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Present Simple
S + verb ( infinitive/ -s [3rd] ) Do/Does: questions Dont/Doesnt: negatives

Uses: 1. Routine & habits: (with frequency adverbs) Ex: I always have cereal for breakfast 2. Permanent actions Ex: I live in Palma 3. Universal truths/scientific statements Ex: If you drop something it falls 4. Likes & dislikes Ex: I hate fast food 5. To indicate future when we talk about fixed timetables Ex: The shops open at 10.00 am

Present Continuous
S + to be[am-is-are] + -ing

Uses: 1. Actions happening at the time of speaking: (now, at the moment) Ex: The teacher is explaining the lesson 2. Temporary situations Ex: Im staying at my grandparents house this week 3. Plans & arrangements Ex: Theyre moving house next week 4. Complaints about bad habits Ex: You are always complaining about my cooking! 5. With verbs describing change & development Ex: Things are getting worse!

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Stative Verbs
1. 2. 3. 4. To be Verbs of preferences: like, love, enjoy, prefer, hate, etc Verbs related to possession: have got, possess, own, belong. Verbs related to thoughts, understanding or opinions: think, believe, seem, understand, know, remember, forget, want, etc. 5. Verbs of the senses: hear, smell, feel, taste, see, notice, etc. In general, these verbs cant take the gerund form. Ex: My father owns this bar I understand the exercise now This book seems interesting Sometimes they can take the gerund form, but they have a different meaning or they talk about a short period of time Ex: Jeff is being an idiot (= behaving) Im coming from Sweden (= travelling from) James is seeing a doctor (=visiting) Im enjoying this party (= for a short period of time) Im liking school a lot better now This trip is costing me a lot of money She was appearing in a film

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Past Simple
S + V in past [-ed/2nd column list] Did/Didnt: questions & negatives

Uses: 1. Completed actions in the past. The actions are short, precise & specific (ago, last) Ex: I lived in Argentina 20 years ago When the gates opened, the crowd walked in

Past Continuous
S + was-were + -ing

Uses: 1. Long actions in progress in the past. Ex: I was studying all the afternoon 2. Background description in a narrative Ex: I looked out of the window. It was a lovely day. The sun was shining and the birds were singing 3. A long action interrupted by a short action Ex: I was having a bath when the phone rang 4. Two simultaneous actions in the past Ex: While I was playing the piano, my sister was dancing 5. Changing states Ex: The car was getting worse all the time 6. Repeated actions(criticism) with a frequency adverb Ex: When Jane was at school, she was always losing things

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Past Perfect Simple

Structure: S + had + past participle Uses: 1. For an action before a past time Ex: My wallet wasnt there. Id left it behind 2. To say that one thing finished and then something else happened Ex: When I arrived at the party, everybody had already gone 3. With time connectors: before, until Ex: The ball hit the back of the net before the goal keeper had moved The chairman didnt speak until he had heard all the arguments

Past Perfect Continuous

Structure: S + had + been + -ing Uses: 1. For an action in progress over a period up to a past time Ex: The business had been losing money There were some dirty pans in the kitchen. Someone had been cooking 2. For an action continuing over a period of time Ex: Id been washing the car. My hands were wet 3. For an action which finished and then something else happened Ex: When I phoned Janet, shed been having a piano lesson

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Present Perfect Simple

Structure: S + have/has + past participle Uses: 1. Actions which started in the past & continue up to the present or have their result in the present Ex: Peter has worked in this company for 20 years Ive lost my towel, so I cant go to the beach 2. Experiences: (ever, never) Ex: Ive never been to Japan Its the first time Ive eaten snails 3. Recent activities: (just) Ex: Shes just arrived 4. Unspecific actions in the past, connected with the present: (for, since, already, yet, so far) Ex: Ive lived in London for a long time Ive read twenty pages of the book so far

Present Perfect Continuous

Structure: S + have-has + been + -ing Uses: 1. To emphasize the duration of an action that started in the past and continues in the present Ex: Weve been lying in the sun all afternoon Shes been writing letters all afternoon 2. For an action continuing over a period of time and which finished recently Ex: Jane is out of breath. Shes been running My clothes are wet because Ive been washing the car 3. For a repeated activity Ex: Ive been taking German lessons this year

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Will Future
Structure: S + will + bare infinitive Uses: 1. Predictions Ex: One day people will travel to Mars 2. Instant decisions Ex: Its cold. Ill shut the window 3. Offers, promises, threats, warnings & requests Ex: Ill post that letter for you Ill phone you when I get there Ill punish you if you dont arrive on time 4. Opinions ( I think, Im sure, I expect, probably) Ex: I think well get there on time Im sure itll be all right I expect well win the match Ill probably stay here

Going to Future
Structure: S + to be + going to + infinitive Uses: 1. Predictions based on a present situation Ex: The jockey cant stay on the horse. Hes going to fall, look! 2. Intentions Ex: Were going to have a meal 3. We often use going to for an intention and will for the details & comments Ex: Im going to have a meal with a few friends. Therell be about ten of us

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Present Continuous
Structure: S + to be[am-is-are] + -ing Uses: 1. Plans & arrangements Ex: Theyre moving house next week

Future Continuous
Structure: S + will + be + -ing Uses: 1. For an action over a period of future time. Well be in the middle of the action Ex: This time next week, well be driving through France The band will be playing when the President enters 2. For future actions that have been already organized or decided Ex: Ill be seeing Peter tomorrow. We have a meeting 3. To ask if someones plans fit in what we would like them to do Ex: Will you be going anywhere near a chemists this morning? Yes, why? Could you get me some aspirin, please? 4. To predict actions at a particular time in the future Ex: She enjoys being with children. Im sure shell be working in a school 5. To predict probable future trends Ex: In a few years time nobody will go to the shops and everybody will be shopping online

Future Perfect Simple

Structure: S + will + have + past participle Uses: 1. For actions that we will finish before a time in the future Ex: Well have finished our game of tennis by six oclock The book isnt very long. Ill have read it by lunch time

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Future Perfect Continuous

Structure: S + will + have + been + -ing Uses: 1. To emphasize the idea of duration(how long) Ex: By the end of this month, Ill have been working for this firm for a year

Time Clauses
We use the present simple/present perfect for the future after: when, as, while, before, after, until, as soon as, by the time Ex: Well have coffee when the visitors get here. I must get to the bank before it closes As soon as you hear/have heard the news, will you let me know? Shes starting to work as soon as she has finished university