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1. 1.

S_ _ O_ j _ _ _t t_ __ __ _s s

3. 3. M_t_ v _te &


& & D_ D_ v v_ _ ll _ _p p S_ _ _ _ _ g _ __ _s s

Co_ Co_ _ _ _ n_c_te

Create Create T_ T_ _ms _ms M_ M_ k k_ _ D_c_ D_c_ _ __ __ _ ns ns S_p_ S_p_ rv_s_ rv_s_ S_b_ S_b_ _ _ d_n_ d_n_ t t _s _s Ensuring Ensuring g_ g_ _ls _ls & & t_ t_ _g_ts _g_ts are are m_ m_ _ _ Themselves Themselves & & s_b_ s_b_ _d_n_t_s _d_n_t_s

Plans Plans & &T T_ __ _t t_ __ _s s A A_ __ _o o_ __ _t t_ _ R_ R_ s s_ __ _r r_ __ _s s An_ An_ ll _ __ __ _ C C_ __ _ ss ss _ _f f_ _ D_ D_ _ __ _d d_ _ w_ w_ _ __ _ S_l_ S_l_ ct ct p_ p_ _p_ _p_ _ _

2. 2. Organise

4. 4. M_ M_ _s_r_ _s_r_ P_ P_ _f_ _f_ _m_ _ _ c_


5. 5. D_ v_ v_ ll _p _p P_ P_ _p_e _p_e

1. 1. Set Objectives Objectives

3. 3. Motivate & Communicate Communicate


& & Develop Develop Strategies Strategies


Create Create Teams Teams Make Make Decisions Decisions Supervise Supervise Subordinates Subordinates

Plans Plans & & Tactics Tactics Allocate Allocate Resources Resources

2. 2. Organise

Analyse Analyse Classify Classify Divide Divide work work Select Select people people

4. 4. Measure Performance

Ensuring Ensuring goals goals & & targets targets are are met met

5. 5. Develop Develop People People


Themselves Themselves & & Subordinates Subordinates

Needs

What are they?

Needs

What are they?


Needs: (n) What someone must
have in order to live a normal, healthy, comfortable life.

Needs

How do you prioritise needs?

Needs

Abraham Maslow
Humanistic Psychology

Needs

Abraham Maslow
Humanistic Psychology Understanding what makes us human.

Needs

Abraham Maslow
A Hierarchy of Needs

Hierarchy: (n) a system of

organization in which people or things are divided into levels of importance

Motivation

Douglas McGregor

Motivation

Douglas McGregor
Theory X & Theory Y

Motivation

Douglas McGregor
Theory X & Theory Y Based on different sets of assumptions.

Motivation Assumption: (n) Something that


is accepted as true without proof.

Discussion
P. 16 Student A: Briefly explain Theory X and the assumptions it is based on Student B: Explain Theory Y and its assumptions Student C/Both: Explain Maslow's criticism.

Motivation

Douglas McGregor Theory X


Based on the lower order needs: food, shelter, security, etc.

Motivation

Douglas McGregor Theory Y


Based on the higher needs: recognition, achievement, growth, etc.

Douglas McGregor
Theory Opposing theories Theory

Negative assumptions

Positive assumptions

Douglas McGregor

Douglas McGregor
Most people can't take personal responsibility They are basically lazy and won't work unless they have to They need to be controlled through: Threats (e.g. with being fired) Rewards (e.g. financial incentives)

Theory X

People have an inner need to work They are: motivated by the satisfaction of doing a good job well ambitious They want: responsibility to be creative at work

Douglas McGregor Theory Y

Theory X and Theory Y


Replacing a Theory-X-based management approach with one based on Theory Y won't always be effective Some people DO need discipline and to be closely managed. Some people DON'T want responsibility or need a sense of achievement.

Maslow's Criticism

Frederick Herzberg
Two-Factor Theory

Frederick Herzberg
Two-Factor Theory Factor: (n.) One of
several things that contributes to a result.

Frederick Herzberg
Satisfiers & Motivators

Two-Factor Theory

Frederick Herzberg
Satisfiers (Hygiene factors): The basics people expect to receive. They do not motivate but their absence DISsatisfies and DEmotivates.

Frederick Herzberg
Motivators: Extras that can be used as incentives to improve performance. Responsibility, variety of work, empowerment, involvement, being the best.

Summary
McGREGOR'S McGREGOR'S Theory Theory X X& & Theory Theory Y based based on on understanding understanding MASLOW'S MASLOW'S Hierarchy Hierarchy of of Needs. Needs. Theory Theory X: X: based based on on NEGATIVE NEGATIVE assumptions assumptions people people must must be be forced forced to to work. work. Theory Theory Y based based on on POSITIVE POSITIVE assumptions assumptions people people want want to work work well well and and be be challenged. challenged. But But MASLOW MASLOW says says Theory Theory Y Y isn't isn't always always true. true. Some Some want want security security and and stability, stability, rather rather than than to to be be challenged. challenged. HERZBERG: HERZBERG: Basic Basic provision provision (satisfiers (satisfiers or or hygiene hygiene factors) factors) aren't enough. enough. Variety, involvement, responsibility, responsibility, being being the the best best etc. etc. motivate motivate people. people.

Homework
Case study p.19-20 Read description & write email. Model answer will be posted on scribd.com/ThompsonVSE Read p. 21-23 E-learning on ISIS.