You are on page 1of 51

HES2120

Chapter 5 STRESS AND STRAIN


5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 INTRODUCTION STRESS PLANE STRESS MORHS CIRCLE FOR PLANE STRESS THIN-WALLED PRESSURE VESSELS STRAIN PLANE STRAIN MOHRS CIRCLE FOR PLANE STRAIN STRAIN ROSETTE

HES2120

5.1 Introduction
The notion of stress originates from our desire to quantify internal or external forces distributed, respectively, in a body or along its boundary. Stresses are those forces distributed over an infinitesimal unit area cut out of a body in certain directions or over an infinitesimal unit area on the bounding surface. The study of stress-related problems, in general, is referred to as kinetics. Stresses may be related to strains in solids or rates of deformation in fluids through constitutive hypotheses. These hypotheses relate the variation of stress with respect to the variation of strain, which we sometimes called stress-strain relationship. These relationships are important in the description of mechanical properties of material, such as hardening, hysteresis etc. Strain, on the other hand, is a geometrical concept and is associated with the geometrical

HES2120

change of a point in the material. The mechanics of deformations and strains is referred to as kinematics.

5.2 Stress
Stress is defined mathematically as . (5.1) Thus, the concept of stress is related to the concept of point in the space. The most general state of stress at a point may be represented by six components,

as shown in the figure below:

HES2120

Fig. 5.1

5.3 Plane stress Plane stress is a state of stress in which two faces of the cubic element are free of stress as shown in Fig. 5.2.

Fig. 5.2

HES2120

Thus a structural member is defined as in the state of plane stress when (5.2) State of plane stress can occurs 1. In thin plate subjected to forces acting in the midplane of the plate. 2. On the free-surface of a structural element or machine component, i.e. at any point of the surface not subjected to an external force, as in the cantilever beam shown in Fig. 5.3

Fig. 5.3

HES2120

5.3.1 Transformation of plane stress Consider the conditions for equilibrium of a prismatic element with faces perpendicular to the x, y, x and y axes, as shown in Fig. 5.4

Fig. 5.4

Equilibrium of force in the x axis yields

(5.3)

HES2120

Equilibrium of force in the y-axis yields

(5.4) Solving (5.3) for have and (5.4) for , we

(5.5)

(5.6) Recalling now ,

HES2120

and

, we can rewrite (5.5) as . Similarly, we can rewrite (5.6) as (5.7)

x' y' =

x y
2

sin 2 + xy cos 2

(5.8) in (5.7) with and

To obtain Since

, we replace

that the y-axis forms with the x-axis. we have

HES2120

(5.9) Adding (5.7), (5.8) and (5.9) together, (5.10) Since , Eq. (5.10) tells us that the sum of the normal stresses exerted on a cubic element of material is invariant with respect to the orientation of that material. 5.3.2 Principal stresses Eqs. (5.7) and (5.8) are in fact parametric equations of a circle. By eliminating from Eq. (5.7) and (5.8), we arrive at .

HES2120

Setting

, (5.11) we now have (5.12) This is shown in Fig. 5.5.

Fig. 5.5

This shows us that the Principal stresses occur on the principal planes of stress with zero

HES2120

shearing stresses. The min. and max. stresses are given respectively as

(5.13) and the principal plane inclined at an angle

(5.14) Notice that


o

defines two angles separated by

90 . This is shown in Fig. 5.6.

HES2120

Fig. 5.6

From (5.12), if maximum, i.e.

, shearing stress is

(5.15) and this occurs at

HES2120

(5.16)
o

Note that

defines two angles separated by 90


o

and offset from 5.7.

by 45 . This is shown in Fig.

Fig. 5.7

The corresponding normal stress is given by (5.17)

HES2120

Example: For the state of plane stress shown, determine (a) the principal planes, (b) the principal stresses and (c) the maximum shearing stress and the corresponding normal stress.

Soln:

(a) Using Eq. (5.14), (b) Using Eq. (5.13),

HES2120

(c) Using Eq. (5.15), (d) Using (5.16), .

The corresponding normal stress is computed using (5.17), which is

HES2120

Example: A single horizontal force P of 150lb is applied to D of lever ABD. Determine (a) the normal and shearing stresses on an element at point H having sides parallel to the x and y axes, (b) the principal planes and principal stresses at H.

HES2120

Solution

Evaluate the normal and shearing stresses at H.

HES2120

HES2120

5.4 Mohrs circle for plane stress


With the physical significance of Mohrs circle for plane stress established, it may be applied with simple geometric considerations. Critical values can be estimated graphically. For a known state of plane stress , plot the points X and Y and construct the circle centered at C, as shown in Fig. 5.8

Fig. 5.8

HES2120

The principal stresses are obtained at A and B. The direction of rotation of Ox to Oa is the same as CX to CA.

Fig. 5.9

With Mohrs circle uniquely defined, the state of stress at other orientations may be depicted. For w.r.t the xy axes, the state of stress at an angle construct a new diameter XY and an angle w.r.t. XY.

HES2120

Fig. 5.10

Fig. 5.11

Normal and shear stresses are obtained from the coordinates XY.

HES2120

For centric axial loading on thin plate:

Fig. 5.12

For torsional loading:

Fig. 5.13

HES2120

Example: For the state of stress shown, (a) construct Mohrs circle and determine (b) the principal planes, (c) the principal stresses and (d) the maximum shearing stress and the corresponding normal stress.

Soln: (a)

HES2120

The Mohrs circle is thus plotted as shown:

(b) The principal planes are

HES2120

(C) The principal stresses are, from Mohrs circle

(d) The maximum shearing stress, from Mohrs cicle, is . This occurs at

The corresponding normal stress, from Mohrs . circle, is

HES2120

Example: For the state of stress shown, determine (a) the principal planes and the principal stresses, (b) the stress components exerted on the element obtained by rotating the
o

given element counterclockwise through 30 .

Soln:

HES2120

(On x-axis, the normal stress is +ve and shear clockwise. On y-axis, the normal stress is +ve and shear anticlockwise. Thus XY).

(a) Principal planes and stresses

HES2120

(b) Stress components at 30 counterclockwise

HES2120

From Mohrs circle

HES2120

5.5 Thin-walled pressure vessels


5.5.1 Cylindrical vessels The plane stress analysis we studied previously can be applied to the stress analysis of thin-walled pressure vessels problems. Why? Consider a cylindrical vessel of inner radius r and wall thickness t, containing a fluid under pressure, Fig. 5.14.

Fig. 5.14

Because the vessel is symmetry, no shearing stress is exerted on element. The stresses on the surface of the cylinder are therefore the principal stresses. The principal stresses on the surface of

HES2120

the cylinder is termed . We want to determine the stresses exerted on a small element of wall sides respectively parallel and perpendicular to the axis of the cylinder, Fig. 5.15.

Fig. 5.15

5.5.1.1 Hoop stress To obtain the magnitude of hoop stress, taking force equilibrium in the z-axis, Fig. 5.15, yields

HES2120

Solving for

gives (5.18)

5.5.1.2 Longitudinal stress To obtain the longitudinal stress, we cut a section perpendicular to the axis of the cylinder.

Fig. 5.16

HES2120

Equilibrium of force in x-axis gives

Solving for

yields

(5.19) Remarks: 1. Notice that

2. The limit of validity of Eq. (5.18) and (5.19) must be such that (5.20) Notice that the r term in (5.19) is in fact a mean value (5.21)

HES2120

Using (5.21), we see that

. We can expand the RHS using Binomial theorem and get

Our argument runs like this: (a) If , , which cannot be true.

(b) If , if we take the first-order approximation and this cannot be true also. (c) The only possibility is that that the argument . Note

is insufficient

HES2120

since this can also means that This is the fundamental approximation and analysis. idea

. behind

5.5.1.3 Mohrs circle Returning now to our problem at hand, the hoop and longitudinal stresses we found can be plotted on a Mohrs circle as follows: Point A corresponds to hoop stress and point B corresponds to longitudinal stress.

HES2120

Fig. 5.17

The maximum in-plane shear stress can be computed as (5.22) The maximum out-of-plane
o

shear

stress

corresponds to a 45 rotation of the plane stress element around a longitudinal axis, giving

HES2120

(5.23) 5.5.2 Spherical vessels We now consider a spherical vessel of inner radius r and thickness t, containing a fluid under gage pressure p, Fig. 5.18.

Fig. 5.18 Because of symmetry, there is no shear stress on the surface of the sphere. Therefore the stresses exerted on the sphere must be the principal

HES2120

stresses and are of equal magnitude, i.e. (5.24) Consider a half-section of the sphere as shown in Fig. 5.19. We want to find out the stress acting on the thin wall.

Fig. 5.19 Equilibrium of force in the x-axis

HES2120

Therefore, (5.25) Maximum out-of-plane shearing stress (5.26) and this can be shown on a Mohrs circle as follows:

Fig. 5.20

HES2120

With this, we conclude our study on stresses, plane stress. Next, we look at strain the concepts associated with it.

5.6 Strain
Strain is a geometrical or kinematical concept that describes the deformation of a body. The term deformation signifies the entire geometric change by which the points in a body in the initial state with all loads absent go to another configuration as a result of the action of loads. The aforementioned initial state we shall call the undeformed state, and the subsequent state occurring in the presence of loads we call the deformed state. The deformation, so defined, will be seen to include the following contributions for each element of a body: 1. Rigid-body translation and rotation 2. A dilatation contribution from changes in geometry associated with the volume change of the element

HES2120

3. A distortion contribution from the remaining changes in geometry of the element, which includes e.g. change in angularity between line segments. This contribution is sometimes call deviatoric changes. Before we define strain, it is important to define displacement field vector, u. Let us consider the position vector of a point P in the undeformed state, . After deformation, point P moves to a . The new point P with position vector displacement field is thus defined as (5.27) The displacement field is obviously a function of both and time, t.

Following this, strain is thus defined as (5.28)

HES2120

The concept of strain is seen to be associated with the concept of point. The most general state of strain at a point can be represented by six components,

5.7 Plane strain


Under special conditions, three-dimensional strain analysis can be analyzed as a two-dimensional one. This is called plane strain analysis. A structural member is in a state of plane strain when one normal strain and two shear strain components are zeros, i.e. (5.29) In fact, to be strictly plane strain, we also require

HES2120

that

Thus, in laymans term, we say plane strain occurs when deformations of the material take place in parallel planes and are the same in each of those planes. For example, a plate subjected along its edges to a uniformly distributed load and restrained from expanding or contracting laterally by smooth, rigid and fixed supports, Fig. 5.21.

Fig. 5.21 Another example is a long bar subjected to

HES2120

uniformly distributed transverse loads. State of plane strain exists in any transverse section not located too close to the ends of the bar.

Fig. 5.22 A thick-walled circular cylinder constrained at both ends is also another example of plane strain. 5.7.1 Transformation of plane strain Similar to the plane stress, it can be demonstrated that plane strain is invariant under transformation of coordinate system, i.e. . This shows that strain, like stress, is a tensor quantity that obeys the tensors transformation

HES2120

law. Performing the similar analysis on strain (Cauchys Tetrahedron Lemma), we can obtain

(5.30) (5.31) (5.32)

5.8 Mohrs circle for plane strain


Equations (5.30), (5.31) and (5.32) are parametric equations of a circle and thus can be represented by Mohrs method. Defining now , (5.33)

HES2120

and

(5.34)

we can plot the strain circle as shown in Fig. 5.23.

Fig. 5.23

The principal axes can be computed as

HES2120

(5.35)

and the maximum and minimum strains can be evaluated using the formula (5.36) The maximum in-plane shearing strain is given by (5.37)

HES2120

5.9 Strain rosette


The strain gauge is the most common device for measuring strain, Fig. 5.24

Fig. 5.24

A single gauge will yield only a normal strain in the direction of the gauge. Thus in application, we must use a cluster of gauges or strain rosette to give pertinent information about the state of strain at a point, Fig. 5.25.

HES2120

Fig. 2.25
o

If the rosette is aligned at 45 with respect to each other, and are obtained directly and obtained indirectly as (5.38) If the rosette is aligned at some angles with respect to each other, normal and shearing strains may be obtained from normal strains in any three directions via the formula (5.39) (5.40) (5.41) is

HES2120
o

Example: A strain rosette aligned 45 with respect to each other recorded the following readings, G1=0.002, G2=0.001 and G3=-0.004. What are the principal strains? Solution: We let G1 corresponds to x-axis, G2 to OB, G3 to y-axis From formula

(dont get confused!) Notice that To obtain the principal planes, we have

HES2120

To obtain the principal strains, we have

Thus