Week 1: Review of Theory Fundamentals

Introduction
By the end of the session, a successful student will be able to: • • • Know treble clef and bass clef notation, write and recognise all key signatures, construct major and minor scales. Recognise major and minor scales by ear. Summarise today’s lesson content.

Student Task / Reading
Complete the exercises and ensure all key signatures are known.

Week 1 - Exercises
Write out the following scales: E major

Eb major

F# major

G harmonic minor

G# harmonic minor

C melodic minor

th Transcribe a rhythm in common time using 8 note subdivisions. For example: . Quick review of major and minor scales – writing and recognising them aurally.Week 2: Rhythm notation and time signatures Introduction By the end of the session. Understand all forms of commonly used time signatures. Aural test to ensure familiarity. Know all commonly used rhythm notation symbols and apply notation conventions. a successful student will be able to: • • • • Recap / review of last week’s content / exercises. We use a tie to create a note whose duration cannot be written by a simple note. if you need to have a note that is 5 beats long then this can be written by having a semibreve in one bar which is tied over to a crotchet in the next bar. Look at rhythmic divisions of notes: Semibreve (whole note) = 4 beats Minim (half note) = 2 beats Crotchet (quarter note) = 1 beat Quaver (eighth note) = ½ beat Semiquaver (sixteenth note) = ¼ beat Adding a dot after a note adds half as much again to it’s value: Rests are used to fill in the ‘gaps’ between the notes to make each bar the correct length: If we need to include notes that are longer than 4 beats or that cross a bar line then we use a tie. Summarise today’s lesson content. For example.

Starting off with 1 bar and gradually getting longer and more complex. . Transcribe simple rhythms as played by the teacher.Practice writing rhythms in common time – as played by the teacher Student Task / Reading Recap scales and keys from last week to ensure familiarity.

All music is made up of harmonic and melodic intervals of varying sizes.Week 3: Intervals Introduction By the end of the session. . Practice recognising diatonic intervals by ear. a successful student will be able to: • • • • Recap / review of last week’s content / exercises. Recognise diatonic intervals within the range of one octave by ear. Get familiar with both the terminology and the process used to recognise them. Recognising intervals is one of the fundamental skills of the musician. Summarise today’s lesson content. Student Task / Reading Practice writing and recognising intervals. Write and recognise all intervals within the range of one octave (diatonic and chromatic).

Week 3 Exercises Name the following intervals: Write the following intervals above the given note: Ear Training . .Do various aural tests (played by the teacher) to practice recognising diatonic intervals.

3 . musicians often use numbers. blues and pentatonic scales. major 2 . Apply scale spellings to construct minor. perfect 5 . Recognise chromatic intervals within the range of one octave by ear. 2 . They are a purposeful restriction of a parent or master scale A major pentatonic is constructed by taking the 1 . 4 . 5 and 7 notes from a natural minor scale. Revise interval material from last weeks lesson – do a quick test to ensure it is learned. a successful student will be able to: • • • • Recap / review of last week’s content / exercises. Instead of using the letter names of the notes in a scale. perfect 5th. major 6 st nd rd th th C major pentatonic scale A minor pentatonic is constructed by taking the 1 . 5 and 6 notes from a major scale Formula: R 2 3 5 6 8 nd rd th th Intervals: Root. and is a general spelling for a scale. st rd th th th Formula: R b3 4 5 b7 8 Intervals: Root. minor 3rd. minor 7th C minor pentatonic scale . major 3 .3 . Major scale – 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Natural Minor – 1 2 b3 4 5 b6 b7 8 Harmonic Minor – 1 2 b3 4 5 b6 7 8 Melodic Minor – 1 2 b3 4 5 6 7 8 Pentatonic Scales A pentatonic scale contains only five notes. Summarise today’s lesson content.Week 4: Scale spellings Introduction By the end of the session. This is called the scale spelling. Pentatonic scales are frequently used for creating melodies. perfect 4th.

st rd th th th rd th The notes taken from the major scale are the 1 . Flat 5 however is used most of the time. Practice recognising chromatic intervals by ear. This is th because it is traditionally correct to avoid writing two notes on the 5 degree of the scale.Blues Scale The blues scale is a 6 note scale. The scale spelling for the blues scale is as follows: 1 b3 4 b5 5 b7 8 The b5 note within a blues scale is sometimes referred to as #4 by some musicians. 3 . 4 . however the 3 . Harmonic. 5 and th 7 notes are all lowered by 1 semitone to create ‘blue’ notes. Major key signatures should be written for Major scales. Relative Minor key signatures should be used for Natural. Student Task / Reading Practice using scale spellings to construct scales. Major Pentatonic and Blues scales. Melodic and Minor Pentatonic scales. With all scales you need to able to write the key signature that goes with it. . The b3rd and b7th replace the rd th th 3 and 7 notes but the b5th is used in addition to the normal 5 . 5 and 7 . It uses notes from the major scale but lowers some of them.

Practise recognising all intervals (diatonic and chromatic) up to 1 octave. Write the following scales: A major pentatonic B major pentatonic E minor pentatonic F minor pentatonic E blues Bb blues .Week 4 Exercises Ear Training .

minor. Recognise the main triad types in root position by ear. Summarise today’s lesson content. The C minor triad consists of the notes C-Eb-G. Eb is a minor third above C. E is a major third above C. C is again the root. There are two more combinations possible – two minor thirds and two major third intervals. These are diminished triads and augmented triads respectively. Triads Triads are three note chords that are constructed by taking an interval of a third above the root. and then another third above that. and G is a major third above Eb. C is the root. the C major triad consists of the notes C-E-G. diminished triads. together with their chord symbols: C major triad perfect fifth major third root C minor triad perfect fifth minor third root C diminished triad C augmented triad diminished fifth augmented fifth minor third major third root root It is often useful to invert triads.Week 5: Triads and chord spellings. There are three positions for triads: root position (shown above). a successful student will be able to: • • • • Recap / review of last week’s content / exercises. Harmonised major scale Introduction By the end of the session. Apply chord spellings to construct major. All four triads are shown in the following. For example. first inversion and second inversion. augmented. Harmonise a major scale to triads. Below is the C major triad in all inversions: root position first inversion second inversion . and G is a minor third above E.

Chords from the major scale are made by starting on each note of the scale. Dmin/Dm. Taking three notes in total makes a triad. starting from C we obtain C-E-G – the C major triad. and taking every other note. Practice harmonising a major scale to triads. . (Note that major/minor/diminished chords are sometimes written Cmaj. Student Task / Reading Practice applying chord spellings to construct triads. For example. Practice recognising the main triad types in root position by ear. we obtain the following triad harmonisation of the C major scale: The chord numbers are shown along the bottom. Following the same procedure for each note. This order of the different types of triads is the same for every major scale. Bdim etc.) Thus an F triad in the key of C major may sometimes be called ‘chord IV’ and so on.Major scale triads The basic harmony played in most styles of music derives from the major scale.

Week 5 Exercises Ear Training – Practise recognising the 4 main triads aurally Write the following triads G dim Bb min A maj E aug B maj Db min Recognise the following triads: Write the following harmonised scales to three note chords (include chord symbols): D major Ab major .

The symbol for a dominant 7 is just the number ‘7’ on it’s own. Harmonise a major scale to 7 chords. Introduction By the end of the session. Summarise today’s lesson content. a successful student will be able to: • • • • Recap / review of last week’s content / exercises. DOMINANT 7 th th To create a dominant 7 chord lower the seventh of a major 7 chord by a semitone. th Recognise the main 7 chords played in root position by ear. th dominant 7 and half-diminished. M7 or ^7. The symbol for a minor 7 are: min7. MINOR 7 th th To create a minor 7 chord lower the third and the seventh of a major 7 chord by a semitone.Week 6: Seventh chords. 5 and 7 notes from the major scale st rd th th th The symbols for a major 7 are: Maj7. 3 . Seventh chords There are four main seventh chords we will focus on today: MAJOR 7 CHORD A major 7 chord is constructed by taking the 1 . th . minor 7. Revise triads from previous lesson. th Apply chord spellings to construct the main 7 chord types: major 7. Harmonised major scale to sevenths. m7 or -7.

minor seventh chord (D-7. fifth and seventh of a major 7 chord by a semitone. th th The symbol for a half diminished chord is either: ø or m7(b5). Bmin7b5 or Bm7b5). 3. Cmaj7 or CM7). Here is the C major scale harmonised in seventh chords: th There are four different seventh chord types that arise from harmonising a major scale in this way: the major seventh chord (written C∆. Student Task / Reading Practice applying chord spellings to construct 7 chords. 5. 5. Practice harmonising a major scale th th to 7 chords. Dmin7 or Dm7). 3. b5. b3.HALF DIMINISHED To create a half diminished 7 (m7b5) chord lower the third. b7 Half Dim = 1. b7 th Min 7 = 1. th . Chord spellings Major 7 = 1. Practice recognising the main 7 chords by ear. dominant seventh chord (G7) and half-diminished chord (Bø. but this time construct fournote (seventh) chords. b3. b7 Harmonised scale Now follow the same procedure as for harmonised scale to triads. 7 th Dom 7 = 1. 5.

Week 6 Exercises Ear Training .Recognise the seventh chords by ear: Construct the following 7 chords: th Bbm7 G^7 Dø F7 E7 Identify the following 7 chords: th Write the following harmonised scales to four note chords: D major Ab major .

Summarise today’s lesson content. ii. The final cadence was either major or the 3 was omitted altogether. It creates an air of finality and will confirm the tonal centre or key in which it appears. There are four principle cadences: perfect. Chords do not exist as isolated sounds but relate to each other in established progressions. creating a feeling of suspension. Typically the following chord is chord VI or chord IV. This custom derives from Renaissance music where to conclude on a rd minor chord was considered weak.Week 7: Cadences. The Plagal Cadence is given by chord IV moving to chord I. Transcribe a simple diatonic chord sequences using triads. This cadence occurs frequently in hymns (often thought of as “Amen”) and gospel music. pausing on chord V. Practice transcribing chord sequences by ear. IV or any other chord. The Interrupted Cadence is a V chord moving to any chord except I. imperfect. Recognise the 4 principle cadences by ear. The melodic line will most often move from either the supertonic or the leading note to the tonic. The Imperfect Cadence (also called half cadence) is a temporary resting place in the music. In minor key music you will sometimes find a major chord (known as a tierce de picardie) at the final cadence. a successful student will be able to: • • • • Recap / review of last week’s content / exercises. The Perfect Cadence (also called authentic cadence) is the ‘full stop’ of music and involves chord V moving to chord I (also in minor keys). . The chord V can be preceded by chords I. This cadence sounds incomplete. Identify the 4 principle cadences. Here are examples of the four principle cadences: Student Task / Reading Practice identifying the cadences and II-V-I progressions. Identify a major II-V-I progression. In most cases the chords appear in root position with the bass note moving from the dominant to the tonic. II – V – I progressions Introduction By the end of the session. The imperfect cadence sounds less final than a perfect cadence. plagal and interrupted cadences.

Week 7 Exercises
Ear Training - Practise recognising cadences by ear. Also revise, chords and scales too. Transcribe simple diatonic chord sequences as played by the teacher:

1. 2. 3. 4.

Week 8: More seventh chords.
Introduction
By the end of the session, a successful student will be able to: • • • • Recap / review of last week’s content / exercises. th Apply chord spellings to more 7 chord types: min-maj, aug 7, maj 6, min 6, dim 7, aug maj 7. th Recognise the extra 7 chord types by ear. Summarise today’s lesson content.

Recap of cadences from last week. More 7 chords: Major 7 = 1, 3, 5, 7 th Dom 7 = 1, 3, 5, b7 th Min 7 = 1, b3, 5, b7 Half Dim = 1, b3, b5, b7 Minor major 7 = 1, b3, 5, 7 th Aug 7 = 1, 3, #5, b7 th Major 6 = 1, 3, 5, 6 th Minor 6 = 1, b3, 5, 6 th Dim 7 = 1, b3, b5, bb7 th Aug maj 7 = 1, 3, #5, 7
th th th

Student Task / Reading
Practice applying chord spellings to extra 7 chords. Practice harmonising the harmonic th minor scale and identifying the minor II-V-I. Practice recognising the extra 7 chords by ear.
th

Week 8 Exercises Write the following chords on a stave: 1. D aug 7th 2. F minor major 7th 3. E major 6th 4. B minor 6th 5. C dim 7th 6. A aug maj 7th 7. B aug 7th 8. Eb major 6th 9. D half dim 10. Ab Dim 7th

Ear Training – Practise recognising these chords aurally Revise cadences and scales

Exercises Ear Training – Practise recognising 7ths. Student Task / Reading Practice all material covered in term one ready for the formative exam in week 10. Summarise today’s lesson content. Lecture content Revise all elements from term in preparation for assessment. Practice all material covered in term one ready for the formative exam in week 10.Week 9: Review Introduction By the end of the session. How to get the most from this lecture To get the most from this lecture you need to revise from your notes made throughout the term. . cadences. a successful student will be able to: • • • Recap / review of last week’s content / exercises. intervals and scales Practise rhythmic transcription Practice transcription of diatonic chord sequences Exercise 4 Complete the theory exercises from the whiteboard covering all elements from week 10 formative assessment.

Go over any material that needs work. Go through formative paper and give correct answers. a successful student will be able to: • Identify weak areas from the formative assessment that need further work. Discussion What were the weak areas from the term one formative exam? Student Task / Reading For next week: Practice and consolidate all weak areas from term one formative exam.Week 11: Recap formative assessment Introduction By the end of the session. . Respond to questions from students.

Week 12: Harmonised harmonic and melodic minor scale. Recognise triad inversions by ear. 3. 1. 1 nd 2 inversion = 5. 5 st 1 inversion = 3. a successful student will be able to: • • • • Recap / review of last week’s content / exercises. Root position. Practice recognising triad inversions by ear. 5. first inversion and second inversion. Introduction By the end of the session. 3 There are numerous techniques for recognising triads in their different inversions. Root position = 1. Student Task / Reading For next week: Practice harmonising the melodic minor scale to triads and 7ths. Summarise today’s lesson content. . Here is the C harmonic minor scale harmonised to 4-note (seventh) chords: The minor-major seventh chord and the major seventh augmented chord are also both found in the harmonised harmonic minor scale. th Harmonised melodic minor scale to 7 chords: There are three inversions possible when dealing with triads. th Harmonise the harmonic and melodic minor to triads and 7 chords.

Week 12 Exercises Ear training – Practise recognising the triads in their three inversions Write the following harmonised scales to 4 note chords (include chord symbols): B harmonic minor G harmonic minor C melodic minor .

When you listen to the progression it is again obvious that the tone centre is C major. as in a perfect cadence. A secondary dominant chord still functions as a V chord but it is the V of a chord other than I. This is called a secondary dominant. Although the secondary dominant seems to break the rule that dom 7 chords function as V chords. Lecture content The following is a common chord progression in the key of C major: C D7 G7 C If we analyse this progression we see that the chord D7 is not in the key of C major. Chord V feels like it wants to go to chord I. but does not signal the presence of a new key.Week 13: Secondary Dominants Introduction By the end of the session. Recognise and understand the use of secondary dominants in chord progressions. In diatonic harmony. and the function of D7 is to present the G7 chord in a more dramatic way than would be accomplished by the diatonic Dm chord. the dom th 7 chord is the strongest clue pointing to the key centre. The D7 chord will be analysed as: V7/V (spoken as “five seven of five”. the G7 chord that precedes the C major chord indicates the key of C major. G7 is the primary dominant of the key of C. Does the D7 chord represent a change of key or is there another explanation? When you listen to the progression it is obvious that the tone centre is C major. This will help you to remember the important elements. D7 is the V7 of V. a successful student will be able to: • • • • Recap / review of last week’s content / exercises. or more commonly “five of five”) This makes it’s role in the progression clear. with the A7 sounding like a variation on the diatonic VIm7 chord. The first progression above would therefore be analysed as: th . Transcribe a simple diatonic melody by ear. The A7 chord increases the sense of anticipation that D minor is about to arrive. Look at the following chord progression (again in the key of C major): C A7 Dm G7 C In this example the A7 is the secondary dominant. In the first example. the rule still applies. This analysis shows that C is still considered to be the tonic. with the D7 sounding like a variation on the diatonic IIm7 chord. How to get the most from this lecture To get the most from this lecture you need to practice this material in your own time. Make sure you revisit the material you learn in the lesson before you come back to the next lesson. The change of the D-7 chord to D7 makes this sound more like it wants to go to the G chord. In the above progression. This progression is an example of the use of secondary dominants. because it is a V chord in major keys and almost always in minor keys too. Summarise today’s lesson content.

The overall rule is: Any diatonic chord may be preceded by it’s secondary dominant except the VIIº chord in major and the IIº chord in minor. However. A7 is the V7 of IIm. . etc. The first type are called functioning nd th dominant chords. This again shows that C is still considered to be the tonic chord. There are a limited number of secondary dominants. These are dom 7 chords that do not resolve – they create a sense of anticipation for a resolution that is not carried out.I V7/V V7 I In the second example above. th Student Task / Reading For next week: Practice analysing chord progressions that use secondary dominants. dom 7ths are recognised in two different ways. The 2 type are called non-functioning chords. Secondary dominants can occur in both major and minor keys. Practice transcribing simple diatonic melodies aurally. To differentiate between dom 7 chords that resolve to their intended chords and those that don’t. The exclusion of these diminished chords is due to the fact that these chords are based on a diminished triad. since A is still the 6 degree of the key of C it is often written in chord charts as VI7. such as V7/VI going to IV. The A7 chord is analysed as: V7/II (spoken as “five seven of two”) The second progression above would therefore be analysed as: I V7/II IIm7 V7 I th This description explains better it’s function in the progression. which is considered too dissonant to function even temporarily as a point of resolution.

Transcribe simple diatonic melodies by ear as played by the teacher: Write the Roman Numerals for the chord sequences below bearing in mind secondary dominant chords (in each case. Gmaj7 Cmaj7 A7 D7 Gmaj7 Fmaj7 Gm7 G7 C7 Fmaj7 Dmaj7 B7 E7 A7 Dmaj7 .Week 13 Exercises Ear Training . the first chord is the tonic chord).

they are called compound intervals because they are built from an octave plus a simple interval: Octave Octave simple interval + second + third + fourth + fifth + sixth + seventh Compound Interval = ninth = tenth = eleventh = twelfth = thirteenth = fourteenth The quality of each compound interval is the same as the quality of the simple interval to which it is related – e. Extensions can also be added to the structure of a seventh chord to produce extended chords. Summarise today’s lesson content. Extended chords may be seen as different shades of the same color. and thirteenth. taking their names from the extensions themselves. Extended chords. if the chord contains a ninth and a thirteenth. and octave plus a major second equals a major ninth. In traditional terminology. the ninth. etc. a major seventh chord with an added ninth is called a major ninth chord. We will look separately at how each individual extended chord is built. eleventh chords. Extended chords have the same qualities as the seventh chords on which they are based. Adding extensions to a chord will not alter that chord's basic harmonic function. a dominant chord with an added thirteenth is called a dominant thirteenth chord. etc. For example. Construct and name extended chords. with the presence of the smaller interval being assumed. a successful student will be able to: • • • • • Recap / review of last week’s content / exercises.Week 14: Compound intervals & Extended Chords Introduction By the end of the session. For example. When intervals extend beyond the octave. or thirteenth chords. Write and recognise compound intervals (diatonic and chromatic). . For instance. it is called a thirteenth chord. even though the chord sounds fuller and more dissonant. altered extensions. eleventh. largest unaltered extended interval.g. the presence of the thirteenth does not change the function. as these intervals extend beyond the octave. Because two of the extensions-the tenth and the twelfth-are duplications of the third and the fifth that are already part of the basic chord structure. are called either ninth chords. actually result in extended chords. or simply extensions. both D7 and D13 are V chords in the key of G. chord type. but all extended chords have certain things in common: Extended chords are named by the largest unaltered interval present. intervals within the octave are called simple intervals. Extended Chords Another term commonly used to describe compound intervals is extended intervals. Building Extended Chords Extended chords are built following exactly the same principles as for 3 and 4 note chords. The names of the chords always follow the order: root note. only the addition of the three remaining extensions. Recognise compound intervals by ear.

It is very important to note. Thirteenth chords Complete 13 chords are built by adding the interval of a major thirteenth to an existing 11 chord. In summary. or (#11) for an augmented eleventh. C9. as well as chords with minor 3rds and natural 11 do not sound dissonant. taking into account the rules stated above regarding altered thirteenths. or half-diminished chords). however. Eleventh Chords Eleventh chords are created by adding an eleventh interval to an existing ninth chord. the ∆9(#11) chord. note how some of these chords sound dissonant due to the avoid notes – in particular. such an addition produces major ninth chords (from major seventh chords).e. for example. The most common note to leave out of a 13 chord is the th th th th 11 . C-9. C13 (#11). not a major ninth). Where the ninth is a major ninth. C-9(b5). due to the presence of ‘avoid notes’. E. This dissonance is not present in the Lydian mode. dominant ninth chords (from dominant seventh chords) and minor nine flat five chords (from minor seventh flat five. chords with major 3rds and #11. The following shows the C major scale. th th . the chord symbol is written as the seventh chord. the alteration must be written into the name of the chord. or (#9) for a raised ninth. C∆9. with either (b9) for a minor ninth. with corresponding chord symbols given: Note how two of these chords sound quite dissonant.g. the major eleven chord and the dominant eleventh chord. minor ninth chords (from minor seventh chords). Again. In this case. this is reflected in the chord symbol.Ninth Chords Ninth chords are constructed by adding the interval of a ninth to an existing seventh chord. where the eleventh is altered. this is reflected in the chord symbol by adding (b11) for a minor eleventh. and the 11 is altered. that extended chords are usually voiced with fewer notes than th those that are theoretically possible. Where the ninth is altered (i. harmonised to ninth chords. The following shows the D major scale harmonised to thirteenth chords. The following shows the G major scale harmonised to eleventh chords: Again. The chord symbols for these are. regardless of its quality. If a 13 chord does contain an 11 . with chord symbols given.

and not all the notes of the chord will necessarily be played. in practice it is unlikely that extended chords will be voiced as they are above. Practice recognising compound intervals by ear.It’s worth pointing out that the construction of extended chords as above is a theoretical rather than practical construction. Student Task / Reading Practice writing and recognising compound intervals. This construction tells us which notes are in each extended chord. Week 14 Exercises Ear Training . However.Practice recognising intervals – simple and compound: Write the following extended chords: Identify the following extended chords: .

a successful student will be able to: • • • • Recap / review of last week’s content / exercises. DORIAN 3. by ear.Week 15: Modes Introduction By the end of the session. E. Lecture content Major scales contain seven different notes Modes of the major scale are created when all of the notes in a major scale are played in order starting from any note in that scale. This will help you to remember the important elements. Write and recognise all seven of the major scale modes. played in sequence. LYDIAN 5. MIXOLYDIAN 6. The seven modes of the major scale are named as follows: 1. IONIAN (Major Scale) 2. all related to the original major scale. Summarise today’s lesson content. Recognise each of the modes. Starting a C major scale on D and finishing it on D This gives us seven different scales with a unique interval structure.g. AEOLIAN (Natural Minor Scale) 7. which is referred to the parent or master scale. LOCRIAN . PHRYGIAN 4. How to get the most from this lecture To get the most from this lecture you need to practice this material in your own time. Make sure you revisit the material you learn in the lesson before you come back to the next lesson.

Practice recognising the modes by ear.These are the modes of the C major scale: C Ionian D Dorian E Phrygian F Lydian G Mixolydian A Aeolian B Locrian There are various methods for learning how to recognise the modes aurally. . Student Task / Reading Practice writing and recognising the major scale modes.

A Mixolydian # 5. Gb Ionian # 10.Week 15 Exercises Ear Training – Practise recognising the modes aurally. A Dorian 2. Bb Lydian 3. B Aeolian 7. First Ionion. then Dorian and Aeolian and finally Phrygian and Locrian. Write the following modes: Construct the following modes: 1. Lydian and Mixolydian. G Phrygian 4. D Locrian 6. F Lydian 8. C Dorian 9. F Locrian .

MODE Ionian Dorian Phrygian Lydian Mixolydian Aeolian Locrian FORMULA R234567 R 2 b3 4 5 6 b7 R b2 b3 4 5 b6 b7 # R23 4567 R 2 3 4 5 6 b7 R 2 b3 4 5 b6 b7 R b2 b3 4 b5 b6 b7 CHORD TYPE major 7 minor 7 minor 7 major 7 dominant 7 minor 7 half-diminished SYMBOL ^ m7 m7 ^ 7 m7 Ø This shows us which modes fit with which chord types Major 7 Minor 7 Dominant 7 Half-Diminished = = = = Ionian. Lydian Dorian. Miles Davis’ “Kind Of Blue”. where section A consists entirely of D Dorian.Week 16: Modes in practice Introduction By the end of the session. 4. a successful student will be able to: • • • • Recap / review of last week’s content / exercises. played out of sequence. 7. Analyse a selection of songs that make use of minor modes such as Dorian & Aeolian. 2. Each mode of the major scale fits with a specific chord type The formula of the mode tells us which chord type the mode fits with This relates directly to the harmonised major scale NO. which uses exclusively Dorian harmony. 5. Dorian Mode Perhaps the most famous jazz album of all time. The form is very simple – it has an AABA structure. . Phrygian Mixolydian Locrian In some compositions one of the major scale modes other than Ionian may act as the ‘home’ chord. 1. and section B consists entirely of Eb Dorian. by ear. was recorded with the modal concept in mind. 3. or else may be used extensively throughout the piece. 6. Recognise the major scale modes. which developed from the 1950s with composers such as Miles Davis and John Coltrane. One tune from this album is “So What”. This is the case in what is known as ‘modal jazz’. Aeolian. Summarise today’s lesson content.

The following shows a typical cadence in Spanish music – an E Phrygian chord resolving to an E major chord. . This chord was used extensively on Miles Davis and Gil Evans’ album “Sketches Of Spain”. Sus chords are also based in Mixolydian mode. Lydian Mode Lydian chords are commonly used today as tonic chords.Phrygian Mode The Phrygian mode is characteristic of Spanish music. “Maiden Voyage” consists entirely of sus chords. and there are two famous jazz recordings from the 1960s that extensively used sus chords: Herbie Hancock’s “Maiden Voyage” and John Coltrane’s “Naima”. George Gershwin used a Lydian chord at the start of the bridge in “Someone To Watch Over Me”. and are often thought of as sounding very modern. The vamp for this tune is shown below. and there is even a Lydian chord in “Happy Birthday”! Below is an example of a piece that extensively uses Lydian mode – Wynton Marsalis’ “Sunflowers”: Mixolydian Mode The simplest example of music that is uses Mixolydian mode is the 12-bar blues. However.

An example of a modal jazz piece that uses Aeolian mode is the bridge to Miles Davis’ “Milestones”: Student Task / Reading Practice analysing the modes that are used in songs from the lead sheet. Practice recognising the major scale modes by ear. .Aeolian Mode Aeolian harmony is used a lot in Rock and Pop music – an example of a piece that is based in Aeolian mode is Bill Withers’ “Ain’t No Sunshine”.

Bb7 4. Dm7 3.Week 16 Exercises Ear Training – Practise recognising the modes aurally Write out the modes that would fit with the following chords 1. GØ 5. Bbm7 . A^ 2.

a successful student will be able to: • • • • Recap / review of last week’s content / exercises. We can do a similar thing from the degrees of minor scales: Harmonic minor Degree I II III IV V Name Harmonic minor Locrian #6 Ionian Augmented Romanian Phrygian Dominant (Spanish) Lydian #2 Ultralocrian Notes Notes in C VI VII . Construct the modes of melodic minor and harmonic minor from the scale spellings. How to get the most from this lecture To get the most from this lecture you need to practice this material in your own time. Summarise today’s lesson content. Recognise a selection of the modes from the minor scales by ear.Week 17: Modes from the minor scales Introduction By the end of the session. This will help you to remember the important elements. Make sure you revisit the material you learn in the lesson before you come back to the next lesson. Lecture content In last weeks lesson we built scales from each of the degrees of a major scale in order to find the major scale modes.

Practice recognising a selection of the minor scale modes by ear. Week 17 Exercises Ear Training . harmonic and melodic minor) .Practice recognising the major modes and selected minor modes: (Lydian dominant. Phrygian dominant.Melodic Minor Degree I II III IV V VI VII Name Jazz Minor Dorian b9 Lydian Augmented Lydian Dominant Mixolydian b6 Semilocrian Superlocrian Notes Notes in C Student Task / Reading Practice writing and recognising the modes from the minor scales. superlocrian.

Week 18: Review / Mock exam Introduction By the end of the session. Practice all material covered in term two ready for the exam in week 19. Student Task / Reading For next week: Practice all material covered in term two ready for the exam in week 19 . a successful student will be able to: • • Recap / review of last week’s content / exercises. Complete the mock assessment paper and mark it yourself.

Review the term 2 assessment and answer any questions arising. Summarise today’s lesson content. Go through the chord list below – these are the chords that are tested for this term.Week 21: Review term 2 assessment & new chord list Introduction By the end of the session. Identify a selection of extended chord structures by ear. CHORD NAME Major 7 Major 9 Major 7 #11 Major 9 #11 CHORD NAME Minor 7 Minor 9 Minor 11 Minor Major 7 Dominant 7 Dominant 9 Dominant 11 (no 3 ) Dominant 13 (no 11 ) Dominant 7 #9 Dominant 7 b9 Dominant 7 #11 Dominant 7 #5 Half-diminished Diminished 7 th rd SYMBOL C^ C^9 C^7(#11) C^9(#11) SYMBOL Cm7 Cm9 Cm11 Cm^ C7 C9 C11 C13 C7(#9) C7(b9) C7(#11) C7(#5) or C+7 CØ or Cm7(b5) Cº7 R357 R3579 FORMULA R 3 5 7 #11 R 3 5 7 9 #11 FORMULA R b3 5 b7 R b3 5 b7 9 R b3 5 b7 9 11 R b3 5 7 R 3 5 b7 R 3 5 b7 9 R 5 b7 9 11 R 3 5 b7 9 13 R 3 5 b7 #9 R 3 5 b7 b9 R 3 5 b7 #11 R 3 #5 b7 R b3 b5 b7 R b3 b5 bb7 . a successful student will be able to: • • • Identify any issues arising from the term 2 assessment.

Recognise the listed chords by ear: Student Task / Reading For next week: Get as familiar as possible with the chord list.Week 21 Exercises Ear Training . .

Now write in the chord numbers: I A IIm7 Bm7 V7 E7 I A To transpose to Bb major work out the I. In this lesson you will be asked to demonstrate your skills in transposing melodies and chord progressions. IN the A – Bb case it is up a semitone or a minor2nd. 3 and 6 are normally minor.g. IIm7 and V7 in Bb major. and there are no D-sharps to indicate a leading tone to E-minor. Summarise today’s lesson content. The chord quality remains the same. Using the chord numbers then work out the chords in the new key. Transpose melody and chords for playback by different instruments Transcribe melody by ear.Week 22: Transposition Introduction By the end of the session. Take a look at this melody: It is in G-major. We can see the last two chords make a perfect (V – I) cadence. work out the old key. Sometimes it is necessary to arrange a melody to a different key. If we were to transpose this to F major. a successful student will be able to: • • • • • Recap / review last week’s content / exercises. They will both give you the same result. Bb Cm7 F7 Bb Intervals Another way to transpose the chord progression is to change the root note of each chord by the interval requested. Apply various methods of transposition to transpose chord sequences and written music. Again. The fact that Bm7 (chord II) is minor confirms this. A dominant 7th chord is usually the fifth of the key. There are a couple of methods you can use. and then work out the interval to the new key. E. Chord Numbers First identify the key of the original chord progression and work out the chord numbers for each chord. Chords 2. For example: Transpose the following to the key of Bb major: A Bm7 E7 A First work out the key – A major – we know this because of the E7. it would look like this: . We know this because there is one sharp in the key signature. Move all the chords up the same distance.

depending on the individual instrument. or technical names. and use one method to check against the other. Because of this. Therefore. Alto and Baritone Saxophone are Eb instruments. it will end on the submediant of the new key. In other words.There are several ways to transpose melodies. In reality. The following three methods will assume that you have been given the original key. and so on. older orchestral parts may be in any conceivable transposition. • • • • • • . the new melody will begin on the tonic of the new key. Tenor and Soprano Saxophone are Bb instruments. Parts for bari sax are transposed up an octave plus a major sixth. Parts for alto saxophone are transposed up a major sixth. clarinets used to come in several different keys. you will probably use a combination of all three methods at different times and also to check on against the other. Parts for English horn are transposed up a perfect fifth. because of the instrument's history. and it is recommended that you become familiar with all of them. time signature. However. written a fourth higher than it sounds. METHOD 1. and the key that you will be transposing the melody to. some horn players learn to transpose at sight. Transposing by Harmonic Interval You know that the original key is G-major and the new key is F-major. and the new key signature on a staff. METHOD 2. Transposing by Scale degree When transposing a melody into a new key. Look at the relationship between the two notes on the stave and make that relationship common throughout the piece. will remain the same. Parts for soprano sax are written a step higher than they sound. you know that the 'F' is a major 2nd lower than the 'G'. it will begin on the tonic of the new key. Now determine the interval between those two notes: From your knowledge of intervals. F-major. so parts for it must be written one whole step higher than concert pitch. you may want to find out if a C or B flat part is expected. Let's use these methods to transpose our melody from G-major to F-major. French horn parts are usually written in F these days. In the first example above. B flat is the more common key for cornet. Common Transposing Instruments • Clarinet is usually a Bb instrument. up a perfect fifth. The first step to using any of the following three methods is to place the clef. Trumpet and Cornet can be in B flat or C. and may even change transpositions in the middle of a piece. Transposing by stave distance Take the original melody and determine the distance between the first note in the original key and the first note in the new key. and write the same degree in the new F-major version. if the melody begins on the tonic in the original key. Like French horns. Therefore all the notes in the new melody will be a major second (whole tone) lower than the original G-major melody: METHOD 3. determine the technical name (scale degree) of each note. English Horn is an F instrument. the scale degrees. If it ends on the submediant in the original key. If you are writing for a particular player. You can then go through the entire G-major version of the excerpt. G-major. and clarinets in A (with parts that are written a minor third higher) and other keys can still be found. the melody begins on the tonic of the original key. Alto flute is in G. The most common clarinet sounds one whole step lower than written. and parts for tenor sax are transposed up an octave plus a whole step (a major ninth).

Handbell and handchime parts are written one octave lower than they sound. Contrabassoon parts are written one octave higher than they sound. in France (and in the case of parts printed in France). Some transposing instruments do not change key. String Bass parts are written one octave higher than they sound. BBb and Eb tubas (called basses) are written in treble clef. Practice transcribing melody and chords. Some tuba and euphonium parts are written as bass clef C parts (sometimes even when the instrument played is nominally not a "C instrument". . will usually sing it one octave lower than written. If you are writing for a particular group or player. Student Task / Reading For next week: Practice transposition exercises.• Tubas and euphoniums may also be transposing instruments. when given a melody written in treble clef. Men's voices. But in British-style brass bands. Piccolo parts are written one octave lower than they sound. • • • • • • Guitar parts are written one octave higher than they sound. The BBb is written two octaves and a major second higher than it sounds. and the Eb an octave and a major sixth higher than it sounds. you may want to check to see what kind of instrument is available and what transposition the player is comfortable with. and bass tubas (called contrebasses) in Bb written for in bass clef transposing by a major ninth. you find Bb euphoniums (calles basses or petites basses) written for in bass clef transposing by a major second. but play an octave higher or lower than written.

2. Transpose the following melody: Change to D major Change to Bb major Change to F major Exercise 2 Transpose the following melody: Change to E minor Change to B minor Exercise 3 Transpose the following melody for the instruments named below: 1. 3. Trumpet Alto Sax French Horn .Week 22 Exercises 1.

In smaller band situations where there is no harmonica player you could write the harmonica part for the keyboard player. and as a general guide. Guitar Guitarists like chord symbols. perhaps string or brass. Wurlitzer) is generally the default sound. usually played on a dedicated.Week 23: Score writing for a band Introduction By the end of the session. ‘That’s What Friends Are For’ (Burt Bacharach/Carole Sager) The MD part has additional cues. Transcribe melody and chords by ear. If it is not necessary for the guitarist to perform the same solo. Summarise today’s lesson content. so that the keyboard player can MD the band if necessary. E: Chords with a specific string line. This could be simplified to chords and rhythm indications. G: Outro like the intro is quite soft. Notate a basic score for a band line up from a lead sheet. B: Chords with a soft pad. and the top note of the chord will help to simplify reading more specific voicings. just write in the first bar or so as a stylistic guide.. organ. especially in jazz and big band charts. Often a chord symbol with notated rhythm will suffice. bass. Rhodes. in the example here the keyboard player is the MD. write the chords in. plus chords. Apply notational conventions for common band instruments: guitar. strings. Intro: Tacet A: Guitarists understand such directions as ‘light country’ ‘rock’ ‘funky’ etc. and clavinet can be added with a second keyboard/synth. a successful student will be able to: • • • • • Recap / review of last week’s content / exercises. but here the chords need more specific voicings. and cover any additional parts in a smaller band situation. Guitar on this song is not a featured instrument. This may mean dispensing with the pad sound unless it can be layered with the piano. Piano (acoustic. so chords only. Intro: Electric piano playing a specific chord part with additional pad. Additional sounds such as brass. They will have basic sounds readily available at the flick of a footswitch such as ‘rock sound’ . although this is not always the case. If you write lines. Usually written on two staves this can often be reduced to just one with any particular lines. or solos. Rhythm notes can be written with chords. in case the player is a poor reader. weighted keyboard. Writing For A Small Band Example. Keyboards/MD The keyboard part may contain other cues. Chord symbols should always be provided. A: Chords plus soft pad. keyboards and drums. which are notoriously difficult to read on guitar.

do not write in complicated fills (use the word ‘fill’). As a general rule. but here I have transcribed the original part to retain the feel of the arrangement. Drummers know more about how a groove should be played than I do. E: Increasing in volume through the repeated choruses. and corresponding ways of writing them. But as this song builds in a subtle way I have written out parts in the first two bars of each new section. intro. and also how to play a fill. and if the rhythm is a complicated but repetitive. snare on the head. chorus. There are many different guitar techniques. B: Simple part with side stick.‘clean’. and every drummer will play it his/her own particular way. although in this case the part is fairly simple. Drums The most important uses of a drum part are for general arrangement. Again. B: Rhythm indications with chords with specific licks written in. starts and any hits. use ‘sim’ with a chord chart. unless it is specific. The first few bars should have enough information for the basic stylistic groove. These indications will help the player decide on the correct approach. E: Fills not written out in full. verse. but left to the player’s discretion. Bass Chord charts are often acceptable. stops. and sixteenth notes in the bass drum help the song to build. Drummers like to see the words ‘play 7’ after the first bar has been notated. keeping time with the foot on the hi hat. It would also be possible to give a basic style and allow the player to deal with the details. The best way to learn is to study other players parts and practice writing as much as possible. When writing a score there are lots of symbols and conventions to learn and many means to the same end. underwrite the part and rely on the drummer’s knowledge. and do not overwrite. Chord symbols are very helpful. For all instruments start a new line at the beginning of a new section wherever possible. The verse in this example starts with guitar playing light ‘chips’ using a ‘clean sound’. D: Playing ride cymbal. . Intro: Tacet A: Very little in the first verse.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

Continue practicing transcribing melody and chords.Student Task / Reading For next week: Continue working on score writing. .

Transcribe the melodies with chords as played by the teacher: .Week 23 Exercises Ear Training – Full transcription .

• Harmonise a lead sheet using root and guide tones • Review chords for aural and full transcription • Summarise today’s lesson content. .Week 24: Harmonisation of a lead sheet Introduction By the end of the session. a successful student will be able to: • Recap / review of last week’s content / exercises.

Harmony notes should show good voice leading but remain evenly spaced to avoid gaps in the harmony. Try to avoid putting harmony notes too close to the melody note – generally no closer than a third. four notes including the melody. and no lower than E below middle C. Make sure the melody is your highest note and the root your lowest note. .Week 24 Exercises Ear Training – Review Chord list and full transcription Harmonise the following melody using root and guide tones.

elec piano and organ. The sound of the guitar also helps to define the style. Summarise today’s lesson content. a successful student will be able to: • • • • Recap / review of last week’s content / exercises. . it is also used to play string and brass parts as well as piano. The Keyboard is used to play chords and melody. The Trumpet in Bb can only play single notes and is good for playing melody or counter melody. The Tenor sax is also a single note instrument and is used in ways similar to a trumpet. It acts as a bridge between the drums and the harmony The guitar can play chords and/or melody.Week 25: Score writing for a band Introduction By the end of the session. Complete the score for a band line up from a lead sheet. Practice all material covered in the Aural section of the term. The Bass guitar is used to underpin the harmony. Week 25 Exercises Ear Training – Full transcription and chord list Arrange the lead sheet below for the line up given on the score: The line up in this example is comprised of six instruments: Drums Bass guitar Guitar Keyboard Trumpet Tenor Sax The drum kit is used to provide rhythm and is crucial in helping to create the style of the music. In small band situations.

.

changes the sound of the melody against the harmony. Putting a V chord before a V chord (secondary dominants) Remember the melody note must work with the new chord.Week 26: Chord substitutions Introduction By the end of the session. Putting a II chord before a V chord 5. shows that chords a third apart have three notes in common with each other. Harmonising the major scale to sevenths. . Transcribe a melody of increasing complexity by ear. keeping the same root note. These also go by the name of ‘chord families’. Chord substitutions can be used to create more dissonance and ‘pull’ against the melody. They can be used to change key. Putting a chord V before a I chord 4. make a progression sound smoother and can change the harmony from a traditional to a more modern sound. Analyse the harmony used in songs. Changing the quality This means changing the type of chord. Apply chord families and turnaround substitution to reharmonise a chord sequence. The I^7 chord can be substituted for another type of seventh: Other possible choices might be Bbm7 or Bbm^7 2. Changing to a similar chord This means substituting a chord that has notes in common with the original chord. a successful student will be able to: • • • • Recap / review of last week’s content / exercises. Summarise today’s lesson content. 1. Chord I can be substituted for chords III and VI Chord IV can be substituted for chords II and VI Chord V can be substituted for chords III and VII 3. Chord Substitutions Substituting one chord for another in a song. They can change the mood of a piece making it darker or lighter than the original sequence. Look at the following standard II – V – I progression in the key of Bb major.

As in diatonic substitution. Look at the following chords G7 and Db7 rd th What is the 3 and 7 note of G7? rd th What is the 3 and 7 note of Db7? rd th Although the roles of the notes are reversed. Look at the following resolutions to the tonic chords: Now compare this: The most obvious result of a flat five substitution is a chromatic descending bass line rather than a bass line descending in 4ths or 5ths.Tritone Substitution Another type of chord substitution that is used in popular music. the result is a change in the bass line and voice leading th without a change in the overall chord function. In flat five substitution. Secondary Dominant Application . th The tritone is a dissonant interval. Tritone substitution is possible because the two dominant 7 chords share the same tritone interval. This process is usually only applied th to functioning dominant 7 chords. but that is unimportant in the application of tritone substitution. The rd th reason is because they share the same notes for the 3 and the 7 . Therefore we may view G7 and Db7 as a pair of dominant chords that can substitute for each other through tritone substitution. All of these dominant chords will pair up in the same way as G7 and Db7 – the rule being that dominant rd th chords will pair up when they share the same notes for the 3 and the 7 . In total there are 12 dominant chords (as there are 12 notes in the octave. There is always an enharmonic difference in the spelling of these notes between the two chords. The substitute chord is analysed as bII7 (flat two seven). the substitute chord contains the same tritone as the original th dominant 7 chord. The above chord progressions show that the functioning dominant chord G7 can be substituted by a Db7 through tritone substitution. and this dissonance at the heart of the dominant 7 chord is what gives the chord the feeling of wanting to resolve to the consonant major or minor tonic chord. the 3 and 7 s (the two most important notes) form the same tritone interval and thus have the same harmonic effect. All dominant 7 chords contain a tritone rd th th between the 3 and the 7 . Similarly. especially jazz influenced styles. This occurs when a functioning th th th dominant 7 chord is replaced by the dominant 7 with its root a diminished (flat) 5 interval away. a functioning Db7 chord can be substituted by a G7 chord by the same process. meaning that it can resolve to the same tonic even though it is built on an entirely different root. is commonly called tritone (or flat five) substitution.

flat five substitutions are analysed according to their function. To the ear. Like secondary dominants. They are analysed according to their relationship to the chord of resolution.Flat five substitution may also be applied to functioning secondary dominant chords as well as V7 in minor keys. This kind of chord substitution is used in Antonio Carlos Jobim’s “One Note Samba”: th Student Task / Reading Start to do revision on all elements covered. either the tonic of the key or the temporary resolution of a secondary dominant. Rules: Flat five substitution usually applies to functioning dominant 7 chords only Flat five substitution results in a chromatic descending bass line. In the key of C major for example the progression of Gb7 – F∆7 is analysed as bII7/IV – IV∆7 (flat two seven of four to four major seven). not a dramatic change in harmony. Complete the following table of ‘tritone pairs’ of dominant chords: G7 C7 A7 E7 D7 Bb7 Db7 . the chord list and more complex rhythms. tritone substitution is a subtle change in the direction of the bass line. Week 26 Exercises Ear training – Go through various aural exercises including Full transcription. This means that a bass player can play a descending chromatic bass line while the guitarist plays the original progression (or vice versa).

Go through all term 3 material.Week 27: Re-harmonising a lead sheet Introduction By the end of the session. Items you will be tested on include: Aural Recognising the list of chords Transcribing a more complex rhythm Transcribing a melody with chords Theory Harmonising a lead sheet Re-harmonising using substitutions Scoring a lead sheet for a small band. Use the various substitutions that we have learned about in previous weeks. Reharmonise a lead sheet using a selection of concepts covered in the course. Week 27 Exercises Ear Training – Practise all material ready for assessment Re-harmonise this lead sheet from week 26. Student Task / Reading Prepare for the Assessment. . a successful student will be able to: • • • • Recap / review of last week’s content / exercises. Recognise a chord progression of increasing complexity by ear. Summarise today’s lesson content. Re-emphasise substitution material from previous weeks. Talk about re-harmonising lead sheets.

Complete the mock assessment paper and mark it yourself. Practice all material covered in term three ready for the assessment paper in week 29.Week 28: Review / Mock exam Introduction By the end of the session. Student Task / Reading For next week: Practice all material covered in term three ready for the exam in week 30 . a successful student will be able to: • • Recap / review of last week’s content / exercises.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.