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VHDL tutorial

EC-203 Digital electronics

Introduction
Very High Speed Integrated Circuit Hardware Description Language (VHDL)
Project in Mid 1908s by US Dept of defence & IEEE To develop platform for design and development of high speed and complex (large no. of gates) Ics Other competitors Verilog (also popular) and ABEL (no so popular) HDL are meant to emulate behavior of digital circuit real time Allows both (concurrent and sequential execution of statements) along with timing specifications (gate delays)
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Different levels of abstractions


Design abstraction levels in digital circuits

Abstraction is hiding of details: Differentiation between essential and nonessential information Creation of abstraction levels: On every abstraction level only the essential information is considered, nonessential information is left out

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Different levels of abstractions


Behavioral, Structural, and Physical levels

VHDL allows one to describe a digital system at the structural or the behavioral level

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Abstraction Levels in IC Design

Behavior model : functional description of the module is outlined at the behavioral level RTL: design is divided into combinational logic and storage elements with storage elements controlled by a system clock Logic - design is represented as a netlist with logic gates (AND, OR, NOT,) and storage elements Layout - different cells of target technology are placed on the chip and the connections are routed

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Abstraction levels and VHDL

Design entry in behavioural and RTL is usually done by text editors

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Description of Abstraction Levels

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RTL and gate level


Behavioral or Register transfer level functional behavior is modeled with so called combinational and clocked processes

Structural or Gate level- list of the gates (components) that are used in the design

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Typical high-density FPGA design flow

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Behavioral description

Behavioral is highest level of abstraction Describes a system in terms of what it does or how it behaves Specifies relation between input and output signals Behavioral description is abstract

Behavioral descriptions can be Data flow and Algorithmic Dataflow representation describes how data moves through the system Eg data flow between registers (Register Transfer level or RTL) Data flow model uses concurrent statements executed in parallel as soon as data arrives at the input

eg XOR gate : S = AB Eg Car passenger Buzzer: Warning = Ignition_on AND ( Door_open OR Seatbelt_off)

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Structural
Describes system as collection of gates and components interconnected to perform a function Similar to schematic of interconnected logic gates
Structural representation of a buzzer circuit

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Basic Structure of a VHDL file


In VHDL a digital system is an entity An entity can contain other entities Entity modeled by an entity declaration and an architecture body Entity declaration defines interface to outside by declaring input and output signals Architecture is description of the entity and is composed of interconnected entities, processes and components, all operating concurrently

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VHDL syntax main features


VHDL uses reserved keywords that cannot be used as signal names or identifiers Keywords along with user-defined identifiers are case insensitive VHDL is strongly typed language i.e. must declare type of every object that can have a value, such as signals, constants and variables Comments start with - Ignores line breaks and extra spaces

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Entity declaration
Entity declaration defines the NAME of the entity and lists the input and output ports

entity NAME_OF_ENTITY is [ generic generic declarations);] port (signal_names: mode type; signal_names: mode type; : Signal type signal_names: mode type); end [NAME_OF_ENTITY] ; -- comments: example of the buzzer circuit entity BUZZER is port (DOOR, IGNITION, SBELT: in std_logic; WARNING: out std_logic); end BUZZER;

Signal direction: input/output/both etc.

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Entity description
The NAME_OF_ENTITY is a user-selected identifier signal names consists of a comma separated list of one or more user-selected identifiers that specify external interface signals. mode: is one of the reserved words to indicate the signal direction: 1. in indicates that the signal is an input 2. out indicates that the signal is an output of the entity whose value can only be read by other entities that use it. 3. buffer indicates that the signal is an output of the entity whose value can be read inside the entitys architecture 4. inout the signal can be an input or an output.

type: a built-in or user-defined signal type. The type defines the set of values an object can have. Examples of types are bit, bit_vector, Boolean, character, std_logic, and std_ulogic. 1. bit can have the value 0 and 1 2. bit_vector is a vector of bit values (e.g. bit_vector (0 to 7) 3. std_logic, std_ulogic, std_logic_vector, std_ulogic_vector: can have 9 values to indicate the value and strength of a signal. Std_ulogic and std_logic are preferred over the bit or bit_vector types. 4. boolean can have the value TRUE and FALSE 5. integer can have a range of integer values 6. real can have a range of real values 7. character any printing character 8. time to indicate time
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Entity declaration examples


generic: optional declarations and determine local constants used for timing and sizing (e.g. bus widths) the entity. Generic can have a default value. Syntax: generic ( constant_name: type [:=value] ; constant_name: type [:=value] ; : constant_name: type [:=value] );
entity dff_sr is port (D,CLK,S,R: in std_logic; Q,Qnot: out std_logic-); end dff_sr;
entity mux4_to_1 is port (I0,I1,I2,I3: in std_logic_vector(7 downto 0); SEL: in std_logic_vector (1 downto 0); OUT1: out std_logic-_vector(7 downto 0)); end mux4_to_1;


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The type defines the set of values an object can have std_logic type is defined in the std_logic_1164 package of the IEEE library
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Architecture body
Specifies how the circuit operates and how it is implemented Entity or circuit can be specified in a variety of ways, such as behavioral, structural (interconnected components), or a combination of the above Architecture body
architecture architecture_name of NAME_OF_ENTITY is -- Declarations -- components declarations -- signal declarations -- constant declarations -- function declarations -- procedure declarations -- type declarations
: begin -- Statements : end architecture_name;
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Behavioral model
Behavioral model of Buzzer circuit
architecture behavioral_Buzz of BUZZER is main body of the architecture starts begin WARNING <= (not DOOR and IGNITION) or (not SBELT and IGNITION); end behavioral;
Boolean expression of the function <= assignment operator, assign value of expression on the right to signal on left Architecture behavioral is associated with entity, BUZZER

-- An example of a two-input XNOR gate (entity + architecture) entity XNOR2 is port (A, B: in std_logic; Z: out std_logic); end XNOR2; architecture behavioral_xnor of XNOR2 is -- signal declaration (of internal signals X, Y) Signal assignment statements in architecture body uses signal X, Y: std_logic; operators (eg and, or, not, <= etc..) and are concurrent begin Concurrent statements: Eg if A changes, signals X and Y X <= A and B; Y <= (not A) and (not B); change values that in turn causes the last statement to update Z <= X or Y; the output Z End behavioral_xnor;

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Digital systems are data-driven (data flow) and an event/change which occurs on one signal will lead to an event on another signal Order in which these statements are given does not matter Contrast this to conventional, software programs that execute EC242, Dr. SanjeeV Manhas, IIT Roorkeeflow statements inE&CE a sequential

Structural description
Describes the system as set of gates appropriately interconnected
architecture structural of BUZZER is Buzzer entity declaration same earlier -- Declarations component AND2 declarative part that gives port (in1, in2: in std_logic; the components (gates) out1: out std_logic); that are going to be used end component; component OR2 port (in1, in2: in std_logic; Schematic out1: out std_logic); end component; component NOT1 port (in1: in std_logic; out1: out std_logic); end component; -- declaration of signals used to interconnect gates Concurrent statements signal DOOR_NOT, SBELT_NOT, B1, B2: std_logic; An alternative way to define net list using explicit association between the ports begin executed in parallel and -- Component instantiations statements and how they are connected hence order does not U0: component-name NOT1 port map (DOOR, DOOR_NOT); label: port map (port1=>signal1, port2=> signal2, port3=>signaln ); matter Key word port map defines how the U1: NOT1 port map (SBELT, SBELT_NOT); components are connected U2: AND2 port map (IGNITION, DOOR_NOT, B1); U0: NOT1 port map (in1 => DOOR, out1 => DOOR_NOT); U3: AND2 port map (IGNITION, SBELT_NOT, B2); U1: portmap map (in1 => SBELT, out1 => SBELT_NOT); U4: NOT1 OR2 port (B1, B2, WARNING);

U2: AND2 port map (in1 => IGNITION, in2 => DOOR_NOT, out1 => B1); U3:end AND2 port map (in1 => IGNITION, in2 => SBELT_NOT, B2); structural; U4: OR2 port map (in1 => B1, in2 => B2, out1 => WARNING);
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Hierarchical design with structural modeling - 4-bit adder example


sum = (A B) C carry = AB + C(A B)

Define single full adder


-- Example of a four bit adder library ieee; use ieee.std_logic_1164.all; -- definition of a full adder entity FULLADDER is port (a, b, c: in std_logic; sum, carry: out std_logic); end FULLADDER; architecture fulladder_behav of FULLADDER is begin sum <= (a xor b) xor c ; carry <= (a and b) or (c and (a xor b)); end fulladder_behav;

Library and use clause defined a component for the full adder

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Architecture of full adder


-- 4-bit adder library ieee; use ieee.std_logic_1164.all; entity FOURBITADD is port (a, b: in std_logic_vector(3 downto 0); Cin : in std_logic; sum: out std_logic_vector (3 downto 0); Cout, V: out std_logic); end FOURBITADD;

architecture fouradder_structure of FOURBITADD is

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signal c: std_logic_vector (4 downto 0); component FULLADDER port(a, b, c: in std_logic; sum, carry: out std_logic); end component; begin FA0: FULLADDER port map (a(0), b(0), Cin, sum(0), c(1)); FA1: FULLADDER port map (a(1), b(1), C(1), sum(1), c(2)); FA2: FULLADDER port map (a(2), b(2), C(2), sum(2), c(3)); FA3: FULLADDER port map (a(3), b(3), C(3), sum(3), c(4)); V <= c(3) xor c(4); Cout <= c(4); end fouradder_structure; EC242, Dr. SanjeeV Manhas, E&CE IIT Roorkee

Library and use clause defined a component for the full adder Four instantiations of the full adder to build the structure of the 4bit adder

Lexical Elements
Identifiers - are user-defined words used to name objects in VHDL models
May contain only alpha-numeric characters (A to Z, a to z, 0-9) and the underscore (_) character The first character must be a letter and the last one cannot be an underscore. An identifier cannot include two consecutive underscores. An identifier is case insensitive (ex. And2 and AND2 or and2 refer to the same object) An identifier can be of any length. Valid identifer: X10, x_10, My_gate1 Some invalid identifiers are: _X10, my_gate@input, gate-input.

Keywords (Reserved words): eg entity, architecture, component Numbers


Integer literals: 12 10 256E3, Real literals: 1.2 256.24 3.14E-2, Base different from the base 10, one uses the following convention: base#number# Eg: Base 2: 2#10010# (representing the decimal number 18), Base 16: 16#12#

Characters, Strings and Bit Strings


character literal : f. A string of characters: hello world

bit-string: Binary: B1100_1001, b1001011, Hexagonal: XC9, X4b, ctal: O311,

o113
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Data Objects: Signals, Variables and Constants


Data object created by object declaration and has value and type Variables and Constants used in processes, procedures and functions Constant: declared at the beginning of a architecture or process

A value of a given type and cannot be changed during the simulation constant list_of_name_of_constant: type [ := initial value] ; constant RISE_FALL_TME: time := 2 ns;

Variable: single value which can be updated by assignment statement in architecture or process variable list_of_variable_names: type [ := initial value] ; variable VAR1: boolean :=FALSE; variable STS_BIT: bit_vector (7 downto 0); variable SUM: integer range 0 to 256 :=16; updated using a variable assignment statement : Variable_name := expression;

Signal: Signals are declared outside process using following statement:

signal list_of_signal_names: type [ := initial value] ; signal SUM, CARRY: std_logic; signal DATA_BUS: bit_vector (0 to 7); Updated when their signal assignment statement : SUM <= (A xor B) after 2 ns; multiple values : wavefrm <= 0, 1 after 5ns, 0 after 10ns, 1 after 20 ns;

Variable changes instantaneously when variable assignment is executed

Signal change a delay when assignment expression is evaluated, if no delay is specified, the
signal will change after a delta (a unit delay time) delay

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Data types
Each data object has type associated with it VHDL strongly typed - requires each object to be of a certain type Four classes of data types: scalar, composite, access and file types Scalar type includes integer, real, and enumerated types of Boolean and Character

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Standard package data types


Predefined types in the standard package accessed using:

library std, work; use std.standard.all;

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Defined data types


User type: Define new data types using declaration, which names the type and its value range type identifier is type_definition; type my_word_length is range 31 downto 0; type cmos_level is range 0.0 to 3.3;

type conductance is range 0 to 2E-9; units mho; end units conductance;


Enumerated Types enumerated type consists of lists of character literals or identifiers type type_name is (identifier list or character literal);
signal SIG1: my_3values; variable ALU_OP: pc_oper; variable first_digit: hex_digit :=0; signal STATE: state_type :=S2;

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Defined data types


Composite Types: Array and Record a collection of related data elements in the form of an array or record
Array Type - syntax type array_name is array (indexing scheme) of element_type; type MY_WORD is array (15 downto 0) of std_logic; type YOUR_WORD is array (0 to 15) of std_logic; type YOUR_MATRIX4X2 is array (1 to 4, 1 to 2) of integer; variable DATA_ARR: MY_MATRIX :=((0,2), (1,3), (4,6), (5,7));

Record Type A record consists of multiple elements that may be of different types. Syntax type name is record identifier :subtype_indication; : identifier :subtype_indication; end record;
Eg type MY_MODULE is record RISE_TIME :time; FALL_TIME : time; SIZE : integer range 0 to 200; DATA : bit_vector (15 downto 0); end record; signal A, B: MY_MODULE A.RISE_TIME <= 5ns; A.SIZE <= 120; 27 EC242, Dr. SanjeeV Manhas, E&CE IIT Roorkee

Type conversion
Since VHDL is strongly typed language - To allow assigning data between objects of different types, one needs to convert one type to the other
Syntax type_name (expression); entity QUAD_NAND2 is port (A, B: in bit_vector(3 downto 0); out4: out std_logic_vector (3 downto 0)); end QUAD_NAND2; architecture behavioral_2 of QUAD_NAND2 is begin out4 <= to_StdLogicVector(A and B); end behavioral_2;
Conversions supported by std_logic_1164 package Conversion Function std_ulogic to bit to_bit(expression) std_logic_vector to bit_vector to_bitvector(expression) std_ulogic_vector to bit_vector to_bitvector(expression) bit to std_ulogic To_StdULogic(expression) bit_vector to std_logic_vector To_StdLogicVector(expression) bit_vector to std_ulogic_vector To_StdUlogicVector(expression) std_ulogic to std_logic_vector To_StdLogicVector(expression) std_logic to std_ulogic_vector To_StdUlogicVector(expression) 28 EC242, Dr. SanjeeV Manhas, E&CE IIT Roorkee

Attributes
Used to return various types of information about signal, variable or type Consist of quote mark () followed by attribute name

Signal attributes
Attribute signal_nameevent signal_nameactive Function returns the Boolean value True if an event on the signal occurred, otherwise gives a False returns the Boolean value True there has been a transaction (assignment) on the signal, otherwise gives a False returns a signal of the type bit that toggles (0 to 1 or 1 to 0) every time there is a transaction on the signal. returns the time interval since the last event on the signal returns the time interval since the last transaction on the signal gives the value of the signal before the last event occurred on the signal gives a signal that is the delayed version (by time T) of the original one. [T is optional, default T=0] returns a Boolean value, True, if no event has occurred on the signal during the interval T, otherwise returns a False. [T is optional, default T=0] returns a Boolean value, True, if no transaction has occurred on the signal during the interval T, otherwise returns a False. [T is optional, default T=0]

Example signal attribute if (CLOCKevent and CLOCK=1) then Others: Scalar attributes Array attributes

signal_nametransaction

signal_namelast_event

signal_namelast_active
signal_namelast_value signal_namedelayed(T) signal_namestable(T)

signal_namequiet(T)

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Operators
VHDL supported operators that operate on signals, variables and constants
Class
1. Logical operators and or /= srl = / abs mod not rem nand < sla & nor <= sra xor > rol xnor >= ror

lowest Operator precedence highest

2. Relational operators = 3. Shift operators 4.Addition operators 5. Unary operators 6. Multiplying op. 7. Miscellaneous op. sll + + * **

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Logic operators
Operate on bit, boolean, std_logic and std_ulogic types and their vectors Define Boolean logic expression or to perform bit-bybit operations on arrays of bits nand and nor operators are not associative X nand Y nand Z will give a syntax error and should be written as (X nand Y) nand Z.

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Shift operators
Perform a bit-wise shift or rotate operation on a one-dimensional array of elements of the type bit (or std_logic) or Boolean Result Type
Same as left type

Opera Description Operand tor Type


sll Shift left logical (fill right vacated bits with the 0) Left: Any onedimensional array type with elements of type bit or Boolean; Right: integer same as above

variable A: bit_vector :=101001; A sll 2 A srl 2 A sla 2 A sra 2 A rol 2 A ror 2 results in results in results in results in results in results in 100100 001010 100111 111010 100110 011010

srl

Shift right logical (fill left vacated bits with 0) Shift left arithmetic (fill right vacated bits with rightmost bit) Shift right arithmetic (fill left vacated bits with leftmost bit)

Same as left type Same as left type

sla

same as above

sra

same as above

Same as left type

rol
ror

Rotate left (circular)


Rotate right (circular)

same as above
same as above

Same as left type


Same as left type

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Addition operators
Perform arithmetic operation (addition and subtraction) on operands of any numeric type To use these operators specify the ieee.std_logic_unsigned.all or std_logic_arith package package in addition to the ieee.std_logic_1164 package in VHDL code Description
Addition Subtraction Concatenation

Operator
+ &

Left Operand Type

Right Operand Type

Result Type
Same type Same type Same array type

Numeric type Same as left operand Numeric type Same as left operand Array or element type Same as left operand

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Unary operators
+ and - are used to specify the sign of a numeric type

Operator + -

Description Identity Negation

Operand Type Result Type Any numeric type Same type Any numeric type Same type

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Multiplying operators
perform mathematical functions on integer or floating point Operator Descriptio Left Operand n Type
* Multiplicatio n Any integer or floating point Any physical type Any integer or real type / Division Any integer or floating point Any physical type Any physical type mod rem Modulus Remainder Any integer type Any integer type
11 rem 4 (-11) rem 4 9 mod 4 7 mod (-4)

Right Operand Type


Same type Integer or real type Any physical type Any integer or floating point Any integer or real t ype Same type

Result Type
Same type Same as left Same as right Same type Same as left Integer Same type Same type

A rem B = A (A/B)*B (in which A/B in an integer) A mod B = A B * N (in which N is an integer)

results in 3 results in -3 results in 1 results in 1 (7 4*2 = -1).

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Miscellaneous operators
Absolute value and exponentation operators that can be applied to numeric types Description Left Operand Type
Integer type

Operator

Right Result Operan Type d Type


Integer type Same as left Same as left

**

Exponentiation

Floating point Integer type

abs
not

Absolute value
Logical negation

Any numeric type


Any bit or Boolean type

Same type
Same type

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Relational operators
Test the relative values of two scalar types and give as result a Boolean output of TRUE or FALSE.
Operator
= /= < <= > >=

Description
Equality Inequality Smaller than Smaller than or equal Greater than Greater than or equal

Operand Types

Result Type

any type Boolean any type Boolean scalar or discrete array types Boolean scalar or discrete array types Boolean scalar or discrete array types Boolean scalar or discrete array types Boolean

variable STS : Boolean; constant A : integer :=24; constant B_COUNT : integer :=32; constant C : integer :=14; STS <= (A < B_COUNT) ; -- will assign the value TRUE to STS STS <= ((A >= B_COUNT) or (A > C)); -- will result in TRUE STS <= (std_logic (1, 0, 1) < std_logic(0, 1,1));--makes STS FALSE
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Behavioral Modeling: Sequential Statements


Modeling levels in VHDL - behavioral and structural Behavioral modeling can be done with sequential statements using the process construct or with concurrent statements Behavior of components and circuits with sequential statements/modeling using process construct Particularly useful for sequential circuits such as state machines Process statement is the main construct in behavioral modeling allowing use of sequential statements to describe behavior of system over time
[process_label:] process [ (sensitivity_list) ] [is] Any change in the value of the signals in [ process_declarations] the sensitivity list will cause immediate begin execution of the process process list of sequential statements such as: statement in itself is concurrent signal assignments variable assignments case statement exit statement Flow control statement as with if statement conventional programming loop statement languages eg C next statement null statement procedure call wait statement end process [process_label];
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process example sequential circuit


Positive edge-triggered D flip-flop
library ieee; use ieee.std_logic_1164.all; entity DFF_CLEAR is port (CLK, CLEAR, D : in std_logic; Q : out std_logic); end DFF_CLEAR; architecture BEHAV_DFF of DFF_CLEAR is Process declaration within architecture begin is concurrent statement DFF_PROCESS: process (CLK, CLEAR) begin if (CLEAR = 1) then Control flow statements Q <= 0; inside a process are elsif (CLKevent and CLK = 1) then executed sequentially Q <= D; end if; Checks for a end process; positive clock end BEHAV_DFF; edge

Process reads and writes signals and values of input and output ports (CLK, CLEAR, D) to communicate with the rest of the architecture

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Combinational circuits with the process construct full adder example


library ieee; use ieee.std_logic_1164.all; entity FULL_ADDER is port (A, B, Cin : in std_logic; Sum, Cout : out std_logic); end FULL_ADDER;
architecture BEHAV_FA of FULL_ADDER is signal int1, int2, int3: std_logic; begin -- Process P1 for first half adder P1: process (A, B) begin int1<= A xor B; int2<= A and B; end process; -- Process P2 for second half adder and OR ate P2: process (int1, int2, Cin) begin Sum <= int1 xor Cin; int3 <= int1 and Cin; Cout <= int2 or int3; end process; end BEHAV_FA;
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Half adder S_ha = (AB) and C_ha = AB For the Full Adder Sum = (AB)Cin = S_ha Cin Cout = (AB)Cin + AB = S_ha.Cin + C_ha

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Sequential statements (control execution flow)


IF Statement conditional multi-optional execution CASE Statement Decide what option to run based on expression value FOR Loops run a loop multiple number of time based on an expression value WAIT Statement wait for something to occur to execute statements

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if statement
Executes a sequence of statements whose sequence depends on one or more conditions
Example 4x1 Multiplexer entity MUX_4_1a is port (S1, S0, A, B, C, D: in std_logic; Z: out std_logic); end MUX_4_1a; architecture behav_MUX41a of MUX_4_1a is begin P1: process (S1, S0, A, B, C, D) if S1=0 and S0=0 then Z <= A; elsif S1=0 and S0=1 then Z <= B; elsif S1=1 and S0=0 then Z <= C; elsif S1=1 and S0=1 then Z <= D; end if;

if condition then sequential statements [elsif condition then sequential statements ] [else sequential statements ] end if;

condition is a Boolean expression

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case statement
Depending on value of a single expression case statement executes one of several sequences of statements

Example 4x1 MUX case expression is when choices => entity MUX_4_1 is sequential statements port ( SEL: in std_logic_vector(2 downto 1); when choices => A, B, C, D: in std_logic; sequential statements Z: out std_logic); -- branches are allowed end MUX_4_1; [when others => sequential statements] architecture behav_MUX41 of MUX_4_1 is end case;

Expression must evaluate to an integer, an enumerated type of a one-dimensional array, such as a bit_vector No two choices can overlap if the when others" choice is not present, all possible values of the expression must be covered by the set of choices.

begin PR_MUX: process (SEL, begin case SEL is when 00 => Z when 01 => Z when 10 => Z when 11 => Z when others => end case; end process PR_MUX; end behav_MUX41;

A, B, C, D)

<= A; <= B; <= C; <= D; Z <= X;

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loop statements
Repeatedly execute a sequence of sequential statements Three types of loops
basic loop while loop for loop
[loop_label :]iteration_scheme loop sequential statements [next [label] [when condition]; [exit [label] [when condition]; end loop [loop_label];

Basic loop to implement a counter that counts from 0 to 31

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entity COUNT31 is port ( CLK: in std_logic; COUNT: out integer); end COUNT31; architecture behav_COUNT of COUNT31 is begin P_COUNT: process variable intern_value: integer :=0; begin COUNT <= intern_value; loop wait until CLK=1; intern_value:=(intern_value + 1) mod 32; COUNT <= intern_value; end loop; end process P_COUNT; end behav_COUNT;

When COUNT reaches 31, it will start over from 0

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while and for loop statements


Evaluates a Boolean condition if TRUE, the loop repeats, else loop is skipped and the execution stops
[ loop_label :] while condition loop sequential statements [next [label] [when condition]; [exit [label] [when condition]; end loop[ loop_label ];

For loop uses an integer iteration scheme that determines the number of iterations
[ loop_label :] for identifier in range loop sequential statements [next [label] [when condition]; [exit [label] [when condition]; end loop[ loop_label ]; Where range in one of the following forms: integer_expression to integer_expression integer_expression downto integer_expression

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wait and null statement


Wait will halt a process until an event occurs
wait until signal = value; wait until signalevent and signal = value; wait until not signalstable and signal = value; Examples wait wait wait wait

until until until until

CLK=1; wait statement can not have a CLK=0; sensitivity list CLKevent and CLK=1; not CLKstable and CLK=1;

Note that process that contains a

Null statement - no action will occur Useful in a case statement where all choices must be covered
P_WAIT: process (CNTL) begin Z <=A; case CNTL is when 3 | 15 => Z <= A xor B; when others => null; end case; end process P_WAIT;

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Behavioral description dataflow/concurrent modeling


Modeling using concurrent statements the dataflow model Dataflow modeling describes a circuit in terms of its function and the flow of data through circuit Dataflow model is DIFFERENT from the structural modeling that describes a circuit in terms of the interconnection of components Remember that concurrent signal assignments are event triggered and executed as soon as an event on one of the signals occurs

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Simple Concurrent signal assignments


Target_signal <= expression; As soon an event occurs on one of the signal expression is evaluated and transferred to target signal Target_signal has to be the same as the type of the value of the expression
Sum <= (A xor B) xor Cin; Carry <= (A and B); Z <= (not X) or Y after 2 ns;

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Conditional Signal assignments


A general scheme
Target_signal <= expression when Boolean_condition else expression when Boolean_condition else : expression;

entity MUX_4_1_funcTab is port (A, B, C, D: in std_logic; SEL: in std_logic_vector (1 downto 0); Z: out std_logic); end MUX_4_1_ funcTab; architecture concurr_MUX41 of MUX_4_1_ funcTab is begin Z <= A when SEL = 00 else B when SEL = 01 else C when SEL = 10 else D; end concurr_MUX41;

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Selected Signal assignments


Variant of conditional signal assignment
with choice_expression select target_name <= expression when choices, target_name <= expression when choices, : target_name <= expression when choices; Example 4x1 MUX entity MUX_4_1_Conc2 is port (A, B, C, D: in std_logic; SEL: in std_logic_vector(1 downto 0); Z: out std_logic); end MUX_4_1_Conc2; architecture concurr_MUX41b of MUX_4_1_Conc2 is begin with SEL select Z <= A when 00, B when 01, C when 10, D when 11; end concurr_MUX41b;

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Structural Modeling
Describes a circuit in terms of components and their interconnection kind of schematic description A component is assumed to defined earlier (e.g. in package) and can be described as structural, a behavioral or dataflow model Lowest hierarchy in each component described as a behavioral model, using the basic logic operators defined in VHDL Structural modeling good to describe complex digital systems, through a set of components in a hierarchical fashion Structural description consists of
Declaring components and signals within architecture body Declaring a list of components being used Declaring signals which define the nets that interconnect components

Labeling multiple instances of the same component so that each instance is uniquely defined

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Structure description
Component declaration has to be done either in the architecture body or in the package declaration General syntax
architecture architecture_name of NAME_OF_ENTITY is -- Declarations component declarations signal declarations begin -- Statements component instantiation and connections : end architecture_name; Component name refers to either name of entity defined in library or entity explicitly defined in the Component declaration VHDL file component component_name [is] Interface ports similar to entity declaration [port (port_signal_names: mode type; Use library and use clause for components port_signal_names: mode type; declared in package library : port_signal_names: mode type);] -- example fulladder end component [component_name]; component FULLADDER port(a, b, c: in std_logic; sum, carry: out std_logic); end component;
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Component Instantiation and interconnections


A component instantiation statement references a previously declared component Syntax
instance_name : component name port map (port1=>signal1, port2=> signal2, port3=>signaln); or port map (signal1, signal2,signaln); Should be in same order

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sum
carry FULLA DDER c

Structural description of 4 bit adder as hierarchical model with FULLADDER component instantiations

Behavioral description of full adder in dataflow model (concurrent statements) Defined already

4 bit adder example

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Further reading
http://esd.cs.ucr.edu/labs/tutorial/ http://www.vhdl-online.de/tutorial/ http://www.seas.upenn.edu/~ese171/vhdl/vhd l_primer.html A VHDL PRIMER By J BHASKAR, Pearson India www.xilinx.com Digital design by Wakerly 4th ed, Pearson India
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