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# HES2120

## Chapter 5 STRESS AND STRAIN

5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 INTRODUCTION STRESS PLANE STRESS MORHS CIRCLE FOR PLANE STRESS THIN-WALLED PRESSURE VESSELS STRAIN PLANE STRAIN MOHRS CIRCLE FOR PLANE STRAIN STRAIN ROSETTE

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5.1 Introduction
The notion of stress originates from our desire to quantify internal or external forces distributed, respectively, in a body or along its boundary. Stresses are those forces distributed over an infinitesimal unit area cut out of a body in certain directions or over an infinitesimal unit area on the bounding surface. The study of stress-related problems, in general, is referred to as kinetics. Stresses may be related to strains in solids or rates of deformation in fluids through constitutive hypotheses. These hypotheses relate the variation of stress with respect to the variation of strain, which we sometimes called stress-strain relationship. These relationships are important in the description of mechanical properties of material, such as hardening, hysteresis etc. Strain, on the other hand, is a geometrical concept and is associated with the geometrical

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change of a point in the material. The mechanics of deformations and strains is referred to as kinematics.

5.2 Stress
Stress is defined mathematically as . (5.1) Thus, the concept of stress is related to the concept of point in the space. The most general state of stress at a point may be represented by six components,

## as shown in the figure below:

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Fig. 5.1

5.3 Plane stress Plane stress is a state of stress in which two faces of the cubic element are free of stress as shown in Fig. 5.2.

Fig. 5.2

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Thus a structural member is defined as in the state of plane stress when (5.2) State of plane stress can occurs 1. In thin plate subjected to forces acting in the midplane of the plate. 2. On the free-surface of a structural element or machine component, i.e. at any point of the surface not subjected to an external force, as in the cantilever beam shown in Fig. 5.3

Fig. 5.3

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5.3.1 Transformation of plane stress Consider the conditions for equilibrium of a prismatic element with faces perpendicular to the x, y, x and y axes, as shown in Fig. 5.4

Fig. 5.4

(5.3)

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(5.5)

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and

x' y' =

x y
2

sin 2 + xy cos 2

To obtain Since

, we replace

## that the y-axis forms with the x-axis. we have

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(5.9) Adding (5.7), (5.8) and (5.9) together, (5.10) Since , Eq. (5.10) tells us that the sum of the normal stresses exerted on a cubic element of material is invariant with respect to the orientation of that material. 5.3.2 Principal stresses Eqs. (5.7) and (5.8) are in fact parametric equations of a circle. By eliminating from Eq. (5.7) and (5.8), we arrive at .

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Setting

## , (5.11) we now have (5.12) This is shown in Fig. 5.5.

Fig. 5.5

This shows us that the Principal stresses occur on the principal planes of stress with zero

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shearing stresses. The min. and max. stresses are given respectively as

o

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Fig. 5.6

## From (5.12), if maximum, i.e.

, shearing stress is

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(5.16)
o

Note that

o

Fig. 5.7

## The corresponding normal stress is given by (5.17)

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Example: For the state of plane stress shown, determine (a) the principal planes, (b) the principal stresses and (c) the maximum shearing stress and the corresponding normal stress.

Soln:

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## The corresponding normal stress is computed using (5.17), which is

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Example: A single horizontal force P of 150lb is applied to D of lever ABD. Determine (a) the normal and shearing stresses on an element at point H having sides parallel to the x and y axes, (b) the principal planes and principal stresses at H.

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Solution

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## 5.4 Mohrs circle for plane stress

With the physical significance of Mohrs circle for plane stress established, it may be applied with simple geometric considerations. Critical values can be estimated graphically. For a known state of plane stress , plot the points X and Y and construct the circle centered at C, as shown in Fig. 5.8

Fig. 5.8

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The principal stresses are obtained at A and B. The direction of rotation of Ox to Oa is the same as CX to CA.

Fig. 5.9

With Mohrs circle uniquely defined, the state of stress at other orientations may be depicted. For w.r.t the xy axes, the state of stress at an angle construct a new diameter XY and an angle w.r.t. XY.

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Fig. 5.10

Fig. 5.11

Normal and shear stresses are obtained from the coordinates XY.

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Fig. 5.12

Fig. 5.13

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Example: For the state of stress shown, (a) construct Mohrs circle and determine (b) the principal planes, (c) the principal stresses and (d) the maximum shearing stress and the corresponding normal stress.

Soln: (a)

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## (C) The principal stresses are, from Mohrs circle

(d) The maximum shearing stress, from Mohrs cicle, is . This occurs at

## The corresponding normal stress, from Mohrs . circle, is

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Example: For the state of stress shown, determine (a) the principal planes and the principal stresses, (b) the stress components exerted on the element obtained by rotating the
o

## given element counterclockwise through 30 .

Soln:

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(On x-axis, the normal stress is +ve and shear clockwise. On y-axis, the normal stress is +ve and shear anticlockwise. Thus XY).

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## 5.5 Thin-walled pressure vessels

5.5.1 Cylindrical vessels The plane stress analysis we studied previously can be applied to the stress analysis of thin-walled pressure vessels problems. Why? Consider a cylindrical vessel of inner radius r and wall thickness t, containing a fluid under pressure, Fig. 5.14.

Fig. 5.14

Because the vessel is symmetry, no shearing stress is exerted on element. The stresses on the surface of the cylinder are therefore the principal stresses. The principal stresses on the surface of

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the cylinder is termed . We want to determine the stresses exerted on a small element of wall sides respectively parallel and perpendicular to the axis of the cylinder, Fig. 5.15.

Fig. 5.15

5.5.1.1 Hoop stress To obtain the magnitude of hoop stress, taking force equilibrium in the z-axis, Fig. 5.15, yields

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Solving for

gives (5.18)

5.5.1.2 Longitudinal stress To obtain the longitudinal stress, we cut a section perpendicular to the axis of the cylinder.

Fig. 5.16

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Solving for

yields

## (5.19) Remarks: 1. Notice that

2. The limit of validity of Eq. (5.18) and (5.19) must be such that (5.20) Notice that the r term in (5.19) is in fact a mean value (5.21)

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## Our argument runs like this: (a) If , , which cannot be true.

(b) If , if we take the first-order approximation and this cannot be true also. (c) The only possibility is that that the argument . Note

is insufficient

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since this can also means that This is the fundamental approximation and analysis. idea

. behind

5.5.1.3 Mohrs circle Returning now to our problem at hand, the hoop and longitudinal stresses we found can be plotted on a Mohrs circle as follows: Point A corresponds to hoop stress and point B corresponds to longitudinal stress.

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Fig. 5.17

The maximum in-plane shear stress can be computed as (5.22) The maximum out-of-plane
o

shear

stress

corresponds to a 45 rotation of the plane stress element around a longitudinal axis, giving

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(5.23) 5.5.2 Spherical vessels We now consider a spherical vessel of inner radius r and thickness t, containing a fluid under gage pressure p, Fig. 5.18.

Fig. 5.18 Because of symmetry, there is no shear stress on the surface of the sphere. Therefore the stresses exerted on the sphere must be the principal

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stresses and are of equal magnitude, i.e. (5.24) Consider a half-section of the sphere as shown in Fig. 5.19. We want to find out the stress acting on the thin wall.

## Fig. 5.19 Equilibrium of force in the x-axis

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Therefore, (5.25) Maximum out-of-plane shearing stress (5.26) and this can be shown on a Mohrs circle as follows:

Fig. 5.20

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With this, we conclude our study on stresses, plane stress. Next, we look at strain the concepts associated with it.

5.6 Strain
Strain is a geometrical or kinematical concept that describes the deformation of a body. The term deformation signifies the entire geometric change by which the points in a body in the initial state with all loads absent go to another configuration as a result of the action of loads. The aforementioned initial state we shall call the undeformed state, and the subsequent state occurring in the presence of loads we call the deformed state. The deformation, so defined, will be seen to include the following contributions for each element of a body: 1. Rigid-body translation and rotation 2. A dilatation contribution from changes in geometry associated with the volume change of the element

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3. A distortion contribution from the remaining changes in geometry of the element, which includes e.g. change in angularity between line segments. This contribution is sometimes call deviatoric changes. Before we define strain, it is important to define displacement field vector, u. Let us consider the position vector of a point P in the undeformed state, . After deformation, point P moves to a . The new point P with position vector displacement field is thus defined as (5.27) The displacement field is obviously a function of both and time, t.

## Following this, strain is thus defined as (5.28)

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The concept of strain is seen to be associated with the concept of point. The most general state of strain at a point can be represented by six components,

## 5.7 Plane strain

Under special conditions, three-dimensional strain analysis can be analyzed as a two-dimensional one. This is called plane strain analysis. A structural member is in a state of plane strain when one normal strain and two shear strain components are zeros, i.e. (5.29) In fact, to be strictly plane strain, we also require

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that

Thus, in laymans term, we say plane strain occurs when deformations of the material take place in parallel planes and are the same in each of those planes. For example, a plate subjected along its edges to a uniformly distributed load and restrained from expanding or contracting laterally by smooth, rigid and fixed supports, Fig. 5.21.

## Fig. 5.21 Another example is a long bar subjected to

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uniformly distributed transverse loads. State of plane strain exists in any transverse section not located too close to the ends of the bar.

Fig. 5.22 A thick-walled circular cylinder constrained at both ends is also another example of plane strain. 5.7.1 Transformation of plane strain Similar to the plane stress, it can be demonstrated that plane strain is invariant under transformation of coordinate system, i.e. . This shows that strain, like stress, is a tensor quantity that obeys the tensors transformation

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law. Performing the similar analysis on strain (Cauchys Tetrahedron Lemma), we can obtain

## 5.8 Mohrs circle for plane strain

Equations (5.30), (5.31) and (5.32) are parametric equations of a circle and thus can be represented by Mohrs method. Defining now , (5.33)

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and

(5.34)

Fig. 5.23

## The principal axes can be computed as

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(5.35)

and the maximum and minimum strains can be evaluated using the formula (5.36) The maximum in-plane shearing strain is given by (5.37)

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## 5.9 Strain rosette

The strain gauge is the most common device for measuring strain, Fig. 5.24

Fig. 5.24

A single gauge will yield only a normal strain in the direction of the gauge. Thus in application, we must use a cluster of gauges or strain rosette to give pertinent information about the state of strain at a point, Fig. 5.25.

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Fig. 2.25
o

If the rosette is aligned at 45 with respect to each other, and are obtained directly and obtained indirectly as (5.38) If the rosette is aligned at some angles with respect to each other, normal and shearing strains may be obtained from normal strains in any three directions via the formula (5.39) (5.40) (5.41) is

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o

Example: A strain rosette aligned 45 with respect to each other recorded the following readings, G1=0.002, G2=0.001 and G3=-0.004. What are the principal strains? Solution: We let G1 corresponds to x-axis, G2 to OB, G3 to y-axis From formula

(dont get confused!) Notice that To obtain the principal planes, we have

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Thus