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M. Giot 1, H.M. Prasser2, F. Castrillo 3, A. Dudlik4, G. Ezsol5, J. Jeschke6, H. Lemonnier7, A. Rubbers8, I. Tiselj9, W. Van Hove10, S. Potapov11 UCL, Louvain-la-Neuve, 2 FZR, Dresden,3 Iberdrola, Madrid, 4 Fraunhofer, Umsicht, Oberhausen, 5 KFKI, Budapest, 6 Framatome ANP, Offenbach, 7 CEA, Grenoble, 8 Empresarios Agrupados, Madrid, 9 Jozef Stefan Institut, Ljubljana, 10 Tractebel, Brussels, 11 EDF, Clamart SUMMARY The main objective of the WAHALoads project is to develop and to validate a new code aimed at predicting fast transient two-phase flows in NPPs and the resulting forces acting on the pipes and structures. In order to validate the code, new extensive experimental data sets are being collected by means of three test facilities. The WAHALoads project began on 1st October 2001 and extends to 1st April 2004. It started with a benchmark exercise which enabled to measure some deficiencies of the system codes when these codes must simulate fast transients like those occurring in water hammers induced by the rapid closure of a valve or by the release of the fluid through a pipe breach. The benchmark exercise has also confirmed the need for a specific code using advanced numerical methods. In the WAHALoads project, a new and original data base is also obtained by means of experiments made on three test facilities which differ from each other by the range of pressures, temperatures and geometries, as well as by the mechanisms of water hammers they can produce (condensation water hammer or fast flow transient). Advanced types of the Wire Mesh Sensor to measure the void fraction instantaneous profiles are used in the three test facilities. The new code, called WAHA, is based on a two fluid model with special closure relationships adapted to the transient character of the flow and to the severe nonequilibriums of inter-phase mass, momentum and energy transfers. The numerical scheme minimises the numerical diffusion: it consists of a second-order accurate characteristic upwind numerical scheme, and operator splitting for relaxation source terms. Validation of the code is achieved by using it for the simulation of the experimental data. 1. INTRODUCTION The WAHALoads work program In NPPs water hammer phenomena can occur in case of an inflow of sub-cooled water into pipes or other equipment filled with steam or a steam-water mixture. They may also happen due to fast valve closing or opening or following pipe ruptures with singlephase or two-phase flow. In the latter case, pressure waves in a two-phase medium must be expected. In all cases, dynamic stresses are induced in the walls of the pressure-retaining equipment. Moreover, the fast change of momentum of the fluid and the displacements of the components generate dynamic loads on the support structures of the components. In the WAHALoads project currently running in FP5, the following tasks have been achieved: Perform benchmark exercises to compare existing codes and the new WAHA code with standard cases and existing data sets;

Develop new models applicable to fast transients, to predict wall friction as well as

thermodynamic non-equilibrium and mechanical non-equilibrium between the phases; Develop new methods to calculate the loads induced on the supports of the pipe components; Establish an original data base by using three test facilities: CWTF at FZR Dresden, PPP at UMSICHT and PMK2 at AEKI. These data cover a wide range of geometries and thermodynamic conditions, and include void fraction, pressures, temperatures and flow rates; Develop a new code (WAHA) based on the two-fluid model and using a second order accurate numerical method; Validate the code against the data. The first versions of the WAHA code are presently available, as well as several sets of new original data. The verification process of the WAHA code is currently performed. The paper presents the results of the benchmark exercises, which fully justify the development of the new code. It also describes the experiments which have been performed and are being used to validate the WAHA code, as well as some of the new models which have been developed to simulate the large non-equilibriums which are encountered in rapid transient two-phase flows. 2. THE BENCHMARK EXERCISES Eight organisations took part in the benchmark exercise, involving two types of codes [1]: st general purpose system codes, including a six equation two-fluid flow model with 1 order space and time integration, staggered mesh, and a library of fluid interface models based on flow regime maps; specialized fast transient codes, including the two-phase homogeneous equilibrium model; they are of the 2nd order in space and time. Three exercises were proposed (BM 1 to 3). In BM1, a frictionless flow is instantaneously interrupted by the closure of a valve (fig.1). Two cases were considered: either the water was cold or near saturation. It appears that general purpose system codes that are not specifically designed for fast transients are effectively not capable of capturing secondary wave due to vapour cavity collapse. BM2 is the Edwards pipe experiment [2]. Rarefaction wave propagation is well predicted by all codes. However, one of the codes presented a problem with its flashing model. All codes predict higher pressure during first phase, and predict some kind of a void wave travelling to closed end, whereas experiment shows approximately constant pressure during first 0.2 sec. The time when pressure starts to drop depends of course on the model for critical flow at the break. Finally, BM3 uses pre-existing data of the PPP loop. Only one code was used. The timing of the pressure pulses appeared to be well predicted; however the stability of the solution was dependent on initial void fraction and initial dissolved air fraction.
Upstream Reservoir
Initial flow direction Closes at t=0

Downstream Reservoir

8.0 MPa
Section of interest


Figure 1: Definition of benchmark exercise BM1: fast closure of a valve.



At Forschung Zentrum Rossendorf, the CWHTF (Cold Water Hammer Test Facility) consists of a pressure vessel, a pipe line with two straight sections (one horizontally and one vertically oriented), two 90 bends (curvature radius 306 mm) and a fast opening valve (fig. 2). The total length of the pipe line is about 3 meters, the outer pipe diameter is about 219 mm and the wall thickness 6 mm. The vertical pipe region is terminated by a lid flange which acts as a bouncing plate. The water hammer is generated by the accelerated water bouncing against the lid flange. Therefore the water level in the vertical part of the pipeline is adjusted in a certain distance from the lid flange. The free volume above this level is evacuated (p << 1 bar) through a hole in the bouncing plate. During this time the fast acting valve is closed. After its fast opening the fluid is accelerated until bouncing against the upper lid of vertical pipeline. The pressure in the tank may be increased by pressurised air (up to 6 bars) to increase the amplitude of the pressure waves generated (up to 200 bars). The generated pressure wave travels back through the bend, causing a strong structural response of the pipe system. The pipe line is instrumented with a number of sensors. A finite elements model capable of describing the fluid-structure interaction during a water hammer has been developed by FZR and is being used to simulate the CWHTF data. Comparisons have also been run with the WAHA1 code [4]. In the PPP facility of UMSICHT, experiments are conducted using the dynamic behaviour of closing and opening valves [5]. The test rig includes two 230 m pipes with high and low levels (difference in height: 10m) and inner diameters of 54mm and 108mm respecti-vely. There are several flanges along the pipe to be able to realise other pipework geometry and to insert pieces of glass pipe to make the flow visible. The interconnection of pressure vessel (maximum pressure: 40 bar), storage tank (Vol.: 3.5m3), heat exchanger, compressor and pumps enable runs with different temperatures or pressures up to 140 bar. The liquid pressure and the wave velocity are monitored with pressure transducers. Steam/air and fluid distribution in the cross sectional area of the pipe is measured by wire-mesh sensors [3] equipped with micro-thermocouples. Within the plant, measuring data are transferred via optical fibre transmission and saved in a transient recording station with professional software. The time resolution of all measurement systems described above vary between 1 and 10 kHz. For validation of FSI codes the force on pipe supports, the displacement and frequency response are rapidly monitored as well.

Figure 2: Description of the Cold Water Hammer Test Facility (CWHTF) Figure 3: Configuration of scenario 1A at PPP (Pilot Plant Pipework) facility In scenario 1A (fig. 3), cavitation is produced by the quick closure of the valve; Initial temperature varies from

20C to 180C, and the initial pressure is above saturation. An example of pressure history downstream the valve is shown In scenario 1A (fig.3), cavitation is produced by the quick closure of the valve. Initial temperature varies from 20C to 180C, and the initial pressure is above saturation. An example of pressure history downstream the valve is shown in fig. 4. One can clearly observe the different pressure pulses due to the collapse of the bubbles created downstream the valve. The PMK-2-WHE (steam line water hammer equipment) is installed into the secondary circuit of the PMK-2 facility, at AEKI-KfKI (Budapest) between the steam dome of the steam generator and the condenser. The test section is a horizontal tube with a length of 2897 mm and an inner diameter of 73.7 mm. In both two ends there are relatively big masses for damping hydraulic forces other than water hammer forces displacement. The nominal initial conditions as in the PMK secondary side are as follows: steam side pressure of 4.6 MPa and temperature of about 260 oC (fig. 5). To induce the water hammer phenomenon, subcooled water is injected to the test section, containing saturated steam, from the tank by N2 gas pressure. To measure the pressure peaks produced by the water hammer, fast response pressure sensors are installed as well as a wire-mesh sensor. It is observed that water hammer do not necessarily take place when the injected flow rate is high. The simulation of the PMK2 tests shows that in some conditions, when the counter current flow of water and steam develops in the horizontal pipe, a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability appears, leading to the formation of slug entrapping a vapour bubble. The collapse of this vapour bubble is the origin of the pressure peak.
Pressure history just downstream the valve



Pressure (bar)



Closure of the valve at t Initial conditions - Velocity = 4 m/s - Pressure = 2.2 bar - Temperature = 20 C



0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16

time (s)

Figure 4: Example of result of PPP experiments (scenario 1A)






Vzts folyamatt vizsgl ksrleti csszakasz Elrendezsi terv

Figure 5: PMK-2 facility : view of the test section.



The main features of the WAHA code (version 1) under validation process are as follows [6]. The code is based on a one-dimensional six-equation two-fluid model for twophase flow of water. It uses its own steam tables. It distinguishes two flow regimes: dispersed and horizontally stratified. Hyperbolicity of the set of equations is ensured by a virtual mass term and an interfacial pressure in the momentum equations. WAHA contains correlations for mass, momentum and heat transfer between phases, and wall friction. Correlations are flow regime dependent. Relaxation source terms describe inter-phase exchanges of mass, momentum and energy. The code can describe departure from thermal equilibrium for both the vapour and the liquid phase. However, in dispersed flows, vapour is always close to equilibrium, and therefore a very high heat transfer coefficient is used for the vapour. The evaluation of a new model for wall friction in transients is under study [7]. The pipe elasticity and variable pipe cross-section can be modelled. In the current version of WAHA: two pipes can be connected with an abrupt-area change model; also a tank (constant pressure boundary condition), or a pump (constant velocity B.C.). The study of a 1D averaged model which would be suitable for a pipe undergoing arbitrary motions is under progress [8]. Most important, the explicit numerical scheme is based on operator splitting: characteristic upwind discretisation of convective and non-relaxation source terms is used in one sub step, while stiff relaxation source terms (inter-phase exchange terms) are treated in the second sub step. Numerical diffusion can be suppressed with second-order accurate treatment of the convective terms. 5. SOME NEW CLOSURE LAW : WALL FRICTION RELAXATION MODEL 2D water hammer simulations performed with FLUENT for an air flow enable to understand what happens with the wall shear stress when the pressure wave passes through the tube. The k- model of turbulence was chosen. The calculations were made for the fast closure of a valve in a tube with air flow. It can be observed in fig.6 that the steady-state wall shear stress equation is not sufficient to predict the transient shear stress evolution. The evolution of the transient shear stress has two phases. The first phase, which is very short, is a dramatic change of the wall shear stress during the passage of a pressure wave.

Figure 6 : Air flow. Wall shear stress in the middle of the pipe versus time. Solid line 2D calculations made with Fluent; dashed line steady state shear stress model.

Figure 7 : Air flow. Wall shear stress in the middle of the pipe versus time. Comparison between the proposed Friction Relaxation Model (dashed line) and 2D calculations made with Fluent (solid line).

The second phase, much longer, is the exponential tendency to the new steady-state value of the wall shear stress. Calculations of shear stress history performed with FLUENT confirm the results obtained by other researchers. A Friction Relaxation Model in the form presented by equ.1 is proposed for single-phase transient flows caused by fast manoeuvres in simple pipes [7] (fig.7).
d d = s kw a t wi w x


where s is the steady state wall friction, a relaxation time, kw a constant, the fluid density, a the speed of sound, w the fluid velocity, and wi the absolute value of the initial velocity. 6. CONCLUSIONS A new code, called WAHA, has been developed to simulate fast transients of ideal gas water or vapour water mixtures. It is based on a 6-equation two-fluid model in an elastic pipe with second order accurate numerical scheme. The non-equilibrium phenomena encountered in fast transients are simulated by relaxation models. After a comparison between existing tools and the WAHA code by means of benchmark exercises, new detailed data obtained on three test facilities are used for further verification. Due to the improvement obtained with respect to other tools - advanced numerical methods used, new closure laws introduced in the two fluid model -, the WAHA code should become a useful tool for prediction of loads on piping structure due to water hammers and other transient phenomena which could occur during the operation of Nuclear Power Plants. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors express their gratitude to their coworkers and in particular Jean-Marie Seynhaeve (UCL) for his important contribution to this text. REFERENCES
1. W. Van Hove, WAHALoads Benchmark exercise, private communication, Tractebel Energy Engineering, Brussels, 2002. 2. A.R. Edwards, T.P. OBrien, Studies on phenomena connected with the depressurization of water reactors, Journal of the British Nuclear Energy Society, 9, 1970, pp.125-135. 3. H.M. Prasser, A. Bttger, J. Zschau, A new Electrode-Mesh Tomograph for Gas-Liquid Flows, Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, 9, 1998, pp. 111-119. 4. J. Gale, I. Tiselj, Modelling of cold water hammer with WAHA Code, International Conference Nuclear Energy for New Europe 2003, Portoroz, Slovenia, September 8 11 2003, Poster 214. 5. Dudlik, Schonfeld, Hagemann, Fahlenkamp, Water hammer and cavitational hammer in process plant pipe systems, CHISA 2002, 15th International Congress of Chemical and Process Engineering, 25 - 29 August 2002, Praha. 6. I. Tiselj, A. Horvat, G. Cerne, J. Gale, I. Parzer, B. Mavko, M. Giot, J.M. Seynhaeve, B. Kucienska, H. Lemonnier, WAHA Code manual, Revision June 2003, Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana, 106 p., 2003. 7. B.Kucienska, J.M. Seynhaeve, M.Giot, Friction relaxation model for water hammer flows, derived from Extended Irreversible Thermodynamics, submitted for publication. 8. H. Lemonnier, Two-fluid 1-D averaged model equations for a pipe undergoing arbitrary motions, DEN/DTP/ SMTH/LDTA 2002-043, 50 p., 2002.