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Feedback lecture for analog design

Feedback lecture for analog design

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A. BACKGROUND

A feedback amplifier can be described in terms of the way the feedback network is connected to the basic amplifier. In particular, there are four basic feedback circuit topologies, and these are illustrated in Fig. 1. Note the following from Fig. 1: (1) With series feedback at the input, voltages vi and vfb are algebraically summed. (2) With shunt feedback at the input, currents ii and ifb are algebraically summed. (3) With series feedback at the output, a current io is sampled. (4) With shunt feedback at the output, a voltage vo is sampled. Included in Fig. 1 are simple examples of each feedback connection, implemented using bipolar transistors. Note the correspondence between each circuit schematic and its associated block diagram. To avoid cluttering, all biasing elements have been omitted from these circuits, but it is assumed that all transistors are biased in the forward-active region to yield a high gain basic amplifier in each case.

B. STEP-BY-STEP PROCEDURE FOR ANALYZING FEEDBACK CIRCUITS

The following comprises a step-by-step procedure for analyzing a feedback amplifier circuit: 1. Identify the feedback topology: (a) At the input: Is the feedback signal sfb applied in series (vfb) or shunt (ifb) with the signal source si? (b) At the output: Is the sampled signal so obtained at the output node (vo) or from the output loop (io)? 2. Draw the basic amplifier circuit with feedback loading (and with the feedback set to zero): (a) To determine the input loading by the feedback network: (i) series sampling at the output: open-circuit the output loop to set io=0 (ii) shunt sampling at the output: short-circuit the output node to set vo=0 (b) To determine the output loading by the feedback network: (i) series summing at the input: open-circuit the input loop (ii) shunt summing at the input: short-circuit the input nodes 3. Evaluate the open-loop gain function with feedback loading (a = {av, ai, rm, or gm}). 4. Indicate sfb and so and solve for the feedback factor (f = sfb/so). 5. From a and f, find T=af, A = so/si, Ri, and Ro. Table 1 summarizes the equations and analysis techniques needed in the above procedure for each feedback configuration. In particular, the table succinctly summarizes the shortings and openings needed to determine feedback loading on the basic amplifier, the methods for determining the feedback, and equations/definitions for the feedback factor (f), open-loop gain (a), loop gain (T), closed-loop gain (A), input resistance (Ri), and output resistance (Ro).

CTN

4/10/09

RL

+ vo vs

RS + +v vi + vfb RF RL RE

+ vo

SHUNT-SERIES: ii i is RS

io ii i RL

io

RL is RS ifb RF RE

ifb

SERIES-SERIES: RS + + v

io RS RL vs + +v RF vi + vfb RE1

io

vs

vi + vfb

RL RE3

SHUNT-SHUNT: ii i is RS + RL vo is ii i RL + vo

ifb

RS ifb

RF

Inspection Analysis of Feedback Circuits CTN 4/10/09 2

EE 140/240A

TABLE 1. Summary of Inspection Analysis Techniques and Formulas for Feedback Circuits Series-Shunt Shunt-Series To determine the feedback loading on the basic amplifier: At input short output node open output loop At output To calculate the feedback factor: open input loop drive feedback network with a voltage and calculate the opencircuit voltage vfb vfb / vo av = v o / v i avf Av = av / (1 + T) ri (1 + T) ro / (1 + T) short input node drive feedback network with a current and calculate the shortcircuit current ifb ifb / io ai = io / ii aif Ai = ai / (1 + T) ri / (1 + T) ro (1 + T) Series-Series open output loop open input loop drive feedback network with a current and calculate the opencircuit voltage vfb vfb / io gm = io / vi gmf Gm = gm / (1 + T) ri (1 + T) ro (1 + T) Shunt-Shunt short output node short input node drive feedback network with a voltage and calculate the shortcircuit current ifb ifb / vo rm = vo / ii rm f Rm = rm / (1 + T) ri / (1 + T) ro / (1 + T)

Feedback Factor (f) Open-Loop Gain (a) Loop Gain (T) Closed-Loop Gain (A) Input Resistance (Ri) Output Resistance (Ro) Variable Glossary:

Av , av = voltage-to-voltage gain Ai , ai = current-to-current gain Gm , gm = voltage-to-current gain (i.e., transconductance) Rm , rm = current-to-voltage gain (i.e., transresistance) ri = input resistance of the basic amplifier ro = output resistance of the basic amplifier T = loop gain f = feedback factor

CTN

4/10/09

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