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Career Pathways in Technology and Livelihood Education (CP-TLE) Industrial Arts I Electronics Technology

Module 3: Process and Delivery in Electronic Technology Year I Quarter 1: Electronic Drafting

Everyone is amazed at how electronic technology has affected man s life. All electronic gadgets that we enjoy today is a product of a well designed electronic diagram.

EXPLORE YOUR UNDERSTANDING

Electronics Drafting is the process of illustrating various kinds of circuits a nd wiring systems. The most common graphical languages used in the illustration of components in circuits and wiring systems are block, schematic, wiring, and pict orial diagrams. Most symbols used in electronic diagrams are accepted as standard, but in some cases some manufacturers modify symbols and practices to suit a particular indus trial policy while others use their own symbols to represent unique or special compone nt and devices. Guide Questions:

In this module, you will be able to gain the knowledge and skills needed in producing quality and marketable diagrams as an electronic draftsman. The import ance of your role will be affirmed through familiarization with the different concept s and skills that you need to understand and apply in laying out electronic diagrams.

A. Answer the following questions to serve as your guides as you go on with the lessons in this module. You may answer them tentatively in your notebook. 1. How does one ensure production of quality, competitive, and marketable electronic diagrams?

2. Why does one need to assure the quality, profitability and marketability of electronic diagrams?

3. What are the tools, materials, instruments, and equipment needed in the

production of quality electronic diagrams?

4. Why is it important to follow the steps in laying out electronic diagrams based on the principles of electronic drafting?

5. Why is there a need to know the different types of electronic diagrams before laying out such diagrams?

6. Why is it necessary to use electronic templates as aid in drawing electronic diagrams?

7. Based on the knowledge and skills you had acquired in laying out schematic diagrams, what other type of diagrams can you draw or make a good lay out?

B. Answer the following.

Put a check (v) on the YES Column, if you have prior knowledge of the symbols of the following electronic components and an (x) on the NO column if you are not familiar with them.

YES

NO resistor

capacitor

diode

PNP transistor

NPN transistor

. fuse

circuit breaker

transformer

silicon-controlled rectifier

loudspeaker

microphone

battery

C. Directions: Match the electronic and electrical symbols in Column A with the corresponding descriptions in column B. Write the letter of your answer in your notebook.

Column A Column B

a. capacitor

______ 1.

b. transistor

______ 2.

c. transformer

______ 3.

d. fuse

______ 4.

e. resistor

f. diode ______ 5.

Did you enjoy your work in laying out electronic diagrams? Well, that is not enough, let us firm up your understanding.

Pre-assessment

To find out how much you already know about the concepts to be undertaken in thi s module, try and answer the following activities: Write your answer/s in your act ivity notebook.

A. DIAGNOSTIC TEST

Direction: Answer the following questions. Write the letter of the best answer. 1. A geometric figure usually used to represent a stage in a block diagram. a) rectangle b) circle c) pentagon d) hexagon 2. It is the process of illustrating various kinds of circuits and wiring system s. a) reference designation c). freehand drawing b) electronic drafting d) mechanical drawing 3. If the Greek letter Omega (O) appears in a schematic diagram, the component value being represented is a

a) capacitor c) transformer b) transistor d) resistor 4. The labels of a capacitor C1A and C1B in a diagram are examples of a) subscript letters c) superscript letters b) suffix letters d) coefficient letters 5. Whenever possible, lines connecting symbols and other parts of the diagram should NOT be drawn in this manner. a) horizontally b) vertically c) a and b d) diagonally

6. These types of lines are used on schematic diagrams to show a mechanical linkage between components a) dashed lines b) medium lines c) thick lines d) thin lines

7. One of these is NOT given in a schematic diagram a) wiring specifications c) actual appearance of components b) point-to-point resistance values d) operating instructions 8. The symbols on a schematic diagram are arranged so that the diagram can be read

a) top to bottom b) bottom to top c) right to left d) left to right 9. This diagram is used by electronic technicians as reference in troubleshooti ng purposes. a) wiring diagram c) pictorial diagram b) block diagram d) schematic diagram 10. On some block diagrams, all these devices are represented by standard symbols except one. Which one is NOT included? a) output meters b) loudspeakers c) antennas d) power supplies 11. It shows the relationship between the various component groups or stages in the operation of the circuit. a) wiring diagram c) pictorial diagram b) block diagram d) schematic diagram 12. A connection diagram is also called________________________. a) wiring diagram c) pictorial diagram b) block diagram d) schematic diagram 13. It is a picture or a sketch drawn to show the component of a circuit and ho w It is connected together. a) wiring diagram c) pictorial diagram b) block diagram d) schematic diagram 14. This letter is the reference designation for transistor when drawn on a dia gram. a) T b) Q c) R d) S

15. When connecting lines are drawn parallel to each other, the space between them should be at least be_______. a) 1/64 inch b) 1/32 inch c) 1/16 inch d) 1/8 inch

B. Draw the schematic symbols of the following electronic components:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Potentiometer Zener diode Tuning capacitor Diac Triac

How did you find the exploration activities? If you found them worth learning, move on. There is more in store for you in this module. Let s explore more of your understanding in the next activity.

Self-rating Competency Checklist

Directions:

This checklist contains a list of competencies covered in this module. For each competency, there are four possible levels of mastery (novice, apprentice, pract itioner and expert). You will use this matrix to rate your level of mastery of each comp etency prior to studying the module (PRE), and after you complete the module (POST). Fo r each competency, put a check mark on the box under the appropriate PRE column which best describes your level of mastery prior to studying the lessons of the module. Comparing your two self-ratings on the PRE and POST columns will later tell you whether you have improved your competency level or not.

COMPETENCY I cannot do this yet (Novice) I am learning how to do

this. (Apprentice) I can do this but I need to learn more and improve. (Practitioner) I can do this very well (Expert)

Pre Post Pre Post Pre Post Pre Post Identify the different electronic symbols

Identify the different types of electronic diagrams

Read and interpret the different electronic diagrams

Proper labeling of reference designations, suffix letters, and values of electronic components in schematic diagrams

Proper application of different lines used in electronic drafting

Construct/Draw schematic, block, wiring, and pictorial diagrams of electronic circuits

How did you find the list of competencies? Which competencies do you need to develop further? Keep them in mind as you study the lessons that follow.

FIRM UP YOUR UNDESTANDING

Lesson 1: Schematic Symbols of Electronic Components

Circuit symbols are used in circuit diagrams, which show how a circuit is connected together. The actual layout of the components is usually quite differe nt from the circuit diagram. To build a circuit you need a different diagram showing the layout of the parts on the printed circuit board. However, understanding electronics circu it gives you a better understanding of how to find analyze, assemble, and troubleshoot an electronic circuit. Different electronic symbols are presented in this lesson and are drawn in

standard form so that you will be able to draw them correctly and label them pro perly with their numerical values and reference designations following the rules in dr awing symbols. Templates used to aid in drawing different electronic symbols are shown in Fig. 1-1. Fig. 1-2 shows the most commonly used schematic symbols of electronic components used in laying out schematic diagrams.

Electronic templates used as aid in drawing electronic diagrams.

symbols fuse Bridge rectifier SCR LED zener diode semiconductor diode dc motor integrated circuit PNP transistor NPN transistor relay air-core transformer variable inductor inductor iron-core transformer capacitor variable capacitor polarized capacitor potentiometer fixed resistor ac current source ac voltage source dc current source battery ground

Schematic Symbols Of Electronic Components.

PRELIMINARY ACTIVITY

Using the activity sheet below, list down the electronic components with their corresponding schematic symbols which you think are used in AM radio receivers. Name of Electronic Component Schematic Symbol 1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Think about this Do you know that with millions of components used in the electronic industry, there are only five major groups of electronic components? These components are: resistors, capacitors, coils or inductors, semiconductor devices, and vacuum tub es.

Rules for Drawing Symbols Recommended practices to be used in the application of symbols to a circuit diagram are listed below. 1. The position of a symbol on a diagram does not affect its meaning.

2. The weight of a line used in drawing a symbol does not affect its meaning. In some cases, a heavier line may be used to emphasize a particular symbol.

3. A given symbol may be drawn in any size that is suitable for use in any parti

cular diagram. However, when a symbol is enlarged or reduced in size, it should be drawn in proportion to the rest of the drawing.

4. If necessary for contrast, some symbols may be drawn smaller or larger than other symbols on a diagram. However, for simplicity, it is recommended that not more than two different sizes of symbols be used on any one diagram.

5. In general, a connecting line should be brought to a symbol either vertically or horizontally, but a connecting line brought to a symbol at an angle has no particular significance unless otherwise noted. 6. The arrowhead of a symbol may be open ( ) or closed ( ) unless otherwise noted.

7. The standard symbol for terminal (o) may be added to any symbol. But when this is done, the terminal symbol should not be considered a part of the symbol itself.

Activity 1 To find out how well you recognized the schematic symbols of electronic components, draw the schematic symbols of the following: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. AC plug 6. microphone toggle switch 7. filter capacitor integrated circuit (IC) 8. Light-Emitting Diode tapped resistor 9. fuse loudspeaker 10. tunnel diode

Reference Designations The symbols used to represent the various components on a circuit diagram are most often accompanied by a combination of letters that identify the components. Table 1-3. Reference Designations of Electronic Components Components Class Designation Letter(s) Capacitor C Diode D Resistor R Switch S or SW Transformer T Transistor Q or TR

When more than one symbol of a specific type of component appears on a diagram, the letter (or letters) is followed by numbers that identify the compon ents. These combinations of letters and numbers are referred to as reference designati ons (Fig. 1-3).

compo2

Fig. 1-3. Recommended methods of indicating reference designations and component values Numerical Values of Components When details of the type, rating; or value of a particular component are to be given on a diagram, this information is placed adjacent to the symbol or is give n by means of notes accompanying the diagram. For example, resistance and capacitance values are indicated as shown in Fig. 1-3. In this scheme, the symbol O for ohms and the abbreviations F and pF for capacitance values are usually omitted and are ins tead replaced by notes such as the following: 1. All resistors expressed in ohms unless otherwise indicated. 2. All capacitors expressed in microfarads unless otherwise indicated.

A resistance value of 1,000 ohms or more is most often expressed in terms of kilohm (K) or megohm (M) units. Thus, a resistance of 4,700 ohms is written as 4 .7K, while a resistance of 270,000 ohms may be written as 270K or as 0.27M. The comma used when writing a 4-digit number such as 4,700 is not used when such a number is given on a diagram. Capacitance values of 1 through 9,999 picofarads are usually expressed in picofarad units. Capacitance values greater than 10,000 picofarads should be expressed in microfarad units.

Activity 2

A schematic diagram of a 30-watt audio amplifier is shown in Fig. 1-4. Label all resistors by indicating their numerical values in the diagram. Assign the resist ance values to the following resistors: Reference Designation Numerical Value Reference Designation Numerical Value Reference Designation Numerical Value R1 1.2 KO R13 330 KO R22 3.3 KO R2 10 O R14 12 KO R23 27 KO R3 33 KO R15 R25

220 KO R26 2.7 KO R4 and R5 4.7 KO R16 1.2 MO R27 22 KO R6 120 KO R17 2.2 MO R28 5.6 KO R7 1 O R18 18 KO R29 - R33 1 MO R8 1 KO R19 56 O R34 1.5 KO R9 0.5 O R20

560 O R35 270 KO R10 10 KO R21 39 KO R36 100 KO R12

Be sure you follow the proper way of labeling components in a diagram. 30w

Schematic diagram of a 30-watt audio amplifier Activity 3

Fill up all necessary information needed in columns 2 and 3 of Table 1-2. Table 1-2 Electronic Components Type / Symbol Actual Appearance Uses / Application 1. NPN transistor

2. SCR

3. Fuse

4. LED

5. Step-down transformer

FORMATIVE TEST

Direction: Answer the following questions. Write the letter of the best answer. 1. These are symbols used to represent various components on a circuit diagram and are most often accompanied by a combination of letters that identify the components. a) reference designation c). freehand drawing b) electronic drafting d) mechanical drawing 2. If the letter Q appears in a schematic diagram, the component value being

represented is a________________. a) capacitor c) transformer b) transistor d) resistor 3. The labels of a capacitor VR1A and VR1B in a diagram are examples of a) subscript letters c) superscript letters b) suffix letters d) coefficient letters 4. This letter is the reference designation for a coil or inductor when drawn o n a diagram. a) T b) L c) R d) S 5. Resistance value of 1,000 ohms is most often expressed in terms of this unit . a. kilohms b) megohms d) mho d) siemens Suggested Activity

Collect any used or defective electronic circuit mounted on PCB, mount it on an illustration board, identify the components, draw their schematic symbols and gi ve the functions of the different electronic components. Use thread and pins in explori ng your illustrations so that they ll become more attractive, dynamic, and easy to underst and. Be sure that at least 15 different components are present in the circuit with appropriate labels.

In this lesson, you have identified the different electronic components, learned how to draw their schematic symbols properly and have become familiar with their physical appearance Asas an additional knowledge, you have also learned their us age in circuits. In the next lesson, you will learn different drafting practices that include pro per application of suffix letters, proper layout of circuit diagram, and the differe nt lines used in electronic drafting. You may visit the following website for more information: 1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:4_bit_counter.svg 2. http://www.kpsec.freeuk.com/index.htm 3. http://www.scribd.com/doc/10519133/Electronic-Components-Symbols-Functions

Lesson 2: Drafting Practices

In constructing schematic diagrams, it is very important that you are equipped with the knowledge and skills of labeling components using suffix letters and fa miliar with the application of different line conventions so that the laid out schemati c diagram can be read and interpreted by the user in accordance with the set standards of Standard Drafting Practices. As in other areas of drafting, there is a body of information that is intended t o serve as a general guide to some of the procedures that apply to the preparation of electronics diagrams. The following drafting practices have been adapted from th e USA Standard Drafting Practices, and Electrical and Electronics Diagrams, with the permission of the publisher, The American Society of Mechanical Engineers. PRELIMINARY ACTIVITY List down in Table 2-1 some electronic circuits and appliances that you are familiar with. Table 2-1 Electronic circuits and appliances 1. 5. 2. 6. 3. 7. 4. 8.

Think about this Do you know that one of the most important things you should be reminded of is the inclusion of schematic diagrams of any appliance bought? This diagram will s erve as a basis for troubleshooting the circuit in case of failure of operation. Suffix Letters Suffix letters are used to identify separate parts of a unit upon a diagram whe n

such components appear as a single, enclosed unit. In Fig. 2-1, C1A and C1B are the suffix letters of the capacitor C1.

C1A C1B

Fig. 2-1. Two capacitors are enclosed in one unit. Layout The layout or form of a diagram should show the main features prominently. The parts of a diagram should be carefully spaced to provide an even balance between blank spaces and lines. Enough blank space should be left in the areas near symb ols to avoid crowding any necessary notes or reference information. Below is an exam ple of such diagram. C2 C1 Q2 Q1 47 K

R2

47 K

R1

+ 12 VDC D11 D20

D1 D10

Fig. 2-2. Schematic diagram of a 20-LEDs blinker circuit. Notes: Component s values not in the diagram are as follows:

1. D1-D10 = jumbo red LEDs 2. D11-D20 = jumbo green LEDs 3. Q1 and Q2 = 2SC828 Activity 1

The schematic diagram of Fig. 2-3 is not properly drawn because some areas in th e drawing are crowded. Using your technical pencil or pen and with the aid of an electronic template redraw the diagram. Make your lay out in such a way that you improve its appearance by following the proper laying out of electronic diagrams .

C18

Fig. 2-3. Schematic diagram of an audio amplifier. Line Thickness As with other types of diagrams, a schedule of line weights or line conventions is used in drawing electrical and electronics diagrams. The standard line conventio ns used in the preparation of these diagrams are shown in Table 2-2.

Table 2-2. Line thickness

Line application Line thickness For general use Medium Mechanical connection, shielding, and future circuits line Medium Bracket-connecting dash line Medium Brackets and leader lines Thin Boundary of mechanical grouping Thin For emphasis Thick

Connecting Lines Lines connecting symbols and other parts on a diagram should, whenever possible, be drawn either horizontally or vertically. As a general rule, no more than three lines should be drawn to any point on a circuit diagram (Fig. 2-3A). This procedure reduces the possibility of line crowding that can make the interpretat ion of a diagram more difficult than necessary.

RECOMMENDED AVOID IF POSSIBLE (A) (B) Fig. 2-3. Connecting lines. (A) recommended and undesirable methods of drawing lines to a point upon a diagram, (B) two groups of connecting lines drawn parallel

to each other. When connecting lines are drawn parallel to each other, the space between them should be at least 1/16 inch when the diagram is reduced to a final size.

Interrupted Lines

Connecting lines whether single or in groups, may be interrupted when a diagram does not provide for a continuation of these lines to their final destination. W hen a single line is interrupted, the line identification can also indicate the destin ation (Fig. 24A). When groups of lines are interrupted, the destination of the lines is usual ly given in conjunction with brackets (Fig. 2-4B). In all cases, the lines should be located as close as possible to the point of interruption.

TO LEFT AND RIGHT CHANNELS output

(A) (B)

. Methods of identifying the destination of single and grouped connecting lines Dashed Lines Dashed lines (------) are used on schematic and other types of diagrams to show a mechanical linkage between components or parts of components (Fig. 2-5). amp3

. Dashed lines are used to indicate the mechanical linkage of a 2-pole, 3-positi on selector switch Activity 2

Directions: Answer the following questions.

How did you find the activity? ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________

Was the application of different lines in laying out diagrams necessary? Why? Why not? ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________

Which part of the task did you like the most? Why? ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________

Which part of the task would you need more practice in? ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________

Activity 3

Redraw the circuit of Fig. 2-6B and assign letters to the components indicating their reference designation.

actual IC

Actual components of a TDA2006V pentawatt integrated circuit.

inside IC

(B) Circuit inside the TDA2006V pentawatt IC

Suggested Activity Collect any schematic diagrams of radio receivers, television receivers, DVD players, computers, or any other electronic appliances and make a display of the se diagrams highlighting the application of the following: A. B. 1. 2. Suffix letters Line Conventions Line Thickness 3. Interrupted Lines Connecting Lines 4. Dashed Lines

You may secure the diagrams from any electronic stores, appliance operating manual, or be downloaded from the internet. After familiarizing yourself with the proper usage of suffix letters and the application of line conventions, you are now ready to proceed to the next lesson . In our next lesson you will learn how to read and interpret schematic diagrams of different electronic circuits. These are the applications of the previous les sons learned.

For more information you may refer to the following websites:

1. http://www.draftingsteals.com/electric-and-electronic-templates.html 2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digigraphics Lesson 3: The Schematic Diagram

In the previous lessons you have learned the different drafting practices that would help you layout a quality and marketable schematic diagram. But first, you should know what a schematic diagram is. A schematic diagram is one that shows, by means of graphical symbols, the electrical connections and the functions of the different parts of a circuit or a combination of circuits (Fig. 3-1). It does not illustra te the physical size, shape, or chassis location of the component parts and devices. Also, a sch ematic diagram does not usually show mounting devices or terminals (and lugs) to which electronic components are connected in constructing the circuit assembly. PRELIMINARY ACTIVITY List down all items you think are found in schematic diagrams. Information given in conjunction with schematic diagrams 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Think About this Do you know that in troubleshooting electronic circuits, the most important of all the electronic diagrams is the schematic diagram? The schematic diagram is a blueprint of the circuit in which all the information needed by a technician in troubleshooting is printed.

Symbols on Schematic Diagrams The symbols on a schematic diagram are arranged so that the diagram can be read from left to right. The symbols are located in a position that will show the order in which each of the components functions in the operation of the circuit. As a res ult, the schematic diagram provides a convenient way of tracing a signal from input to ou tput or of tracing a circuit operation from start to finish.

Other information often given in conjunction with schematic diagrams includes:

1. Wiring specifications

2. Operating instruction

3. Alignment (tuning) or adjustment procedures

4. Pictorial-type illustrations showing the locations of prominent components an d tuning slots or nuts

5. Power and voltage ratings of components

6. Point-to-point resistance values

7. Current or voltage waveforms at certain points of a circuit

8. Assembly and/or disassembly instructions

9. Input and output impedance values

10. Specific component description.

The schematic diagrams featured in this lesson are constructed following the procedure of Electronic Drafting. This will familiarize you with the different c ircuit designs and basic circuit operations that will guide you in making standard diag rams in accordance with the ANSI American National Institute formerly called the United States of America Standards Institute (USASI). The Different electronic circuits

schematic diagrams are presented here for you to know the different techniques o f manufacturers in proper laying out and labeling of components used in the constr uction of such diagrams. The illustration below shows how the schematic diagrams of dif ferent power supply circuits are drawn. hw rect

Half-wave power supply using a single rectifier diode c2

Conventional full-wave power supply using two rectifier diodes and a transformer with center tap.

+ 4700 50V r1

Full-wave bridge type power supply using four rectifier diodes Usually a full-wave bridge type power supply can be used as a regulated power supply with the addition of some components connected after the filter circuit ( Fig. 3-4), or a split-dc power supply with positive, and negative output voltages with resp ect to ground using a transformer with center tap.

r1

Regulated power supply using LM338K IC regulator

sp1

Schematic diagram of a split-dc power supply

If you want to increase the output voltage of power supply significantly, you c an use the voltage multiplier power supply. In this circuit design you can double, triple, or even multiply several times the output voltage as necessary.

doubler

(A)

sextupler

(B) Voltage multiplier circuits (A) Half-wave voltage doubler (B) Voltage sextupler Some schematic diagrams of power control circuits are also included in this lesson to familiarize you with laying out simple and complex schematic diagrams.

auto-signal (A) dimmer motor-reversing (B) (C) Power control circuits (A) Automobile sequential signal circuit (B) Light dimmer (C) Motor reversing circuit Schematic diagrams serve as reference of electronic technicians in tracing the signal flow, in analyzing the operation of the circuit and as guide for troubles hooting purposes. An electronic engineer finds it easier to modify or improve the perfor mance of an existing electronic circuit by analyzing the circuit through its schematic diagram and by making changes as necessary.

Activity 1 Sometimes AM radio receivers have an advantage over FM receivers when you want to listen for more news updates than listening to music. That s why it is imp ortant for you to know the different circuit designs of AM radio receivers. The circuit diagram below is only one of the many AM radios available in the market. To be familiar with the circuit, redraw its schematic diagrams and be sure to apply proper lay out and proportion of the circuits diagram.

You may change the lay out or resize the diagrams but be sure that you follow the standard electronic drafting practices.

schematic Schematic diagram of a single-chip AM Radio Receiver

Activity 2 Aside from listening to your favorite music, it is sometimes more interesting t o see the lighting system that goes with the music. The illustration below shows a onechannel (left-channel) LED VU (Light-Emitting Diode Volume Unit) meter that serv es the purpose of entertaining our sight by viewing lights dancing with the music.

Redraw the diagram with the addition of the missing right channel (mirror image of the left channel) to have a stereo lighting effects.

schematic

LED VU meter

Answer the following questions: 1. Why are schematic diagrams the most useful diagrams in troubleshooting purposes? 2. Is it necessary for an appliance or instrument has a schematic diagram? Why? Suggested Activity

A. Download at least two schematic diagrams of electronic circuits from the inte rnet. Evaluate them and make written comments and suggestions on the findings. Tell whether the manufacturers of such diagrams have followed the Drafting Practices Standards set by accredited organizations on Electronic Drafting or not.

In this lesson, you learned how to draw and lay out schematic diagrams following the Drafting Practices Standards.

In our next lesson you will learn another kind of diagram: the block diagram - a diagram in which every stage of the circuit is represented by blocks, (given the function of each block), and are arranged in sequential order following the flow of signa l from input to output. Lesson 4: The Block Diagram The block diagram is a diagram of a system, in which the principal parts or functions are represented by blocks connected by lines; these lines show the relationships of the blocks. They are heavily used in the engineering world in h ardware design, software design, and process flow diagrams. The block diagram is typical ly used for a higher level, less detailed description aimed more at understanding t he overall concepts and less at understanding the details of implementation. This is in contrast with the schematic diagram and pictorial diagram used in the electrical engineering world, where the schematic diagram shows the details of e ach electrical component and the pictorial diagram shows the details of physical construction.

F.M. TRANSMITTER DIAGRAM

Block diagram of an FM radio transmitter Functions of the system 1. The microphone converts sound pressure wave to electrical signals.

2. These audio voltages are amplified by the audio amplifier.

3. The amplified audio is used to control the deviation of the frequency control led oscillator.

4. The oscillator frequency is at the carrier frequency in the 88-108 MHz FM ban d

5. The low power of the frequency modulated carrier is boosted by the Radio Frequency amplifier. 6. The aerial is driven by the amplifier and produces an electromagnetic wave.

PRELIMINARY ACTIVITY List down all the information which you think are given in conjunction with blo ck diagrams. Information given in conjunction with block diagrams 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Think about this Do you know that block diagrams are used to understand complete circuits by breaking them down into smaller sections or blocks? Each block performs a partic ular function and the block diagram shows how they are connected. The block diagram is used primarily to show the relationship between the various component groups or stages in the operation of a circuit. The blocks are most often drawn in the shapes of squares or rectangles that are joined by single lines. In some block diagrams, devices such as amplifiers, ante nnas, loudspeakers, and output meters are represented by standard symbols, instead by squares or rectangles. A block diagram of a typical power supply is shown below.

DCV -

DIODES OR RECTIFIERS

POWER

TRANSFORMER

FILTER CIRCUIT

Block diagram of a typical power supply

c2

FILTER CIRCUITS

DIODES OR RECTIFIERS

POWER TRANSFORMER The schematic diagram of above shows the three major stages of the circuit; the power transformer, diodes or rectifiers, and the filter circuits Block diagram of a television receiver The basic block diagram of a monochrome or black and white television receiver is shown below. MONO TV RECEIVER Block diagram of a monochrome television receiver

Functions of the different stages in blocks are as follows: . The tuner unit converts the incoming sound and vision carriers to their IF frequencies.

. The oscillator is protected against frequency drift, due to temperature change s, by the Automatic Frequency Control (AFC).

. The IF amplifier has a bandwidth wide enough to pass both sound (33.5 MHz) and vision (39.5 MHz) IF signals and their sidebands.

. The video signal is demodulated and amplified and is used to control the brightness at each particular point on the screen.

. The sync pulses are separated from the composite video signal by the sync separator.

These pulses are used to control the frequencies of the time bases, ensuring tha t they run at the same speed as, and in phase with, those in the studio cameras. . The time bases provide saw tooth waveforms which scan the face of the CRT, while the video signal controls the brightness at each point on the screen. See the page on mono cameras to read about scanning.

. The line time base also supplies the Extra High Tension (EHT) voltage for the CRT final anode. This voltage is very high and dangerous.

. Due to a mixing process between the sound and vision carriers, the sound signa l appears as a 6 MHz FM signal at the video output stage. It is amplified and demodulated. The resulting audio signal is amplified and used to drive a loudspeaker.

A power supply supplies DC voltages to all stages.

Activity 1

Draw the block diagram of a 7-transistor AM radio receiver shown in Fig. 4-6 and label each block or stage. Every stage or block of the complete circuit is alrea dy grouped in the schematic diagram by means of dashed lines and are labeled accordingly. You may compare your work with the example shown in Fig. 4-5 in whi ch the schematic diagram of a regulated power supply is represented by a block diag ram and the function of each block or stage is given.

POWER TRASFORMER RECTIFIERS FILTER REGULATOR OUTPUT (A)

REGULATOR CIRCUIT

DIODES OR RECTIFIERS

FILTER CIRCUIT

POWER TRANSFORMER

OUTPUT

(B) Regulated power supply (A) Schematic diagram (B) Block diagram

Functions of each block or stage of the circuit:

1. Power transformer Step down the 220VAC to required lower AC voltage. 2. Rectifiers Change AC voltage to pulsating DC voltage. 3. Filter Removes the AC component of the pulsating DC voltage to have pure DC output. 4. Regulator Maintain the DC output voltage at a constant value even with changes in the input voltage.

FREQUENCY-CONVERTER SPK

AUDIO AMPLIFIER AUDIO DETECTOR

I-F AMPLIFIERS AM_schematic Transistor AM radio receiver Note: Power supply of the circuit can be represented by a block indicating that all st ages are supplied with DC voltage except the detector stage and the loudspeaker. Functions of each block or stage of the circuit: 1. Frequency converter Converts the RF signal pick up by the aerial antenna and the frequency generated by the local oscillator circuit to produce the I-F of 455 KHz. 2. I-F amplifier circuits A two-stage circuit used to amplify (increase) the I-F signal output of the frequency-converter usually at the rate of 10,000 times. 3. Audio detector Converts the amplified I-F signal from the I-F amplifiers into audio signal. 4. Audio amplifier Amplifies the audio signal from the detector output through t he volume control. 5. Loudspeaker Converts the amplified audio signal from the detector output into sound waves. 6. Power supply Supplies DC voltage to the circuit.

Answer the following questions: 1. Why are block diagrams of electronic circuits important? 2. Differentiate a block diagram from a schematic diagram.

Suggested Activity A. Download from the internet diagrams of monochrome and color television. Identify the blocks or stages that are in the color TV but are not use in the monochrome television. 1. For more diagrams of electronic circuits you may log on to this website. http://www.answers.com/topic/block-diagram.

Lesson 5: The Wiring Diagram A wiring diagram is a simplified conventional pictorial representation of an electrical circuit. It shows the components of the circuit as simplified shapes, and the power and signal connections between the devices. A wiring diagram usually gives more information about the relative position and arrangement of devices and term inals on the devices, to help in building the device. This is unlike a schematic diagr am where the arrangement of the components interconnections on the diagram does not correspond to their physical locations in the finished device. A pictorial diagr am will show more details of the physical appearance, whereas a wiring diagram uses a mo re symbolic notation to emphasize interconnections over physical appearance. A wiring diagram is used to troubleshoot problems and to make sure that all the connections have been made and that everything is present. The wiring or connection diagram is used to show wiring connections in a simplified, easy-to-follow manner. It may show either internal or external conne ctions or both and is usually drawn as simply as possible to trace out the connections of a circuit system. Fig. 5-1 shows the wiring connection of a typical lamp annunciator. Alth ough a wiring diagram is not drawn to any exact scale, the components are most often arranged to show their relative locations within a given space or area. Wiring diagrams are frequently used in manufacturing processes and are widely used in the installation, wiring, maintenance, and modification of equipment.

oH.W........o.oG..

Wiring diagram of a typical lamp annunciator PRELIMINARY ACTIVITY List down all the information which you think are given in conjunction with wiri ng or connection diagrams. Information given in conjunction with wiring or connection diagrams 1. 2. 3. 4.

Think about this Do you know that architectural wiring diagrams show the approximate locations and interconnections of receptacles, lighting, and permanent electrical services in a building? Interconnecting wire routes may be shown approximately, where particul ar receptacles or fixtures must be on a common circuit. Wiring diagrams use standar d symbols for wiring devices, usually different from those used on schematic diagr ams. A wiring diagram is a simplified conventional pictorial representation of an electrical circuit. It shows the components of the circuit as simplified shapes, and the power and signal connections between the devices. This is unlike a schematic dia gram where the arrangement of the components interconnections on the diagram does not correspond to the physical locations in the finished device.

A wiring diagram is also a detailed diagram of each circuit installation showing all of the wiring, connectors, terminal boards, and electronic components of the cir cuit. The wiring diagram of a selector switch with different multi-media input equipment is shown in Fig. 5-2. This circuit is very useful during multi-media presentation in which you can use four kinds of equipment like video camera, DVD player, MP3 player, and computer by just setting the selector switch to the inpu t device you want to use. This will make your work easier, accurate, and save time in connecting and disconnecting the input device to the television set or LCD proje ctor. This will also prolong the life span of RCA plugs and jacks (connectors). video selector Fig. 5-2. Schematic diagram of a selector switch for different input multi-media equipment To give you a very clear idea of what a wiring diagram is, see Fig. 5-3. This i s the wiring diagram of the complete electrical circuit of an automobile. In this diagram all components of the circuit are drawn in their physical presentation, properly lab eled, and with complete wiring connections.

auto wiring.jpg Fig. 5-3. Wiring diagram of auto electrical circuit In electronic jobs, wiring diagram is very useful in the project assembly of electronic kits. The wiring diagram is very important to assure the correct conn ection of the circuit while counter checking with the schematic diagram of the circuit. Activity 1 Sometimes you want to share your favorite music with your friends. You can do this by simply connecting your MP3 player to an amplifier system or just connect your MP3 player to amplified speakers of a computer. To make sure that you are doing the right thing, draw the wiring diagram of an MP3 player connected to an amplifier before doing the actual connection. Answer the following questions: 1. Why are wiring diagrams important in assembling and troubleshooting electrica l and electronic circuits?

2. What do you think the features are of wiring diagrams that are not present in other diagrams? Suggested Activity 1. Secure wiring diagrams of the stereo sound system of car from automotive dealers, electronic service shops, or download from the internet. 2. Draw the equivalent circuit of the said sound system in the form of a block diagram. For more wiring diagrams you may log on to this website. 1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wiring_diagram

Lesson 6: The Pictorial Diagram The pictorial diagram is a picture or sketch drawn to show the components of a circuit, their location upon a chassis or panel, and how they are connected. (Fi g 6-1). The diagram is usually drawn to a scale that shows the circuit and its related components in a size that is proportional to the finished product. Wire connecti ons are drawn with as little crossover and with as much of the wiring as possible in ful l view. Pictorial diagrams are sometimes provided when detailed information about a circuit is not clearly discussed. They are used to identify various connections, switches, indicating lights and other electronic components. They are meant for someone wi th very little knowledge of electronic equipment. They are illustrations that are s imilar to photographs; they allow someone to identify unfamiliar components. For technicia ns, pictorial diagrams are sometimes used to help identify unusual components or fea tures or to show how to remove, install or adjust something that is difficult to work with. The outstanding feature of pictorial diagrams is the ease with which they can be read and interpreted. For this reason, such diagrams are widely used for instruc tional purposes, as guides in assembly line production work, for maintenance activities , and for assembling do-it-yourself type kits of all types.

booster in case Pictorial diagram of a power booster amplifier in chassis PRELIMINARY ACTIVITY List down all the information which you think are given in conjunction with pictorial diagrams. Information given in conjunction with pictorial diagrams 1. 2. 3.

Think about this Do you know that the simplest of all diagrams is the pictorial diagram? It shows a picture or sketch of the various components of a specific system and the wiring between these components. This simplified diagram provides the means to readily identify the components of a system, even if you are not familiar with their physical appeara nce. This type of diagram shows the various components without regard to their physic al location, how the wiring is marked, or how the wiring is routed.

A pictorial diagram is a simplified diagram which shows the various components of a system (electronic equipment, motorcycle, car, ship, electronic devices, ai rplane, etc) without regard to their physical location, how the wiring is marked, or how the wiring is routed. It does, however, show you the sequence in which the components are connected. Fig. 6-2 is an example of a pictorial diagram. Pictoral Diagram of Honda CB100 Fig. 6-2. The Honda CB100 pictorial diagram. It shows the motorcycle electrical system which consists of Generator, Selenium Rectifier, Battery, Fuse, Combinati on Switch, Ignition Coil, Breaker Points, Condenser and Lighting Switch. To have a clear understanding of what a pictorial diagram is; a matrix of the different power supplies discussed in the previous lessons on schematic diagrams were redrawn with their corresponding pictorial diagrams (Table 6-1). Table 6-1. Schematic and pictorial diagrams of most common used power supplies. Schematic Diagram Pictorial Diagram

cfw supply sche

Conventional full-wave power supply

ps Rectifier and filter circuits are connected using the terminal lugs of the transformer.

Rectifier and filter circuits are connected using terminal strips. ps3

ps5

Full-wave bridge-type power supply

ps2 Rectifier and filter circuits are connected using the terminal lugs of the transformer.

Rectifier and filter circuits are connected using terminal strips. ps4

sp1 Split-dc power supply sp4 Rectifier and filter circuits are mounted on PCB

Activity 1 To gain more skills in laying out different electronic diagrams and be familiar with printed circuit board designs (lessons in chapter 3), redraw the different diagr ams of a typical tone control circuit shown below. tone control tone control (A) (B)

tone control top (C) A typical tone control circuit. (A) Schematic diagram (B) PCB foil pattern (C) Pictorial diagram

Suggested Activity Based on the schematic diagram of the booster amplifier 6-4, label all missing values/names of components in its pictorial wiring diagram shown in Fig. 6-5. booster sche Schematic diagram of an amplifier booster

F:\UDIS PRO\TLE\cp-tle\scan diagrams\booster wiring.jpg 1._______ ________ 2._______ ________ 3._______ ________

7._______ ________ 6._______ ________ 5._______ ________ 4._______ ________

8._______ ________ Pictorial wiring diagram of a booster amplifier

DEEPEN YOUR UNDERSTANDING

Aside from using templates in laying out electronic diagrams, you can use computer software like the Electronic Benchwork 5 and Smartdraw series 8 or 10 i n laying out quality electronic diagrams. Fig. 6-6 shows the electronic symbols pr ocessed by the software Smartdraw 8, while Fig. 6-7 is an audio amplifier circuit made f rom Electronic Benchwork 5.

smart.jpg Electronic symbols processed by the computer software Smartdraw 8

Fig. 6-7. Schematic diagram of an audio amplifier made using the Electronic Workbench computer software Activity 1 Directions: Construct the following diagrams using any computer software. 1. Full-wave power supply 2. 30W audio amplifier c2 Full-wave power supply

amp 30W audio amplifier

Summative Assessment (six facet of understanding) . Why are schematic diagrams of electronic circuits important? _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ Discuss the information often given in conjunction with schematic diagrams. ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________

. Redraw the schematic diagrams of a 60W and 7W audio amplifiers applying the Standard Drafting Practices. Be sure to apply proper laying out and proportion o f the circuits diagram. You may change the lay out and sizes of the two circuits provided you still follow the Standard Drafting Practices.

60 Watt Amplifier 60W audio amplifier using discrete components

IMG00004

7W audio amplifier using power IC

. Why is there a need to draw the schematic diagram in such a way that the input signal is at the outermost left portion of the diagram while the output is at th e right side of the diagram?

________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________

As a technician, how would you feel if after sometimes you find out that the diagram you are using as reference in troubleshooting a circuit is NOT the exact diagram of the circuit?

________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________

. How will you show your appreciation for producing schematic diagrams within th e standard of drafting practices? ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________

. Self- assess your level of confidence in laying out the schematic diagrams of 60W and 7W audio amplifiers respectively In the previous lessons I have learned that: ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ I still want to learn more on: ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________

I realized that: ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________

TRANSFER YOUR UNDERSTANDING

You want to demonstrate to others your gained knowledge and skills, and then perform the following activities:

Suggested Activity 1 Construct the schematic diagrams of the following pictorial diagrams and give the functions of each component in the circuit. Compare the operations of the two circuits.

ps3 Conventional full-wave power supply

ps4 Full-wave bridge-type power supply

Suggested Activity 2 Draw the wiring diagram of an electronic gadget with the following features: 1. One set of output terminals (video and stereo audio) 2. Three sets of input terminals (video and left and right channels for audio) for the following electronic equipment. a. DVD player b. Computer c. Video cam 3. Three jumbo LED to be used as input indicators 4. A 6V DC adapter power supply to light the indicators and provide 6V DC for external use.

Your work will be rated using the Performance Scoring Rubrics in Electronic Drafting shown below.

Rubrics in Electronic Drafting ELECTRONICS TECHNOLOGY

Category 4 (Expert) 3 (Practitioner) 2 (Apprentice) 1 (Novice) Title Title is informative, centered, and larger than other text. Title is informative, and larger than other text. Title is informative, centered. The title is incomplete and does not clearly indicate what electronic symbol is drawn. Labels Every item that needs to be identified has a label. It is clear which label goes with which electronic symbol. Almost all items that need to be identified have labels. It is clear which label goes with which electronic symbol. Most items (75-89%) that need to be identified have

labels. It is clear which label goes with which electronic symbol. Less than 75% of the items that need to be identified have labels or it is not clear which labels goes with which electronic symbol. General Formatting Unlined paper is used. The drawing is large enough to be clear. Student name, class, date, and name of teacher are properly placed. There are notes/legends that include information about the electronic symbols and label of components when appropriate. Unlined paper is used. The drawing is large enough to be clear, but some symbols are not proportionally drawn. Student name, class, date, and name of teacher are properly placed. Unlined paper is used. The drawing is a little too large or a little too small. Student name, class, date, and name of teacher are properly placed Lined paper is used and/or the drawing is much too small or much too large. DrawingGeneral Lines are clear and

not smudged. There are almost no erasures or stray on the paper. Overall quality of drawing is excellent. There are few erasures, smudged lines or stray marks on the paper, but they do not greatly detract from the drawing. Overall, the drawing is good. There are few erasures, smudged lines or stay marks on the paper, which detract from the drawing. Overall, the quality of the drawing is fair. There are several erasures, smudged lines or stray marks on the paper, which detract from the drawing. Overall, the quality of the drawing is poor. DrawingDetails All assigned details have been added. The details are clear and easy to identify. Almost all assigned details (at least 85%) have been added. The details are clear and easy to identify. Almost all assigned details (at least 85%) have been added. A few details are difficult to identify. Fewer than 85% of the assigned details are present or most details are difficult to

identify.

Accuracy 95% or more of the assigned electronic symbols are drawn accurately and are recognizable. All assigned electronic symbols are labeled accurately. 94-85% of the assigned electronic symbols are drawn accurately and are recognizable. All assigned electronic symbols are labeled accurately. 94-85% of the assigned electronic symbols are drawn accurately and are recognizable. 9485% of the assigned electronic symbols are labeled accurately. Less than 85% of the assigned electronic symbols are drawn and/or labeled accurately. Knowledge Gained When asked about 10 items in unlabeled electronic symbols, the student can identify all of them accurately. When asked about 10 items in unlabeled electronic symbols, the student can identify 8-9 of them accurately. When asked about 10 items in unlabeled electronic symbols, the student can identify 6-7 of them accurately.

When asked about 10 items in unlabeled electronic symbols, the student can identify 5 or less of them accurately. Spelling All words are spelled correctly in the title, labels and caption/description. 99-76% of the words are spelled correctly in the title, labels and caption/description.. 75% of the words are spelled correctly in the title, labels, and caption/description.. Less than 75% of the words are spelled correctly in the title, labels, and caption/description..

Rating Scale Points Earned Numerical Equivalent Points Earned Numerical Equivalent 32 100 19 88 31 99 18

87 30 98 17 86 29 97 16 85 28 96 15 84 27 95 14 83 26 94 13 82 25 93 12 81 24 92 11 80 23

91 10 79 22 90 9 78 21 89 8 77

Note: Lower than 8 in the points earned will have a numerical equivalent of 75. DESCRIPTIVE RATING:

91 - 100 - Outstanding 86 - 90 - Very Good 81 - 85 - Good 77 - 80 - Fair 76 and below Needs Improvement

Suggested Activity 3

1. Construct different diagrams of electronic circuits using templates (manual operation) and using computer software.

2. Display your output in bulletin boards in your school to attract possible peo ple who may need your products and services.