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The effective management of an enterprise is critical for the successful operation of any business. Information technology has facilitated the management of establishments through different applications, softwares and packages. This paper focuses on technology that has been in the forefront of the hospitality industry for the past twenty years as well as new technology that has recently been developed and utilized in hospitality operations. It presents details of the role of information technology in the various aspects of the hospitality industry by firstly identifying the uses of property management systems at the front and back offices of hospitality establishments, secondly describing advances in food service such as point of sales systems (POS), sophisticated integrated food service software and catering application packages and finally by differentiating between Random Access Memory (RAM) and Read Only Memory (ROM). The findings indicated that information technology does play a critical role in the smooth running of all areas of hospitality operations.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ABSTRACT................................................................................................................. 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS................................................................................................. 2 ABBREVIATIONS......................................................................................................... 3 LIST OF TABLES.......................................................................................................... 4 LIST OF FIGURES........................................................................................................ 5 1.0: INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................. 6 1.1: FRONT OFFICE PROPERTY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS ...........................................7
1.2: BACK OFFICE PROPERTY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS ...........................................14
1.1.1: THE GUEST CYCLE.......................................................................................................7 1.1.2: ROOM MANAGEMENT MODULE.............................................................................11 1.1.3: HOUSEKEEPING SOFTWARE....................................................................................13 1.1.4: CONCIERGE SOFTWARE............................................................................................13 1.1.5: PRIVATE BRANCH EXCHANGE (PBX) SOFTWARE..............................................13 1.1.6: WEBSITE RESERVATIONS SOFTWARE..................................................................14 1.1.7: GENERAL MANAGEMENT MODULES.....................................................................14 1.2.1: ACCOUNTING SOFTWARE........................................................................................14 1.2.2: TRAVEL AGENT’S COMMISSION SOFTWARE......................................................18 1.2.3: SALES AND MARKETING SOFTWARE....................................................................18
1.3: ADVANCES IN FOOD SERVICE AUTOMATION....................................................19
1.3.1: SOPHISTICATED INPUT DEVICES............................................................................19 1.3.2: ELECTRONIC POINT OF SALES SYSTEMS (EPOS)................................................21 1.3.3: MICROCOMPUTER INTERFACES.............................................................................24 1.3.4: INTEGRATED FOOD SERVICE SOFTWARE............................................................25 1.3.5: FORECASTING APPLICATION SOFTWARE............................................................27 1.3.6: CATERING SOFTWARE PACKAGES........................................................................34 1.3.7: FOODSERVICE AUTOMATION..................................................................................36
1.4: RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY (RAM) AND READ ONLY MEMORY (ROM)................38 2.0: CONCLUSION..................................................................................................... 43 3.0: REFERENCES .................................................................................................... 44 4.0: APPENDIX ......................................................................................................... 45
DIMM-DUAL IN-LINE MEMORY MODULE GPS-GENERAL PRINTER SERVER IT-INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY PBX-PRIVATE BRANCH EXCHANGE PDA-PERSONAL DIGITAL ASSISTANTS PMS-PROPERTY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM POS-POINT OF SALES PROM-ACRONYM FOR PROGRAMMABLE READ ONLY MEMORY RBF- RULE-BASED FORECASTING SIMM-SINGLE IN-LINE MEMORY MODULE SSD-SOLID STATE DRIVES
LIST OF TABLES
Table One pp 24
LIST OF FIGURES Figure One pp 28 5 .
Information Technology is used to produce reports quickly and accurately which can then be used as the basis for management decision making. applications and packages and goes on to further differentiate between Random Access Memory (RAM) and Read Only Memory (ROM).0: INTRODUCTION Information Technology plays a critical role in the management of hospitality operations. 6 . It has been used in the creation of software.1. applications and packages that facilitate the flow of information and the smooth operation of duties. This paper reviews these software. Reliable up-to-date management and operational information is the key to developing competitive advantage in the modern hospitality establishment (Flynn et al. 2000).
online reservations. Guest room management 1. rooms management. but the four common ones are the reservations. a front office property management system is a computerized system that is used to manage guest bookings. Concierge information management n. Reservations o. equipment. PBX and housekeeping modules. such as an in-house reservations. Management reporting h. The are many front office modules like the concierge. At some stage the room booking is confirmed and the change is reflected in the computer or if manual then it is reflected in the reservations book and in the guest records 7 . room availability is checked. Guest services d. Guest accounting c. the room’s management. The functions performed by these modules are: a. personal property. 1991).1: FRONT OFFICE PROPERTY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Property management systems are systems that facilitate the management of properties. Night audit i. legalities and personnel all through a single piece of software. Handling the entire guest cycle b. Travel agency accounting m. the guest accounting and the general management front office modules. Housekeeping f.1. 1. Guest settlement e. a price is agreed and the room is provisionally booked. Registration k. Reservations j.Q 5. Room management g. They are packages of hardware and software specifically designed to perform the tasks required by the hotel .1: THE GUEST CYCLE In hotels a guest cycle involves the following activities: A potential guest makes an enquiry which is answered by reservations. Identify and describe the functions performed by front office PMS modules. telephone and other amenities (Vallen. Telephone services l. and general management modules. guest accounting.In the hospitality industry.
(Connor and Piccoli. In addition. 2003). and forecasting reports. deposit handling. At freestanding locations within the lobby. confirmed and communicated to the destination property before the reservationist finishes talking with the caller on the telephone. In addition the reservation’s data which is received can be reformatted into pre-registration materials and an updated expected arrivals list can be generated. Registration When the guest check-in is computerized. Reservations received at the central reservations site can be processed. and room details are entered and stored in the computer system. Electronic mail sent from home and reservations confirmed through the TV set are also being visualized making and updating individual. The guest eventually arrives. When the destination property uses a property management system. cancellations. Self check-in terminals are normally interfaced with the property management systems. files and revenue forecasts are immediately updated. This begins the property management cycle. Reservations A reservations module enables a hotel to rapidly process room requests and generate timely and accurate rooms. Computer reports generated by the property management system for the reservation department include: • Arrivals report • Cancellation and change report • Central reservations report • Convention (Groups) delegates reports • Daily analysis reports b. group. at special computer centers or via a personal computer. room blocking and sharing (Brotherton and Wood. details of the guest such as address. self check-in terminals present guests with their reservation and room assignment details and accept their credit cards. the guest can alternatively access the computer at reservation sites in airline terminals. names. A guest history database is then created. These functions include: a. 2008). the reservations module received data directly from the central reservation’s system and in-house reservation’s records. confirmations. is assigned a room and departs at some point. revenue. Property management systems play critical functions in the various stages of the guest’s cycle. business block reservations. • Deposit reports • Forecast reports • Occupancy reports • Overbooking reports • Regrets report 8 .
The property management system might be a smart personal computer. Charges that are incurred at the departmental levels get posted to the folios in one way or another. Posting call records to guest folios can then be done automatically to front office software (Connor and Piccoli. master folios. At the desk the charge will be input by the front office cashier or posting clerk. Once the charge is in the computer (folio) memory the process is the same as if it had been online to start with. surcharges. it acts as an input device in this instant. The guest accounting modules functions are: • • • Billing and online charge posting Automatic file updating and maintenance Folio display/printing Billing and online charging Guest accounting normally generates folios that are used to keep transient account receivable controls. Guest stay A property management software module can offer a complete set of features for managing guest’s stay right from handling the guest messages and calls. events at the locality to handling wakeup calls. If the folio is not online with the point of sale or if the hotel has no point of sale terminal. A guest accounting module increases the hotel’s control over guest accounts and significantly modifies the night audit routine. semi permanent folio and permanent folios. If the hotel has a point of sale terminal and if the point of sale is online the charge is posted directly from the department to the electronic folio (Brotherton and Wood. for guest tracking and accurate billing of telephone usage. employee folios. control folios. a signed voucher must be dispatched from the departmental cashier to the desk. The electronic folio is in a computer memory. Types of folios include individual folios. d. state and local taxes by type and duration of call.c. non-guest folios. means that the point of sale interacts directly with the central processing unit of the property management system. Call charges may include customized mark-ups. 9 . informing the guest of offers at the hotel. 2008). The Call accounting software can also be used to record telephone calls charges that are included in the guest’s account. 2003). Guest accounting It is a guarantee that a guest account will have to be created for a guest. Being on-line.
late charge report. smart switches and magnetic-cards once used at the hotel will cover the entire guest cycle. posting report and room revenue posting report. They could either do it themselves in their rooms or at the hotel’s lobby or opt to do it at the reception. credit card report. guest check control report and transfer report Night auditing Night auditing entails electronic data processing that is used to post room rates. Express check-out has leaped ahead with the interface of the Spectra dyne’s TV pay movie system into the hotels property management system. revenue centre report. At freestanding locations within the lobby. skipper report and write-off report. There the information remains awaiting the guest’s arrival. (Vallen. Guest check-out Guests have several options in checking out. This completes the property management cycle which was started when the guest registered at the same terminal. allowance report. taxes. The folio display appears on the television set any time the guests want it. balance the folios and totaling the charges. Self check-in check-out terminals have been interfaced with the property management systems.Additional reports prepared during the night audit include the city ledgers transfers. cashiers overage report. guest ledger summary. departmental sales journal. self check-out terminals present guests with their folios and accept their credit cards. that data can be considered by the property management system in the making of current and future room assignments THE USE OF SMART CARDS AND SMART SWITCHES IN THE GUEST CYCLE Smart cards. shortage report. The system would then automatically transfer the charges which have been accumulated in the front-office folio to the city ledger module (Khosrowpour. With a click of the remote control the guest can check-out. the convention use report. beginning with reservations. 1991) . (2004). daily revenue report. The 10 . Frequent guest programs are normally linked with specific credit cards so that card readers on the telephones will automatically dial the central reservation office of the participating chain. e.Guest accounting module reports that can be generated from the system include the ledger summary report. f. These reports include the room rate variance report. From these night audit reports can be created. Guest history If guest’s histories are interfaced.
This module alerts front desk employees of each room’s status . There are also smart rooms that hold property management system interfaces which become terminals through which the guests and the property management systems interact. The Room’s management software handles all facets of room supervision including availability. and maintenance and facility management. day and seasons are defined. (2004). the property management system will transfer the reservation data into the front office module. checks credit worthiness. setting and automatically controlling rates. Tiers may be set for each room type where the date. The property management system then reconfirms the reservation. That would include credit cards guarantees or advance deposit accounting. revenue forecasting. Contacting the Central reservation office computer through the telephone and contacting the property management system computer through the check-in/check-out terminal in the same way. The credit card swipe is interfaced with the credit card authorization network . The card swipe or magnetic card reader queries the reservation database. In a computerized system the front desk employee simply enters the room’s number at a key board and the current status of the room appears immediately on a display screen. 1. assists in the assignment of rooms during registration and helps co-ordinate many guest’s services. Credit authorization is an automatic by product of the arrival procedure. He passes the card (the same card that was used to make the reservation) through the reader.As a function of the registration assignment procedure. housekeeping changes the room’s status through a terminal in the housekeeping’s work area and the information is immediately communicated to the front desk (Vallen.arriving guest uses the self-registration terminal in the lobby. the telephone and the personal computer. It would also indicate the current hotel status by displaying the number of check-ins. check-outs and rooms available. These include the TV set.This status will remain unchanged until housekeeping notifies the front desk that the room is clean and ready for occupancy. It links front office with housekeeping and the software normally shows the applicable management defined rate per day (Khosrowpour. A sophisticated system may 11 . housekeeping. analyses.2: ROOM MANAGEMENT MODULE A room’s management module maintains up-to-date information regarding the status of the room. Once the room becomes clean and ready for occupancy. assigns the rooms and completes the registration. This software would provide a set of features for rate quotation. 1991).1.
• Organizing house keeping activities. Housekeeping uses the system to establish work priorities and improve productivity. status of rooms whilst managing customer reservations and billing processes. 2003). category. room features and rates. • Providing in house guest information. Functions performed by the Room management software include: • Identifying room status. Room status is available floor by floor permitting a more efficient assignment of housekeeping personnel. • Generating reports. Reports generated by the Room’s management module include: • • Room allotment report Expected arrival /departure report 12 • • Registration progress report Rooms activities forecasts . • Updating room status. They contain all information on units of a hotel such as information on the numbers. It would close down or stop the early allocation of a room to a heavily discounted customer on the basis that last minute business which expects to be charged a high rate will arrive at the front desk. baths.also regulate room sales. • Computer programs can also include provisions for repair and maintenance orders. • Maintaining a computerized rack. The computer keeps track of the room attendant who dials in and out by telephone (Connor and Piccoli. • Assisting in assigning rooms. • Providing auxiliary service. Room attendants can furnish data right from the workplace and communicates with the central processing unit through the smart-switch phone thus changing the room status in an instant. The computerized rack is a bank of basic unchangeable information on beds-sizes. price. Property management systems like Micros Fidelio and Opera are in-house applications that support the central electronic structure of the hotel. Hard copy lists of the rooms and their status are normally furnished to the employee at the start of the shift. Daily job assignments are computer programmed. Electronic room status management change the time that it takes to do a job changes the equipment being used and changes the format of the data.
arrival lists. arrival.1. These give guests convenient. in-room pets and other matters. departure lists. room number. Its features would include generating morning reports for cleaning schedules (by floor. real-time access to news. There are property management systems that can deal with a range of services like sports scheduling. The concierge staff design and input data that lists and details attractions in an area such as restaurants. the check-in screen and the reservations screen. shops and churches. guest’s safes. weather. section or credits). departure dates. limousine scheduling. early departure list. address.3: HOUSEKEEPING SOFTWARE Housekeeping software handles all the basic functions that are needed to run a hotel house keeping department. 13 . generating room assignments. special request.1. guest lists. additional names.4: CONCIERGE SOFTWARE This software allows one to access the hotel information system from the concierge menu.• • Actual departure report Housekeeping assignment report • • • • Housekeepers productivity report Rooms productivity report Rooms history report Pick-up report • • • • • • Rate analysis report Room status report Very Important Persons reports House used report Out-of-order report Flag report 1.5: PRIVATE BRANCH EXCHANGE (PBX) SOFTWARE This software gives the telephone operators access to the reservation or guest information by guest name. additional shares in the room and vehicle information. 1. travel information and features interactive maps that help guests find their way to local points of interest (Vallen. It also tracks and reports guests’ special requests and alerts the staff about late sleepers. room status summary. group affiliation. Reports that this software can generate include the cleaning schedules. room movie systems and room honors bars. walk-in list and vehicle list. room sell status. extended stay list. generating room status inquiries and recording room status changes as rooms are cleaned.1. 1991). tours. 1. It also provides the ability to enter telephone charges such as local and long distance calls for guests. extra towel requirements.
Reports that can be generated by this module include the revenue analysis. reservations entries.2: BACK OFFICE PROPERTY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Property management systems that are commonly used at the back office include the back office corporate accounting software. Identify and explain the function of files maintained by the modules of a PMS back office package including accounts receivable. the travel agents commission software and the sales and the marketing software. accounts receivable.1.6: WEBSITE RESERVATIONS SOFTWARE This software provides a real time connection between the hotel’s website and the establishment’s property management system. The modules contained in these modules deal with particular areas of accounting. 1. confirmation.7: GENERAL MANAGEMENT MODULES The general management module cannot operate independently of the other front office modules.1. The software provides pages that perform availability checks. accounts payable.2. These modules include: • Accounts receivable module. reservation revision and cancellation functions. 1. Q 6. operating statistics and financial analysis.1: ACCOUNTING SOFTWARE An accounting software is an application software that records and processes accounting transactions within functional modules such as accounts payable. 14 . The general management module generates reports and is a central feature for linking front and back office applications of the property management system.1. payroll and financial reporting. 1. General management applications tend to be report-generating packages and therefore depend on data collected through the other modules. payroll and trial balance.
The accounts payable module is the module where the company enters its bills and pays money it owes.The accounts receivable module is the module where the company enters money received. Accounts receivable balances can be automatically transferred from the front office modules directly into the accounts receivable module. purging of paid invoices. account collection begins. entering and editing of account receivables accounts and the automatic distribution to general ledger. addresses. It is an amount representing charged purchases of a guest who has deferred payment for the products and services rendered by the hotel. Three major files maintained by an accounts payable module are vendor master file. contract payables. posting and printing checks. In summary. It monitors outstanding balances of guest accounts. The vendor master file contains an index of vendor names. Typical reports generated by this system include accounts receivables accounts. statement printing. creditor positions and the hotel’s banking status. posting. reconciliation of accounts payable checks with the bank accounts. editing. vendor code numbers. • Accounts payable module. accounts receivable daily register. vendor details look up and the creation of accounts payable history files that basically track all the invoices processed and paid. invoicing. An invoice register file is a complete list of outstanding invoices cataloged by vendor. recording of cash miscellaneous transaction entries. direct bill approval for reservations and folios. cash requirements. It tracks purchases. period-todate transaction register. invoice date. 15 . account receivable statements. In summary. aging reports. The file becomes important when management want to take advantage of vendor discount rates. accounts receivable invoices. standard discount terms (time and percentages) and space for additional information. check writing. The check register file calculates and prints bank checks for payment to vendors. period-to-date document code register and accounts receivable activity report. entering and editing invoices and payments. invoice register file and check register file. invoice number and invoice due date. telephone numbers. the services provided by the accounts receivable system include handling payment posting routines. the services that would be provided by the accounts payable system include automatic payment selection. Once entered into the property management back office system.
The financial reporting module is capable of tracking accounts receivable. In addition. detailed general ledger. generation of recurrent general ledger batches. wages and related taxes. pay rates. cash and adjusting entries. most back office applications are capable of producing flash reports that normally involve occupancy statistics (such as number of rooms sold. pay raises and their history. Tax. The system would enable automatic tax calculation. Budgets can be compared quickly to actual expenditure to identify the business profits or loss and labour costs can be related to sales to show which areas generate the highest profits. check writing. consolidated profit and loss reports and consolidated balance sheet. open payables. • Payroll accounting module.) and general ledger highlights . 16 . comparable balance sheet. general ledger detail transactions. general ledger profit and loss statement.unique employee benefits. general ledger spread profit and loss statements. deductions and required payroll reports. searching of general ledger accounts and maintenance and printing of recurring general ledger entries(Connor and Piccoli. historical aging. Such a system would also retain several years detail information. The software packages can be used in the administration of wages and salaries. creation and display of quarterly reports and fully integrated time and attendance modules. batch transactions. tax and the accounts payable check register. tip reporting. year to date general ledger. This module should also maintain the general and the statistical ledger. social security and statistical updates can be automated and payroll software can analyze profitability and enhance profits. The ledger contains the company's "books”. automatic setting of the general ledger date. withholdings. entering and posting of general ledger transactions. The system can also track pay grades. the general ledger. average room rate etc. It is an important part of the property management system back office package because of the complexities involved in properly processing time and attendance records . accounts detail look up.Reports that can be generated by this system include the trial balance. An accounting software system would offer financial statements with statistical analysis. • Financial reporting module This module involves the specification of a chart of accounts (a list of financial statement accounts and their account numbers) and a systematic approach to recording transactions. accounts payable. This module is where the company tracks salary.It would also print reports such as reports on the accounts payable. 2003). invoice distributions.
This module is where the company tracks attempts to collect overdue bills (sometimes part of accounts receivable). • Purchase order. 17 . • Expense. aging reports. account receivable statements. • Supplier management. Multiple selling sets of prices can be created with each set being defined by a name and a currency. • Electronic payment processing. In hotels. approved and tracked. This module is where the company produces invoices to clients or customers. This module is where the company looks up information on screen without any edits or additions. Multiple purchasing sets of prices can be created where each purchasing set price is defined by a name and a currency. This module is where employee business-related expenses are entered. This module is where the company keeps control of its inventory. • Sales order. This module is where the company orders inventory. period-to-date transaction registers and period-todate document code register. This module is where the company records customer orders for the supply of inventory.• Billing. • Debt collection. such a system would post direct bill accounts from the front desk automatically during the night audit process and print out reports such as the accounts receivables accounts. • Inquiries. invoices. The basic technology that is currently used in many operations is the computer technology both in terms of hardware and software that allows the implementation of a basic property management system that includes these modules. • Purchase Requisition. This is the module where electronic payments transactions are recorded. • Stock or inventory. daily registers. This module is where requests for purchase orders are made.
Reports of various types are normally available in the system. • Reports. These reports include analytical reports. cash flow reports. From it one can generate a travel agent transaction history that is basically a summary of all the commissions that have been processed and paid to a travel agent or tour operator. sales histories. time. selling price. calculate. It would also offer comprehensive inquiries. transaction lists by date and cashier. managerial reports such as the balance sheet.2. terminal number. the posting of travel agents commission to the back office general ledger system as well as the posting of the daily report. In this the system would apply service charges. repeat guest history details. trial balance. statutory reports. It also holds a travel agent data import that provides lists of travel agents and tour operators to people with enquiries. 1.2. • Auditing. folio details list. 18 . profit histories. trial balance and in-house tax exempt. room and tax posting and night auditing reporting that displays credit cards by type. This is the module where records of all cash transactions. merges for marketing mail-outs.Services provided by this module include supplier’s analysis and supplier’s payments monitoring. This includes night auditing that entails room rates analysis. process. departmental analysis and budgets. cash flows. It also facilitates the printing of statements. • Events management.3: SALES AND MARKETING SOFTWARE The sales and marketing software would provide sales information such as dates. gratuity charges and automatic delivery charges to events. track. 1.2: TRAVEL AGENT’S COMMISSION SOFTWARE The travel agent’s commission software enables one to create a travel agents database. adjust and pay travel agents commissions. This module is where the company prints out data. receipts and payments are kept. profit and loss account. • Cash flow receipts and payments. discount and detailed sales reports.
d. (2004). • Magnetic strip readers Magnetic strip readers that can read credit cards are input devices when credit cards are swiped over. sales and operational reports. To track frequent flyers and repeat hotel guests. departure lists. arrival lists. room. g. To offer yield management capability. To direct marketing and personalized services for repeat hotel guests (Pizan.1: SOPHISTICATED INPUT DEVICES Input devices used in the foodservice area include: • Finger print biometric systems Finger print biometric systems are also input devices that allow for the tracking of employees hand washing and sanitization. To improve capacity management and operation efficiency. b. c. tour operators and wholesale accounts). special rates and group block booking of group plans.repeat guest history files. e. POS system and microcomputer interfaces. blocking reports. To facilitate market research and planning. To provide better database access for management purposes. market or group). 1. forecasting application software and catering software packages. integrated food service software. f. (Khosrowpour. group profiles. market forecasts. To support extensive marketing.3: ADVANCES IN FOOD SERVICE AUTOMATION 1. special billing. Sales and marketing reports generated by this software include the repeat history details. corporate accounts. 1993). regrets lists. Describe advances in food service automation such as sophisticated input devices. market group sales analysis. other data extraction and group management details (that is managing transaction routing.3. room type forecasts and guest lists (by name. 9. group lists. The most important functions of a hotel property management system in marketing are: a. • Touch-screen electronic cash registers 19 .
They become input devices when they are used to place orders at the kitchens.Touch screen electronic cash registers and point of sale devices become input devices when they are used to key in purchase details. • Touch-screen devices Touch screens become input devices when they are used to make table reservations via the table seating software and when used at food and beverage vending machines when keying in orders. • Keyboards are common input devices when they are connected to a computer and are used to key in details like purchase orders. self service food and beverage terminals accept guest’s credit cards for purchases of items through the card swipes that act as input devices. when purchase details are keyed into a computerized electronic point of sales system and when guests use keyboards to select tables when a computerized system is used (Connor and Piccoli. • Card swipes that are used in vending machines and other automated machines. The food and beverage orders are entered and routed automatically from the point of sale to the point of production. • Digital timers on food production equipment Digital timers on food production equipments like the oven and microwave become input devices when the time that a food or beverage item is keyed in and set for the equipment. 2003). • Vending machines keyboards These become input devices when they food and beverages orders are keyed in at the keyboards stationed at the vending machines or information kiosks. • Personal digital assistants Personal digital assistants become input devices when they are used to write food and beverage orders that are then transmitted to the bar and kitchen computers. • Remote order pads Remote order pads are a form of point of sales systems that handle transactions at the point of sale. • Touch-screen point of sale devices Touch screen point of sale devices become input devices when they are used to key in purchase details. At freestanding locations within the lobby. • Point of sale 20 .
The property management system might be a smart personal computer. Being on-line. registers are computers sometimes with touch screens and wireless handheld point of sales that are used to collect orders which are sent to a server that sends the required information to the kitchen in real time (Khosrowpour. Points of sale systems include stand alone electronic cash registers. In this instant the point of sale acts as an input device. run reports and capture electronic signatures. video display unit.The point of sale may act as an input device when the point of sale is online and charges are posted directly from the department to the electronic folio. . counter based or handheld mainly touch screen with useful prompts for staff to avoid omissions or mistakes. servers are able to visualize how many items they have sold and what tips they are making out of it thus motivating them to sell more items Typical point of sale systems are able to print guest checks.3. In an electronic system. network or electronic cash register–based-point of sale systems and controller based point of sale systems . kitchen monitors. memory and printer. process credit cards and other payment cards. 1. electronic cash register printers and the point of sale printers. The touch screen is automatically updated. These systems keep track of sales. (2004). labor. The same system allows the creation and printing of the voucher.2: ELECTRONIC POINT OF SALES SYSTEMS (EPOS) The electronic point of sales system is a system that provides businesses with the capability to retain and analyze a wide variety of inventory and transaction data on a continuous basis. Through this. They could either be computer based.In its simplest form. A point of sales terminal manages the selling process by a salesperson accessible interface. computers and peripheral equipment usually on a computer network. In its advanced form. 21 . the system would be made up of the computer or electronic cash register. means that the point of sale interacts directly with the central processing unit of the property management system. There are several types of electronic point of sales available. print orders to kitchen and bars for preparation. Hospitality point of sales systems are computerized systems that incorporate registers. input devices that would range from the keyboard to the magnetic strip readers and output devices that would include the customer display units. it is a cash register with a processor. payroll and they can generate records used in accounting and bookkeeping.
Restaurant mobile ordering systems are a form of rapid order point of sales that utilize mobile technology personal digital assistants in order for table staff to take orders for meals in restaurants and communicate with kitchen and bar staff. These include the electronic funds transfer at point of sale (EFTPOS). • By radio control. • Remove the problem of clerical errors such as lost vouchers or overlooked expiry dates. The personal digital assistants connect to the restaurant wireless network that is connected to a printer located in the kitchen and a till system located at the bar. Traditionally waiters would take orders from guests and write them on paper note pads that were produced in duplicates with carbon paper. Personal digital assistants are also a form of rapid order point of sales. no bigger than a calculator which is capable of communicating with the computer by one of these three methods. • Produce the voucher or value added tax receipt. • By infrared technology. ready for transmission to the main computer. The personal digital assistants have an interface similar to the menus used by customers with cascading screens allowing table staff to select the items for consumption. • By plugging into a nearby order point.(Braham. the rapid order system point of sale (ROSPOD) and the point of sale inventory software. 1993) The rapid order system point of sale (ROSPOD) is a hand held system. • Provide instant totals at the end of the shift and day. The system enables service staff to record an order at the table. the quantities and any special requests to 22 . The electronic funds transfer at point of sale terminals enable customers to open an account for all purchases by swiping a credit card or smart card into the system thus creating a direct link to the credit company and enabling fast authorization of the funds available. The original order would then be retained by the waiter whereas the carbon copy would be sent to the kitchen.Point of sales have specialized applications. It also connects to a database server which stores all the processed orders. Electronic funds transfers at point of sale are able to: • Validate the credit card. • Remove the administrative burdens of summaries and banking. • Give a faster more efficient service to the customer .
The use of personal digital assistants have increased accuracy in the orders produced. 23 . Point of sales softwares record each sale when it happens thus inventory records are always up-to-date. Free point of sale. 2008). Point of sale can be directly linked to integrated central computers and managers can download reports. Digital dining and Maitre'd. improved record keeping. In addition one can get much more information about the sale than one could gather with a manual system. For waiters it can be used to ensure that waiters spend more time with customers as opposed to all that extensive interfacing with food preparation staff. Remote order pads are another form of rapid order point of sales systems that handle transactions at the point of sale. Some operators and suppliers use the Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) whereby the establishment’s computers or points of sale are directly networked with the suppliers. one can make better decisions about ordering and merchandising. By running reports based on this information. The bar code is another form of a point of sale (Brotherton and Wood.do with that order (Connor and Piccoli. 2003). One can control inventory right at the cash register. monitor changes in unit costs. Increasingly point of sales terminals are becoming web-enabled which makes remote training and operation possible as well as inventory tracking across geographically-dispersed locations. By using a hand held bar code reader. The personal digital assistants also allow orders to be changed at any stage. improved customer service and created a quicker response time to variations in customers orders. the inventory can be logged in and the data uploaded for analysis. calculate when one needs to reorder and analyze inventory levels on an item-by-item basis. Bar-coding is the method of placing a coded label on a product that can store information like price and item popularity. These can then be printed out with the server’s names. The point of sale system can be directly interfaced with the system of suppliers and programmed to order directly once stock is depleted at certain levels. Some popular point of sales systems that are often considered in the hospitality industry are Micros. The food and beverage orders are entered and routed automatically from the point of sale to the point of production. Aloha. improved food and beverage control. The point of sales inventory software programs lets one track usage. The use of point of sales systems can seriously restrict the possibilities for staff pilfering as the system can be able to match up the food and drink orders with the bills thus identifying any discrepancies.
The food and beverage orders are entered and routed automatically from the point of sale to the point of production. • Smart cards that have credit card swipes become interfaces when they are connected to the credit card authorization network thus enabling a guest to make a purchase in credit . automatically creating a purchase order when inventories fall behind par. the automated bars. The point of sale can also be interfaced to the restaurant management system that would then enable access to data maintained by the point of sale system and the electronic cash register system. A perpetual inventory icon then be maintained. When the electronic cash register interfaces with the property management system. 2003). Tying into the back office function of the property management system. it becomes a point-of-sale terminal. • Terminals like the televisions at the guests rooms can be interfaced with the property management system and can therefore allow for the viewing of food and beverage menus and placing of orders on the food and beverage items. Such information could be on menu sales that identifies the actual number of menu items sold and that would facilitate sales analysis by enabling a restaurant management system application to merge data from the point of sale system or electronic cash register file with data from files maintained by a recipe management application. 2008). for example at the bar. Through the point of sale system. the property management system allows an accumulation of the bartenders tip records. the guest’s identification is verified and bar charges are automatically posted to the electronic folio. Since the purveyors system is also interfaced no paper requisition is needed. 24 . In room vending.3: MICROCOMPUTER INTERFACES • Point-of-sale interfaces Microcomputers may be interfaced to the point of sale system.3.They are commonly used in making purchases through vending machines. • Remote order pads Remote order pads connected to the kitchen computers are also interfaces and are a form of point of sales systems that handle transactions at the point of sale (Brotherton and Wood. minibar and food dispensers act as terminals when they are interfaced to the property management system whereby the charges for food and beverage items consumed from the machines are recorded on the electronic folio (Connor and Piccoli.1.
The system allows the preparation and easy implementation of obtainable physical inventories from true perpetual inventory values with par levels. It can also be used to carry out vendor comparisons and to handle all the invoices and statements from the suppliers.Through electronic vending the charge is posted through the bar’s system central processing into the property management system interface and onto the electronic folio. b. This reduces the amount of capital tied up in unused stock and also reduces storage costs. 1. • Robots Robotics will begin to play a larger part in transforming the hotel industry from person-to-person service to human-to-computer interface and eventually to a consumer computer-to-hotel computer interface.3. centralized purchasers where large bulk discounts are involved. price variances. bids and usages. From these a multitude of reports can be generated based on purchases. (2004). The microprocessor is normally triggered when a guest removes the object through the fiber-optic sensor. The system also facilitates the sending of requisitions for inventory items and generates purchase orders according to required stock and par levels and also generates production sheets based on the requirement for a period. Inventory management. 25 . c. a. It can then print out a suggested order at the press of a button. The ingredient management. Rising prices can also be tracked automatically and vendor prices compared on their bids.4: INTEGRATED FOOD SERVICE SOFTWARE An integrated food service software would perform the following functions under one system. Inventory value can be calculated (Khosrowpour. Supplier management Using computers to evaluate possible suppliers tends to be done more by large. The purchases system records orders and changes the status of the order to a delivery changing also the prices and quantities where applicable. With a computerized inventory purchasing can be based on demand and stock levels where the computer has a record of ones stock and a record of ones desired reorder level.
the overall production food cost percentages and margins established on a per recipe basis and menus benchmarked. d. e. In a heavily standardized chain of restaurants the recipe database could include instructions for the production of that dish and the garnishes that should be adopted. Significant marketing information about the recipes can also be recorded in both names and descriptions and the requisite equipment to be offered with each recipe and their cost displayed. purchase unit cost. issue unit. Recipes are constructed from the ingredient database or other recipes. If the proportional difference between the selling price and cost price cost is inadequate then the recipe is unlikely to be used. recipe unit. recipe unit cost. The purpose of the recipe database is to cost out the recipe.From these different price points can be allocated to each recipe based on its use. ingredient description. quantities in store. number of portions. purchase unit. Recipes can also be created. issue unit cost. portioned and their yield analyzed . This makes stock taking less onerous and fast (Peacock. portion size.The ingredient database contains information on each purchased ingredient such as the ingredient code number. Important data maintained by the standard recipe file may include the recipe code number. Recipe management. scaled. printing and costing can be handled easily (Peacock. Recipe costs can be updated at the touch of a button. A standard recipe file contains recipes for all menu items. recipe unit cost. recipe unit. stock records and predictions on demand can be used to automatically generate orders. Preparation details of the recipes can also be maintained and the recipes can be sorted based on a number of values. The combination of recipe database. 26 . The measurement of the raw ingredient. menu selling price and food cost percentage. 1995). Information technology is used to calculate stock value. If the stock is equipped with printer bar codes then the bar code can read with an electronic wand and the quantity simply typed next to the product description. 1995). Proposals based on accurate costs and desired selling prices can then be indicated. a recipe can be stored and accessed at an advantage in the computer where cross-referencing. new purchases and prices. recipe name. The measurement of the raw ingredient has become a main application of information technology. Through a computerized system.
5. 1995).3. A menu engineering system would only need one to input variables such as demand quantity. From this database menu engineering can be conducted. Cost control A property management system would aid in stock control. g. lowball prices and hidden costs. ingredient quantities for inventory reporting and sales totals. highlight and insert the company logo to give it the look and feel of the establishment.Recipe databases are rarely used as they need considerable effort and expense to transcribe all of an establishment’s recipes on a computer and their use is limited to chain of establishments that have standardized recipes. f. Menu engineering and liquor costing: A menu item file contains data for all meal periods and menu items sold. neglect. stock wasted from trashing. font. theft.3. 1. stock overpriced from creeping prices. descriptor (meal period). selling price. The menu engineering application of a food and beverage control system can suggest a constant restructuring of a menu based on the preferences of a customer. lower sales and failure to market. personalize the colors of the background. desired selling price and it will automatically compute the contribution margin.1: PRECOSTING FOOD AND BEVERAGE ITEMS 27 . buttons. jumping prices. h. burning and rotting and dropping profits due to higher costs. waste. Important data maintained by this file may include the meal plan number. inventory needs and estimating sales volumes is critical for any food and beverage operation. a freezer is not operating correctly or when someone forgot to check the bathroom. gross profit and other details thus helping in identifying which menu items to retain or drop from the menu. recipe code number. ideal food cost from perpetual inventory. stock overused from over portioning. 1. Menu engineering is the combination of point of sales systems and recipe databases.5: FORECASTING APPLICATION SOFTWARE Forecasting customer demand. From it one can get reports on the actual food cost from periodic inventory. It also enables one to evaluate current and future recipe pricing and designs (Peacock. Temperature monitoring and hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) management A hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) system would be able to alert management when food is not properly processed.
recipe file and menu item file and producing a pre-cost menu plan within minutes.5. one can apply time-series forecasting methods to identify levels. Forecasting software applications are able to carry out time series analysis. Using historical data about a key quantity such as sales. Restaurant management systems pre-costing applications streamline pre-costing analysis by assessing appropriate data from the ingredient file. Forecasting methods include: a. These techniques are very easy to apply and can produce very accurate results. inventory management. batch or meal period bases. 1. tags and insightful historical events like the impact of a product promotion or a recent shortage and automatically analyze these in order to refine forecasts to truly reflect future customer demand. A restaurant management system pre-costing application can project costs on a portion. trends and seasonal patterns in the data that can be used to predict future performance.Pre-costing is a type of forecasting which compares forecasted guest counts with standard menu item recipe costs to yield an index of expense prior to an actual meal period.2: FORECASTING DEMAND FOR FOOD AND BEVERAGE ITEMS Business forecasts can be divided into two very distinct types: Operational and Strategic. However timeInventory management Sales force evaluation Strategic Forecasts Modeling and simulation Management insight Monte Carlo simulation Decision analysis Stochastic optimization Marketing strategy Resource allocation Business optimization Type Based on Methods 28 . This projected cost of sales figure enables management to review and adjust operations before an actual service period begins. sales force evaluation etc. These types differ both in the methods used to prepare the forecast and in the types of questions they are designed to answer. Operational Forecasts Time-series forecasting Historical data Exponential smoothing Statistical regression Fourier analysis Production planning Used for Table One OPERATIONAL FORECASTING Operational forecasts are used to support routine business processes such as production planning. Time-series forecasting This supports other different techniques to extrapolate trends and patterns from historical data.3.
• Moving average In statistics. A moving average is not a single number but it is a set of numbers each of which is the average of the corresponding subset of a larger set of data points. The time series data themselves are a sequence of observations. which constructs new points between known points but the results of extrapolations are often less meaningful and are subject to greater uncertainty. • Linear prediction 29 . Time series forecasting methods include: • Fourier spectral analysis This is used to identify seasonal patterns and business cycles. • Exponential smoothing Exponential smoothing is a technique that can be applied to time series data either to produce smoothed data for presentation or to make forecasts. Whereas in the simple moving average the past observations are weighted equally. rolling mean or running average is a type of finite impulse response filter used to analyze a set of data points by creating a series of averages of different subsets of the full data set. It is similar to the process of interpolation. It may also mean extension of a method assuming similar methods will be applicable. also called a rolling average. • Extrapolation Extrapolation is the process of constructing new data points outside a discrete set of known data points. a moving average.series forecasts are based on the assumption that the business environment and practices will not change substantially from their current state. A moving average may also use unequal weights for each data value in the subset to emphasize particular values in the subset. exponential smoothing assigns exponentially decreasing weights as the observation get older. The observed phenomenon may be an essentially random process or it may be an orderly but noisy process. • Rolling forecast This is a projection into the future based on past performances routinely updated on a regular schedule to incorporate data.
b. The neural network that produces the most accurate results is selected and used to forecast results beyond the existing range.Linear prediction is a mathematical operation where future values of a discrete-time signal are estimated as a linear function of previous samples. The neural network input values are then forced to swing beyond their limits. Multiple neural networks are created and trained. Econometrics 30 . The forecasts produced are validated and then added to the grid. • Autoregressive moving average (ARMA) Autoregressive moving average (ARMA) models sometimes called Box-Jenkins models after the iterative Box-Jenkins methodology usually used to estimate them are typically applied to time series data. c. • Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model is a generalization of an autoregressive moving average (ARMA) model. Regression analysis includes any techniques for modeling and analyzing several variables when the focus is on the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. This is a new approach to forecasting that uses a series of related neural networks. • Trend estimation • Growth curve • Neural networks can also be used in forecasting. Causal / econometric methods Some forecasting methods use the assumption that it is possible to identify the underlying factors that might influence the variable that is being forecast if the causes are understood projections of the influencing variables can be made and used in the forecast. The grid is then used to build and train a neural network. Methods include: • Statistical regression-Regression analysis using linear regression or non-linear regression. the ARMA model is a tool for understanding and perhaps predicting future values in this series. Each new neural network learns from the results produced by the previous one. Given a time series of data Xt. All the values in the grid can then be exported for use in any way. The data is normally imported into a grid. The network is then used to produce more forecasts.
Monte Carlo methods They are a class of computational algorithms that rely on repeated random sampling to compute their results. simulators and stimulators either statistically or over time to develop data as a basis for making managerial or technical decisions. prototypes. clearly representing and formally assessing the important aspects of a decision situation. Econometrics combines economic theory with statistics to analyze and test economic relationships. Decision analysis includes many procedures. STRATEGIC FORECASTING Strategic forecasts are used to exercise and compare competing business plans. methodology and professional practice necessary to address important decisions in a formal manner. It normally relies on modeling and simulation. The terms "modeling" and "simulation" are often used interchangeably. Forecasting methods used in strategic forecasting include: a. Monte Carlo methods are often used when simulating physical and mathematical 31 . Modeling and simulation (M&S) is the use of models including emulators. • Simulation-based forecasting This evaluates thousands of scenarios based on the established assumptions when historical data is scarce. • Statistical forecasting This automatically finds the relationships between multiple inputs and your business outcomes.Econometrics is concerned with the tasks of developing and applying quantitative or statistical methods to the study and elucidation of economic principles. Decision Analysis (DA) Decision analysis is the discipline comprising the philosophy. Strategic forecasts rely on modeling and simulation techniques rather than statistical data analysis. for prescribing the recommended course of action by applying the maximum expected utility action axiom to a wellformed representation of the decision and for translating the formal representation of a decision and its corresponding recommendation into insight for the decision maker and other stakeholders. b. methods and tools for identifying. theory. These forecasts are fundamentally different from operational forecasts in that one intends to change the business practices so extrapolating past performance will no longer be a good predictor of future performance.
systems.t. d. • In-sample testing This is used to evaluate competing methods.c) or in both. They include: • Delphi method The Delphi method is a systematic. • Generate inputs randomly from the domain using a certain specified probability distribution. Judgmental methods Judgmental forecasting methods incorporate intuitive judgments. the constraints e. c.t. opinions and subjective probability estimates. There is no single Monte Carlo method instead the term describes a large and widely-used class of approaches. Advanced analytic techniques that are used in line with the actual forecasting include: • Outlier-rejection This is used to reduce the impact of inconsistent data. random choices e. • Scenario building Scenario analysis is a process of analyzing possible future events by considering alternative possible outcomes (scenarios).c) or in the algorithm itself (through random parameter values. • Level-shift detection This is used to account for changes in underlying business conditions. 32 . Monte Carlo methods tend to be used when it is unfeasible or impossible to compute an exact result with a deterministic algorithm. • Aggregate the results of the individual computations into the final result. either in the problem data (the objective function. However these approaches tend to follow a particular pattern: • Define a domain of possible inputs. Because of their reliance on repeated computation of random or pseudo-random numbers Monte Carlo methods are most suited to calculation by a computer. interactive forecasting method which relies on a panel of experts. • Perform a deterministic computation using the inputs. Stochastic optimization (SO) Stochastic optimization methods are optimization algorithms which incorporate probabilistic (random) elements.
and allocation-decision process is illustrated in Figure One. A hypothetical automated system scans historical sales. Forecasts can be run automatically (the application chooses the best forecast method and parameters). This would include importing the historical data. finding the best forecast methods and preparing output reports (Flynn. forecasts are evaluated and adjusted and final decisions on rates and allocation are made. That is the optimization algorithms recommend prices and allocation is based on the predicted values of the forecasted variables.The forecasting applications normally do have a Forecast wizard that guides one through all aspects of preparing a forecast. Using the fitted models. models are fitted. all of the steps illustrated in Figure One involve and benefit from intervention based on human judgment. Ritchie and Roberts. semiautomatically (one chooses the method and the application chooses the optimal method-specific parameters) or manually (one chooses the method and parameters). demands and sales information and fits quantitative forecasting models to the data. AN EXAMPLE OF AUTOMATED ALLOCATION DECISION AND JUDGMENTAL ADJUSTMENTS TO A FOOD AND BEVERAGE FORECAST Judgmental Adjustment Data Past sales Past sales patterns Quantitative Forecasting Models Forecast Optimization Algorithms Price Allocation Decision Automated Allocation Decision and Judgmental Adjustments to Forecasts (Figure one) A schematic description of the price. 2000). The accuracy of the forecast is essential. which are then used as an input in making price allocation decisions. the system arrives at predictions. While the entire process can be computerized or automated. Human judgment is applied when data and models are selected. inaccurate predictions lead to suboptimal decisions that in turn diminish the 33 .
until the models are refitted or replaced by more adequate ones. an expert system that employs features of time series to select and weight extrapolation techniques. 1.based adjustments might prove both necessary and effective. Independent sources When an additional independent forecasting model is used. whether it is a combination of several quantitative models or a mix of a quantitative model and expert judgment.g. 34 . Mathews and Diamantopoulos demonstrate that revisions of quantitative forecasts by experts (e. In this case. Forecasting scholars argue that more accurate predictions are obtained when quantitative methods and judgment are combined and research supports this notion. accuracy is likely to improve. Studies by Armstrong. Research on subjective revisions (or adjustments) of objective forecasts indicates that some improvement in accuracy can be expected from the revisions. provides more accurate forecasts than could be obtained from an equal-weights combination. If the operating environment is changing.Beverage and food control relies on a large database of information from the purchasing and storage of goods. Collopy and Armstrong argue that rule-based forecasting (RBF). The independent models tend to cancel out each other’s errors.hotel’s food and beverage revenues and profit margin. One way to improve the accuracy of quantitative occupancy-forecasting models is to consider the role of human judgment. This is because the human judgment supplies additional relevant information and it functions as an independent source. judgment..6: CATERING SOFTWARE PACKAGES Catering Information System The catering information system is a type of management information system . Thus a strong argument can be made for a combination of forecasts where a simple way of doing this is to let the combined forecast be a weighted average of the individual forecasts. For best results both the quantitative models and the revenue manager’s judgment-based forecast adjustment or independent assessment must be as accurate as possible. In addition it was demonstrated that the accuracy of quantitative forecasting models of daily sales could improve when an explicit structured process of judgment-based adjustments is applied.3. the combined forecast is often more accurate than is a single-source forecast. economists and product managers) often improve the forecasts’ accuracy.
In this way better value is provided to the students as vendors compete for customers. Ritchie and Roberts. multiple food providers can be unified into one system. The models use computer technology to allow for a “Virtual meal plan card” that combines with a set of standard management practices and use of the internet. all stock movements by destinations. held and demanded. • Record automatically at the point of entry or exit from stores. Virtual Service Model This is a part of the catering information system. • Generate purchase order based on reorder levels. • Record and cost all store transactions throughout the unit. The key features of such a system are: • Control and document of all beverage and food stock items by classification and individual item. • Record purchase orders status.to the delivery of service. These systems are common in universities. The main benefits of a catering information system are the speed the information can be accessed. Table Seating Software 35 .The Virtual Service Model is a network that links the university to food service providers. the accuracy of the data and the ability to control costs. to the receipt and control of moneys (Flynn. • Calculate stock-usage data and generate stock-usage reports and wastage reports. within automatic updating of price changes. The financial connections allow students to pay for meals and organizations connections allow the universities to maintain control of the systems. • Maintain store levels in all stock locations. Payment can also be facilitated through the use of credit cards and mobile phones. types and costs. Ritchie and Roberts. The system allows students to be fed by multiple providers who operate in the same system. • Calculate values of stores issued. that is delivery awaited and those partially fulfilled. 2000). • Update stock levels on receipt of purchase orders. Its feasible to have restaurant operate to operate in campus under the university administration (Flynn. 2000).
beverage and banquet personnel while roaming through out the property (alcatel. humidity gas and electricity for a better allocation of fixed costs per product and ensuring that the operators remain true to the current health and safety regulations. If they had made a reservation they could easily find their pre-allocated table simply by using their credit card as a method of identification. Touch screen technology allows a customer to choose their table without waiting if they had not made a reservation and a table is available. The point of sales system can also analyze sales data. figure out how well all the items on the shelves sell and adjust purchasing levels accordingly. 36 .7: FOODSERVICE AUTOMATION COMMON FORMS OF FOOD SERVICE AUTOMATION ARE: a. It can then maintain a sales history to help adjust ones buying decisions for seasonal purchasing trends.) Sales Analysis The catering information system can be used to analyze historical data to indicate food usage by type and to provide a database for developing a demand model. Restaurant service staff can be given internal phones that allow them to be in constant contact with food. This service if connected with a visual presentation of the restaurant tables allowing customers to pick the actual costs and seats.com. Computerized ovens New technology in production equipment allows ovens to interface with the property management system allowing for reports on temperature. The service can be used in a customer personal computer or on the mobile phone.3. 2009. Interactive wine lists at bars and interactive bar surfaces are common.Table setting software has always been a part of the Micros system but increasingly stand alone table seating systems like the Prohost are improving revenue by enabling a higher customer satisfaction. 1. Through its use pricing accuracy can be improved through the integration of bar-code scanners and credit card authorization abilities with the system.
guests give their orders to waiters holding a wireless pod (Flynn. The robots prepare drinks and computers instantly convey new orders to the robots. This can reduce overcooked food and wastage. Guest initiated pagers allow servers when a table is ready to have their order taken saving time and unnecessary trips.A chef can program ovens to cook what he wants. 2000). f. 2001) c. d. when and how he wants it reducing labour costs and achieving consistency of products thus exceeding customer’s expectations. Ritchie and Roberts. Pagers can alert waiting staff when orders are ready in the kitchen. Robots Hotels could benefit from intelligent robots that act as automated attendants. Wireless pen based terminals integrated with leading edge restaurant systems can provide food and beverage facilities with break through solutions that optimize efficiency and eliminating wastes. e. (Durocher. Digital timers on cooking equipment Digital timers can help chefs keep track of time in busy kitchens. The software breaks down an order into its components like the starters. These ovens can be linked to a personal computer for reporting. In service. the equipment is installed with temperature and humidity probes and the personal computer can regulate these. The order is then transmitted to the kitchen speeding service. Computerized deep fryers Mc Donalds tested a prototype where a computer monitored machine dumps frozen fries into a basket that that is in turn placed in hot oil for cooking. ensuring the food is coked to perfection. Production equipment are also interfaced with the points of sale and the personal computers. 37 . main course and the other courses. b. g. The process to deliver an order then takes no longer than two minutes. The machine then shakes the fries and prepares them for service into bins. The data from the handheld device now in the establishment’s computer system passes through an interface to the inventory and supply ordering system. Robots have been used in food preparation and service whereby in most cases they are taken to be a promotion and merchandising strategy. Guest pagers that light up and vibrate means that the hostess does not have to trail customers on loudspeakers systems.
11. automated kettles and vending machines) (Teare and Olsen 1992). its Random Access Memory (RAM) and its Read Only Memory (ROM). water dispensers and juicers are commonly used to produce beverages. j. Automated coffee machines. m. Explain the difference between read only memory (ROM) and random access memory (RAM) 1. A microcomputer has two main types of storage. k. l. When one shuts down a program.4: RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY (RAM) AND READ ONLY MEMORY (ROM) Memory refers to the computer chips that store information for quick retrieval by the Central Processing Unit while storage refers to any physical device in or on which computer information can be kept. available in many hotel lobbies and public areas can also act as a great sales and marketing tool. Refrigerators are common storage devices in the food and beverage area. Random Access Memory is used to run certain basic programs and functions that the computer needs to operate correctly and it functions only while the computer is receiving power. The programs one uses are usually written in the Random Access Memory temporarily while the computer is processing them.h. n. it disappears from Random 38 . i. In hotels refreshments can be provided through a combination of in-room facilities (automated bar. Vending machines have become a powerful sales and merchandising tool. Motion detecting doors that open automatically at the approach of a person are common in most establishments. Automated beverage control systems that are used to dispense beverages in hygienic conditions and with great speed and accuracy. o. Information kiosks that utilize holographic and 3 dimension technology. Televisions that are interfaced with the property management systems can be used to provide room service menus and to place orders. Kitchen equipment can be interfaced with property management systems.
are connected to the Single In-Line Memory Module along one long side. Single Inline Memory Modules (SIMMs) can be used although the Dual Inline Memory Modules (DIMMs) are becoming the standard. Random Access Memory is also known as volatile memory because the information within the computer chips is lost when power to the computer is turned off. because information in the Random Access Memory is retained only while the computer is powered up. a Dual In-Line Memory Module can hold twice as much memory as a Single In-Line Memory Module in the same amount of space. Typically.8 in) tall and provide from 1 to 16 megabytes of Random Access Memory. Single In-Line Memory Modules are usually about 10 cm (4 in) long by 2 cm (0. If one wants additional memory. There are different types of Random Access Memories. Unlike standard Random Access Memory." which are small rectangular cards studded with memory modules. By mounting memory chips on both sides of the circuit board and using twice as many contacts (the shiny metal teeth on the bottom of the Dual In-Line Memory Module circuit board that fit into the slot on the motherboard) as a Single In-Line Memory Module. Solid-state drives have faster access speeds than hard disks and 39 . Sometimes some operating systems including Microsoft Windows would not relinquish the Random Access Memory space even when a program is closed. The integrated circuits that provide Random Access Memory are mounted only on one side of the Single In-Line Memory Module. These fit in special slots in the motherboard. Single In-Line Memory Module is a printed circuit board or car that provides Random Access Memory for a computer. However. A more recent development is Solid State Random Access Memory. this memory may come in the form of "RAM sticks. programs are transferred from storage on a disk drive to the Random Access Memory. A row of metal prongs called pins. Random Access Memory is also used to store the information and instructions that operate the computer's programs. Solid-state drives (SSD) have also been introduced as a potential replacement for hard disk drives.Access Memory and the space it occupied can be reused. Solid State Random Access Memory can contain information even if there is no power supply. These pins fit in a socket in the main circuit board or motherboard of a computer. Flash drives are removable storage devices that utilize Solid State Random Access Memory to store information for long periods of time. turning it off will always clear the Random Access Memory. Dual In-Line Memory Module or DIMM is a printed circuit board that adds Random Access Memory to the computer when attached to the main circuit board (the motherboard) of the computer.
A static Random Access Memory chip can store only about one-fourth as much data as a dynamic Random Access Memory chip of the same complexity but static Random Access Memory does not require refreshing and is usually much faster than dynamic Random Access Memory. Because capacitors lose their charge over time. However. The operating system reads and writes to the simulated device and the program stores and retrieves data from memory. RAM disks are extremely fast but they require that system memory be given up for their use.Dynamic Random Access Memories store information in integrated circuits that contain capacitors. A special program fools the operating system into believing that an additional disk drive is present. Read Only Memory contains the bare minimum of instructions needed to 40 . Because their internal circuitry is simple dynamic Random Access Memories are more commonly used than static Random Access Memories even though they are slower. While a dynamic Random Access Memory is being refreshed it cannot be read by the processor. Static Random Access Memory storage is based on the logic circuit known as a flip-flop which retains the information stored in it as long as there is enough power to run the device.have no moving parts. one or more wait states occur. if the processor must read the Random Access Memory while it is being refreshed. dynamic Random Access Memory boards must include logic to “refresh” (recharge) the Random Access Memory chips continuously. Solid-state Random Access Memory technology is also used in memory cards for digital media devices such as digital cameras and media players. Dynamic RAM (DRAM) is a form of semiconductor Random Access Memory . Random Access Memory can therefore be referred to as the temporary memory that the computer uses to perform its functions while being used. Static Random Access Memories are usually reserved for use in caches. It is also more expensive. Also RAM disks usually use volatile memory so the data stored on them disappears when power is turned off. a type of unchangeable memory residing in chips on the motherboard. ROM is an acronym for Read Only Memory. Random Access Memory Disk is a simulated disk drive whose data is actually stored in Random Access Memory. they are quite expensive and do not have the ability to store as much data as a hard disk. Static RAM (SRAM) is a form of semiconductor memory (Random Access Memory). A dynamic Random Access Memory can hold approximately four times as much data as a static Random Access Memory chip of the same complexity.
The Personal computer uses Basic Input-Output system (BIOS) to start the operating system. There are different types of Read Only Memories. the information can be changed. a FLASH memory acts like a Read Only Memory because values remain stored in memory but the values can be changed. Newer technologies allow Read Only Memory to be semi-permanent. it cannot be removed short of ripping it out of the motherboard. For example. that is. Read Only Memory is called the nonvolatile memory because the memory chips do not lose their information when power to the computer is turned off. Read Only Memory contains critical information and software that must be permanently available for computer operation such as the operating system that directs the computer's actions from start up to shut down. After a Programmable Read Only Memory has been programmed. but it takes several seconds to make the change. information can be retrieved but not changed. PROM acronym for Programmable Read Only Memory is a type of Read Only Memory that allows data to be written into the device with hardware called a Programmable Read Only Memory programmer. one will have to move on to a different motherboard or computer. once the Read Only Memory has been created. it is dedicated to that data and it cannot be reprogrammed. An example of an Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory is in the form of a flash drive. Because it's used for critical functions. This memory is used to store items that the computer needs to execute when it is first turned on. adding to it is just as difficult. the Read Only Memory on a personal computer contains a basic set of instructions called the Basic Input-Output system (BIOS) . For example. Programmable Read Only Memories are used during the prototyping stage of the design. A Read Only Memory is permanent if the information cannot be changed. Erasable Programmable Read Only Memories 41 . Basic Input-Output system (BIOS) is stored on computer chips in a way that causes the information to remain even when power is turned off. New Programmable Read Only Memories can be created and discarded as needed until the design is perfected.start ones computer. If one wants a different configuration. Because Read Only Memories are cost-effective only when produced in large volumes. EPROM is an acronym for Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory also called Reprogrammable Read Only Memory (RPROM). Information in Read Only Memory is usually permanent and cannot be erased or written over easily.
Competition in the food and beverage industry is a tough one and many companies struggle to face the heat. they can be more cost-effective in the long run if many changes are needed. managers can share information a lot faster than they used to do it. Unfortunately. Companies from all over the world spend money and time on activities such as the movement. Managers need this new technology in order to develop and improve their food and beverage business. Food service software offers an integrated solution that runs off a single database and that different departments can access easily. Read Only Memory can therefore be referred to as the data that is permanently written to a chip and that there is no way of overwriting. Erasable Programmable Read Only Memories differ from Programmable Read Only Memories in that they can be erased. Moreover. Professionals have developed food service software in order to help food and beverage executives to evaluate the risks of their business and to exploit more business opportunities that are available. whether you want to view your inventory levels or to review the production capacity of your business. generally by removing a protective cover from the top of the chip package and exposing the semiconductor material to ultraviolet light and they can be reprogrammed after having been erased. An example of Read Only Memory is the program that the computer uses to reboot. Several companies offer software solutions designed for the food and beverage industry. Although Erasable Programmable Read Only Memories are more expensive than Programmable Read Only Memories. Food service software is what you need. The key to a successful operation in this field is a lean supply chain. the storage and the products’ control. they have executives that are unaware of new food service software. many companies still lack system integration. Food and beverage software can improve your business faster than you have ever 42 . Executives find it mandatory to establish and maintain records that allow inspectors to conduct a fast and efficient investigation and food and beverage software is the best choice when it comes to meeting these requirements. Thus.are nonvolatile memory chips that are programmed after they are manufactured. Advanced food and beverage software allows managers to access the information they need faster than they used to and thus to improve their management.
you must always make certain a safe and qualitative inventory of your products. food service software will offer you password protection on special operations. Food software will offer you the necessary tools in order to improve your business. as well as the printing of table dockets and receipts. flexible credit card definition and an audit trail of all the transactions and receipts possible to print in a detailed or summary form. However. but it will be worth the investment. food service software provides complete functionality applications and those who are interested in such software can add new features and even customize it. back office and food service sections of hospitality facilities are diverse with each playing several critical roles. Moreover. food software will assist with the implementation of the pricing and the promotion programs. food and beverage software will facilitate operations such as the management of the transactions that take place in the food and beverage supply chain. Moreover. Thus. Food and beverage software will support you in all of your activities. The softwares. In addition. since it will facilitate all of your activities. the planning and executing of customer deliveries and shipments. By using food service software.imagined it to be possible. you will have to pay some money for the implementation of such software. 2. such software enables you to respond quickly to your customers’ demands and to come up with good solutions. The guest’s stay at a hotel and/or food and beverage outlet can be automated right from the initial contact to the end of the guest experience thus increasing the level of satisfaction and enhancing business performance in general. Regardless of the products you manufacture. you will be able to save a lot of time and to improve the quality of your products and services. Moreover. Food service software is meant to meet the specific challenges of food and beverage organizations. From the findings gathered 43 . the exhaustive reports concerning profitability of the business and customer service analysis.0: CONCLUSION There have been considerable advances in the use of information technology in the hospitality industry. applications and packages that are available for use in the front office.
Hotel of Tomorrow./ai_n27563622/ 9.Vallen and Gary . (1993) .2004 information systems. Jerome.google. (1995). The Sage handbook of hospitality management. Roy C Wood and Bob Brotherton. Innovations through information technology. First edition.co. International isbn=0750683856 2.gettys. Public House and Beverage Management.com/trends_mega. Michael Flynn and Caroline Ritchie and Andrew Roberts.php dictionary of hospitality management .google. pp. (1991). Fourth Edition.. London. Talking to each other: findarticles.google. 4. Information Technology in the Hospitality Industry . Newyork. books.0: REFERENCES 1. 7. Martin Peacock. 344-378 3.The International hospitality industry organizational and operational issues. First Edition.com/p/articles/mi_m3072/is. 3.ke/bookjs?isbn=1412900255 8. (2008 ) . Bon Publishers. TRENDS . J .K. John Wiley and Sons Inc. W M C. books. Vallen. Butterworth-Heinemann. it is evident that information technology does play a vital part in the management of hospitality establishments. Peter Jones and Abraham Pizan. (2000).York House Typographic Ltd. (2004). 159-172 6.books.co..co. pp.ke/bookjs?isbn=1591402611 5.ke/books? 44 . Check-in Check-out.in this paper. Mehdi Khosrowpour.The HOT Project . hot.
0: APPENDIX Appendix 1: Delivery network of an automated beverage control system 45 .4.
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