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Contributor contact details Woodhead Publishing Series in Energy Foreword Part I Key issues and assessment of biofuels production 1 Introduction: an overview of biofuels and production technologies
R. LUQUE and J.M. CAMPELO, Universidad de Crdoba, Spain and J.H. CLARK, University of York, UK

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1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2

Introduction Development of (bio)chemical conversion technologies Development of biological conversion technologies Development of thermochemical conversion technologies Integration of biofuels into bioreneries Future trends Acknowledgements Sources of further information References Multiple objectives policy for biofuels production: environmental, socio-economic and regulatory issues
C. DE LUCIA, University of York, UK and Technical University of Bari, Italy

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2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5

Introduction Energy security and supply Emission reductions, land use and other environmental impacts Food safety and development of rural areas Biofuels support policies

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2.6 2.7 2.8 3

Conclusions and future trends List of selected economies in Fig. 2.1 and 2.2, and Tables 2.1 and 2.2 References Life cycle sustainability assessment of biofuels
A. AZAPAGIC, The University of Manchester, UK and H. STICHNOTHE, Johann Heinrich von Thnen Institut Institute of Agricultural Technology and Biosystems Engineering, Germany

29 32 33 37

3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 4 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7

Introduction Sustainability issues along the life cycle of biofuels Environmental sustainability of biofuels Economic sustainability of biofuels Future trends Appendix: Life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology Sources of further information References Vegetable-based feedstocks for biofuels production
S. PINZI and M.P. DORADO, University of Crdoba, Spain

37 39 40 50 55 55 57 58 61 61 62 69 71 82 86 86

Introduction Most frequent vegetable raw materials to produce rst-generation biodiesel Raw materials to produce low-cost biodiesel Vegetable raw materials to produce bioethanol Vegetable raw materials to produce biofuels from other technologies Acknowledgements References

Part II Biofuels from chemical and biochemical conversion processes and technologies 5 Production of biodiesel via chemical catalytic conversion
R. VERH and C. ECHIM, Ghent University, Belgium, W. DE GREYT, Desmet Ballestra Group, Belgium and C. STEVENS, Ghent University, Belgium

95 97

5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6

Introduction Biodiesel denition Treatment of the feedstocks prior to production of the biodiesel Current technologies of biodiesel production Purication of biodiesel Industrial production of biodiesel

97 98 102 102 120 122

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5.7 5.8 5.9 6 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.9 6.10 6.11 6.12 7

Inuence of the feedstock and technology on biodiesel properties Conclusions and future trends References Biochemical catalytic production of biodiesel
S. AL-ZUHAIR, UAE University, UAE

123 127 127 134 134 136 137 139 140 142 144 144 149 151 154 155 160

Introduction The enzymatic process Limitations of the enzymatic approach Sources of the enzyme: lipase Feedstock Acyl acceptors Effect of temperature Immobilized lipase Kinetics of enzymatic production of biodiesel Future trends Sources of further information References Production of glycerol-free and alternative biodiesels
A. MACARIO and G. GIORDANO, University of Calabria, Italy, F.M. BAUTISTA, D. LUNA, R. LUQUE and A.A. ROMERO, University of Crdoba, Spain

7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 8

Introduction Novel types of biodiesel: biofuels that incorporate glycerol into their composition Advantages in the use of biofuels integrating glycerol Processing of oils and fats in the current oil rening plants Future trends References Biodiesel production from microbial oil
A.A. KOUTINAS and S. PAPANIKOLAOU, Agricultural University of Athens, Greece

160 162 170 171 172 173 177

8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6

Introduction Microorganisms and raw materials used for microbial oil production The biochemistry of lipid accumulation in the oleaginous microorganisms Biodiesel production from single cell oil Future trends References

177 178 183 190 191 192

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Biochemical production of bioethanol


M. ARSHADI, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden and H. GRUNDBERG, Processum Biorenery Initiative AB, Sweden

199

9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7 9.8 10 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 10.7 10.8 10.9 11

Introduction Properties Feedstocks Processing technology Pilot plant for ethanol production from lignocellulosic feedstock Environmental aspects of ethanol as a biofuel Future trends References Biochemical production of biobutanol
M. KPKE and P. DRRE, Universitt Ulm, Germany

199 200 201 208 217 217 218 219 221 221 222 230 235 240 241 242 242 242

Introduction Principles, materials and feedstocks Process technologies and techniques Modeling and optimization Advantages and limitations Future trends Sources of further information and advice Acknowledgments References Biochemical production of other bioalcohols: biomethanol, biopropanol, bioglycerol, and bioethylene glycol
S.D. MINTEER, St Louis University, USA

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11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 11.6 11.7 11.8 11.9 11.10

Introduction Biomethanol Biopropanol Bioglycerol Bio-ethylene glycol Other possible bioalcohols Advantages and limitations Conclusions and future trends Sources of further information and advice References

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Production of biogas via anaerobic digestion


K. STAMATELATOU, G. ANTONOPOULOU and G. LYBERATOS, University of Patras, Greece

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12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5 12.6 12.7 12.8 12.9 12.10 12.11 13

Introduction: the anaerobic digestion process Factors affecting the anaerobic digestion process Advantages and limitations Process integration for biogas production Process modelling Process monitoring and control Biogas utilisation Existing biogas installations Conclusions and future trends Sources of further information and advice References Biological and fermentative production of hydrogen
G. ANTONOPOULOU, I. NTAIKOU, K. STAMATELATOU and G. LYBERATOS, University of Patras, Greece

266 268 272 274 281 284 289 290 294 295 296 305

13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4 13.5 13.6 13.7 13.8

Hydrogen Biological hydrogen production methods Fermentative hydrogen production Hydrogen economy Advantages and limitations Future trends Sources of further information and advice References

305 306 318 333 335 336 336 337

Part III Biofuels from thermal and thermo-chemical conversion processes and technologies 14 14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4 14.5 14.6 14.7 14.8 14.9 14.10 Production of bio-oils via catalytic pyrolysis
M.A. MORRIS, University College Cork, Ireland

347 349 349 350 356 357 361 363 368 376 378 378

Introduction Pyrolysis: a brief background Pyrolysis economics Catalytic pyrolysis: catalysis Catalytic pyrolysis for improved pyrolysis-oil generation Reactors for catalytic pyrolysis Catalysts used in catalytic pyrolysis Conclusions and future trends Acknowledgements References

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Production of biofuels via catalytic cracking


J.A. MELERO, A. GARCA and M. CLAVERO, Rey Juan Carlos University, Spain

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15.1 15.2 15.3 15.4 15.5 15.6 16

Introduction Catalytic cracking of highly oxygenated biomass-derived feedstocks Catalytic cracking of triglyceride-based feedstocks Co-processing of triglycerides and petrol feedstocks mixtures in uid catalytic cracking renery units Future trends References Production of bio-syngas and biohydrogen via gasication
A. DUTTA, University of Guelph, Canada and B. ACHARYA, Dalhousie University, Canada

390 393 397 404 414 415 420

16.1 16.2 16.3 16.4 16.5 16.6 16.7 16.8 16.9 17

Introduction Mechanism of gasication Factors affecting performance of gasication Types of gasier Modeling of the gasier Designing of gasier Conclusions Sources of further information and advice References Production of bioalcohols via gasication
J.M.N. VAN KASTEREN, Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands

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17.1 17.2 17.3 17.4 17.5 17.6 17.7 18

Introduction Gasication routes for alcohol production Conceptual design of a bio waste ethanol plant Conclusions and future trends Acknowledgements Notes References
, University of Twente, S.R.A. KERSTEN and D. KNEEVIC The Netherlands and R.H. VENDERBOSCH, BTG Biomass Technology Group B.V., The Netherlands

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Production of biofuels via hydrothermal conversion

18.1 18.2 18.3

Introduction Chemistry, product characteristics and product distribution Process layout

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Process development and demonstration activities Current research Conclusions and future trends References Production of biofuels via Fischer-Tropsch synthesis: biomass-to-liquids
A. LAPPAS and E. HERACLEOUS, CPERI Chemical Process Engineering Research Institute, Greece

485 488 488 489 493

19.1 19.2 19.3 19.4 19.5 19.6 19.7 19.8 19.9 20

Introduction Biomass-to-liquids-Fischer-Tropsch process technologies and techniques Biomass gasication to syngas Synthesis of biofuels via Fischer-Tropsch Upgrading of biomass-to-liquids-Fischer-Tropsch products Biomass-to-liquids-Fischer-Tropsch nal fuel products Commercial status of the biomass-to-liquids-FischerTropsch processes Future trends References Production of biofuels via biomass reforming
G. VAN ROSSUM and S.R.A. KERSTEN, University of Twente, The Netherlands

493 496 497 501 509 517 521 522 524 530

20.1 20.2 20.3 20.4 20.5 20.6 20.7

Introduction Related technologies Chemical thermodynamics Feedstocks and processes Description of the ongoing research and status of proposed and tested technologies for biomass reforming Conclusions References

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Part IV Integrated production and application of biofuels: bioreneries, by-product valorisation and engine utilisation 21 Biofuel-driven bioreneries for the co-production of transportation fuels and added-value products
R. VAN REE, J. SANDERS, R. BAKKER and R. BLAAUW, Wageningen University and Research Centre (WUR), The Netherlands and R. ZWART and B. VAN DER DRIFT, Energy Research Center of The Netherlands (ECN), The Netherlands

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21.1

Introduction

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21.2 21.3 21.4 21.5 21.6 21.7 22

Biofuel-driven bioreneries: conventional biofuels Biofuel-driven bioreneries: advanced biofuels Optimising biomass value chains Current status and future trends Sources of further information References Valorization of by-products for the production of biofuels
C. ECHIM, R. VERH and C. STEVENS, Ghent University, Belgium and W. DE GREYT, Desmet Ballestra Group, Belgium

564 565 574 576 577 578 581

22.1 22.2 22.3 22.4 22.5 22.6 22.7 23

Composition of deodorizer distillate Applications and estimates of deodorizer distillates Production of biodiesel/biofuel from deodorizer distillates Recovery of sterols, tocopherols and squalene from deodorizer distillate Future trends Acknowledgements References Utilisation of biofuels in diesel engines
T. LE ANH, School of Transportation Engineering, Hanoi University of Science and Technology, Vietnam, I.K. REKSOWARDOJO, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Indonesia and K. WATTANAVICHIEN, Chulalongkorn University, Thailand

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23.1 23.2 23.3 23.4 23.5 23.6 23.7

Introduction Utilisation of vegetable pure plant oil and crude oil in diesel engines Utilisation of biodiesel based palm oil, jatropha oil, coconut oil and kapok nut oil in diesel engines Utilisation of biodiesel B5 based cat-sh fat in diesel engines The concept of using biofuel in engines (prime movers) Conclusions References Index

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