Development Potential of CTT Group • Weft Knitting – Model M d lU Universal i l MC MC-835 8 – Double bed machine with individual selection l ti of f needles: dl C Complex l shapes h and d forms. holes and architecture .

Universal MC-835 35 .

Development Potential of CTT Group • Warp Knitting – Model M d lJ Jakob k b Müll Müller MDK MDK-80 8 – Double needle raschel machine : Spacer f b i with fabrics ith thi thickness k up t to 25 mm .

Jakob Müller MDK-80 .

Development Potential at CTT Group • Stitching – CNC Embroidery – Model M d l Tajima T ji TMLX TMLX-1201 – Classic embroidery and cording (thread l layering): i ) di directional ti l reinforcement i f t and d assembly of individual panels .

Tajima j TMLX-1201 .

shapes p and thickness . g y.Application pp Examples p • Biomedical • Reinforcement • Spacer fabrics Variety of geometry.

Thank you for your attention Boris Tsvetanov.jr. ing.Ing . M.

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