GROWING UP IN CITIES: Studies of the Spatial Environment of Adolescence in Cracow, Melbourne, Mexico City, Salta, Toluca, and Warszawa

Edited by Kevin Lynch

From the Reports of Tridib Banerjee. Antonio Battro and Eduardo Ellis, peter Downton,
l\,laria Susulowska and Tadeusz Tomaszewski


iVIIT Press

('rrnbridge, Massachusetts, and London, England





jointly by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, 7 Place de Fontefloy, Paris ?5700, Flance, and The M⧧âchusetts Institute of Technology.

UNESCO Foreword


Growing Up in Cities
Sludies in Four Nations 'I'he Use of Unprogrammed Space

All rights



produied in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by aûy information storage and retrieval §ystem, without permission in writing from the publisher. This book was set in IBM Composer Press Roman by Margaret Hayman, and printed and bound by Mulray Printing Company in the United States of America. Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data
Main entry under title:

reseNed. No part of this book may be re-

I 2



'Iime Budgets

'lhe Range of Actioû
lloredom and Engagement
Wastelands 'l-he lmage


of the Locality

Growing uP in cities.

28 48

Iravorite Places

l. City children-Case studies. 2. Personal space Case studies. 3. Geographical perception-Case
studies. 4.Children-Attitudes-Case studies.



lleautiful and Ugly Places
l)arents and Officials

53 55 56


HT2-06.C76 30l.43'14


Kevin. ll.

Banerjee, Tridib. '17 -6'189

ISBN 0-262- t 2078-X (M.I.T. Press) ISBN 92-3-l 01443-9 (UNESCO)

l'olicy Implications: Environmental Improvement ('ommunity Identity

lnstitutioral Advocacy and Responsive Planning
Âccess and




l{cvisions of Method

l)escribing the Environment Itself
lnside the Home Observing B€havior
'l he Individual Interviews


66 67 76
77 79

iroup Exercises

Planners and Parents

lrxtension of the Research




Original and Revised Guidelines Revised Research Guide for an lnternational Study on the Spatial Environment of Children
Scope and PurPoæ


I)iscovedng how people live today is a major concern


lbr laymen, planners, and those members of public and administrative bodies whose work is concerned with improving the quality of life in cities, towns,
Ind villages throughout the world. People Çontinue to rrove to towns and cities. Urbanization often involves hardships and sometimes it is the young who lrave the heaviest burden of al1 to bear.

Choice of Areas aûd Subjects Background lnformation Analysis of Children's Image ofTheir Environment Observations of Children's Spatial Behavior Analysis of the Knowledge, Attitudes, and Memories of Parents and Officials General Conclusions Selections from the Original Research Guide Excerpts from the National Repolts

83 85 88 95


This book adopts an angle of approach which to be overlooked: How do children and ado-

99 105

lcscents themselves feel about "growing up in cities"? 'l'hey are both the youngsters of today and the adults who will face the problem from the other side of the ftcneration diüde tomorrow. Their subjective perception of the environment

Australia Argentina

120 13r

thcy live in, just as, in a wider perspective, that of all rlwellers in towns and cities, has to be assessed as an hrportant factor in attempts to make a better quality ol life a reality for all. This task has, of course, been taken up by the tlnited Nations. UNESCO is operating an intergov-

rrrmental "Man and the Biosphere"


which is investigating envfuonmental perception as

Mexico Bibliography Index

of research ruicntists of all nations.
llrr.ior item

in cooperation with



'fhese studies represent another step

in the long

lrnrning process necessary to ensure its amelioration


living conditiofls so urgently necessary for so trrnrry people in our modern world. The opinions ex|rossed, however, are those of the editor and other (r0[tributors, and do not necessarily reflect those of

Under UNESCO sponsorship, research teams in Argentina, Australia, Mexico, and Poland have looked at the way small groups of young adolescents use and value their spatia.l environment. This report recomrDends that these studies, with some modifications, be oxtended in a number of countries in a long range program of international research. The intention of these first studies was "to help document the human costs and benefits of economic rlcvelopment, by showing how the child's use and pcrception of the resulting micro-environment affects lris life." The research was meant to suggest public |olicies for improving the spatial environment. In the l)rocess, we hoped that we might learn some things nbout enyironmental indicators, long-term changes in child environment, the misperceptions of planûers rnd educators, and the latent public support for imt)rovement. Finally, these efforts were to show how ir)ternational support could build local research inlorest and capability, which in its turn would inform ircal and national policy. The small size of these studies, the vaded conditions rrrrder which they were conducted, ald the necessary uodifications of t}le research method, all preclude rigor'ous comparisons or broad generalizations between tlrcm. This was predicted in the origiral guidelines. But some impressions have emerged. These studies

lirn be completed using very simple means, and they |rcduce information relevant to local planning decinlons. The techniques are easily modified

to fit local

conditions and pdorities. They can initiate further lxrlicy"linked research, and develop local research It:arns in the process. Building local capability brings

knowledge to bear on public actions.

llven these few studies bdng out poignant indicall(nls of the relations of children to thet surroundings.

They were to be asked how they used. wrrrdcd agricultural region lying along the course of a rlrcn. made comparative studies of and Kleparski).Growing Up in Cities Studies in Four Nations In doing so. there are parallels between them. they reverberate in the mind. interviews with parents and with officials concerned with the public planning of the locality. rather dry plain ( lr. iust at the latest front of metropolitan expânsion.llcct the unanticipated costs and benefits.Melbourne in Australia. :rrtd a rural village (Bystra Podhalanska). and as a probe of its strength and weakness.xrrnrples are large apartment house projects built wilhin the last few years aad may be contrasted to lw() other areas of crowded. they called for interviews with a group of twenty children in early adolescence. The values of children have been particularly neglected.rtls and aims for a longer-term program of interna- li(»al research. The original guidelines under which the first investigations were conducted are reproduced on pages 99-104. and another in Ecatepec ((\rlonia San Agustin). We have summarized those reports ir a free. have been of relatively stable settlements of farmers. a flat. two pcripheral housing projects (Zatrasie and Kozlowka). naturalistic studies of how people uæ and value their spatial surroundings are in an early stage. The studies have been carried out in Argentina and Australia. and felt about their surroundings. the provincial capital lwo inner-city locations (Powisle scription of the plaae. Th€y ÿrry in climate and landscape: a mountain-ringed valI'y. These studies serve as examples of method. Investigators were to obserye how the children actually üsed the setting. .sc to the edge of a shallow ocean bay. in two locations in Mexico. and suggest new techniques and new occasions. conceived of. all living in one locatity. research psychologists in Warszawa and Cracow. Antonio Battro and architect Eduardo Ellis looked at a small. Open-ended. a largely self-built housing s0ltlement about l6 kilometers north of Mexico City. to chi[of the \ryay government moved to meet the lrrrusing problem a generation ago. and conduct comparative ol the State of Mexico. deep within a continent. except for one colonia in Mexico. tn brief. well-defined r(. make a careful physical de- community (Las Rosas) on the outskirts of the provincial city of Salta in northern Argentina. the working class. or the lower middle class. we hope that future studies will turn more often to those areas and nations with even more critical problems. and in several locations in Poland. Both areas tively developed nations. Tridib ll ncrjee conducted an analysis of a neighborhood in 'lirluca (Colonia Universidad). However unceflain the fiItdings may yet be. Peter l)owflton's research dealt with a larger and more irnrorphous portion of the western suburbs of the city ol. The Argentinian study by Dr. Tadeusz Tomaszewski and Maria Susulowska. Profs. While the original intent was to emphasize the settlements of the in-migrant poor (those persons presumably most exposed to environmental stress) the first investigations. they convey the color and substance oi social conditions that are usüally summarized in a more arid and general form. Two of the Polish l.a humid. Dr. The Argentine and Australian cases are areas of stnglelrrrnily houses built by the government for low. Most of these people were living in rela- As different as these locations are in their geogal)lry and culture.or rrroderate-income families in the 1950s. prewar flats at the very crlgc of the city center'lhc study areas differ sharply in other ways. inrpressionistic way and suggest a revised set of meth- . Studies in Four Nations 'l lrcse studies are excellently described in the original rcports.



Studies in Four Nations t2 A typicai street in Colonia San ABustiû.7 The mair shoppi0g street of the colonia iû Ecâtepec. Mexico the residents are still building. . 15 and 2'. (See l6l ) 13 page and Figs. Ecat(jpec.

l0 Growing UP in Citie§ Studies in Four Nations l1 historic. rural migrants. lhcy are mixed in occupation and status but are *unity hut an exceptionally well-defined physical setting.howeYer. are seeing changes optimistic. toward the city center. most moved from other locations in the city. the other Slavic' Salta is a historic. some are approaching the lower middle cllss. a ha$h. llrc village people have long roots in their locality but irrc now beginning to desert it for the city. with incomes somewhat above the median.000 people. or Poland. major river. ln Melbourne people think of themrr. it is to be somebody else and to get away. lr(lging from their children. with its own identity. backed by low open hills The Australiar area is one piece of an extensive. Iian Augustin is the second step in their migration. The city people.Their houses are ruppreciably better than the self-built housing to the wgst. lhe first step being the crowded vecindades of the ccnter city where two-thirds of the family heads still work as laborers or in casual occupations.oup. t n and some apartments added to the original single' family stock Colonia San Agustin' in Ecatepec' is still a partly makeshift single-family area surrounded by dry and dusty wastelands' Electricity and water run along most of its streets' but many of them are still unpaved The Polish housing projects' built in the mass apartment housing style seen everywhere today' are in the amorphous outskirts of thek cities. deafened by the center city bustle at their doorsteps' The village in the foothills of the Tatra Mountains (Bystra Podhalanska)' although now part of the industrial economy' is rural and quiet' The Australians are working class people with incomes well below the national median Many of them . animated by hope rlcspite the problems it may endure. the inner settlements are a mix of old and new flat buildings and commerce. provincial city of moderate size in an economically depressed region of Argentina' Toluca is a similar provincial city. The people ir Colonia Universidad in Toluca are a more stable gr. it is much smaller but is now growing' Cracow is a historic center of 600. The Polish vi1lirgcrs. The Argentines are more nearly lower middle chss. members of a strong.lvcs as being at the bottom of society. rrrc undergoing a very rapid-and to them hopefulrrrcial change. traditional rural society. yet it is the national capital' The Argentine com- are refugees of World War II and settled in Melbourne r generation ago. and while many are still on the lower end of the irrcome scale. drawn from a wide radius by the glamor and work opportunities of the big city. They are recent arrivals in the housing projects. The urban Poles ruc mixed in occupation but are primarily working llss. whose communities rurc lar less coherent. most are originally from Toluca and its vicinity. While some of these Ârgcntine families came from rural areas. Mexico. If these Arrstralians have hopes for themselves or their chilrlr(n. their view of the future is lr. The residents of San Agustin are poor. add flat with alkaline soil and little plant life on a former lake bed' Three settlements are Latin American in culture' another Anglo-American. it rrppears from these studies that the Argentine comrlnity is coherent and stable. a city of ancient lineage still blessed with an active economy' Its residents would be annoyed to be called provincial' Melbourne is a large. somewhat characterless' single-family suburban region' Colonia Universidad' in a newly developing part of Toluca' has undergone dramatic transformations in the last four or five years' during which utilities and paving have been installed olten employed in local gov€rnment. even though llrcir way of life in material terms is substantially Itlglrcr than that in §alta. Finally. rapidly growing Australian metropolis' Ecatepec is at the extreme edge of Mexico City' which is growing explosively' Warszawa is much smaller.

The Use of Unprogrammed Space 'Ihere are similarities in the way these thirteen. they arc testlrg a society of their own. and related his study results to pressing policy issues in the Melbourne region. On the other hand. new techniques were used. Moreover. lhe apartment staircases. Downton developed new ways of observing street behavior when it was extremely mobile and wide ranging. and an analysis of house form was made in Ecatepec. but the fit to local requirements is para" despite the barriers mount. but idle. such as employing photographs to elicit responses. We hope that this local initiative will continue. and the interviews \MitI parents and professionals were substantially eliminated. The reader should refer to the reports themselves. comparing variances in single factors of class. which to their l)lrcnts often appeam. however. with free discussions while engaged in a city walk and while standing on a hilltop overlooking Salta. The Polish group made a fascinating analysis of the combined effects of vadations in envirorment and individual psychological makeup. Yet the similarities we find in these dispamte cases indicate the possibility of some human constants in the way children use their world. Streets are immediately at hand. It is probably true that comparative studies sufficiently accurate to be useful for policy decisions will have to be conducled within a single culture. not. \ryhat follows is oot a rigorous comparison.t2 Growing Up in Cities The Use of Unprogmmmed Space t3 These differences generate expectable differences in our results.) Just beginning to russcrt their independence of the family. detailed method. The Mexican interview schedules were somewhat truncated and modi fied." as the Australians would say. The research teams. lltcre are indications that the inÿestigators themselves wcre at times a little disapproving. were useful in these diverse places. they play informal pick-up Brrnes. and the street is the place lirr it. The Mexican interviews were carried out by non-natives for whom Spanish was a second language. age. it is clear thai the same techniques of observation. and it is legitirrnlc to be in them. We have already explained why such a compadson is not possible. They are independent studies. Interesting things happen in the rlructs. barring a few necessary minor modifications. Battro and Ellis supplemented their investigation with Piagetian analyses of the mental structure of the environmental image. They are not the usual appendixes of footnotes. They talk and meet and { I walk about together. while carrying through the indicated procedures.and lirurteen-year-olds use the "unprogrammed" spaces ncar their dwellings: the local-fièets. or environment. and may now branch out to study the spatial settings of the elderly. were stimulated to branch out in studies of their own. But the gulf makes certain similarities in the data all the more remarkable. they "mess around. Additional questions relating to sex differences and aspirations were asked.wrong. in a seemingly aimless fashion. some of the interesting differcnces and similadties between these places will give a sense of the data that can be produced. (Indeed. The studies have generated much interest in Mexico ard follow-ups in four other sites of varying climate are being considered. Policy makers are well advised to suspect findings imported from other nations. and with ân interesting attempt to encourage the children to generate their own ideas for environmental improvement. the courtÿard§. and yet street behavior is not rigidly prercribed. the interviewers felt that they had good rapport with the children and that they received candid answers of culture and language. Nevertheless. Standardization for the sake of comparison is important. or raw data. In Ecatepec and the Polish center cities in .

'lhe Use of Unprogrammed Space Passing the time on the steps of the squa§h l8 courts building in Melbourne. t9 . Using the streets of Las Rosas.

then homework (for some). Time Budgets Looking at the time budgets. This is cven more marked in the village where children have substantial chores to do and a heavier school load as eontrast then I sew or embroider. tittle time spent outdoors in any fashion.n the streets or in their rooms." Bystra wcll. and lo 30 to 35 percent. With 40 to 45 percent of their waking hours absorbed by school. That's no way to bring up kids!" Melbourne lrctivity-indeed. but it appean that a child's play in Poland is also heavily scheduled. This usually takes until sev- ell. At half past five I p!epare food for the cattle and feed them.) that time is spent on the strcets. the opportunities those places give them lê to I slip away from the parental eye \ryhile still being f 1thought safe and under general . afld also in visits and outings. feeding .ll remaining rirne is spent in front of lhe television s€r (or. This weekend free time is spent (. village children have almost no "idle" tinre. to the other countries. I have dinner and do homework and "I usually get up at six o'clock. W1len I come back from school. and other formal lcssons. almost a. the lower for boys). chores. and other maintenance (the higher figure lirr girls. minor discrcpancies in these data. even the weekends rrrc fully organized and under adult control. wadring. In light the stoÿe. in llreir rooms. Yet there is little lime when they freely organize their own "They just hang around the street ard there's nothing for them to do. Unfortunalely. in Iicatepec where there is no television. listening to the radio). wash23 Activities of twenty Melbourne children olt a \reekday by half-hour interÿals: an example of a time chart. if it is one I am a:[owed to. On the weekends school time almost disappears. outdoor actiyity climbs to 25 to 40 percent. then the tolevision. and unprogrammed time Brammed. The Mexican girls also have an important role in lrrusehold maintenance: cooking. one is struck by the rigidity of the weekday-school in the morning and carly afternoon. the comprehensive Polish lime budget data is unclear. Sometimes I meet my friends for ao hour. Unlike üeir parents in their day. these children (except for the rural ones) are not doing paid labor or even many household chores./ supervision. Then I have supper. or at friends'houses. (Skeptical readers may amuse themselves by finding ups. Thus.20 Growing Up in Citi€s Time Budgets 2t FI Ë FIFI F Fl lÉl l§l lÈl l-riends. and 25 to 35 percent spent in meals. Only 5 to l0 percent of their day is unpro. and watch the "goodûight" program atld a film. homework. I tidy the flat.

but show less knowledge of it. isolated Zatrasie. dangerous lraffic. The Ecatepec children lïxed their action space in the nearby streets and their school. Afterwards. The analysts found that the percentage of time spent in sleep and play by children who were "adapted" to active Powisle was very close for "hanging out. however.. I come from La Villa and the bus is §ometimes slow. the Zocalo. which are onty slightly larger than the Salta territory Qla to I 12 square km). and horses one sees in the street photographs. the cost of public rransport. km in Ecatepec). are the nlosl mobile. Children in the Polish housing projects keep consistently within their project bounds. . and with the center of their city (which is 13 km away compared to 2 km in place. and the low stimulus seekers in Zatrasie) were presumably better matched to the character of their settings than were the other two. At the same time. a lack ofll . The Polish t€am also compared the hours deyoted to sleep and play by children \4rhose temperaments required either a high or a low level of stimulus. active Powisle. Their knowledge of the rest of the city was scattered and random. even l'oluca. free to roam. while the "overstimulated"-the lovers of calm in noisy Powide-spent more time at play yet slept the normal period. Girls are more I t. the emphasis on movement must be general. however. So much for are constantly on the move: walking. and some even commute regularly. while those "adapted" to quiet Zatrasie devoted less time to either activity. 3 km in Saltâ. 'Io visit a friend may mean a substantial trip. Because sometimes I'm tired. and who lived either in noisy. And she either hits me or she doesn't. in lf I t'lsc of the girls. tcrs in extent. But there are times when I doû't help her and she gets mad at I'm being lazy! Durirg the \. They are less familiar The Salta children play rvithin part of a circle which is only ll2 kilometer across. I don't do anything besides doing the classes.22 Growing Up in Cities The Range of Action 23 "I always have to be home around onethilty. I help her with what she needs to do. Aûd if I arriye late." the Tolucan children go to the city parks and the cily center at least once a week and know them reasonably well.ÿeek I don't help have to study. gathering f[ewood. because I go then have to study all aftemooIt. attending the store. or. If we don't do our hornework they call our parents. . riding. Extra time for play or sleep was taken from the time allotted for homework. Thus the tempemments of two groups (the high stimulus seekers in Powisle. Their counterparts at the heart of Cracow and Warszawa roam the densely active central areas. the Zona Rosa. but played about the same length of time. Some of the rund 16 . to to the genelal average. . Their friends are close by. Chapultepec Park. strltial knowledge. Since the Colonia Universidad streets are so inconvenient. Despite lllis spatial range. the Australians seem to be exposed homework! The Range of Action lo a more restricted variety of people. They know its major elements: the subway. while the lroys are. Sonr children do not eyen go as far as the small local plaza. motor bikes. making paper flowers and delivedng them downtown. running errands. The important barriers to movement âre nor dis-ll rxnce but personal fear. but average school grades were unaffected. In fewer cases. activity. they will spend an hour to an hour and a half in a crowded bus to trayel to the center of Mexico City. ranging over ground fiye squarc kilome- her at all. the Mexican children contribute to famüy production: helping a carpenter father." Ecqtepec school the teacheis The "understimulated"-the high stimulus seekers living in Zatrasie. The Australians. 5 km in Kozlowka and Zatrasie. to explain to my mother why I'm late- And my mama knolÿs if I'm teuing the truth or not. I have because I went to buy a book or something. Indeed. attending younger brothers and sisters. and occasionally much further. hoats. biking. They do know üe center well. their territories are more individualized and confident. and seemingly less at ease in lraversing those sections of the metropolis that are lrnlike their own. bikes. marketing.ltcn kept at home or musl travel in pairs. or I the animals. parental controls. . at least in theory. feeding adult members of the fàmily. or quiet. It's that at don't give us vacations. the quiet periphery-slept much longer than the otheË. They dishes and cleaning the table and study all day.iudging from the numbers of cars. They express confidence in moving anywhere within their city. or me.

-ô Ê = xtr> iz .= r.>to .) Ë o É à07 :9P o.

the boys of Las Rosas play and seek solitude on their hills. The children avoid it. for one example. these wastelands are places of fascination. eral projects. above on the escarpment. it is æpuated from their apadments by a new and heavily traveled boulevard. the city center. the lrills. Perhaps the pareûts do not allow their children to visit such places. They dislike the trash that piles up there and the mud when it rains. The Image of the Locality 2'. In any case. no comments on $. . Such feelings are not characteristic of Ecatepec.2A Growing Up in Cities lrnage of the Locality 29 explore that river. is readily accessible to the Powisle children. and a main road with its cânal. The great Vistula River. True. have relatively empty lands nearby. It is certainly dangerous and fast flowing in flood.astelands appear in the urban Polish data. 'A striking difference betlveen the locales is the way in which the children image their community. sharply bounded by a prison." the Salta children all drav/ the same coherent place. Interestingly enough.t A stetile. however. or it is not proper to talk of such escapades. They are afraid of the abandoned houæs where there are drunks and robbers. is the much more important neighbor. although üe Rosas is an area of similar houses. the Bystrans love their woods. and i the volcano just outside the city. The children dislike and fear the vast expanæs of the former lakebed surrounding the colonia. dried-up lake bed suuounds the colonia in Ecat€pec. and yet it is curiously absent from their descriptions. The Tolucans have similar ambivalent feelings about the roc§ hillsides on the north and west. at least. in the view of the Powisle children. Asked to drarv a map of "the area you live in. They have no use for these salt flats-the one thing that is plentifü in their environment.Villa I. They are afraid that they mây fall into ditches or holes. places where one can be alone and act independently.

is Çovered by snow. live is called Bystia. In fact. most of them without any Iirrther detail or indication. a fine school. but tlere is an undercurrent of consensus too strong lo ignore. and the axis points to a grotto on the hills. The children repeatedly mention their partici pation in the tableaux." friendly. By climbing a hill to the north. and children playing. . these rnaps exhibit over four times as many elements as lhose dmwn by the children of central Cracow.' describe their area." . a teritory where the children are familiar with aU the basic institutions of lhe community. standard houses in the Mlla have been added onto. a consistent distdct is rccorded. . I would change the blocks they look like barracks -so they wouldn't be all àlike. (This public neatness contrasts and along it are all the important institutions and rctivities of the village. The drawings of the young Polish villagers are cqually consistent. By climbing the hill just behind their settlement. Although drawn in the winter.lls. Standard houses. Most of them expect to live in the Villa when they grow up. and changing for the better. all grey. At haryest time the corfl becomes golden. a dead-end main street for its axis. the Salta childrcn repeatedly volunteer that it is "nice. They say they prefer their own area to others in the city. the neighbor's association is building a swimming pool. and the parish library. "fun. The two community facilities church and school-are both on that axis. the Bystrzanka." The neighborhood maps from the Zatrasie and Kozlowka housing projects give an utterly different irrpression. one or two of the boys helped clear the land for it. A main road parallels a stream. On the hill. They play until late. a file station. Asked for drawings of the city as a wlrole. they are lilunmertime maps. Little is shown of anyllring beyond the project. Mary people go to the plaza at night. many playful children.a. Some of these could be answers Asked to ccpt for occasional major streets. have blossomed into a coherent society rnd place. "[Kozlowka] is a big estâte ând the communications with Cracow are ûot too bad. they produce "islands" of special activities "This is chaos a stranger can't find his way about. Attempts by Zatrasie children to r(xlvert their triângular area into a rectangle produce rorrlusing results. They believe things will change for the better. and its paved streets (in fact there are few). The maps are crowded with vividly drawn outdoor activities and houses of friends.30 Growing Up in Cities lmage of the Locality 3l It is neither richly equipped nor handsome.r RoJo. There is a strong impression of a teritory thoroughly known rnd personally participated in." They tatk of neighborhood friends and emphasize the Villa's trees (there are not really too many). its plaza. Physical and social identity seem to reinforce is a nice area. These maps focus on the places with which the children are involvedprimarily the outdoor play places between the blank llnges of apartments-and neglect most of the adult Monotoûous blocks. They are dominated by confused arrays ol' large dwelling blocks. the children can see it all laid out before them. but it has a steel arch for an entrance. It organizes a ten-day Chdstmas pageant which draws spectators from all of Satta. lt is still being developed. . Through the village winds a dvel. There are pretty houses. and loûg fields wherc people work. "The district where I progress is slow. There are many birds in the each other. and patterned sidewalks. . although lo judge from current trends they are quite mistaken. 'lhey say their village is changing rapidly (as it is). elaborate front wa. but one without a sense of boundary ex- with the house interiors. . which is closed in by woods and hills. . ho\Mever meager its means. The children await its completion eagerly but impatiently since calculated to please the interviewer. constructed according to a râther haphazard plan on an old garbage dump next to the penitentiary. protected. The streets are all named for flowers. and a tittle central plaza. some shops. which carries away bridges when there are floods. and many of them boast decorated facades. Children play a small but recognizable part in community action. In winter everything You can Bÿstra see boys skiing and sledding." lcltures. the locale of al annual community celebration. thus. they can see the entire city in rclation to the mountains and the farms. Two-thirds of them say they intend to remâin in the village when they grow up. The people are good.") Las Rosas has the appearance of a hopeful and active community. Most of the small. Las Rosas is apparently not just a physical unit but an active community as well. There arc big woods. "It hills. which are reported to be "heaped with objects." Kozlorÿka .

is a joulney to . marked by the major landmarks along the way.lrNrge of the Locality Her map of the whole city the central plaza from her school and local plaza.

*'i'. . â**.1 .. -.i. «tir*i&qry*W .+rô \1']t"rlûrr'ir' A child's plan of Bystra Podhala1tska: the main road with all 31 its community facilities. the woods.'îiâS6.--* "*'".f!*{d4..Kl 'f.{ 1 t..:. 32 Bystra's place in the world.i-.... and a boundaty. ''o..\ :r\ -" Ô Ù.... .:. j'.. "+.lmage of the Locality . i. - -.. the stream.

6 A plan of Kozlowka and its repetitive blôcks.-r | sùçù '.) Zatrasie.----1 L_l t----J I tl. l---J . 35 -t L--... tua ù6ùrNY \-_.Âdr{n @ | l'-. lower right haod comer... 34 A schematic view of Warsaw as seen from llorlr 4 A much simplified map of Cracow.* / I l: i l_) âi si 61 t 36 I r LJ I A view of zatrasie.).-ll l.{l L-l .{.«'r e(A( .1 "': .jI S'{LePY -) ---.36 Growing Up in Cities lmage of the Locality : \t-.-_fl ".^ I t_l l_l I Lç. .[ J§ JJ 1-..i (.. ürrr (Kozlowka is at the end of the road.-l .

But the few who tried lo the area change. Doon are lhe important featurcs. The children's rnaps are accurate strcet maps with a few pictorial embellisl[nents-the church. because there are not so many shops there and it is greener there. and often discover new places. but do not think of the change as an improvement. They are more diverse in the area they cover and the elements they contain. The recent paving and lightilg of those corridors was a striking and welcome event. or that it will change for the worse-parking garages may take oyer the small. most of these children cannot repre- different and sort of better than Kozlowka people. Theæ maps give the sense of a corridor world. and scattered shops. they are the ones most critical of the places where they live (especially in Koztowka). the "hooligâns. etc. low facades. places of entertainment. where they met. Pmski Wielkie. Their dwellings are cramped and there is little place to play. the children were finally to scale how they evaluated those connections (as friendly. The people are quite It linked by long "bridges" of public transport. Less than half expect to continue to live where they arc now. Nearly all of them expect scnt it. spend much time walking the streets. or Tamka Street and its crossings in the other). or the reverse). Colonia Universidad in Toluca is almost solidly residential-â regular. and is noisy and dirty. and historical memoria. The children were âsked to list the people they knew. They are aware thât the environment is constartly changing around them.." and drunks). While Toluca is a relatively small. but fear it will not. or ever negatively. or would not. they simply turn their attention more fully to that center and do not go beyond it. produce much more systematic ard accumte maps based on elaborate street networks and filled with shops. Toward the periphery. to liye there in the future. The knowledge of ceniral Warszawa is not as impressive or as saturated with history as that of central Cracow. school. then to mark what the relationship was (neighbor. The sections settled first Irouses have with outside plaster work and painting-some cvcn have private gardens and gates. They have a place of their own (Kleparski square in the one case. it is-a dangerous it place (the the main strcets run east-west. A thfud of them could not. but it is seen as lying at the edge of a familiar ald active center. They are well acquainted yÿith that qcnter. institutions. Most stores are on Avenida Lourdes. useful. but fewer were relatives." Kozloyrka The central city children in Poland. for example. neighbors.38 crowing Up in Cities Image of the Locality 39 "Nearby is a village. The north§outh streets. relative. One additional test further illuminated the differences between adolescent lives in central and peripheral Warszawa. the most prone to think that good things are located elsewhere. compact city whose edge is easily discemible and streets reasonably well structured. or schoolmates. In the much larger Colonia San Agustin of licatepec. piclorial representations of the central plaza and its dislinctive buildings. llrc east-west spine. but both groups of cbildren know the adult city as well âs the locales most useful to them. narrowed by encroachments. valued. If asked to make maps of the whole city.). The strcets here ruo cleaner. They find their own area interesting. Others §mply extended the area of lheir own colonia somewhat. with the major city parks. Still. serve or y ns Çonnecton. It also neighbors P!okocim. The houses are prettier and it's a bit cleaner than Kozlowka. and with the hills and volcano outside the city. the houses tum to . Their coûtacts were to â larger degree temporary or occasional and more often neutra. open spaces. Most made vivid. They would like to see tlraw a city map. on the other hand. etc. Of all the Polish children. is differeût there. The center city @owisle) children knew more people than the suburban (Zatrasie) children. completely defined by unbroken. ald how often and nnrong various strategies draw the entire city floundered unsuccessfully of integration. rectangulff grid sharply bounded by artedal streets and a huge athletic field.lly. which stand out in that relatively featureless setting.

owka view.) Kleparski square. (Compare with r the very center of arsaw is immediateabove Powisle and Figure 6. ? a 39 3'. with its activity indicated.9 'O i'_r sÀ. is the tiny block above Baszto.) Street.x x- § .) 40 34. (Compare this map of Warsaw with Figure two cars.l The dense and active Powisle quarter.( J \a . Figure 36..ÿ. (Compare to the Kozl.l §n ù)a. (Numetous . q1 t e( Èl %6Li HI] i É6eU â G)v)âtt q @**Y rl W .ÿa Street. 38 A vivid image of Kleparski maiket. which looks up the street in which the above drawi4g has shown ly its Tamka Street.) An accurate and detailed map of Cracow drawn by a child from Kleparski. iust to the right of Dluga graphic traces make it clear this map was drawn and collected fteehand.

-'i 42 Two vivid images of the ce[tral plaza of Toluca-responses to a of the city." reque§t for "a map . )=--:-".Image of the Locality È--@ w1ru ffivvv ---6\ _jy.

layout of the streets. 'fhere is evidence that they know a much larger area in the westem suburbs than they choose to show. thinly set with some commercial locations. Unfortunately. and splashes of color. In the direct. play area. A single meandering route connects this grid with their own area. The other group (mostly girls) make picto al representations showing sltops. The maps include various to the center city only) that a map of the cenlral business district was wanted rather than a map of lhc entire urban region. or sloping girls young on the the boys and The reactions of by the addition of color. Bus stops arc rather frequently indicated. They include a key to the location of activities and serue as a down to earth image of a highly repetitiye enyironment. but they do not come spontaneously to mind when they are mapping their home grounds. and green areas. but frequently interrupted. the open lots are littercd with tmsh. It is usually a conventional. house roofs where none exist. The school is a key feature in the community. Most of the children would probably be able to direct you to those tfungs if asked. Each child shows his own house. and a paddock for horses. it cannot bc viewed from above. they may word "city" commonly rectangles along them. nor is any particular one of the widely distributed public reserves. and usually depict the other east-west channels. Several children draw their high school.many maps show details of its classrooms. Their maps vary widely in extent.1 . Their image of the central city is much poorer. without vegetation of any kind.44 Growing Up in Cities lmage of the Locality 45 shacks. since when challenged they readily enlarge their drawings. This regular layout is surrounded by dusty open fields. the streets are unpaved. while the Salta and Cracow chilrlrcn display a clear conception of their downtown |llûza with its historic buildings. the main east-west street and its stores. The area covered ranges from one to as many as forty blocks. west side of Melbourne are again dissimilar. The streets arc drawn large. No consistent section of the river is mentioned. and front gate. but as many depict factories. also appear frequently. but that lhey know litde of the center itself. parks. The great majodty indicate various shopping areas. since these map areas simply i bG ap'àhd do not coincide. schools. physical sense. such as Churchill and Ballæat. omaments. no center. and less of the The images of San Agustin show an interesting dichotomy. and a football oval. a pedestrian overpass. from the surroundings of a single house to a region of six square kilometers. Almost all the representations sltow Avenida Lourdes. they have no vivid image of lltat central district. as Salta can be. nor can it be /. These sensuous representations seem almost as if they were an escape from complished a harsh environment-an escape ac- trees where all are flat. They are very conscious of the mosaic of separirte suburban governments that surounds them. basically rectangular. Their drawings are full of details embellished with textures. The Melbourne home region has no definite boundIrlcs. while the numerous cross streets are rarely identified. Every map is essentially a street map. other locations are appended as small tcmainder r01èrs Irave understood (since the of Melbourne. and most show the houses of their friends. They have difficulties in recording the neatly planned. a few main roads. Thus. One group (mostly boy$ represent the environment as a map of streets and blocks. these drawings are in0onclusive. street gdd. Other main roads are sttown only on a scatte ng of maps. but imperfectly known. Their drawings are schematic and lack sensuous detail. one particular park. One has the impression that rnany of these boys and girls know a broad western tcgion as well as the way to the city center. At any rate. \Àr'hich are often misplaced. like a long umbilical cord.


Growiûg Up in Cities

Image of the Locality


Two maps of San practical guide; the other, a wishful image of home and its appendages.

Augustin: one



A child's own area in Melboulne: streets that fade away to the

A view of the center city: no more than a grid of streets.



Growing Up in Cities

|râvorite Places


within its bounds, as Bystra can. The social facilities are the conventional sports fields and schools. The playgrounds are featureless and empty. The asphalted, treeless streets are equally empty. The houses seem solid and comfortable, but the yards appear unused, except for drcds. (The Las Rosas yards
seen as being

the homes of friends. The rcsponses of the children of Salta are the same, but they also add: the plaza, the locâl street corners, ald some, the hills. The Polish children reply: at home, in the parks and woods, the streets, the homes of friends. Those from Toluca say

like to be in the woods. I walk and

"If I'm

alooe, theIl I therc." Bystra
feet free when I'm alone, when I am



full of

house extensions-chicken yards, work

much the same, although they emphasize playgrounds rather than streets.

areas, and vine-covered dining places. The Bystra yards are the working areas of the farms. Kozlowka has only the trampled public spaces between its buildings. There are a few small pdvate gardens in Zatrasie, which are fiercely defended against the chil-


asked where they least

dren.) Wasteland in Melbourne is difficult to reach, and rules prevent children from digging, building, or bike riding on public land. The community is pleased about an improvement to Dobson's Reserve and the hope of a swimming pool, but th€y wait for an outside authority to accomplish it for them. (The Las Rosas people are building their own pool on a hill
that no one controls.) The Australian scene is almost perfectly unmanip-

like to be, children will say school, boring places, where they are under control or have no friends. A few will mention places they believe to be dangerous, and several Australians and Poles say that home is where they least like to be. For those Ecatepec chil dren who suggested such places, the answers were consistent: vacant lots with dirt and rocks, open areas full of trash, busy, narrow streets. In sharp contrast, they consistently named their school as a favorite
place and gave it a loving emphasis on their maps. We car only suspect thât for them the school is a wel-

walking in the mountains by myself, simply if I'm all alone o! swrmmrtg acros§ a

lake." Kozlota,ka


"Also, I like to travel

Huehetoca, it's a

hours by train. . .

It's very pretty. I like


because there ale trees, there's countly,

come relief from the harsh reality of poverty that
surrounds them-an oasis of stimulating experience where the children can do new things and read books that open up lie wonders of the world. This must be

there are horses to ide. . .." Ecatepec "Bystra is the best place to live in. It's
very pleasant when there âle lots of \ÿoods ûear, and it's very green. There is purc air, and the cars don't

ulable by its chüdren, except that they can move
through it. In the air photos, one can see the tracks of their movement. They watk tJIe streets with their friends. They hope to be some place else in the future. Their negative feelings arc reinforced by the newspapers, which assure them that they are at the

bottom and that they have no initiative. These feelings contrast straagely with the physical appearance of the adolescents in the photographs-tall, well dressed, almost mature, apparently full ofvitality. Favorite Places

a tribute to the public education in EcatePec, and points to the important role that schools can play in the lives ofpoor children. lVhen they were asked to describe the best place imaginable to live in, their utopias also reflected consistent themes: trees, friends, quiet, lack of traffic, small size, cleanliness. (The repeated empha§is in
Salta on kindness and a united people may indeed reflect some hidden anxieties.) It is remarkable how differences tend to level out in describing this ideal. Many children in all four nations describe rural scenes or rural villages, while others advocate center' city excitements, The Saltese, Tolucans, and Bystrans most often picture a village or an improved residen' tial area much like their own, while the center-city Poles frequently describe

roat paat." By'itra

"In the countryside in a small house with tlees surounding it, a
garden with roses, a brook, near some hills,

with horses, but not to live alone." -La.v


\{hen asked where they like best to be, where they feel most at ease, where it is best to meet friends and to be alone, the Melbourne children answer consistently: their own room, at home, or even better, at

"A place like this ote." Las Rosas
later on it'd be better not to live here." Melbourne


she has her choice

a city with



Growing Up in Cities

lJeautiful and Ugly Places


46 Rulal peace: the environmental ideal of a Kleparski child.



ovcrtones. But those in theperipheral housing projects nominate one of the other situations as the ideal. The l\4elboumites talk of Europe, or of cities and seasides Iar away. The Ecatepecs speak of living on the ocean, or in the United States in southern California. The Melbourne girls and boys want to be more in(lcpendent of their parents, to range even more widely. Those of Salta are conscious of few barriers to lheir present moyements, although they actually use their freedom less than one might think. The restric-

"I try rot to go out in the evenings, because it's unpleasatt in the back lanes. Sometimes l'm scared out of my wits. In the evenings
the hooligans are


Another Kleparski child has different hopes for the future.

lions that the Argentine and Mexican children are [lost conscious of pertain to those places that arouse lheir cu osity, but before which parents and other dults have set barders: the adult movies, cedain r'lubs and bars. In the same fashion, the Polish chil"
rlrcn also say they are generally free to do what they wisli. (Although an outsider's impression, judging liom superficial observations of street behavior, the rrso of locks on apartment elevators, and similar clues, ls that they are actually under close and constant n(lult coûtro[). All speak of the dangers that surround lhom: natural dangers (as in the rivers and forests), hut above all the hazards of traffic and of the tlrrcatened assaults of "bad people," "hoods," "hooli 14lrts," or drunks.

about, they might even set a dog on you. I run away." Kozlowka

"The bâr is the worst
here. The drunks sing and shout. l'm afraid





"It is['t a place, it's the whole of Kozlowka that is dangerous, because the ruffians rove around, aûd it's very unpleasant to meet them in the dark. And in Cracow the streets,
the crossings, are dangerous. The traffic is awfi)|." Kozlowka


A Kozlowka child

wishes for a mode[r

house in a dramatic natural setting.

llcautiful and Ugly Places

"It's dangerous deep ir} the woods because
there may be mad animals. But here in the village it isn't." B))stra

llcrutiful places for the Australians include all the
prrrdens, parks, ând trees to be found somewhere else. Irorrses, impersonal

"old" public buildings, pollution and rttbbish. For a few of them, it seems to be ugly eyerywlrcre in the world. For most of the Ecatepecs, too, llrcrc were no beautiful places in their colonia, alllrorrgh some mentioned what little "green" areas lllrlc were: a small garden in front ofthe market, an (t[oleda. Some could not name beautiful places
llgliness is a compound of their own factories,

"You can't be safe
you in the dark!" Melbourne
People jump out at

anywhere, really



Growing Up in Cities



"There is nothing beautiful here. Kozlowka is quite nice, but you can't say it is beautiful." Kozlowka


"All around is ugly
a slum. The houses

aren't looked after; people haven't got
much money."


"The plaza [is beauhappy place and there are always children




is a


"The hill in springtime is like a greel plllow -" Las Rosa§

anywhere. The Tolucan children, on the other hand, named a great number of beautiful places; although they disagreed as to just which places were beautiful except that most nominated a city park on a small hill that is distinctly visible in the flat cityscape. The Argentines likewise named long lists of places they think beautiful, from their own plaza, their "flowery" local streets ând deforested hills, to the plazas, parks, and monuments of the center city. Taken for a walk in the center, the children felt that the principal dimensions of beauty were cleanliness ard modernity. They liked new stores, luminous signs, and multistory apartments. The Australians, with their broader city experience, disliked their apartment buildings but agreed about cleanliness. When the Polish village chitdren drew pictures of the worst environment they could imagine, they showed shabby, traditional rural houses, heaps of litter, broken equipment, unsanitary

not designate any part of their landscape as sacrcd, yct their city is the provincial capital and they consistently name the "palacias" of the administration, iudiciary, and legislature, all set around the central

plaza, as first on the list of important places. One §cnses here a certain respect end pdde, at lea§t, if not irwe. Some Polish children have similar feelings about (he historic monuments of Cracow.

'the children of Salta think there have been minor physical changes in their area, all for the better. They believe that the next ten years will see continued improvement. The Bystrans have seen rapid changes in
the last yeam, social and economic




and are eager for more. Most Tolucan children rernember changes: new schools and playgrounds, paved

"The place where I
üYe has changed the better. Ne\,ÿ


conditions, and places ælling alcohol. Most Salta children said there vr'ere no ugly places, but a few
admitted the prison and certain city strcets outside their own community to this class. The prison hides something fearful, but its battlemented walls are also romantic, This mixture of fear and romaoce para.llels their ambivalent feelings for the hills. We asked them to name any holy places, but sacredness is not an inherent feature of the landscape for most of these children. The only exceptions were two of the Polish villagers who named a woodland spring and an ancient tree, and two from Cracow who cited historic buildings (and another who nominated a police station since one couldn't use swear words there!). To most children, a holy place is simply a church, although some Australians and Poles say there are no holy places, and the Mexicans do not even mention the churches. But perhaps our question was wrong, if we wished to uncover any feelings of awe. For example, while the Tolucan children will

streets, sidewalks, lelephone lines, lights, water,
drainage. Others mentioned more houses, more people, more storcs. Most thought these changes were for the better and had no regrets. The Ecatepec children remember similar changes and arc pleased: there is less dust now, houses that used to be slunties are fully constructed, one does not have to go outside the colonia for certain services.. One child did think there were too many people, another regretted the building up of the vacant lots where children used to wander around. The Australians have seen changes too, but are less certain of their yalue. Some past changes have progressiyely restdcted their freedom of action. They envision pervasive change in the future: new people, new etlinic groups, more apartments, üore noise,

houses haÿe been

built. The wooden
bddges have been
changed for concrete

ones. People work in factodes now, but befole they only vr'orked

onfarms.... Living
is more comfortable,

and people earn more. More could be changed if all the people could b€ encouraged to lvork

back." Bysta

woods is holy. If somebody has no appetite and drinks water flom it then his appetite will come

"The spring in the

togett,el," Bystra
"Always everything
better, more developed.-" Los Rosq§

pollution, crowding, and traflic. They are quite di vided as to whether the future will be better or worse, although they are sure they don't like apart'
ments and traffic. The children of central Cracow and

with paving because
before therc was dust and one had to clean

"lt's much cleaner
daily, daily. And

it rained, it


Warvawa are less conscious

of the future, but

muddy, and very



of their idleness and boredom. and bars. lower taxes and prices. supermarkets. another wanted to help poor children go to school. Those These adolescents are a\ÿare changes of the pervasive and units with no back yards for the kids to play in. as well as their own future. Only three children of Satta think they will leave their area in the future." Melbourne from Zatrasie and Kozlowka have perhaps experienced the greatest rush of construction. . The Tolucan children wart more parks and around them. and housebound. more crowding. They search for ways out ofpoverty and indignity and look to their schools for more education. The Salta report." she'Il have a clean. They want more and better schools including vocational schools where they can learn skills-more parks and playgrounds. while the Australians want to tear down the factories and stop the growth of apartment flats. while their comrades on the periphery want more activities and services and better access to the center. "It would be nice to make the school higher. rural or urban. In a few y0urs. the villagers join in keeping their houses and yards. Their own hurd-working childhoods. only tltree children of Melbourne think they will remain' All the children would like to see more trees. . and more recreation facilities. even tJre enyironment seems no hsltcr. at least. control of traffic. the Australian planners think lhrl space for organized team sport is needed most.r I ' playgrounds. Their suggestions reflect â Senuine concem for their families..llxrurne. and flo cxpected to follow) much the same path their lurcnts traÿersed. oÿe. mote road accidents ." "I don't think it will change. l\rrents and Officials l hc interviews with parcnts and officials (not carried rrrrl in Mexico and Poland) are perhaps less revealing. well ignorant Il what the children do. more skill.workgd." -L4J Ro. In Mr. although one Melbourne boy helps to maintain a small park. hrl they corroborate much of what the children say. Like the Australians. t'lrl ren have followed (and in the fulure expecl. or participating in the Christmas pageant. They want better provision of basic necessities: drinking water. They learn a. rhe. The \ center-city children in Poland wanl more places to ]play in. they are unsure of how well they like it. Ofle spoke of free land for the poor. contrast wl(lr the improved position of their offspdng in terms ul nrate al goods. lhr Zatrasie district is considercd a model of planned r "I tlink just like her motherbored. factories. but the qualily ol personal life has not changed thât rapidly. While the srandard of living rises. transportation. Despite the lack of use of lho cxisting facilities. . improving the school. for example. ând an empathy for fellow residents of the colonia. 'llrc officials are. and fence it in or close it off with rail- ings.nd they teach one nnother within this changing relationship. and their atluoks upon the school. There'll be different natiooalities around. a cleaner and more beautiful environment. but they perceive thoæ changes with different feelings and with a different degree of aocuracy. The times are better. homely and happy house and be Melbourne . this age. The children of Ecatepec think of the whole colonia and its peopl€. and even the military base.Growing UP in Citie§ I)ârents and Officials 55 "It wiU be all flats have some forebodings-especially about traflic. they will use and value their enÿironment in rlrrite a different way. and several Salta children speak of working in the hills. The exterior clranges are landmarks along their own internal path ol development. clinics. The Argentines want more tall buildings. . betr ter streets. There are constant hints as to how llrcir knowledge and use of the city (and the restriclions that city and adults put on them) continue to rrhange as they grow. another looked for ways of giving money to parents. housing. They æe the future much as their rlrlhlren do. They sens€ their own growth. All these groups believe they have little power to affect the environment. parents are still in control and fairly well ^l lrli)rmed of what their children are doing. hints at the destructive power of the older adoles(x'!ts.r4. an abolition of bars. because the boys that have oothiog to do break what is in- side. for the most part.

56 Growing Up in Citi€s Institutional Advocacy and Responsive Planning 57 development. Traffic can be minished or diverted by more general policies as Sidewalks can be widened in places. The official interyiews were few and but two trends were apparent. Such would serve as a necessary supplement to the iional parks and playgrounds. sÇattered. First. They sirould have a role to play in community maintenance and community celebration-particular functions to perform. Community Identity that they are an excellent way of informally municating research findings and for locating a from which to dislodge some fragments from smooth face of official policy. lnstitutional Advocacy and Responsive Planning I'lûnners. Waste grounds offer rurother potential for this type of local action-the l. it is the basic infrastructure of a settlement as electdcity. Traffic hazards can be reduced installing lights. The hunger for trees is ouispoken and universal. and haps more generally.rrs Rosas pool is one example. and paving. The child client. and apartment yrrds can easily become dispiriting. The improverlcnts made to the small. or nent. related to the conservation of natural rcsources and to their historical heritage. The littered Maribyrnong River. the form regulation of local streets and small oPen spaces one critical issue. resident-owned houses of llystra and Las Rosas exemplify how envfuonments cln have a form that facilitates user control. childhood places of these officials were different from those of the children under study. Dead-end streets have been excellent places for play.lln light of their importance fi 'Ihe children should be living in places that have a clear social and spatial identity. So too the sterile lake bed around the colonia in Ecatepec. water. should ho rsked to evaluate the existing enÿironmett and to . designers. off by factories and a golf course. places they can under- social interaction and informal play. So are the scattered lots the bridge approaches in crowded Powisle. or in with small play spaces. whatever substantive knowledge may or may not be gained by these last interviews. and other "left-over" spaces can be safe and utilized for children's recreation. children can join in landscaping their neighborhood. or even soil importation. Moreover. Landscaping should be as essential a part stand and take pride in. soil improvernent. sewers. if accessible. 'l heir sense of past and future should be connected to lheir locality. unlike extending utilities or paving. and environmental managers will lmvc to become more concerned with children's l00ds. which do not allow creative play. even with sharply limited sources. Cenlrally managed streets. Second. The tocality Itself should have features that make it amenable to uhang€s that children can accomplish. tn a hostile environment like Ecatepec. street closings. particular places for which they are at least in part responsible. or bumps. The children of Mclbourne and Poland may be right in their opposilk)n to the new flat buildings. Underused or abandoned rights of wastelands. playgrounds. and by periodic. It is not window dressing. is an resource in Melbourne. Layouts that deter tÉffic can be avoided. must be a priority in providing open space. least for these children in these localities. Observation and research should be part of the rlosign process. Policy Implicationsr Environmental Improvement These sludies have numerous policy indicalions.

But it is clear. Once a settlement is located. Without such formal institutions. Rather than elaborirting the study. we must keep in mind the aim: Ilexible research which can be done with modest t»eans in almost âny situation. or by weekend bus service to attractive places. and deepen their diverse development. Admittedly. With greater confidence. we should aim to abbreviate it while still permitting local elaboration according to interest. While essentially a passive medium. city as a leaming ground. We only intend to show that policy implications cdn be drawn from them. For poor children \ÿith limited mobility. The schools themselves would be more interesting if they used the local environment in their teach- ing. They spend much of the day in the classroom and haye little time to explore the city.l. this or simil studies will have very little impact. these studies are too small to be useIul as a firm basis for decision. It may be more critical for the latter. using the cily and region as an educative lr rcsource. The case of Ecatepec points out the poten. À personal visit by the advisor to each locality and a tlctailed discussion with the local team is highly . we draw a number of conclusions about better ways of conducting such studies. Attractive public close places. Television is rapidty becoming a major way in The city should open out to these clüldren. Access and Education programmed. Experiencing a spectrum of places. it rDay be the only way they can be exposed to the range of opportunities in a society. However. The work is dghtly carried out and controlled by local research teams rather than by i. iÎ children's rights and needs are to be represented in public decisions. much less as a source of generalized theory. Unfortunately. and activity will reduce their boredom (even their vandalism?). ii tial of the school as an oasis and a hope. they might leam to use the lirom these Iirst experiences. In doing so. llevisions of Method at hald. a closer contact with the scientific advisor would be useful to the local teams. They want both quiet and stimulus and should find both which children throughout the world expedence rcality.)lported experts. The relation of residential areas and city serÿices is not only important for adult welfare but for the child's welfare as well. which comes to the same thing. Hours of opening and closing may be shifted to accommodate child users. should be accessible to children. Broadcasting agencies must become aware of the terrifying responsibility their programs bear. Many countries have such institutions. it can âlso be used for local environmental exploration and can be linked to school l)rograms. and fewer official or tmnsport restrictions. since the child is more limited in his range and has the greater hunger for stimulus because his growth feeds on it. Most activities for these children are highly The nature of the studies appears to have been chosen correctly. by the elimination or reduction of fares for children. people. UNESCO has its own commission. Children may be taught to move about the city.5& Growing Up in Cities Itevisious of Method 59 pârticipate in the design and construction of settings specifically intended for children. There are real problems ofheavy traffic and personâl assault to cope \Mith. that there must be formal bodies concerned with children's welfare at the local and national levels. where interesting activity can be seen and engaged in. Schools might emphasize experiential learning more liequentÿ. some additions do seem to be incscapable. access may be crcated by new bus routes or schedules.

lloth photographic collections are almost entirely confined to the public streets. or the rnultiplicity of research techniques to be employed. Where it was not used systernatically. although some addi tional shots were required. the im- mediate locality is the crucial place. or rrppear only incidentally from a distarce. It now seems clear that an international compadson is wo are to get a reasonable systematic descriptioû. places. however. looking for hints on how they might later be induced to remain in the countryside rather than inundate the city. Building a regional patchwork of modest sample sludies would be the most efficient way of informing rlccisions and of building local research capability. Two improvements can be $rggested. age. when they are using the spatial world most intensively. or class. probing such things as their attitudes toward nature and the maintenance of landscape and culture. and if possible. it may be wise to relax our original selection criteria. These latter prcmises. on how they might be better prepared for urban life. both of the environment and of the visible hchavior. dealing in depth with a small number of children in a restricted locality. given a relaxation of the selection criteda. longitudinal studies of children as they develop in their landscape would be ideal. lVe would also like to know more about children tlran comparative studies in the sarne culture and region. are typical features of childhood attitudes may be much less important of the setting.yet it should be sllfficiently coordinated so as to allow a flow of inlbrmation between national teams as well as ihe publication of comparative results when something interesting turns up. each inyestigation should promise information that will change some forthcoming decision. In many nations. it might be more relevant to study children in the rural settlements. factory ald other such spaces are rarely shown.60 Growing Up in Cities l)escdbing the Environment 6t recommended for future research. we feel the lack of a fundamental description. We irdvocate an extension of the range of the sampling rather than an extension of the size of the areas studied. Indeed. What we would hold to is that the study should deal with the way children use and value their settings and that it be made via open-ended dialog and observation. or in later adolescence when parental control shed and alienation and destructiveness âppear more openly. for example. The environment is critical for this age. The recommended scale of the grid had to bo modified in the extensive Melbourne region. The photographic grid proved to bc an excellent and relatively undemanding way of rlcscribing the spatial setting. Ihe sampling should be â modest. l)escribing the Environment Itself 'lhe research techniques can be clarilied and simpliIicd to some degree. but proved about right in Las Rosas. allowing local teams to pick subjects fit directly into current policy issues-places where issues of environmental quality are critical and can be influenced. First. Studies would compare microlocations differing from cuch other in specific traits of enÿironment. We see æveral ways in which these studies might develop. such as those carried out in Mexico and Poland. low income groups are those most affected by it. wheré rcsources permit. Beyond this. Back yards. . continuing effort (lirected to clarifying local problems. This determination can only be made on the that ground. or conversely. however. it is important to photograph the roârest accessible outdoor space to the grid point if in different stages of development at six or nine years of age. producing some experimental evidence concerning the relevant perceptual clues. Since the link of research to policy is our prime concern. the size of the sample population.

illustrate the relation of the children's community to the city as a whole and to points of interest to the children. Together with the ground photographs. but some reasonable effort should be made to rccord them. 49 A fragmert from the graphs taken at regular intervals cap- photogrid of Melboune: how phototurc the look of an entfue setting. for levels of maintenance. would produce il more rclevant and more consistent survey. which key the lo0ations of the photos. He can be asked to look for eYidence of children's actiyity. lor visible pollution. Given a good photographic base. which would surely be expensive and redundant. they produce rruch relevant information. having arrived at a Srid inter§ection. They would be even more informative if stereo-pairs were provided. unless we ask him to make a 360dcgree panorama. the photographer needs better instructions as to where to point his camera. The aerial photographs look down into llrese pieces of terrain. they may also be inaccessible to the photographer. (See the Melbourne report for a discussion of some of t.62 Growing Up in I )cscribing the Environment cvcn when they are inaccessible to the children. since the landscape could then be read in detail. A checklist of this kind. or for whatever is expected to be critical in the study. the re' quired maps can be simpler than origina. Given theæ two kinds of photographs. and which name the environmental features or descdbe particular land uses. for ways in which the setting has been modified by its user§.lly specified.) The aerial photographs are extremely useful. and if they were correlated with ground views in every typical situation. Second. They need only be outline affairs. Of couræ. for barriers to access. . coupled with standard instruclions about lenses and sky exposure. the maps cal therefore be quickly and freely executed. or invesligators can make use of standard mâps already aÿailable. but they are much more useful il a few sample ground shots can be correlated with the aerial view.hese points.

density of occu- 50 The odginal. Moreover. that in one rcspect these studies must be extended. the portions of the house lo be recorded will be indicated by how the inter' view data indicates what the child is preoccupied with. A casual remark in the course of reporting the parent's interview indicates that the furnishing and use of these rooms may be critical in the children's lives. these sketches should be accompanied by photographs of house in' tcriors. Successful interior photography is more difficult. In (he future. it is necessary to get some record of the typical house interior' The Salta study included useful plans of original and remodeled houses and yards in Las Rosas. than snapshots taken in the street. both technically and socially. lhc dining area. the importance of a child's own room and furniture. studies should include a few sketch house irnd yard plans. standard Las Rosas house and typical additions to it. pation. Nevertheless. Moreover. howeYer. Since future interviews will also rlcal with interior space. only those parts of the house most relevant to the child his own room. the gain seems worth the effort. showing furnishings. the television space-need be re' corded in detail. all indicate that a focus on outdoor space alone is inadequate. If possible.64 Growing Up in Cities Inside the Home 65 Inside the Home It has become quite apparent. House plans need not be precisely to scale and can be drafted freehand by someone accustomed such work. lo . The degree of crowding in the home seemed to be a significant factor in the irctions ard attitudes of the Polish children as well. Since so rnuch time is spent indoors. the lengthy time spent belbre the television set. and activity areas. it may be (lifficult to gain access to the houses or to have the opportunity to make plans on the spot. Such descriptions will mean a substantial increase in the research load. The interior-extedor contrasts.

the intefliews with the children were the spatial context of that photograph. but they produced a great deal of . Observing Behavior rirrrplify the drafting as well as the reading of the diagross befirxtns. we would ask for a better picture of the historical devclopment of the chosen place. are also in clear view on the photograph. many of the physical details. Not only should diagrams be accompanied by one or rnore photographs. or is needed to give out to be Deficient in this one respect. are valuable rocords. tions. Since photographs were taken to show the activity being diagrammed (and this should clearly always be done). In any case. it is essential tr) note the actual behavior of the children. The diagram." However. and should emlrlraslze how children actively use the spatial features rrlound them. The observer should note the motion. and by simpler means. Both investigations illumirirte each other. be unnecessarily elaborate in others. Descriptions wiu üen be reduced to rough sketches and word pictures made after a house yisit. "Black Youths View Their Environments. In the same vein. Movies and videotapes rrrc ideally suited to record actiYity. it was sadly missed in the other cases. other suçh details may be irrelevant to the action. as well ns what they say about it. Unli)rtunately. The technique will have to be modified to record dynamic aspects of this kind. although the previous condi tion of the landscape caû often be inferred from rrlher material. Both the Salta and the Melboume studies produced moYies lllustrating the chosen setting. Just as in making exterior descrip. and speech where possible. and to what ex- movement-the constant shifting of groups and their activities. This will rilther long. since rnaking an entire series of "instaltaaeous" records would staggering to compile and staggering to read. and of user modification. Otherwise. what that change means. any field recording of the house interior may be regarded as an intrusion on family privacy and in that case it must be omitted. once it is made capable of showing change. the children may be asked to sketch their own image of their dwelling and its territories. But tlrcy reâlly come alive whenever they happen to slrow the children in action. supplemented by photographs and notes were a useful innovation in recording such behavior. The diagrams. but it might also be useful to vidcotape some s€quences of child actiYity. These are attractive rccords. Some of this escaped our recordings. While the naturalistic observation of child behavior outdoors was quite successful. Àry landscape is always a landscape in change. judging from the one example we have.66 Growing Up in Cities llr(lividual Illterviews 67 See Floreoce Ladd. useful for presentation to an audience. can then be reduced to a record of action with only as much of the setting as is relevant to that action. or is not visible in the photograph.)lher records describe the static. The way an environment has changed and is clranging. of territory. What we seek is the comprehensiye description of indoors and outdoors as a used landscape-an ecology of children. The photographs capture dress and lrrrvior. physical place bet' tcr. very little histodcâl data was developed ir the studies at hand. Historic maps. the . atteûtion in the house interior should be paid to such things as evidence of use. But the diagramswere deficient in recording As a last comment on the field recording. so carefully recorded in the diagram. or plrotographs of its condition prior to its building or ils occupation by the present generation. the diagrams tum lcnt the children are aware of it are central issues. the fine lrclravior. 'I'he Individual Interviews As predicted.

a."tioo^*t'.doç*)Y 4 r44en''.'4:'-: l:ril 'i?"fl { ÿ ^ "".1-.t '.61 j" $t$ tr i §ù r I l-ry --) "'"?.1 o' y'**h.68 Gro\À/ing Up ir Cities lndividual Interviews {t Èô* ao KEY /- a"l/"At é"û14.fa... Diagramming the lb *w "*p..t4r.-X24) - o) co^sha./.*A Q .. yfl.7"'-æ o{ +arct é pv..^..< .ftrfu5 <.. ve.7t- C) o'4 aaZ* a.a' pra*u-Y ols a'rvaltn<c z ! J6ià5.f%..f Nÿlra zoo{' a|''n ' ' ./xbA. 2{ ea t.à.1.-< à.îeA/'A h..144ü4/î a.e'f ok rta..\ .p. 4. aooo< ol arh A lN Orf"/' hd/"-/ra./. 51 actiÿity in a public park in Melbourne and a photograph keyed to the diagram. h^r.j '! -Zrt-l/<.t'"i '.Y tÂY -a/4n .b{ al + .1êa.^t --a-------<-.s.:4 '!..jiài + .

a..àà&."..o)14^q n- câtch the âctiofl wheî It is flowing along the §treets.*** *)s êi< zT tlar.rt\ A t &de o4t .nà.. It is much halder to 'kzr'-àq /arrd eî!4 ^ 4Jÿ-tA /ooo lc Ir.' 't@ .§\ \§ \ §r ri: ü' 6 ia Q-7L'^a æx 52 .'ea- .. l^" pr. .70 Growing Up in Cities Individual Interviews ià." Trate/ n. /. ptof.1".f "q '-6:7 { c.1-Q).ze c/rlrt . l .

Un(loubtedly. how they put edge. the results with these children contra(lict this impression. the sketches should be more carelirlly keyed to "true" maps of objective locations in t0l. though studies elsewhere have reported difficulty in persuading some people to draw such maps and have cast doubts on their value as a reflection of the The first part of question l0 on the obstacles to irction must also be reformulated. These are üe questions t}tat have produced the most useful information. inteniews in Melbourne spread out over two months). at least in mapping their local scale. like Dlrotographs and videotape. 5. a day in detail (original question 18). Placement. they also seem most universâl in their application. But asking the children to redraw a rrap (because it seems thin or restricted or incorrect) simply distorts the information. they cut through language difficulties and reveal feelings and concepts llrat otherwise do not surface. tions l. spatial €nvironment. whether they are for the better. Whüe it should rrnly be one part of an analysis. territory and control (part of original question 1 l). what changes have occurred.vhere intonation and expression tend to be lost. uruch can be seen in these drawings. 4. Because of this. ncntal image. are full of infomation on what the children consider important. The request itself (old question 4) can be sirnplified. the additions (preferably in ânother color) that show what parts of üe area they actively rrse or frequent.'t2 Groÿring Up in Cities llldividual Interviews 13 It takes a period of time to gain the confidence of the children. 2. dangers and frustrations (part of odginal questions 10 and 12). Iirst. plus a longer list of possible additions designed to obtain special information. style all say som€thing and are permanently r0oorded. and confusions. for example. the range of their knowl- their feelings. preferences (part of original question l0). it together. and views on the future (part of origi. This could be accomplished by indicating the overlapping boundaries of t}Ie areas drawn. the map of "the area you live in" (how they choose to understand that phrase is in itself revealiug). translx)sed to true scale on an accurate map. the Polish team showed how much information could be extracted liom only one aspect of these drawings. The "own area" maps. Moreover. and second. Al. While a few deletions in the questions can be sug. in a more concrete way. As a nonverbal technique. a larger number of intriguing additions must be made. 6. but the part-time interesting material. 3. but the children. We recommend that the following items be re. mapping is an obstacle in some adult intervicws. the interview should be reorganized into two parts: a brief "core" recom. nal questions 14 and l5). but substantially modified). and also by rusking the investigator to name the obscure points on lhe drawings or to sketch the true pattern as an appcnded diagram (as was done occasionally in Melbourne). Simple counts of the elements shown are llso useful. activities. and to prevent an other" wise inevitable bloating. in contrast to most questionnaire interviews \. The use of the latter would depend on local interest. and 7. since the most prcduciive sources are. a verbal description of thet area (original tlre area. attacked it with conviction. ques. and These modifications may be compared to the original questions listed on pages 99- lrca. In . ln the future. tained in the "core" after the preliminâries of ques. I and 2 (identification and residential history): the mapping of their area and of their use of it (question 4 in the original guidelines). but the interview§ themselyes can be conducted within a reasonable block of time (two weeks in Salta. tion 5. to get at the specific difficulties chüdren encounter in using the physical. gested. even from a great goographical and cultural distance. mended for all occasions. sequence.

Some of the remaining questions can be recommended as additions. A detailed diary of activity on a specific day that is fresh in the memory is wanted rather than a general estimate ofhow much time is spent doing this or that." can all be different things. the children could be asked to map their own room. ln addition to being asked to map their neighborlrood. and to describe what they do in each place. similar to those of the I\)lish team in regard to optimum levels of stimulus. And if the "happiest day" is rusked for. lhe children might be asked more specifically about tlreir attitudes toward nature. and so forth." "at ease. Question 9 (on freedom of moyement) can be added to this group. as contrasted vrith what they learn in school or through the media. it must be reformulated to refer to con" {rete qualities in the enyironment. For example. "Holy" is often Special feelings can be investigated. of lhoir area. which is of course in itself revealing. except that question t8 (yesterday's events in detail) must be more dgorously applied and recorded so that a time budget can be constructed from it with confidence. is wanted.'74 Growing Up iû Cities lndividual Interviews 15 addition. and their use of them. lt has shown some interesting consistencies. it must be emphasized that an idea of the entire city or urban region. instead of maps. Sorne children have substantial trouble with making a city map. Question 13 (beautiful and holy places) is sometimes art evocative question." and "able to do what you want. which was made into a core question. as well as to the outdoors. ill order to test the interaction of psychological and cnvironmental variables. what th€ place neans to them. Question 8 (map of the whole city) is usefully related to the local map in question 4. Question 16 (the best place to live in) is useful (as is its inverse. and also reduced. Question 3 (on daily actions) is unnecessary if question 18 is completed. if such photos are taken prior to the interview. they could be combined. the question should be broken into two parts. house. what they like or dislike about it. hut the replies are rarely very imaginative. the local lcams usually deleted the "saddest day" question as potentially disturbing. Questions 6 and 7 (on the knowledge and use of other areas) were uæful but not central. The most interesting part of this question pertained to belonging and control. "describe the worst environment"). but less so than the .) All the questions need rewording so that they naturally refer to interior space. Other questions can be added to this elective list. as well as typical locales elsewhere itr the city. and could act out a day's activity in those nrodels. The other core questions seemed workable. and plants. not just its central core. however. In using (luestion 17 (happiest and saddest days). The children would be asked to identify the views. since "at home. to rlcscribe what they do in each area. animals. llre stresses they encounter because of pollution or climate might be probed. since it has redundancies in it. showing the location and nâture of activity. Projective methods are possiblc in which children are encouraged to tell stories very narrowly understood. or to find out to what extent they learn from exposure to their ulvironment. (See the Melbourne report for an excellent example. Question 11 (on being at home) is ambiguous. This is a tested and evocative techrique. The data should be recorded on a form divided lnto half-hour time periods. One could try to deÿelop tlreir sense of local environmental history. Various standard psychological tests can be given. but modifications are also indicated in this $oup. Useful discussions cal be developed irround representative photographs of places in their rlca. but not always. (lhildren could make models. and yard. As in the Tolucan study. tlescription of what the children are actually expericncing.

however. and diagrams previously produced can be used as discussion material. The child's use of the social network in his cân also be probed. these are the most interesting parts of the Argentine their own interests and to break free of stereotyped solutions. an image of young people as they might act in that culture. riding crowded bus-in other words. Films. The old 'l'he inteffiews with parents and official planners may {lso be put on the elective list. or to Group Exercises In sum. helping to build a house listening to a teacher in a schoolroom. While the other teams were unable carry this through. Hart. Salta team carded out). the interview was basically correct and but needs repair and should be reorganized into brief common core witl a longer list of elective cedures." they made plans very similar to those lhat architects normally make-plans not particularly oongruent to their own expedence and interests. In other words. even in the imagination. This is by no means easy. lixpedments in imagining and analyzing potential changes may also be made (again. produced many and perceptions that would never have come out cept in a relaxed and open discussion in the of the enÿironment itself. the children may be rsked to make drawings. One can imagine a group movie. but which cao be interpreted in different and revealing ways. and walking along Caseros Street. as in Salta). In some cases. One can also think of asking the children to tâke an interviewer on a tour of their own area. the interviews with parents produced less . by which one set of children comllunicate their s€nse of their own places and lives to 0hildren in other areas. lrven better. as outlined in the guidelines. We also urge that the studies include one more Sroup exercises. these latter procedures require ample prepûration in order to allow the children to understand interviewer. the work of the children ttray be directed toward making teaching matedal for other children engaged in similar studies. it might be possible to carry theæ 0xperiments forward into actual pa icipation in local change or maintenance. or for use in rchool. or an exhibition. Social roles are powedul. In some ways." for some fascinating examples of tours conducted by children. photographs. the Salta team conducted group events \Àrith most interesting results. giyen imagination and rtn understanding of local need. as in the simple and technique suggested by Dr. the studies crn branch out in mâny ways. The sions on top of the San Bernando Hill. In choosing among all these bilities. "adult" answers. Moreover. but with due care that these experiments are not taken promises as for action that in fact will never happen. visiting a center city. if rcsources permii. Ayala and employed the Polish group. sitting on stair. or even Iilms See Roger Child's Landscape in a Nelv England To\ün.76 Growing Up in Cities l'lanners and Parents about pictures that strow other children acting in the environment-playing in a wild place. l'lanners and Parents tion. Moreovet. to point out its features and their mearing on the spol. Or. Again. we can list a number of elective guidelines talked of tours (which conferences and also city small for this group work. When the Polish children were asked to suggest changes they would make "if they were the nrchitects. the research must neither be loaded with technique nor should its focus on spatial environment be lost to view. carc must be taken not to impose the values of encourage the child to give expected. photographs. "The ol features of t}le environment that interest them. for example. In the two cases at h[nd.

We would like to In each country a local team would choose the places and procedures series under LTNESCO supervision. retain a recall of the officiat's own childhood. which can and to meeting local problems. or to political The choice would depend on where the would make a difference. to welfare workers. to requiring a basic mental description.18 Growing Up in Extensio[ of the Research information than the interviews with children. there would be a æ1 elective procedures that might be added to all essential elements. then. such as the MAB program on the perception of the environment. best suited to developing its own research capabilities ful. But in both information. such as travel. and a core interview with the children the absolutely essential parts of the study. raise ethical issuesabout the danger studies be extended to a significant number of na- tions and that they be carried on as a continuing of child attitudes or actions to parents without the sent of the former. UNESCO would be responsible for initiating studies and coordinating the work. they give a legitimate for connecting the research to policy and for municating research results. such as legitimating the this may require a bulkier guideline. these terviews may be more important. times it might be important to talk to engineers. including participative and an interview with the parents. Initiating new studies requires the stimulation of local interest and the location of appropdate local teams and situations. ol unusual equipment. these be followed by an official interview. publication. They also indirect advantages. to teache6. modifying and developing techniques. Moreover. Coordination requires that the national proj- addition. . We come back. The interviews !ÿith the planners ploved more as indicators of ignorance or and as a way of finding out how envfuonmental sions are made. plannels.l visits to local teams in the field. In any case. Extension of the Research Given these modifications. UNESCO sirould also be able to pay for certain special costs of the local team§. where parents be badly misinformed about child activity. to people from an ministry. A recom' mended revised guideline is detailed on pages 81-99. and maintaining a flow of information between nations. both some interview of this kind as a regular part of procedure. consultation. Although all varied forms. IJNESCO should retain a scientific advisor who should have the funds necessary to carry out this work. yet the work itsetf will be simpler and more flexible. some field observations of behavior. but its nature would have to vary a deal according to local issues and organization. It means that the advisor must adapt the research guide to the specific situation of each country and ensure that the research will not only have its own intemal validity but also be useful for the pressing policy decisions of the nation conoerned. In other situations. though üey did corroborate the former and showed how often the children's ways of acting believing followed parental pattems. and who would make occasiona. For this purpose. ln ects be linked together ard that they also be connected to other intemational effotts. and may be compared to the o ginal instructions immediately following. including the arangement of conferences and the publishing of occasional comparative lindings. we recommend that these in parental eyes and giving interviewers easy access cases parental in could have been dropped without loss of any the houæs.

Kevin Lynch Iuly 1975 development. The Iater modifications were made by Prof. must be continuousÿ improved and modified to fit each flew culture. exchanging infomation on their own work and on other work in the field. or plans for future development. on the other hand. or for improving the way he uses or learns from that environment. open-ended techniques of logue and obs€ffation. which can be used to evaluate the existing envitonment. and so we prcsent only those portions of the otder guide that referred directly to Procedures of observation and inteffi€w. Small. The naturalistic. such as those for education. image. We emphasize the immediate micro'environment. Based and UNESCO work in public participation in making and on the social consequences of environmental change. housing. since some readen rüay want to correlate the national studies with these old guidelines. as well as to evaluate the effectiYeness of any related existing policies and standards. While pursuing this p mary objective. The newer guide. particularly where that is changing rapidly due to planned practical uæfulness. which involve the directly and openly and use graphic languages as well. particularly house interion and the nearby outdoor space. to learn whether the quality of the micro-environment is currently improving or detedorating in the developing countdes in regard to its impact on .80 Growing Up in ORIGINAL AND REVISED GUIDELINES on experience with the fi t four national studie§. Much of the matedal is repeated from one guide to the other. Tridib Banerjee and Prof' Kevin Lynch. Following these recommended guidelines. Simple and modest as theæ studies are. or for the design and maintenânce of public spâce and facilities. Our purpose is to help document some of the human costs and benefits of cconomic development by showing how the child's use and perception of the resulting micro-enÿironment affects his life and his personal development. we append some sections of the o ginal rcsearch guide used in directing the first §tudies. I if æcondary. as verbal ones. or changes over tim€. environmental protection. The production of papers Revised Research Guide for an International Study on the Spâtial Environment of Children Scope and Purpose by the local teams and the rccurrent publication of comparative conclusions will provide nerv elements in the analysis of urban settlement and will have direct These studies focus on the way in which children use. is complete. The national must be monitored and the Secretariat in Pads kept informed. we rccommend the lollowing guidelines for any futurc studies of the spatial environment of chiltlren. open space. The original guide was written by Dr. v/e hope to suggest policies and programs for improving the child's spatial environment in or induced the course of national economic Srowth. Children are the fundamental resource of any society ln doing §o. Occasionally. ences between tearn memben might be asked to padicipate in larger international conferences. and concentrate on lower income groups in regions oflow resource and rapid change. 2. we feel that they will prove crucial in managing üe human enyironment of the future. Lynch. goals: . we may io pa achieYe some other relevant. brief group confer- the active rcsearch teams have been extemely useful for this in the past. to develop a simple set of indicators of environmental quality. Local teams should be kept in communication. and Yalue their spatial environment.

develop techniques. Local investigators should choose the pattem that is characteristic for llrcir own country. The study will be based on concrete. the haunts of homeless sidewalk dwellers. It is advisable that at least one member of the team be a . he must be able to follow unexpected leads as the evidence develops. But rrllrerwise. S'rlection of Generâl Subject ând S€tting lhe locations of settlements of üe poor vary quite widely from country to country. It is not unreasonable to expect that the children brought up in the lirvelas of Sao Paulo or t}te bariadas of Lima. and conroptions of the rest of the city than the children growing up in the slums of (' lcutta or Tokyo.82 Revised Research Guido r'lroice of Areas and Subjects 83 those human beings who are probably most dependent on it. The local tc ms will carry out the actual research and write a report on it.l environment. or community leader-who will be able to bring them into direct and friendly communication with the particular group to be studied. working in consultation \Mith the Department of Social Sciences of UNESCO. the local analyst. Necessarily. new working clrss housing. Since there is little experience anywhere in analyzing the interaction between man ard environment. be places where issues of cnvironmental quality are critical and where that quality can be influenced. architect. and be responsible for comparative reports and con' li)rences. to contrast the child's actual use and image of space with the educational planner's idea of what the child experiences and how he learns. to children. which are distdbuted fairly randomly in the central urban irlcas. psychologist. whether it be inner city slum. i. using his familiarity with that culture. and in the perceptions of ordirary people. or geographer trained in analyzing the spatia. In addition. Areas that have undergone. tion. and to show how the child's environment has shifted from that of the preyious genen. Above all. first of all. which must be intimately acquainted with the local culture and be able to establish an easy rapport with the low-income children and their parents. questions and experiments must make sense in the particular culture concerned.and (3) to select the subjects themselves. rlpid change would be a natural choice. For each country studied. will have different levels of access. naturalistic observation of wornan. I lrcy will need some secretarial support for prcparing reports and transcribing t tcrviews and a means of making and reproducing maps and photographs.vcr formal specialties they represent. there will be an international coordinator. The following reæarch guide outlines a small study for attaining these ends. or whatever. ('hoice of Areas and Subjects children acting in theù own environment. the local irvestigators will be the most competent group to decide the place and people to be investigated. how a long-rânge international pro.. open-ended. exposure. there will be a local research team. located on the pcriphery of the city. therefore. however. for example. or rcsearch techniques they are familiar wilh. 3. have a sharp eye and a syrnpathetic ear. of a sociologist. For any particular country. But subjects and settings should be r:hosen to fit current policy issues in the region. Normally. at least. the team will usually require a "contact" a local social worker. the most cdtical issues are to be found among the lower-income groups living in areas of rapid change. rural village. which in turn can affect local or national development decisions. or with the economic and physical planner's awareness of what his plans create for 4. to show. In addition to these local teams. supported by a planner. Due to the wide variations under which these studies will be conducted. not only avoiding the suppression of contradictory evidence but keeping alert to what these children and their setting are telling him. consisting. the local team must probably be an Ihree decisions are required to initiate the study: (1) to choose the general lype of setting. all these people must.e. Whatr. these decisions will require an understanding of the interdisciplinary one. Thus. Clearly. and their small size. by a small concrete example. gram of research about environmental quality may stimulate local research. see what latent support for environmental improvement may exist in the basic values of the culture in indigenous institutions. peripheral s(luatter settlement. teacher. v/e hope to learn how the world seems to them. and 5. since teenage gùls and their mothers will be interviewed. maintain the llow of information. and much rrore reliable communication is likely if the interyiewer is also female. and on direct communication v/ith them as voluntary informants. it must be clear. nor any developed discipline in this area. (2) to select the particular locality and social group to be studied. wlro will guide and coordinate the work. no special equipment or elaborate support will be needed. must not only translate and adjust the details of this reæarch protocol but be ready to make modifications of unworkable or fruitless procedures. that they can neither be statistically representatiye nor rigorously comparatiye. or anthropologist. or are currently undergoing.

these analyses cannot be strictly comparative between nations. storekeepers. In any event. pa icular children are identified and met.terdtorial identity-may have to be sacrificed if it is necessary to study a group typical of the choæn general conditions. If üis is not possible. or of more or less recent residence. they should Preferably be known to each other and relatiyely at ease with one another. It will be easier if üe residents think themselves as some sort of unit. like a patchwork in physi. which keys the locations ofground photographs and diagrams. contâcts must be made with local leaders-school teachers. A nümber of public officials should also be chosen for interviews. §election of Subjects Once a particular locality is selected.ll clusters of 2OO to 300 slum dwellings are over the city. It will be preferable if the social group been fairly stable in the locality. sltould be chosen from the same household. so that the children were born there. as is usually associated with such physical features as barriers. Vertical aerial photographs of the area. but also to locate the subjects for study. streets. They may be designers of housing. some commonly felt of place. one of each sex. be local engineers. If the children are them§elYes organized in one or more "gangs" or other social groups. caste. Through these local contacts. cal or social space. and §tereo-pair coverage. as India or Japan. It be useful if the locality has some territorial identity. such as â transient central slum.84 Revised Reseârch lrackground Information 85 spatial distdbution of the poor and a familiadty with public policies impinge upon the lives of their children. common facilities. its aspimtions and its sufferings. because of differeotials in the rate of maturation between girls and boys. Ideally. 2. or been living there since early childhood. Working through the existing social networks of local people and of The survey tearns should collect the following background information about the areas in which the behavior of children is being studied: L An outline base map of the æea. the process of study rnay be easier. It should be Possible to relate the image ard action maps of the children to this base. priests. or sidev/alk dwellers. with a common origin. Succes. cheap paper enlargements of key photographs are very useful for annotation in the field. provide a socially and ly defined setting for this analysis. teenage leaders-partly to learn about the way of life in the community. once their confidence is gained. sive samples can gradually extend the range of class. or political léaders. or as the basis for discussion. the local investi8ator should keep in mind the intent to connect findings with ongoing policy decisions. social workers. in itself. Elsewhere. officials who make decisions that directly affect the development of children or of their spatial s€ttiflg. or class. the investigators should seek out those who work with similar areas or whose decisions miSht be influenced by the findings of the study. equally diyided between male and female. local officials and politicians. delined. or of different age or class. names the principâl features and the importmt land uses. The children should be aged twelve to fourteen year§. the investigators should choose a group of twenty children. one should look for a the children themselves. the case study of a small. making recommendations or decisions that bear on the lives of the very children being studierl. at a time when they are no longer considered to be small children nor yet full-fledged adults. Photographs taken from a sufficient number of points on the ground to make a systematic description of the chamcter of all the different sections . but this age limitation may be varied in different cultures. as weü as in the choice of locality. however. one such cluster would. Through these first children. it is feasible and useful to make comparative analyses of children in different spatial settings. arld social and. Selection of a Particular §ocio-Spatial Unit Within the chosen general setting. Due to these wide vadations among the groups to be studied. Not more than turo children. In some situations. The intent is to reach subjects who are in early adolescence. and gives the scale and orientation. one then looks for a smaller unit from which actual subjects can be drawn. if available' If they can be made. population group is more propriate than a sample survey ofa whole population. one meets their friends. afld particularly between sexes. where sma. 3. these will be the officials who have been or are concerned with the locality in question. But all these dimensions-temporal stability. Background Informâtion locality that is a microcosm of the large community and contains at enough people at the chosen socio-economic level to include thirty or children in the specified age group. \ryithin one country. recent in-migrants. In the selection of officials for interuiew. be concerned with planning and creating the regional system of education or child care. Since this research is explorat and holistic. or parks. etc. in use or density. be engaged in planning economic or physical development at the city or regional level.

Simple plans of two or three typical interiors of the children. and photos may possibly be made while interviewing children or parents in the home. 53 . the foci of activity. 1 I I I 9. The plans should be supplemented by yerbal notes and by photographs of these interiors. 4. Old maps or photos that will help to illustrate how the area has changed. open space. there should be background material on the parents and children being studied: 7. 8. or the scars of actiÿity. and only roughly to scale. occupation. Their general socio-economic status. Any signilicant material available on prcvalent attitude in this culture or subculture in regard to the development of children and their proper behavior in the physical environment. or their "territory. approximate age and income. should be noted. yard. the photographer should be alert to rccord children's activity.86 Revised Research llnckglound Information 87 of the such a photographic grid. Further photos may be necessary to explain special features. territorial markings. or whatever. tial and work places of the people being observed (if elsewhere). The stand. A typical calendar of activity for these people and the usual timing meter grid) throughout the area. Length in residence in this locelity and location of previous residence. in general. or to describe in detail ele. including sex. ments that have proved to be important in children's behavior.'. as well as any apparent recent changes in income. which illustrated how to generate and reference a photogrid.) In choosing his views from the grid poi[t. but should show typical room sizes. They may be freehand. maintenance. 6. or health. 5. caste and class or etlnic or religious group. ril I r i_ L t of the day's activities for an adult. and general health. if such may be taken without disturbance. furniture locations. These may be in the form of references 'l'he example accompa[ying the guidelines. waste area. sym" bolic identification. l t v. An outline map showing the relation of the area under study to the residen. open lot. or such activity. formal education if any. related features as barriers. (See Figure 53 for a map of area. Sketch plans. occupation. as well as any drawings that illustrate proposals for the future. The tenure of the space they occupy. as well as to the urban area. In addition to background information on the setting. Evidences of the children's activity. point and direction of all ground photos should be keyed to a copy of the outline base map. on a 100. notes. and the density of occupation. giving a characteristic view from the accessible outdoor space nearest to each grid inte$ection: street. user modifications. Photographs should be taken at regular intervals (say.s homes should be prepared.

explain what the research is trying to djscover and why. "How long have you lived here? Where did you come from before that?" 3. and show me whatever you think is important in it. understand the general purpose of the research. While this acquaintance is dpening. since these particular questions have proved to be the most consistent sources of useful information. Following this "core. news clippings. and come to easy terms with them. make their land use and photographic surueys. and becoming familiar the area and their mode of life. But do not produce a map or photo records the general sequence . It can be useful if the results of the interview are recorded on tape. without change of style or "improvement. The study should not commence unless and until the children are at ease with tlle investigators. including salient quotations. In that case. Name. All original dmwings are to be preserved and tmnsmitted intact. ally. it should not be held in such a manner or place as to frighten the child or put him on the defensive. notes must be taken such as to caplure not only the details but also the flavor of the discussion. and prefembly there will be only one. This can bo expected to take time and to require some skill in human relations. in a place familiar and comfortable to him. the child's account may refer to that. or by diagrams in the earth." (If he is unable to draw a map. Preferably. etc. age. The preferred order is as given. it should be in the child's local territory. so that spec. they strould be photographed. jokes." which should always be administered. ask him to make a verbal description. but equipment may be lacking. Nevertheless. songs. and the like. and are willing to assist in it. Initial distrust and shyness may be normal. Acquaintances and Orientation After selecting the group to be studied. and not copied. plus tho good offices of local community contacts. before using it with the selected group. "Now show me on your map the places you do things in. the interviewer in which he makes it and notes interesting remarks or explanations. If an enlargement of an air photo is available. tlte interviewer asks what they are and notes that explanation on the map. and some chalk. The recommended interview consists primarily of a central "core. The core will by itself Provide a solid basis for analysis. At least one interviewer should be known to him. identification. prepare their working base map.) If any elements of t}Ie map are obscure.88 Revised Reseârch I ndividual Interviews 89 to standard sociological or anthropological studies. drawings. and modify it accordingly. and observe enough of the children's mode of life so that they can conduct the interview and the syste." we describe a longer list of optional questions. gain tho children's assent to be studied. (2) individual interviews. "Please draw np a map of the area you live in. Questions must not only be translated into the local language but almost always must be modilied to make sense in the local culture. or spend your time in. On no account allow the interview to become too long and cxhausting for either party. matic observation in a knowledgeable way. If nrade on slates or drawn on the earth. He then gives the child another color of pen or pencil ând asks him. or they may be tales. the local investigator must make their acquaintance. 2. supplemented by drawing simple pictures. or an outline map may be used. Analysis of Chiklrenb Image of Their Environment This analysis is to consist of several actions to be carried out in this (1) making an acquaintance with the interviewees." Since the final question refers to activities of the previous day. the intewiew date should be chosen so that the previous day would be likely to be a normal one in the ohild's life and not a holiday or other interruption. and the routes you travel along. The intefliew should be conducted inform. Thus. or at least copied exactly. or it might be too distractiûg. Always pretest the interview with several similar children. (3) optional discussions and guided touls. or soft pencils. The interviewer must supply large §heets of paper for maps. The local situation may suggest other situations as well. it will be held in some privare space. the analyst should refer to the official policies which influence the local physical environment of these children. 10. the inyestigators should make themselves familiar with l}le local area and its features. corrected. Finally. tators and other children will not disturb the results. but the questions need not be followed rigidly. or tidied-up. since some answers will appear that the interviewer should be ready to lbllow. §ome of which may be chosen tbr use according to particular interests. an individual interview should be conducted with each child. It may even proye necessary to hold the discussion on the street despite the sedous disadvantages of interruption and confusion. The following questions are Part ofthe "core": 1. Individual Interviews \ryhen this has been completed. Mark the areas tlat surround your area. easy-flowing pens." (While the child is making the map.

and your yard. 2. v/hat you did.44 as examples of what may be expected. and where your olvn area is. takes note of interesting remarks. and asks). inside and out. some of which may be added to the basic list if they seem to fit local needs. Together with the child. there are a number of optional questions." (Tho interviewer should see that he gets a detailed.39. and add. and the time you did it. since even the crudest diagram is very useful. what happened. or can't do what you want to do? Ar€ there places you can't get into.43.) "Was there anything unusual about your activities yesterday? If so. inside and outside. "As you go about your usual day's activities. Show me the places you use most. children helping to build a house (is it satisfying or is it drudgery?).) 4. the investi. a few views taken elsewhere in the city. Do not overload the interview. the answers to (luestions 5 through 8. "lvhat place is this? What is happening there? Tell me something else about it? Do you use it.33. or . however. Make an effort to persuado him to draw a map. what particular places or things give you the most difficulty? Are there places where you get hufi. If necessary. "Has your area changed in your memory? Do you think it has become bet." l.90 Revised Research Guido Optioral Questions 9l for discussion until all other means have failed. or have trouble. "Where do you best like to be? Where do you least like to be? Where is the best place to be alone?" 8. as far as you know it. It is a reasonably long interview. tures. "How would you describe this place to someone who had never been there. and a break may be required. children on a crowded bus (are they lost or having an . gator should record each event on a form that divides the day into half-hour divisions. how does he or she make use of the physical enyiron. in detail: where you went. (After taking up the map). and wanted to know what it was like to be there?" 5. 41. Show me all the importaût places in it. §ee Figure 23. then chooses one of the more important fea. how to get around it. The questions cannot be followed rigidly. as ac' curately timed and located as possible. . and why not? When did you last go ioto an unfamiliar part of the city? How did you ftnd your way?" 4. '?lease draw me a plan of your own home. "Do you help maintain or fix up my pa of your area? Does any part ofit seem to belong to you? Are there places where you feel like an outsider? Who owns the streets (or courtyards. ing. Display them one by one in random order and ask.35.) here.37. 3.31.'. depending on the attitudes you are interested in-for example: children playing in a refuse dump (are they having fun. or with someone else? Can you go wherever you want in the whole city? Where can't you go. Only add a topic \ryhere the result will surely be relevant. Photograph some dozen views of typicai locations and activities in the child's area. Tell him that special skill is not expected. "Please write down for me a list of all the places you know of in your area.l Interview Questions ln addition to this basic "core" of questions. and the interviewer's notes on additional remarks. See Figures 29. consecutive account. "Now please tell me about what you did all day yesterday. "Now tell me in which of those places do you usually spend your time? What do you do there?" @robe for a detailed account of what the child does there. Do not correct his work or ask him to do more than he does spontaneously. ter or worse? Why? Have you been able to do anything to change it? What do you think will really happen to this place in the next ten years? Will you still be here? Ifnot. . an annotated list of places. They will produce an annotated ûlap. "On what occasions do you go out of your own area? What for? Wlrere? How do you get there? Do you go by yourself. Optiona. or after three minutes). and the interviewer must always be ready to follow interosting leads. Too many questions will not only wear out the children but will produce more data than can be analyzed. where will you be?" 9. "Please draw me a map of the entire city and the whole region around it. a schedule of one day's events. Construct one or two simple line drawings showing children doing something in a setting-some action that is possible in the culture but can be irterpreted in different ways. or dislike it? Why?" 5.30. your building. or go there? Do you like it. show him crude maps of other places." (When the child ceases to 1ist. instead of a generality such as "play. and wish you could? Are there any dangerous places in your area? What makes them dalgerous?" 6. and who keeps them up (referring to the principal public spaces in the area)? Are there any places that nobody owns?" 7. or are they in danger?). perhaps." In particular. But this is the general order to be used. ment?) "Which of all those places you have named are the most important ones?" (Interviewer marks the child's list according to his answers. the places you have been to. but no official maps. what was it?" These arc the basic questions to be asked. much of it redundant.

what they like or dislike. or insects in your area that are being harmed. the child's feelings. and where it happened. . Àn individual or a small group might take the investigator on a tour l!l' their owfl famiüar area.) which would be sufficiently typical to allow him to make a passable model of his area. 12. but also to exhibit some contrasting attitudes. Still another useful lr. sketches. mark the ones you like. at home. let's pretend this is yourself." Note the sequence of events. Maps. any sâlient remarks. etc. and so on. aerial l)lrotos. "\{hat new things have you learned about. while going about your area of the city. and ground photographs of key features of the area may also be rrscd as a basis of the discussion. "Are there any animals or plants in your area that you particularly like or dislike? Do you use any of them for food. who you meet. etc. club. mark those you usually meet at school. the way in which the enYironment is used." 10. or heard about. or imagined. "Would you use theæ to make a model of the place you live in?" Photograph the result. or does it hurt your eyes?" gtottp discussion. what happens. and ask them to take pictures ol "things that interest them" in their area. "Think of all the people that you know. 7. and wdte their names down on thi§ paper. and. etc. or ways r)l acting. Give him marking pens or cmyons to draw in the fields. or help the child to trace around all the three-dimensional elements. pointing out to him the various places they lrrrvc talked about. Finally. "Go down the list of those that live in yout area. those you meet outdoors (plus any other likely locale: work place. children listening to a teacher in school (are they bored or interested?)." Optional addition.rse with each other. "What kind of weather is worst for you? Why? Do you ever find the air un' comfortable to breathe. to be discussed at a later lrrssion. or $/hile watching things happen there? What have you learned to do from working or playing there? Is this something you wouldn't learn at school. afld give the child a box of three-dimensional scaled models of elements of the environment (buildings. The children themselves can help to lrlirn the trip. "Now. the others you usually me€t in someone's home. what would be the best place to live in? Why? Would you draw a picture it for me? What would be the worst place you could imagine? Would you draw a picture of lrip to some unfamiliar areas of the city.roup discussion about the expedence should be held. the investigatoff should be ready to lead srroh a discussion by asking stimulating questions. is to give the children simple cameras." When the child ceases to list. and discussing their feelings about them. "Are there beautiful places in the city? Why are they beautiful? Any holy places? Why are theY holY?" 9. the others that you meet more than once a month. Display a drawing and ask: "Would you tell me a story about this picture?" 6.). roads. and where it happened' Now. tell me about the saddest one. "Now. "Tell me about the history of your area. Comments and actions during the trip could be noted. "Please tell me about the happiest day in your life. that you know ofl" 14. people.92 Revised Research Guide optional Discussiors and Tours 93 adventure?). going to places they have never seen but have always wanted to nco. al1 the ones who live in your area. and so forth. what you do. Going back again. trees. animals." 8. Once the regular interviews Itave been completed and absorbed. and mark with (some symbol) all the ones who are your relatives or part of your family. and say. Il the children express interest. wltat the differences are between them. the investigators may choose to lo fuflher by bringing together one or t\Mo groups of four to five children each lirr a freer discussion of how they use their space. or after three minutes. the investigators may also take a group on a if you know. cars. and all who are children of about your age. or can be the nucleus for a description and analysis oftheir uca to be prepared as an exhibition by the children for use in school or by llrildren in other areas. or from TV?" Optional Discussions and Tours When the individual interviews are complete. These photos can be the basis of a it?" I 1. and show me on this map (or enlarged air photo) where each one lives. or make things out of them? Do you like to play with animals or insects? Are there any plants. "Of all the places that you have ever been in. or unpleasant to §mell. The group would be chosen so as to be at r'. What was it like before? Who lived there? What important things have happened there? Are there any historical places or monuments therc. to make a permanent record of his model. Give him the scale figure of a child. mark all those you usually meet at least once a day. and should be protected?" 13. and a recorded p. go back over the list. Photographs should lrc taken on the tdp of what interests the group. those you never meet or don't expect to meet again' Going back still again. Show me where you usually go du ng the day. Ask. Put a large piece of paper on a §mooth base.

garden.'r. marking boundaries. The actions of this latter group should be described in §ome detail. work place.1. :.-"+).*L t"r". r-ë-----r{-:--r ] eFr'(À/' @à1 ^ vldét L@qa^é I. On two normal days. a . and which of them are similar in age and class to the interviewees. seeking shade.N'L r. and while or after aoy group ô with a suggested legend.t'.L!. water supply point.. and the general activity and type of people pres€nt.r 94 Reÿised Research Chi. and the various locales should between them exhibit most of the visible outdoor behavior of children in the area.l...1t -oâ'{\'\ q.i taoh. and simply be as concrete and descriptive as possible. ""+.épp6. and how they are using or being frustrated by the physical environment.*a ot li". should also be rccorded (the poüce drive children off.1Às. Instances of conflict or competition over space."t'x D6s. I ntc*4t.. showing a behavioral diagam Observations of Children's Spatial Behavior After the individual interviews are complete. aad which separately."tar bt ^< I "t.'-.*.s ". I ttn I lY I o) ren. (See Figure 54 for an example of a simple field notation for recording the visible activity of children in one locale at one time.\ *. etc. This way of classifying activity should not simply be copied.cÈ c>e c. levelling ground.x..hiclc O' p"". Classiûcation must arise out of the culture. for çxample)... writing on walls or pavements. Any adaptations of the physical space by the children should be noted (erecting a shade or rain sltelter. eating place. recorded on a simple diagram supplemented with verbal notes and one or more photographs.r :i'r''sk(P'nt N"ür. he should note the time. o!4.. as well as how it seems to modify their action (sitting on a fence.L *'lh er'cl' . childrcn defend their place against invasion.+h6 i--'l 34 z e. Gesture.1" "t+l'. etc.).*"i 1o"rs r^:r| qtë3gP q-a". The physical setting need only be shown where it is relevant to the action or needed to key in the photogaphs."1 p! §l L .tX lal"^ ç.+-or O r. an analyst should visit each locale two or three times during the course of the day.s'...".i^ t" c*'.Iy@<. the weather.).tk aæ anauvr / l1ô o". or of the significance of tedtory or timing.. p":"+.q. For this purpose... setting up furniture.. For each visit to each locale.)."L'l lÊ-r1 ô chru."t.""i §"Àar.l.Ç pelhz^]- e.) At each visit.1 / r"t*'t ) opp". The dynamic aspect must also be captured: how activity is changing.Ê J 412. or where childten are moving. they must first choose about four locales.Y ELr^il[âÀ aç.r.^0. the night. ô -Oo-t ---.i. playground. the ÿisits being timed to cover expected variations in activity. sleeping place.---"i-----@.t. and. slipping in the mud. meeting place.ôrâd!. they eat in a regular place at a regular time.. voice. This will give a clear and concrete picture and allow comparison with the interview results.s . Each locale should be a place where a typical kind of activity recur§ regularly. the investigators should make a systematic record of visible child behavior in the open places of the area.ldren's Spatial Behavior 54 The example accompanying the guidelines. +..hat ê.1t[-"1r. tours and discussions are taking or have taken place.o'.1 l(. Record should be made of which children are acting together..4 : s. etc. and one normal holiday (a Sunday.--.+"d..  a 4J'rrJ ' a @ opp.onh. t. if relevant. and manner càn be noted.r. . 1t. scavenging material.-e"t I q . etc. however. These should be places that represent most of the important types of activity settings for children in the area: public thoroughfare.'.

plus all original maps. Whether parents are or are not int€rviewed.96 Revised Reseârch Guide lnterviews with Parents and Officials 97 photograph or photographs should be taken that illustrate the typical activity at that time. diagrams. . and the creation of reliable irdices of environmental quality. along with a means of identifying the parent with the particular child. "What did your child do yesterday. Analysis of the Knowledge. for the criteda loi choosing the officials to be interyiewed. "Tell me about what it was like when you were a child-what do you re' member of the place you lived in. schedules. spatial territory. nd transmitted.The summaries and high points of interviews and group discussions. yet permanent. tenure. "Are those places suitable for what he/she was doing. and how far does he/she go? will be a dynamic. It 5. From his knowledge of the area. i\. or how should they be changed?" 4 I. Attitudes. that is. Each official should be interviewed . "How do you think your children's children will spend their time. translated into English. and his sense of how the development of these children is affected by the micro- him/her?" 2. what they do. a few officials whose decisions rrrc relevant to the area should be contacted. and field notations.Page 84. its probable effect on child development and health. . they should be asked the it. the planner should be asked to make a sketch map of the area in question. or to visit some other particular place at a special time. In addition to any questions required to supplement direct obseryation in order to establish socialæconomic status. "Is any of this activity unsafe. relations. and come at the end of any interview). If it is possible to make. and where?" (in some detail) 3. This material can now be summarized in a running account of the typical spatial behavior in these several places. he might be asked to add any featurcs in it (in another color) that appeared as significant in the discussion. and at what times. photographs. record which can later be studied in detâil. or wasteful? Why? How would you prefer his time be spent? What couldbe done about it?" Itis estimate of how that environment and its use by children is currently changing. the way in which the spatial enÿironme[t supports humân inter. Later. as far as he knows it. cnvironment and the children's use of it. This may be a good opportunity to record the intemal setting of the home. translated into English. and should preferably be of the same sex as that child. sketches (or at le?sL exact copies of them). a motion picture or videotape record of the activity will be an excellent addition. the range and purpose of their activity. mal.1. to note variations from routine. the timing of activity. . residence. His knowledge of how children in the At option. and how the environment supports or frustrates those purposes. 4. and time resource budgets (see questions 7 and 8 discussed under Background Information on page 86. "What does your child need most? What do you need to take care ofyour child?" 7. or are affected by it. one parent may be interyiewed for each child studied. mitted âlong with the summary reports of the local team. and its evaluation in compari' son with that of tlese area children (ust as was asked of the children's parents). but these questions should be mini. informal. and what will the places they live in be like? What do you wish those places could be't" 8. ln following: 1. "What part of the day or night does your child normally spend outside the home? In what places and at what hours? What does he/she do there? How often do you see thorough understanding of how children are actually acting. and Memories of Parents and Officials Do you take him out into it? Where? How often? Why?" (r. should be trans. The planner's own evaluation of the quality of that micro'environment and how his official plans affect that quality. "How much of the city does the child know.lemories of his own childhood environment. Detailed quesarea make use of tions on these matters can most easily be prepared after the analyst has a ). the earÿ course of the interview. and what he thinks the realistic environmental expectations may be for the next gen€ration of children of this class. lo elicit: I . the analyst may also choose to make special comments. and what did you do there? How does that compare with the place your child is growing up in today? Which place was better to grow uP in and why?" Summaries of each interview should be recorded. in order to illuminate the policy irnplicatiors of the study' See Selection of Subjects. where. with a commentary on holv it compares with the picture derived from the intervie\Ms and group discussions. or improper. and how it illuminates any of the major themes of this study.

sacredness. or spend your time in. wàrk. what conflicts arise. community. natural features. 2. excrcte. "How long have you lived here? Where did you come from before that?" 3. beauty. access. This original guide was written in 1971 by Banerjee and Lynch. the national teams made additions and modificatio[s of their 4. or to environmental sewices. utility. How much of this occurs at home. The extent to which they are able to do what they propoæ to do: how Selections from the Original Research Guide We have extracted only those portions of the original guide that are necessary to correlate the first studies with the procedures originally recommended for them. the locâl team should discuss any other issues relevant io our purposeg. discom. own.. What specific changes in policy can therefore be recommended-whether in regard to the micro-environment itself. A description of the data aud criteria he commonly these children or for this or similar areas. How the_ child's actual spatial behavior compares with the parent. Show me: the places you do things in. and other elements important to these children? these childrcn use and image their micro-environment. and where do you eat? What part of the day do you spend in a house. privacy. Name. What they expect from the environment. shelter.s knowledge and evaluation of it.. fort. manipulability. Assertions founded on the data ie to cluded.. How child behaüor is affected by official actions. dure. territory. How the environment reinforces their feelings of identity. "Please draw for me a map of the area you live in. including: Then should come a discussion of the principal factual findings on how 1. at school. what environmental dangers and discomforts they en. what they haye access to. . pollution. How they adapt the setting itself: what modifications they make. and with the parent's own remembered childhood. Where and when they eat. personal development. 5. much of it is necessarily a repetition of the full recommended guide discussed previously. els€. 6. 9. crowding. and variations on the original were also suggested by the scientific adÿisor in informal communication. or block various avenues of 2. Individual Interviews The following questions should be asked: 1. or to child care. but informed speculation should not be ex. how they adapiand . spaces. what controls they exercise. and how the children's expectations compare with realistic expectations for the future. identification. how they learn from it. open up. how they maintain the space. or to education. And last. Even so. tion. Their hopes and desires for the future. pollution. and most important: 10. use and space is changing. In addl. How the behavior compares with the kno\Mledge and attitudes and childhood of the various officials. with the parenis expectations. or teach others about it. circulation.make do. distinguished from speculation. including the things you just talked personal development. How present The survey should conclude with comments on the following items. which the research has uncovered. bo First. Even in extract form. or to other areas of public action-that would improve the health. What priàrity changes they would make in their suroundings. learn. there must be some concise description of the physical setting: tho the children's behavior. How the environment appears to stimulate. "Where do you sleep. Their spatial range and the detailed spatial and temporal pattern oftheir activity. openness. and with the data that they customarily use. teritory. if they were able to do so. 3.98 Revised Research original Research Guide 99 6. uses in planning 7. sleep. Their attitudes about the environment: ideas of danger. and what part outside? Do you go to school? Can you tell me what you do on a usual day. in the public outdoor space. where. where do you do it and with whom?" 4. shelters. Their knowledge of the environment. What are the probable consequences of this way of life on the development and future usefulness of these children? Is the quality of the microenvironment in this regard improving or deteriorating? To what extent is this the result of official development decision? What seem to be the criti cal qualities of the environment-density. and how those experiences are being met. play. and social usefulness of these children? their activities are interrupted or blocked. whatever-that affect the health and development of General Conclusions 8. age.

child's account may refer to that. where you went. by drawing simple pictures. Together with the child. places that you have been in. and what 40 you do there? Where do you least like to be. consecutive account as accurately timed and located as possible. please tell me about what you did all day yesterday in some detail. what they like or dislike. at the correct locatioo on an enlarged aerial photograph or on a copy of the base map. "On what occasions do you go out of your own area? What for? Where? How do you get there? Do you go by yourself'1" 8. "Are there aay dangerous places in your area? What makes them dangerous? What is the most dangerous place in the whole city? Why?" 13. what was it?" Group Discussions and Tours When the individual intenriews are complete.ÿ what it was like to there?" 6. aerial photos.. and who keeps them up? Are there any places that nobody owns?" . and where your own area is. the places you have been to. "What are the other areas that su ound your particular area? Are they dif. but no official maps. and so on. But do not produce a map or photo li discussion until other means have failed. ard ground photographs of key features of the area may also be used as a basis of the discus§ion' The group would be chosen so as to be at ease with each other. ferent from yours?" Ifyes. all the places you think are impodant the area. and an enlargement of an air photo is available. since even the crudest diagram is very usefut. but can't do? Where is the best place to meet your friends? lVhere is the best place to bo abouti the routes you travel along. "Now. by diagrams in the earth. the routeg you have been on. "Now. or ways of acting.100 Original Research Group Discussions alrd Tours special skill is not expected. including the time you did it. "Can you go wherever you want in your own area? in the whole city? Where can't you go? Why not? Would you like to go there? How do you know about theæ places? Do your parents let you go where you like? Do they takp you anywhere? Did anyone ever teach you how to get about i[ the city? Did you teach anyone? When did you last go into an unfamiliar part of the city? How did you find your way there?" 10. sketches. or imagined. but also to exhibit some contrasting attitudes. most com." 18. supplemented by ing out the places. fortable and like yourself ald able to do what you waat? Why? Does any part seem to belong to you. please draw me a map of the entire city." 9. . or heard about. "Where in your own arca do you feel most at eaæ. Show me: all the important places in it. "Has your area changed in your memory? Do you think it has become better or worse? Why? What are the things you could do before but not anymore? What are the things that you couldn't do before but now you can? Have you been able to do anything to change it? How would you change the area if you could do anything you wanted to it? Would everyone here agree to that. "What is the name of your area? How would you describe it to who had never been there and who wanted to kno. "As you go about your usual day's activities. Tell him 12. Make an effort to persuade him draw a map. the investigators should be ready to lead such a discussion by a§king stimulating questions. the investigators should bdng together one or two groups of four to five children each. 5.\. so that you control it? Are there places whero you feel like an outsider? Are there places where you have to fight fot space? Who owns the streets here. What would be the best place to live in? Why? Could you describe it to me? " "Of all the " 17. Once the regular interÿiews have been completed and absorbed. or would some oppose it? What do you think should be changed here?" I 5. If this is not explicit. where will you be and how will you be living? 16. tlle investigator sltould record each event and its timing. how to get around in it. If necessary." If he is unable draw a map. where. who you saw.'. alone? I l. ask him to make a verbal description. 'Was anytiing unusual about your activities yesterday? If so.' 7. Maps. "Ar€ there any beautiful place§ in the city? Why are they beautiful? Any oüer holy places? Why?" 14. what features irl your areâ make the greatest difficulties for you-most hinder you? Where do you best like to be. and the other areas that surround your area. "How are they different?. '?lease tell me about the happiest day in your life. and what happened." The interÿie\ÿer should see that he gets a detailed. with whom. show him oüer crude maps home. and what do you do there? What would you like to do. Now tell me about the saddest one. and how you got from one place to artother. what the differences are between them. "What clo you think will really happen to this place in the next ten years? Will you still be here? If not. for a freer discussion of how they use their space.

t02 Original Research cuide lnterviews with Parents l0. and tho creation of reliable indices of environmental quality. and the general activity and type of people preseot. "What did your child do yesterday. and who are similar in age and class to the interyiewees. prcl'or. nbly. lo note variations from routine. etc. ur(l what will the places they live in be like? What do you wish thosc plncoi could be?" li. translated into English. "Is any of this activity unsafe. once at night.). etc. and white or after group tou$ should be taken that illustrate the typical actiyity at that tirne. "What does your child need most? What do you need to take care ol your child?" 7. the visits being timed to cover expected variations in actiyity. a photograph or photographs This mate al can now be summarized in a running account of thc lypl'Jltl in these several places. Comments and actions dudng the trip could be noted. For each visit to each locale. marking boundaries. water supply point. they should be asked thc lirllowing: l. The children themselves can help to plan the trip. eating place. ln addition to any questions requircd lo supplement direct obseryation in order to establish social-economic stûtus. or how should thoy be changed?" 4. tenure. diagrams. and where?" (in some detail) 3. plus all originul spatial behavior maps. they must first choose about six locales. seeking shade. children defend their sleeping place against invasion. photographs. Each locale should be a place where a typical kind of activity recurs regularly. "Are those places suitable for what he/she was doing. be of the same sex as that child. the investigators should make a systematic record of the visible behavior in the open places of the area. Instalces of conflict or competition over space. ctc. as well as how it s€ems to modify their actions (sitting on a fence. and how far does he/shc go'l Do you take him out into it? Where? How often? Why?" (). and time resource budgets. or to visit some other particular place at a sPocl[l time. anrl teld notations. writing on walls or pavements. ifpossible. For this purpose. At each visit. he shoüd note the time. playgrounds.). should be transmitted with tlle summary report of the locul One parent should be interuiewed for each child studied and should. setting up furniture. and a recorded group discussion about the experience should be held. sleeping place. for example) and one special holiday. should also be recorded (the police drive the children off a street. the way in which the spatial environment supports ltutttntt interrelations.l lf the children express interest. or wasteful? Why? How wrxthl you prefer his time be spent? What could be done about it?" 5. etc. with a commentary on how it conlpares with the picture derived from the interviews and group discussions flnd how it illuminates any of the major themes ofthis study: spatial territory. the investigators may also take a group on a trip to some unfamiliar areas of the city. to be discussed at this later session. thc timing of activity. and which separately. or of the significance of terdtory or timiry. "How do you think your chjldren's children will spend their tinro. the analyst may also choose to make special con1nlurtt. "What part of the day or night does your child normally spend outsi«lc thc home? In what places and at what hours? What does he/she do there? I low often do you see him/her?" 2. Their actions should be described in some detail to give a clear and concrete picture and to allow a comparison with the interview results. levelling ground. Notes should be made of which children are acting together. meeting place. On two normal days. places that are easily visible ard that represent all the important types of activity settings for children in the area: public thoroughfare. slipping in the mud. Àny adaptations of the physical space by the children should be noted (erecting a shade or rain shelter. he should describe the actions ofthe children who are there. sketches (or at leasl exact copies tcam. cdge of the area. scavenging mâterial. From his krrtwl. "How much of the city does the child know. residence. and how they are using or being frustrated by the physical environment. or improper. "Tell me about what it was like when you were a child-whal tkr yrxt . In pa icular. work place. and discus§ons are taking or have taken place. and one normal holiday (a Sunday. garden. the weather. Photographs should be taken on the tdp of what interests tl1e group. and among them the locales should exhibit most of the visible outdoor behavior of children in the area. Observations of Spatial Behavior After the individual interviews are complete. its probable effect on child development ând health. an analyst should visit each locale two or three times during the course of the day. they eat in a regular place at a regular time. The Analysis of the Attitudes and Memories of Parents of them). and. going to places they have never seen but have always wanted to see. Inte iews and group discussions.). that is.

r It dealt with eleven girls and nine boys. herce it was decided to choose a particular area within this sector as our study area. [pages 1-2] I 2 7. His knowledge of how children in the area use the outdoor space: that 'Ihe work of each local team is systematically covered in reports that are available for consultation at the Applied Social Sciences Division ofUNESCO in Paris. and transmitted. the city councils of the suburbs of the Western sector of Melbourne are making submissions to the Federal Government for assistance in improving conditions in the area.l04 Original Research G EXCERPTS FROM TTM NATIONAL REPORTS remember of the outdoors in the place you lived in. a high proportion being reûted. brick-veneer attached pairs. That was done in an impressionistic way in the main text. This verbal and sketch data should be recorded and tnnsmitted in the verbal material being translated into English. Later. or communicate some interesting findings. enyironment ard the children's use of it. Jointly. The Analysis of the Attitudes. he might asked to add any features cant in the discusion. March 1973. a high usage of land for goveûrmental pruposes. It was considered that such a study might prove of value in helpirg to improve conditions in these suburbs. Mel- following quoted matetial refel to the respective national re- poIts. and what did you there? How does that compare with the place your child is growing up Which place was better to gro\ÿ up in and why?" The detailed results of each interview should be recorded. oconomically and in terms of physical facüities than those to the east ol the C.D. It has larger blocks of land than those found in most suburbs. 6. and timber units for railways employees. The western subulbs of Melboume are generally of a lower status socially. and what he thinks the realistic enÿironmental €xpectations may be for the next generation of children of this class. residential layout substantially similar to the Australian norm. the planner should be asked to make sketch map of the area in question. Against this background the areas of Braybrook and Maidstote were chosen for the study. translated English. son \Mith that of these area children (ust as was asked of the children's. along with a means of identifying the parent with particular child. There are also a number of prefabricated concrete flats of up to thrce storeys and a few simila! blocks of b ck flats. Rather. and its evaluation in compari. A description of the data and criteria he commonly uses in planning for thit or similar areas. The houses throughout are public authority ereÇted. Downton. Australia We begin with the Melbourne study." typescdpt. as necessary.14. living in the western suburbs of Melbourne. There are many social indicators supporting this assertion: The average per capita expenditure on nçw education buildings 1966-1972 throughout Melboume was $257. as far as he knows it. Australia. and a 2. His estimate of how that environment and its use by children is currently changing. Reported in: P. Memories of his o\Mn childhood environment. we will choose fragments that give a better sense of the localities that were studied. . and Plans of Official Environmental. Each report is complete in itself. In the early course of the interview. for the Inner Western sector the value was $0. parents). and how the environment supports or frustrates those Deta(ed questions oû these matters can most easily be prepared after analyst has a thorough uflde$tanding of how children are âctually acting. "citlir"ni. conducted by Peter Downton. The area was established in the late 1 940s ard earty 19 50s and has four distinct types of houseprefabricated timber. aged fourteen to fifteen. It has considerable industrial development. 4. and his seno of how the development of these children is affected by the micro. The area is within the City of Sunshine. the range and purpose of activity. and at what times. The west continually tanks low on such indicators. 2Page numbers of Space Project. to it (in another color) that appeared as signifl.87. Education. where. Knowledge. and (hild Care Planners Each planner should be intervie$/ed to elicit: 1. A description of any existing or proposed program for children ofthis which the planner is aware of. The planner's own evaluation of the quality ofthat micro-environment and how his official plans affect that quality. 3. 5. the western suburbs averaged $ 138.B. or are affected by it. Perçeptioû bourne Study. prefabdcated concrete. what they do. J. We will not attempt to summadze their findings here. and completed in 1973. The per capita value of new health buildiûg approvals for the year ending 6/30/1971 for all areas of lvlelbourne other than the Inner Westein sector averaged $3.

Implarted in the grass are timber poles carrying power and telephone lines. 2. Many of these children are likely to be leaving school in 1973 to fird employment. Note the frcquent. at which stage (and a little older) they can expect to be treated in a more adult fashion.. The distance between the front fences is in the order of l6-19 m in most instances. concrete. "onrirtirg usually of bitumen. The rainfall was insignificant as the area was expede[cing drought conditions.380 square kilometres \rith an estimated population of 2. white the mean maximum monthly tempemture in summer is approximately 2'toc. The average annual rainfall of this western sector is 500. nor yet adults in their community. The mean maximum annual temperature is l9oC.) . The space between the rear of the house and the fence dividiog the block from the one backing onto it forms a more or less visually pdvate outdoor space [page l5I ] (See Fig. keeping nothing in or out." Between the nature strips aod the front fences on either §de ol the street there are concrete footpaths. [page l0] The City of Melboum" (L"t. and of an age when they are no lorger considered as small children. The froût walls of the houses are set some 6 or 8 metres behind these fences. The area of the existing urban zones is 1.106 Excerpts from the National Repolts Australia to7 The children were mainly fourteen. ÀrI average street could Ue ae. the mean üinimum annual temperature is 9oC. aûd through this areâ runs the Maribytnong River. edged with coîcrete (or occasionally bluestone block) drainage chanoels.5oC.. Often an attempt is made to make this area ornamental. Very rarely a small tree may also be found in this area which is usually named (in one of the geat Australian misnomers) the "nature st p. but occasionally ". beyond the §cIeen of factorie§. and in the third year of their secondary schoolirg. tending younger children in the family). They thus fitted the criteda of being ir early adolescence. . empty.criUea of a paved central section. ln the older parts of the West Footsctay section this distance is frequently less. To the west and north lie flat basalt plains.llow bay. and for winter months the mean monthly minimum is approximately 4. 37"49'S. Dudng the period of the study the maximum daily temperature averaged 18oC. The front fences are typically very low and serve ody as demarcatioû lines.5 metrcs from one side boundary to allow for a drive and/or gamge for cars and a little over a metre from th€ other The area between the front fence and the house is relatively useless as it lacks privacy for quiet uses. raa'5S'E) lies at the northern end of a large shâ.5 million public open §paces. The houses ale set about 3. and is too small for more vigorous activities.. Children must compulsorily remaiû at school until the age of fifteen by State Law.. At the age studied they are expected to take responsibility for some household duties (e. but are also expected to behave according to parental demands which limit their degree of self-determined behaviour. Ipage l4] Aedal view of the Braybrooke-Maidstone area in Melbourne. This centre roadway is flanked on either side by a poorly maintained area of grass. 55 The Madbymo4g is to the north (top) of the photo.

photos were taken with long telephoto lenses from within the car. They itevitably appear larger than they are. This was not often mentioned in an§wel to this que§tion. are limited for by money. to be seen. but we don't k!lo. but i§ iltegal on roadway§ io it-is not used much for transpolt. All subjects are of course seveml years too young to be lçgauy served in a hotel.tost children seem to desùe. Use of space outside the house lot by children is predominantly confifled to the streets.0""r. It grades steeply to the is typical: when asked if she could go whereyer she wanted in the city. but came evident somewhere in the interview. \trhele maûy children are not allowed company. an illusion resulting from boredom. To remain inconspicuous. and therc is somebody Telling Mum is the opemtive coûdition for mo§t of the respondents. and hence pubüc tran§port. The follo\À. thele are conditions imposed by parents. it was necessary for the obserÿation team to drive around looking for the action. push bike and motor bike riding.ÿas based on walking and meeting people. Some swimming takes place in the dver. Sàme journeys to and from school are by bus. and main roads \dere both cited as places where two boys could not go in their area. digging.108 Éxcerpts from the Natioûal Reports Austlalia l09 The parks and reserves in the area may geoerally be descdbed as flat. Twà-thlrds of the children intervie\'ÿed con§ider themselve§ able to go wherever they wish ifl both thet own area aod in the city. Thi§ typi applies to joumeys to the city. This flat area is well used ior riding horses.o areas (the reserves) for activities "r"'*""" specifically banned by Councils-horse. they are I}ot particularly happy about it. the way and would get lost. one girl replied"Yes. or the stipulation that the cNld must §ay where he or she propo§es to go. lpage 3l ] l\. On the north side the land is compamtiyely nai tesiae the rivir before sing steeply." The same girl provided a fatuty typical an§wer when a§ked if she was able to wherever she wanted in her own area. The following sketches and ûotes explain the uses of space observed. Nearly all journeys undertaken *itni" af.ÿith Vicki. No real modification of the enÿironment was observed. etc. Jor that involve long distances. Several of them have treeS in a line along one or more sides. fishing. walking.. streets as cdcket grounds. [page 23] In several instances the limitations governing rÿhich places are accessible come from the child rather than the parents. but most bÿ foot. to meet frieods aûd to gathgr and talk. [page 20] (See Fig' 3') The land south of the Madbylnong River is a cross between a wilderne§§ and a rubbish dump. we begaû observing streetscapes. Larger sustained groups were not commoû except for thoss walking home from school. The interview§ have constant mentions of of *"itiru to visit friends. . Bit[ard rooms and hotels are mentioned by many. and a stdct absence of tree§. "I can go where I want to provided I tell Mum.) Places considered physically dangerouswere mentioned infrequently in answer to these questions. Pictule theatres showing "R" certificate fi. building. but I don't like goiûg into the city by myself-I could go \." The range of places specifically disallowed by the parerts is fairly narrow. but mant feel it to be too polluted now to be safe. such as a time by which the child mu§t retum. most activity by this age group in public space took place in the streets. Whirlpools in the dver. they seem powerless to alter this behaviour pattem. [page61] ." rtray area by fourteen year olds aro by foot. The remainder of the §ubjects either feel coo§iderable ümitations. Bicycli riding i§ very limited as a mean§ of movement lor this ago gioup.*. l\. Young children play in the strcets because they provide the only oear-to-home public space large enough for the energetic games. etc. Various envionments were being used in ways for which they were not intended-the steps in front of the squash courts as seats. hence it larely occurred in the same location twice. Children [round the age v/e studied use the streets in alr essentially social manner-to walk and watch. By removing these potontial ussrs of the plovided open space the reserves are left empty and lifelcss. Typically. Çlimbing. The activity in ths streets r. flying nodel planes and kites.lakirg tracks by dding bikes over unused ground is the nearest action we observed to genuino modification of a space. ol àefinitely say that theie are a number of places where they cannot go' children are ofteû limited to going to places they already ktow. ("R" certificate specifies that children under eighteen years of age shall not be admitted. I don't know the Çity. feature' less iracts of haphazardly grassed unused land. a few by car. Short of keeping the children inside. lpages 26-281 Because it quickty became .lms are mentioned by several. I've been once in the last three Yéars. Ob§ervations in the area revealed large numbers boys Àd gtls in ttre 13 to 17 age group walking around the streets in group§ of from two-to six. front fences as seats. One park has trees toward the centue The footbatl club ànd the schools in the area have similar reserves. Consequently. "Can't go to the city unless I'm with Mum. Although this use of space is not regarded as very bad or wrong by parents. the differences being the addition of a two metre high wfue mesh fence arcund the pedphery topp-ea with OarbeO wire. Motoi bike dding for fun is quite common. etc.

Za *2tsttea.*t7-<Y e p*zK 1621.8oo l(ç ."q.-. ott ffi kd ÿL--:-------'r strfl-ts.. F^.. (See also Figures 51 a.zz 1titr. il1".L4 . .44."r..17 té2î Cha.L<j. I h k q I fi rl ^.t rl à" c//r. a:J d .tz-<l a^-a( z<^ral*-& ?lz//. ^ara.^ o.d 52...#4 ' arL^-^i^s .tuÿ ùr. -ac". -Nq^ .à12 % v:l**':*a\^là ..t a^zl § *&.Ra. ' Melhourne.-+ t .^1j .aL llruelz. b.5AA4g/ coo<7s F.r7. .le t6tî- l. s7æ€r 56 Three behavioral diagrams from 4 At^la çü^. kaa* ' iA<.ta. ht4a8 .) 7"* r.

parks ot anywhere with trees. It was speoifically mentioned.iump out at you in the dark!" {pages 3l-321 §5§ r/. and the city square in Melbourne is mentioned twice. and a creek with quick-sand. etc. Ballarat Road running through the northern sectio[ ofthe study area is I major state highway and carries a large ÿolume of trcffic at all times. Mainly this is outside their own area. You caû't be safe anywhere teally! People . billiard rooms. One girl gave the most general descriptio[ for the most dangetous place. Some children simply specified roads in general. The children's school is beside this road and is reached by an overpass. the reasons given being inÿariably gangs and fights.ÿell out of the study area). not something the boy had expedenced. One gûl considers drains dangerous as her young cousin fcll into one. sixteen children meûtioned gardens. see the treeles§ photos of the area. This is wishful thinking for one subject. One boy informed the interviewe! that the farm across the river was the most dangerous place "because you'd be shot if caught stealiflg caIfots.. One boy itemized the most dangerous places ill the whole city. There was one "don't know any. Ifl oûe form oI another. to result from some experiof the individual. while to the other it is beautiful because you Çan watch people passing.? . The dver is also seen as dangerous by some. 'Ihe list compdses a lead pit.Austrâlia 113 /2-/T . The lines rulr at the top of aII cmbankment and are not fenced off.) One boy meûtions a waterfall along the river (. Hotels. Roads are clearly seen as the most dangerous places in the area. a shot towel. in the main. Sometimes this is simply because it is a riÿer and plesents dalrgels such as whirlpools or falling in."r" *"r" a. Another expressed a fear of being pushed off the platform at a railway station.§ §$v Y [s "Hoods people out to get you. Train speeds are often high as there arc major state lines as well as suburban lines. >. as were othe! roads with heavy . "Ànywhere-anything can happen to you!" §§ $ She gaÿe the reason as.' §'.y O"arltf. -\ î^- The remairder of the answers seem. two chemical plant§. being mentioned fow times. intersections and heavy or fast traffic were mentioned eleverl times.::=:> 56 continued Questioned as to whether ." The interviewer b€lieved this \ as a mmour. 1" $ . Only t\tro repües mention this. roads. The streets at night paticularly near the football club are considered dangerous by about a quarter ol the sample.§z -.l places in the atea or the city." and one "there aren't lny !" .ÿ"s' 1ê æ . (Foi the teason. The fact that "louts hang around th€re" also makes it da[gerou§. Several parents also spoke of the streets as dangerous. cnce 1\-) /\ . but it is the general reputation of the river area at night. Some mention the railway lines as dangerous... discotheques. are cited as places that miSht be Jangerous because of gangs or fights.

it's all so boring. . and generally cared for the park directly opposite his house (Mathews Hill ReOnly one boy in the unything scrve). although half just thought there would be change and did not offer commeût oû whether this would improve or harm the area. School is specified seven times as the least liked place. One girl doet not think anything is particularly ugly. Factories in general wer! usually mentioned although sometimes particular factodes vrere singled out for atteûtion. pull down all the factories and fix the place up generally. Three others regaid home generally a8 the best place to be. Eachofthe other eight arswers ale unique: In jail (the boy speot two days in police custody afte! stealitg a car) Sunshine-because there is nothing to do th€re Doing a paper round-b€cause it is boring. more orowding because there are so many people as the population is growing and hardly any places for them to live. mowed the lawn. The desire to live xway from the metropolis will probably have to be modified by most because of a lack ofjob opportunities. to Asked how they would change the area if giÿet a free hand most of the children gave extremely limited answers in keeping with their obviously limited expedeûce." .o gùls therc is nowhere that they object to enough to answer the question. Another boy (\." lnnel suburbs because thele are "rotteû old houses" there which ale not interesting Shopping no reason (lhurch-". The expressed desire by some to live near the oity proper is usually depeodent on a hoped for job or educational opportunity. some that it would get better.t got much money. more road accidents especially around Darnley Street afld Churchill Avenue cor[er.ÿho initially specified his olyn room) thi[ks anywhere he can go to fish is a good place." This factory was giÿen as an example several times. Only three of the subjects expect to still be living in the area in aoother ten yeam. Another three children find a frieûd's home is the best place. pull down the flats. one because there ale more things to do at her boyfriend's house. seveo expect to be living somewhere similar or in a similar manner. One girl believed there would be no real changes: "l don't think it will change. The rauge is very wide alrd the emphasis is prcdominantly on the social nature of the activity.o. pollution (especially near the river) and dumped rubbish and city buildings are each cited live times as examples ugliness. because they Uke the actiÿity and they meet their rdends there. ". .u-o* -rrsiders that he has been able to do change the area. othem that it would worsen. ore becausc she is free of her little brother. Ipage 42] For thrçe children. home twice. tall. pollution." being nine times. The houses aren't looked afteri you can look through the open doors and see mess and beer bottles every.h"i.. thet own room is the best place to be because they can pursue a hobby without inte[uptioû.. with some improvements. but he reeds the money The City because the girl gets lost there Aunt's home-because the boy had to work there 'rhe children were asked . everything's pretty much thc same. improved buildings and services. improve the roads. Many expected that families of different natioûalities would increasingly occupy the area. or near the city in a flat. He has planted trees. alrd corcrete." Some ideas on ugliness: "Therc are lots of houses unfit for living. The houses aren't looked after. and both school and home once. one of the Catholic schools to become co-educational. noise. where. and one because she is getting away from her ovirn home. . particularly io the countryside away Irom the pollution. The rcmainder hope to be somewhere else. and traffic." "Penûell's factory. . who plays in a band with his father.i"*r'. For t!i. Ten childre[ all specify a sporting/social centle of some description as tho best place to be." Ipages 34-35] ^lso "All round is ugly-it's a slum. in the main. For one boy. Several simply told of what they knew ol proposed plans for the area-a new shopping complex to the northeast. One subject mentions old houses in an inrer city area. because the pdest is ahvays talking about wanting more money." Two boys said "No. people haÿen. the area would change in the next ten years. the hotets where they play arc best because all their friends are there. Some beLieved that conditions would be improved with better facilities. Some suggest alternatives similar to their parents' pattern if such hope§ . disliked because they are cold. In the light of the answer to the next question oûe gill surydsingly regardS school as the best place because all her friends are there. There'll be different nationaüties around. A fair composite answer would be: Plant more trees. There's nothing really to change in this area to rnake it different. City buildings are.114 Excerpts from the National R 115 ^ustralia Factories are the most frequeDtly named "ugly places. smells. It's not painted or kept tidy. There appeaN to be a strong desire to repeat the parents' pattern. {pages 32-33'l *no. It's old and rusty." 'l'he rest believed there would be changes. etc. although one qualifies this by specifÿing that this is so oûly when his father is not home. Most of those who expected some worsening of conditions mettioned crowdi[g. Poor houses in the area.places aren't sewered. .

Canbera was mentioned twice. "l'd I think children. aud in terms of their hopes for their childreo's children."rr. 57] Parents were asked to try and describe the sort of place in which thei grand. Some sample answers are more illuminating than further analysis: Townsville.' I'd preler her to buy a block of land and save to build a house together. were named and so were two Melbourne suburbs. overworked and housebound. It'd have to be a decent place-it's so hard to be decent people otherwise. limiting their expedences severely. It'd be easier on her. She'll be further out into the country.. Wangaratta and Geelong. if you live in an area you're lumped with it. such às flats. Darwin. both realistically. usuauy at some length. I can't see her living in too cro!ÿded a place.) A place with trees. I hope what I've said is the sort of place she'll live in. Buûdabetg. As you probably can tell. Those children who live. the featweless paddocks that separate individual blocks. The other five each named a generalized lype of place. Each place named is an extreme contrast to their o$. or both. mote peaceful place. but if she has her choice later on it'd be better flot to live here. where would be the best place to live and why?" Fifteen children named specific places. Tho children's expectations for the future do not match well with the likely future. European countries received five mentions. Alt those interviewed hope to see fewer. Several answers. The improvemeflts were either economic. Northern cities or areas of Austmlia were popular-Brisbane. illiterate and breed cdme and are full of no-hopers. either oÿetly or impücitly. near the beach. Rockbaok and Toorak. Maûy thought there would be more flats. Although I'd like her to live in a residertial area. I'd help her financialty at the she'll have a clean." [pages 46-48] prefer her to get a better start than beginning.n areas. and the parents admitted this. I was a country girl myself and I'd much rather live there. Especially when she says. Several hoped there would be better community faciliti€s. not an area like this one. One gtul hoped to be living differently in Europe: " be trees and that!" Most of the children interviewed regarded the abolitior of flats as a desirablê step in improving the envircnment. or have lived. I don't think it's affectiûg her now. the lack of privacy. homely aûd happy house and be just like her mother-bored. I'd like the place to be like Beaumaris. O'Neill and Mr. better controlled factodes in the area in the future." "Places for Dawn will be further out of the city-places like Melton. etc. some entirely. We've had to be strict in such a troublesome area. and the depressing atmosphere of these developments are all aspects thoroughly disliked by both children and adults. The followirg question was asked: "Of all the places that you have been to or heard about. a clean and tidy place seems to be most desirable to the I did. The lack of space withir the flat.'Well my friends are allowed to do that. three from experience. Half the answe$ coûtained. a smaller."' "Well. aûd partiauy to the extremely poor quality of thê flats in the area. Three of the architects grew up in the country areas which presented a \ÿide range oi activities and choices. probably more spacious than this one-Jennifer and Dawn share the bedroom and I think Dawn feels the pinch a bit. a lack of pollution. jobs.l l6 Excerpts from the National Reports Australia tt7 are not fulfilled." "We get it rammed do'. Benjamin lived in urban areas which fortuitously provided them with equally ÿaried spatial envûonments. were restatements of the children'g owû hopes. spatial learning and creative abilities cannot be judged accurately without a comparative study of other eovironments. in one of the Housing Commission's concrete walk-up flats in the area understandably hate them. but expressed hope that there would not be. and nine had heard about it.. or these childrer is p marily one of . childrefl would live. or imagined. All felt their childhoods were better. The country is an ideal place. Sweden. Nearly all the answers contair reference [The plannem who werej int"-i"rr"a a"r"rited. Six had actual experience of the plâ our throats by the newspapers that the westem suburbs are deprived. I dor't think she'll sit ârourd ârd vegetate-she'll find things to do-she'll be a useful person in community activities. Although this is not necessarily so. it'll be the only alternative for the future. as \tas the state of Tasmania. The beach or seaside and the coultryside were mentioned several times each. and it's very hard. Ipages 42-44. I don't think she'll live too far from the city. Queensland. The Gold Coast and "the outback" were mentioned once. England twice. She'll have her own house. The paucity of perceptual stimuli carl be judged from the photographic descdptions ol the area. some onty partially. The children's dislike of flats can be partially attributed to the general national dislike of flat living. Several said that their children's futurcs were dependent on their chances ol pursuing their choser careers. I'd waût it to be a better environment than it is here. social. Whether or not this inhibits the child's cognitive mapping. a free atmosphere.". not an industrial one. Germany and Switzerland. Both Mr. !ÿhere she'd got space to bring up her children children need a backyard and need to make some noise-flats don't allow for this. Two rural centres. but in a residential area. (The latter is perceived as the suburb with the highest status. Ipage 54] The eflèct of the physical to social conditions expected hoped for in the future-usualy in the form of "decent" living 01 ". the parents expectatioû that their children would repeat their suburban tem with implovements. The Coutcil atd the Director of Welfare Services regard the irtroduction of flats as desirable. childhoods that were the exact antithesis of a Braybrook childhood. If she's going to live a suburban life.

or planning solution or strategy. shown in previous sections ol this report. It is a difficulty to be overcome if the land betweer the ver and Ballarat Road is to be deÿeloped for recreational use. Ipages 68-69] vironment. the physical distances travelled to reach given facilities can be expected to decrease. Unless these spaces are improved. An increase in population can be expected to lead to an increase in Cou[cil rcvenue from rates. During the time we were filming in the area the children were removed from their minibike track on the railway land by rail police. Thus more money would become available for ex' penditure on services and facilities provided at a municipal level. lpages 69-12) 'Ihe value of this and porritf. as are the people who dump rubbish in ths arca. The children's access to usable outdoor public spaces i§ about half what it should be according to the Melboume and Metropolitan Board of Works open space standards. This tack is aggravated by a lack of edu. However. Thus for chjldren who predominantly walk. Some children $. and contact with a variety of people and ideas are all very poor.118 Excerpts from the National Reports Australia 119 The range of expedences available to a child iû the area is di§tioctly limited. Possible danger§ limit access to the roquire information in a usable form. social. and the apparÊntly unavoidable conclusion is that this is directly traceable to the lack of experiences.5 kilometres away intelest for the children. the for children who previously used the railway land.lead to a tlcgree of enlightenment by indicating both tendencies in behaÿioural pattems ()f a particular gloup. Ineviiably. cational opportunities. Access to outdoor space ard other facilities could well improve due to new zoning. The clarification of cross-cultural differences and similarities is of priû:ary importance in oouttries such as Australia where research in this field is severely limited and hence reliance or research in other countdes is necessary. The applicatioû of findings Irom another country to planning or design problems is always accompanied hy doubts as to the validity of zuch findings for local conditions. or during thefu holiday time. Perhaps the most encouraging aspect of this project in Melbourne has been the interest expressed by plan[ing autholities. The film !ÿas made during school holiday§. and educational envhonments can each be seen to be lacking The present density of population has dictated the land of services aIId facilities. although here. the replies \tere along the following general lines: "Nothing much. a form that allows simple synthesis of the information into a design decision. The abseûce of creativity and invention in the thinking and use of time alld space by these childret is most noticeable. the access would implove' Increased density may improve both access and manipulability in another way. and everywhere we went within the area an audience of children quickly material' ized. physical. The condition of the Madbyrnong River and its immediate surounds is a State concem. these spaces iue rendered almost uousable for childier by lack of development on the oûe hand. sta[diîg and talking are allowed and some sport (within gid definitions of what con§titutes sport). The project can be expected to give valuable indication of the influence of cultural differences on spatial use and behaviour. and restrictions limiting their use to polite activities only on the other-. Their tenure of this site may well be limited and accessis poor river furthet. Ipages 6l-62] wa8 fault in. irtrr" ri*ilar studies is indicated by the interest irroused by the project in l\4elbourne. The position of both these places limits the access. We made a point of asking these children (of various ages) what were their activities for the day. nor is it statistically sound enough to be usôd confidently as a basis for decision making. and hopefully some will direct this enthusiasm into similar or complemertaly reseatch to increase the body of knowledge about the interaction between man and his built en- (outside the study area). At present. is affected by density. fhere are oûly two interesting open spaces in the area the railway land and the land adjacent to the river. Just messing around. \trater and visual pollution are also of concern to municipal authodties. given that ability to pay for tran§pod remains unaltered. broadening of outlook. and access to the§e is extiemely limited.rr'alking. They seek information urgendy. challenges and opportunities available in the §ocial. Planners and designers . and this highlights the primary weakness of the study. The inforrùation produced is not in such a form. hence the ability of the child to diverye from the pattem §et by par' eûts aûd the area subculture is limited. space in the study area.the outdoor public This study has revealed that there * "t" ort*"r. The chances for §elf-development. and the size of catchment areas for the§e facilities. pollution in all forms is a major element of the environment in the study area. With the exception of the railway land and the land beside the iiver. lf the population is increased and at least the same level of services and facilities is maintained per head of population. There appea$ to have been few attempts at improvement made in the past.ere beginning to make use of a large empty site adjacert to a factory about 3. It is boring. It is to be hoped that future plaûning within the area will go some way toward rectifying this. This was clearly seen dudng photography and film making in the area. The acce§§ to these facilities. The factories ploviding air. and to use the railway laûd the children must trespass. physical and educational envilonmeûts." The interview results reveal the same sense of boredom. and areas suitable for future researÇh. access to them will rgmain poinfless. The resultant inhibited thinking of the children extrcmely evident in the interview. Other researchers have been irterested in such work. however. the rnanipulability of the public open space is very close to zero. there's nothing else to do. It does.

Its boundades are clearly marked: thc aforementioned avenue to the West. living-dining room.120 Excerpts from the National Repottl Argentina t2t Argentina The Argentinian study. low hills to the East and South. trcme northwest of the country. Houses are geneÉlly built on plots of land of 10 meters by 25 metem sep. kitchen and a small washing area. two bedlooms. between lhe pdson. A Christmas show is given every year on the hillside. The roof§ are structed with prefabricated beams and hollow bricks. Villa Las Rosas is a suburb of the city of Salta. The enlargements are IIot only due to the necas§itie§ of a famity (increasiûg the ûumber of bedrooms) but also by other type§ 5'.r Nine boys and eleven girls aged eleven to fourteen were chosen for the study. Battro aûd E. Note the triangular lhe community. t)laza l Reported in: A. In the casg o( enlargement the existing architectural unity disappears. school wa§ erected iû its place." typescdpt. lasting ten days. all of whom lived in the residential suburb of Villa Las Rosas. usinl existent rooms or enlarging the original house for this puryose. M. "Iûternational Study of the of Economic Development on the Spatial E[vùonment of Children: Argentina. inthe€x.l An aerial view of part rrl Salta. tiÇipating. with an avemge monthly ill. Most of the houses have been enlarged during the yeals by th€ir (see Figure 50). illld the ruler-straight lnajor artedal with its (leep drainage ditch. The (ity center is some (listance beyond the lower left comer. This pageant is extremely popular in Salta. I and 58. The iostallments to purchase these lodging§ consisted of loafla from the Federal Mortgage Bank (Banco Hipotecario Nacional) with long term amortization and a low annual interest rate. The school is no doubt the center of many actiÿitie§ of this area. The Lilacs (Lat Lilas) begins at Irigoyen Avô. Antonio Battro and architect Eduardo J. Cot§truction commenced in 1954 to house persons in the lower middle class. Food shops have sprung up spontaneouù from some pdvate homes. with the children of the area par. plastercd and painted. December 1972. Villa Las Rosas is located iII thc Southem zone of Salta and is accessible by one of the avenues (Irigoyen Ave.) The Lilacs is the maii accçss to this area. come of US$ 70. a§ the. The streets are named after flowers. was conducted by Dr. bypassing the school and the plaza. arated from the pavement by a small garden. The road ends up the hill. Etlis. They have an entra4ce porch. Villa Las Rosas does not have a shopping center. and thc Pdson and the National Shooting Raflge (Tko Federal) to the North.) with a dividing waterway along the axis. Ellis in the provincial city of Salta. covered with tiles. (See Figs. the hills. An iron arcade with the suburb's name on it and a commer' cial sign mark the entrance portico. in the middle of . J. and the pdncipal one. Las Rosas is irt top center. Next to the arcade is the church. The walls are of concrete blocks. Houses have on one side a com' mon wall and on the other a small garden. completed in 1972.

There are mally vadeties of these. it has paved roads. The plaza is good fun.*. built with materials or vined pergolas. The people are good. many playful children. good." The typical house. §tones. complicated forms and combinations of materials." "lt is a nice area. with or without hedges. trees. and 591 The layout of Las Rosas. I ptayed the pa of the dancing shepherd. Only six house§ can be consideled \a. Most of the hou§es are little cared for with objects heaped up in the living room (refrigeratol.26.ri to their way of living." "Ample area." "It is a nice area.122 Excerpts frcm the National R Argentina t23 necessities accolding G) Tili:: Ihl t:til5 . wire scleeûs. The inhabitants of thi§ suburb give a great deal of importance to the fence as it is the first impres§ion of the outside of their homes. therc are good friends..ith six rooms. there is a large number of decolations and some religiou§ images. 59 58 r----l How v/ould you descibe youl area to someone who does not klow it. TV.-. There was one house with seven rooms.). For Chdstmas we organize the Living Creche. there is a school. the plaza i§ a meeting place. we danced the'carnavalito' [a local dance]. The Local Neighbors' OrganihiUs. they ptay uotil late." "It is a wondellul area. suits. setting up outdoor spot§ covercd ol half covered for small workshops. mattresses. Many people go to the plaza at night. brick§.. [pages 16. flowers. big. -. two \i. I don't like that. it is cool. geterally the e aryement of the kitchen does not constitute a new room. we haYe fun.28. "It is not very big. they arc building a swimming pool. The matedals used for these enlargements are usually masonry wall§ or piUa$ and electroplated tin roofs. nice hills and view. fumitwe. It is well plotected because of the prison. large tables. it has a plaza. eating.7--' .ell painted and with well kept gardens. the Living Creche. bricks or stones with iron milings. gramophones. I wa§ a shep- . Each owner could choose hi§ type of fence and its coûstruction. I have many friends. vined pergola§ are used. the §chool.. the hills.30.. There are maûy bfuds in the "It For the Cfuistmas pageant I was an angel. united neighbors. and another year herdess. and who would üke to know what it is like? "lt is a niqe area. Apart from the useful objects. For semicoÿered areas. in some cases extending the porches until they rcach the fences. we play. nice houses well decorated. the girls organize parties. clothes washing. Las Rosas. The type of construction is good. and seventeen with five rooms." is an amusing area. a Spolts Club is being done. and there is the Living Creche. People talk a lot about bad 20.ffi #Jî«æxËSSI." zation is making a swimming pool. etc. etc. '. such as enlaiging the kitcheo to provide eating facilities. Houses wele Irot fenced onto the street.

This segment of . because it is a happy place and there are always children playing. Los Tulipanes [the tulips] because there are maoy trees and the neighbouÎs are very good." "The National Shooting Range because you caII shoot with firearms.. There is unemploymeflt. and they have a lot of fieedom. many people go there." Many answered "the grotto when they set up the Liÿing Creche. everything was more difficult.[ have to pass to be able to raise our children properly. the prisone$ work.". During the Chdstmas pageant I !ÿas an angel twicg and once a shepherd. everything was expensiÿe. Here in Salta there are two social groups. people come and go." "The hill in spdngtime is üke a green pillow. and ending with the §an Bernardo Çonvent that visually closes the street two blocks from the church. starting with the Cabildo on the Plaza." "The Cathedial. a the city and why are they beauti- "When I was my child's age." "Within our arca. I used to work from sunrise to dusk. you either ale or you ate not." "The San Maitin park because oIIe can go for walks and it is always full of people.' "Before. *" . I had no bathroom." [pages 39-40] All parents agree that tlie present moment is favorable for the children. big Only one child was pessimistic: "In our arca there are no beautiful places. gives a special touch In the tbuowing descdption. only grade." "I like everything in the city. salaries wete never enough. Furthermore." "The hill.e plaza and in the city the 9 de Julio plaza and the San Martin park. people had ljttle chances." "ln our area the streets: Los Claveles [the camations] and Las Magnolias [the magnolias] because there arc pretty houses and paved roads. eÿerything that they need and more. fu her on the San Francisco Church. some ûeighbours ars sood. a school.124 Excerpts from the National Reportg Argentina 125 "lt is a nice big area.I earned one peso per day. because there arc always flowers." lpages 50-5 I l Do you think that [your did? gr." "Before there was not such sociability amoûg the children." "The hills for picnics and playing. many years wi. the perspective of the SaIt Bemardo hill emerging like a huge tdangular bulk behind the convent." "The street where I live. the best in Salta. I lived in the countryside. Villa Las Rosas is a very nice. there are good bu§e§. they do flot have to work.." "Monoblocks because there are many games." "The plaza because I meet my friends." "I don't notice many changes. and the Guemes monument. education for gids was vely poor and limited." till seÇond or third "In my time we had much less freedom. better kept aûd with more floweN. The plaza used to be nicer." classes "The same. life is very hard. there are many children. they study well. it was very hard to achieve anything." "The San Martin park because everyone minds thei own business. now the State giyes us more possibilities. ôthers bad. many streets and nearly all paved." "The 9 de Julio plaza is a cheerful place." "Now the childlen have bicycles." "In the city the Cabildo because it is nice and is lit up at night. cars pas§.:. because we go there for picnics and there are lots of people." "The frort of my house. There is a plaza." "University was impossible.* ourselves to the comments of "onnrr" two children: Patricia (thiteer years) and Raul (twelve years) while we toured together one of the most picturcsque streets of the city: Caseros Street from the 9 de Julio plaza up to the ancient San Bernardo convent. tt. Life in general is less hard than before and the childrcn reçeive all they reed. cokes." "Women were sillier before ald we had to rtrork a lot.*nrg "hila*rl -" up in a better place than you area." "It is a nice area. we had no fteedom. different were more divided." Ipages 63-64] the strcet is known for having some architectural monuments of real interest." "Thete exists more communication between pare[ts and children. the neighbors are good. because that is nature. also economic. they make chairs and bread and sell it to the public. Other answers are the follolring: Aie there beautiiul places in your ful? ". movies." "The 9 de Julio plaza becâuse it has lovely trees. we went through the same situation as oow." "Before." "There is a model pdson. etc." "We werc subjected to our parents'will. !ÿhen I was a chitd." "The plaza." "The Guemes monument.

! ili.:.ÿ: 9 iL d..h9Ç- § :- osY""cE6 \o rr.È- * o & o z o trl . Ë q Ècâ o1 .dE I(l *:ü* É€ à ë.

" "Round the convent they bother me." "Yes." "Well. making way for modem buildings." "Well. it is bothersome for the pedestrians. The old ones I would demolish. the roads get naûower. §een." "In §alta. The advertisements and signs.I iÿould put trces. because it is !ÿell painted and at right it is easily Pailtt "That the church is not painted. until they finish this building. because on repairing them the foundations would be too weak and they could fall. because look at the streets and Jhe sidewalks!" repainting. one should remove the top bars. the bad coûditions of the facades of many traditional houses. tvÿo eucalyptus. I would do it all the same. yes." "This block is pedect." Antiqueness of the Houses "I don't like this house because it is made of adobe [dry mud]." . Notwithstanding. the noisy traffic. to this road which "That acrylic sign. it has stafucases that are not used any more. not because of the wùes but because they make the church look ugly. because it is ar old colour and the convent is old. they are horible. the aerial telephone ard light wires. cars park there. ." "Yes. I don't like it. it would need "These houses bother me." I like. and paint the wall a peach pink colour. Here the stones do 4ot bother. it looks bad. Caseios street has unfortunately lost its architectural uûity and part of its quality du ng the last years. the shops with their wi[dows totally out of tune with the suroundings. and light posts bother when you want to take photos. a tall shopping certer !ÿith seven floom.128 Excerpts from the National Reports Areentina t29 is highly rccommended asa traditional promenade of the city. and that one on the corner. Çertainly do not help to enhance the quality of this street which has been deteriorating noticeably. the lack of trees. most of them deplolable. the stone one. I would make a building and a park." "To fit this house. . because you see it per- fectly well from here. and the other houses are made of bricks." "I don't think they bother. . it wouldn't look bad next to the church. I would erect a building." "I don't like that old house." "What I don't like is that the cals are allowed to park. but if we widen the sidewalks. . if I would demolish a house I would throw down this one. it is not painted ploperly. Many old fashioned houses have disappeated. because they are well finished. doesn't look well. yes. look at that " one. This one.If the sidewalks $. just to mention the most obvious defeÇts. take out the doors that it has. the parked cars. for example: what today is the Uriburu Museum and some entrance halls. No." "That yellow colour. flowercd pedumed patios. \ryhere this house stands. help one to imagine cool. carnations.ould be iÿider. if it would cover the hill." "I dot't like that corner either. and that one. Some old big colonial houses are still standiûg. Cars I would make them put better pairt. the others I would leave them. the cornel house is horible. Roses. those stuck on the wall. but that cream yellow is sad and I don't like it. I like it. because it is well painted and well kept." Cleanliness Light and Telephone Wtues "The wies should pass somewhere else. I like this conÿent. "I don't like them." "I think they bother. well. This house should be repaûed." Trees and Gardens "Here on the plaza of the Convent I !ÿould make a small garden. because it is ruined." Signs "I like everything in this block. ." "Exactly. The majestic wall of the San Francisco church and the many coloured facades constitute a landmark for a pedest an tour. it is too old. daisies. it would be better to demolish the old houses." Sidewalks "The sidewalks are too narrow and if a c:rl comes one can be run do!ÿû." "I \.ÿould put the light wires undelgrould. yes." "The City Hall would have to put something for garbage. I would take the stones not in use. it also makes it look bad." "I would pai[t the old sigûs. and use them to make a central flowerbed.

it seems desolate. "Child's Perception of the ELironment. The course has three changes of direction. this would lead us to believe that for many children of this age. those in Warsaw by Prof. and the word "clean" to cement and luminous signs. (The reproducibüty coefficient of the test isvery satisfactory: Cr = 0. must be eliminated. it doesn't have commercial signs. The difficulty in defining the notion of "quality of the environment" is cornected with the fact that one's eovi. that one does not have any circulation. in short. deteriorated signs. because of that curve it has. It i§ as though they would attdbute the word "dirty" to arything natural or wild. such as wircs. we can see that the childreo are interested particularly in something that could be named "neatuIess. quality of enÿironment. The research should above all yield information useful for town plaûners. where trees are found precisely in the city. because both the quality of life and perception depeûd not only on propedies of the enviroflment. A." (Bells It is interesting to point out that the major landmarks along the way are identified coractly. the natural view (th€ hill) the plants and gardens that they see everyday in their area do not attract them majorly. that iû the center of the city there should be ro trees. They repeat an opioion.93. but the knowledge already existing allows us to formulate some preliminary theoretical and methodological assumptions for this type of research. worn steps. is to distinguish thosé pràperties of the environment which make the latter a "good" or a "bad" onÊ for mao. This does not mean that the child does nôt know the aesthetic value of the ancient coûveût.) simultaneously." "The view that chime) "We1'1. the childrcn that "What I like about this house is the door. completed in 1974. and not further out in the semidesert sufoundings. organizers of the spatial environment in lvhich people live. Andrzej Eliasz. well painted facades. Dr. the child possibly would aoswer differently (for example. it is pedect. covedng five groups of twenty to thirty chüdren each: one group living in a center-city nei8hborhood and another in a peripheral housing project in both Warsaw and Cracow. The difficulty ilqeases as the change occuis further away from school. On the other hand. Krystyna Skarzynska.95) * r"u. they value many aspects that they do not have in their area.of fectly how to reach the the last change of course (C). The experimenter asks him to draw the way that he has to go to rcach the 9 de Julio plaza in the center of the city (about thhty blocks). and perception of the lattel is in the initial stage. The Notion of the Quality of the Emironment The purpose of the research on perception of the enYironment. the furthest a\tray. dckety doors. th€ drawing of the way is of a topological kind and ûot necessadly euclidean (maintaining angles and distaûces). facing the area's plaza. UNESCO I Reported . \trith its special design. [pages Poland The work in Poland was more extensive. have the most difficulty in drawing center. I most sincerely like. At the moment the research on the quaLity of life. but I don't like it because it is too towûlike. because there is no water"). eÿe1t though they know perthe city. It could be useful for the organizers of the cultural life and educators as well.ronment may be "good" or "bad" to iû: T. "outside the city you cannot plant trees. The information could be used in order to improve the quality of the envilonment. at the edge of the irrigation chanflels. 1973-1914"' type§cdpt. can also solve the intermediate B. and Dr. In another city with other planning. but also on those of a maI!. the nearest to starting point. A beautilul street must be a street !ÿith wide sidewalks.90. They prefei the noisy commercial street to the quiet residential one. The quality of life in an envionment should be qeated ard improved fuom both the§e points of vie\tr 88. is this one because it is ample. Dr. for example Mendoza. 107] In short. because they are dity.91. Maria Susulowska and Dr. and an additional group of rural village children in the Cracow region. The result obtailed confirms the hypothesis that we are dealing with a Guttman scale: the chüdren !ÿho caII corectly solÿe the change in course C. surely overheard from grownups. clean and with moderl houses. Tomaszewski.96. Maria Sawicka. B and C.l The Cracow studies were carried out by Prof." Design we have ob§erved. the street does not have ally bad circulation."U ut a table in the school The test to be done is the fo[owirg: anl "rrrd garden. they give a great deal of impodanÇe to luminous signs. I would like it very much that we have mote houses like that one. he would eveo "like to live there" if it were a private house. The work.94." From these comments.130 Excerpts from the National Repo s Poland Movement "The street I most lrke is Caseros. Project Realized iIl Polaûd. Tadeusz Tomaszewski." tidiness. Tomaszewski. can coffectly draw A. Everything that looks untidy. even though the change in course was wrong. was under the general supervision of Prof." "Yes. but what most attracts his attertion is the recent coat of paitt that distinguishes it irom other antique houses semi-abandoned or conÿertçd into cheap grocery stores. [pages 101. Tere§a Szustrov/a. old adobe houses. and those that can find corectly the change ilr coulse B.

In summer it is a market for vegetables and fruits. which determine one's activity level. elvùonment is a source of satisfaction or dissatisfactiofl for man.. or discouragement.. the satisfaÇtion of alcoholics or drug addicts). being the arca of his vital activity. b. of his actual weu-being or malaise. attitudes and strategies.hether it is possible to crçate spatial conditions favorable for this higher type of satisfactiol by means of approp ats planniûg of the manmade environment.132 Excerpts from the National Reports Poland him in various respects. in winter. one that activates. or are ill reputedJ etc. neighborhood. ertertainment in the §arne places. but also the process of forming his needs. besides they may be regarded as means. Interpersonal relations ard contacts may either be directly modified by the spatial orgalj. The problem of the iafluence of the environment on human development is of special impo ance to planners. a space in which people meet. develops and satisfies people. with a minimal level of Passive satisfaction. and thercfore their work. but inactive and underdeveloped. resulting from a high level of activity alld deÿelopment. Certain elements of the environment have for man the value of either goals or objects of avoidance." Ipages 163-168] The Cracow Region The subjects of the city center group inhabit a narrow locality of the city. In one environment people feel comfortable and in the other the contrary. supports deÿelopment: S. From this point of ÿiew a differentiation should be made between optimal stimulation. accelerate or retard his mental development. activation. the human enÿionment. enjoy a activity (a far z. They must take itto account that their spatial designs not only fulfill existing needs but also create new ones. The questiot arises li. communiÇate. going for a walk with children or dogs. §econd.g. their ûeeds aie smal-t. Klepa$ki Square is the central point of this locality (see Figure 6). there may be an enÿironment technically underdevelop€dj whose inhabitants are satisfied because the degree of thet owr development is rather low. The activity of a man depends on his environment in thiee ÿays: a. stimulative depriÿation ard stimulative overload. walking the same stleets.) or indtectly. dwelling in the same place. The environment is a pattern of sensory stimulation. not ÿerified scientifically: for instance. Diagam II represents an envûoûment in which people are satisfied. and in the worst case at a low level. may not be satisfactory for them tomoûow. The environment is ar area of the vital and behavioral activity of man. and they do not activates people. There also may be an envionmett which highly I II III 6l The three dimensions A . the satisfaction of people participating in the development of their environment. D Diagram I represents an eovironmeût of a multidimensional high quality. On this subject there ale some commonly held opinioûs. but insufficiently supported vie\ûs. c.. results from adapting the ellvironment to the present needs of the individuals. they approÿe of one while they disapprove of the other. etc. good teputatioo. e. of a static character. may influence that activity either positively o! negatively. while the latter is said to be rather in faÿour of a highly determined routine. Third.radation (e. being But a differentiation should be made between active and passive satisfaction. make acquaintances. we do not yet have any appropdate empûical investigations. DS I /" DS A of envûonmental quality: A.). at the edge of the Planty. According to Kutt Lewin. a more or less orgarized source of stimuli.. Such satisfaction can be found in individuals living in ÿery primitive conditions. his way of life.\.e[re satisfaction). Ir the best case all three dimensions ale at a high level. or even within processes of phy§ical or mental deg. encourage§ activitY. D. i. Many planners consider that the subjectiÿe satisfaction of the user is their most important task. the conviction that a rural environment is more favorable to the deÿelopment of creatiÿe personalities than an envùonm€nt of a great city. while the urbao enyironment creates situations of stimulative overload. the environment is an area of the physical and melltal development of man. respectively. According to rather common. it is a field of values aIId possibilities. of the environment (as by distance. while satisfying people today. Diagmm III represents an erlvironment activating and developing people at the cost of great subjective effort and little immediate satisfaction. know of other possibilities. Such theoretical constructs may be multiplied and probably each environmental strücture has a corresponding charactedstic pattern. and from this point of view it is a sÿstem of elements meadngful to him. The followiûg three ' there: aspects seem to be essential Ftst. form his emotional life and be the source of his hopes ard fears.e. views and opinions. coopêrate. mediated by a similar type of activity (waiting for a bus. the rural environment often provides situations of stimulative depdvation.. gives satisfaction. Unfortunately. there are numerous possible patterns bet!ÿeen th€ extreme poles. is to be distùEuished from this. It influences not only his physical and mental health. Differcnt envùonments may fulfill these three requirements of quality to different degrees. Theoretically. AÇtive and creative satisfaction. not towards their development but their degradation. etc. The envitonment is an area of interpemonal relations.9. factors either facilitating achievement of goals o! making it more difficult. conflict.izatiolj. It may organize or disorganize his personality. .

there arc: a post office. These differetces of finishing details can be found in all the newly built districts. ocÇupying whole floors of these buildings.e. o ginating mostly from the ninetee[th century. as well as so called "Practical Lady" shop. whose living conditions have been poor hitherto (e. The school children spend their school breaks in the oÿercrowded and busy market place.134 Exceæts from the National Rçports Poland l3s mostly fol meât and dairy products. their buses to and from the airport are parked on the edge of Kleparski Square. These are the prope y of the State. A passage over ten meters wide leads from Kleparski Square to Basztou. No entertainment is offered to the yourg people in this locality. which is the e[tertainment and cultural ceûtre. so an additional elemeûtary school and a nursery had to be buüt as the locality deve! oped. spacious (the average floor area ranges from 30 to 50 square meters). whose income is appropdately high. They are left unpargetted. with hundreds of women shopping and chattedtg over price. either bought from suburban fruit and vegetable gro\rÿers. The council houses are inhabited by 5. Two tram lines ply along the latter street.000 persons.ith central heating. and with paved pathways. a kitchen and a little hall. Although the constructional plans are identical. represented by an appropdate goveming authodty. there are some differences between the two types of blocks. The council buildings were erected in a hurry. From this crossing Slawkowska Street runs foÎ several hurdred meters to the Rynek. etc. Philip Chulch. the crowds are enlarged by the visitors following that route to the city certre. a bathroom. At present the distdct comp ses sixty s-storey blocks of flats (containing 75 flats each). containing two rooms. a tailor and a cosmetician. dirty afld fuu of drunkards. There is no difference in construction between the two categodes of blocks. mostly in details of finish aod of the building site. There are two categories of blocks and flats: so-called council houses and those of the housing cooperative. a chemist's shop. about 8 ki. a dress shop. living in overcrowded flats. These are built fuom funds provided by the State.lometers in straight line from the city centre.e. while the buildem rush on to do thet next tasks-leaving rubble. This is reflected in the crude appearance of the blocks. and dfuty. Previously spacious apartments. several meters further on. In this region of the city centre there is no greenery. Â restaumnt and a cafe were estabüshed some time ago.. through which lead the routes of fout tram and three bus lines. During the six years of its existence the locality has been provided with a number of shops and a service system. and sanitation. Thus the place is continually overcrowded with people going to or returning from shopping. The locality selected for the suburban research is called "Na Kozlowce" ot "Kozl. gas. A1though the market square is paved. From early morning to late afternoon the place is very noisy aIId ovelqowded. and comfoltless. Sanitation and water supply arc often common to all the ilhabitants of the floor. to the central square which is at the city centre. and ooe greengrocer's shop. has a floor area of about 36 to 40 square meters. The housing cooperative blocks are built with money paid beforehand by theA future inhabitants.a Street. Childrcn living in the ûeighborhood are allowed by the p ests to play in the garden. and so they leave cleaD. On the opposite side of the market. The housing cooperative builders work more slowly. a groÇery. since it was originally designed ooly for one family. except for the belt of the Planty. a shop selling household goods. This situation may be compensated for by the nearness of the old-town district. These proÿed to be insufficieot. ard a police organized club for maladjusted adolescents. a delicatessen. one butcher's. A children's playground was established last year for the youngest inhabitants of the area. but not functiônal.. the population of the locality amounts to 16. Some of them are badly lit. Buildings in this locality are gloomy and shabby. members of the cooperative. and has neither a playgound nor any other recreational base. or grown on in the tradels'own farms. and three ll-storey high lise blocks.owka" (see Figure 8).000 live in the housing . the surface is usually covered with mud in the winter and dust in summer. Numerous shops arc situated iû the buildings surrounding the market. Therefore. ar artery of communication.000 people while 11. At present. The former include all the houses built befole World War II and some of the newly built buildings. coloudully paryetted buildings.g. unfilled ditches and trampled earth behind them.. as weu as in Kozlowka. square there is the school of our subjects. in the neighborhood of Kleparski Square. arrd a restaurant of infedor sort. a lauodry. The market square is rather chaotically covered with wooder stalls in which products are sold. almost six years ago. an electrotechdcal shop. the new council houses are intended for low-income families. suûounded with lawûs and young trees. as a result of the national housiûg shortage. The school building faces the market. The filst block of flats was built [t 1967. although they are rather smalt: a typical flat. These flats are rented to people whose income is not high enough to allow them to participate in a housing cooperative. The flats usually consist of one oi two rooms. a self-serÿice bar.). an establishment hiring out household equipment. have been divided into a number of flats. It is one of the newest distdcts of Cracow. The other exception is a garden adjoining the St. a bookshop. As Basztowa Street leads from the main rail$iay station to this above crossing. there are four groceries. The streets adjoifling Kleparski Square are narow. t. which offers the services of a hairdresser. but more carefully. a health service celtre. pushing their !ÿay through congested nallo\ü streets between the stalls. In the same place are the offices of the Polish Airlines (LOT).e. situated near the road leading from Cracow to Zakopane. except fol a youth club h the Railwaymen's House. and is littered with rotting vegetables and fruit. unsanitary conditions. i. A school and a nursety were opened as soon as fist blocks of flats had been finished. The passage leading from the market square eods almost exactly at the point where the bus and tram stops are located. The comfortable apartments are provided \a. one fishmonger's. At present. i. where Basztowa Street crosses Dluga Street. The helical distribution of the detached blocks may give an impression of some chaos to pesons accustomed to non-detached. Besides. and a library. rectangularly araûged buitdings.

the Bystzanka. The children's small spatiat range influences their knowledge about the enÿfuonment in vadous ways. seemingly chaotically dis tributed in the opgn space. partially because of the building operations. It is apparent that ihe spatial ralge known to the city centre children is smaller than that of the new district subjects. Bystra Podhalanska has an area of 16 square kilometers and is surounded by forests. four groce es. in other words.ÿith sciaps of building matedal. Their map has ro blalk spaces. b ck houses. the map consists of a number of "islands. there ate an infants' nursery. In addition. a VilIage Coopeiative. ac- in two buildings.) vaded capabiüty for representing the entùe city area schematicaly. and the lawns are trampled by the adolescents. which preÿents evelyday yisits to the city centre.343 persons. This seems to be a result of boredom. while in the ne\tr district. the latter centre and aII Agronomic Centre. !ÿhile io both the city centre and ÿillage areas the spatial image of distant places is usually more general and systematic. medical staff of the health service Çentre. butcher's shop. resulting from the use of detached buildings. 36 and 40. leading to the adjoining of the village." loosely connected with each ôitrer. (Sei Fis§. including radio and Tv sets.e. among which is a 600-year-old lime tree. as a representative example of the viltages in the Cracow province (see Figure 9). which they seldom leave. Olszyna and Osielec. and a clothes shop. since plumbing and sanitation are beilg installed. strcam. a club. Building operations are still being carried out. create an impression of moûotony and boredom. The others have additional sources of income. etc. except on special occasions.ÿeen blocks. a bal. The children interviewed differed $dth respect to the degree of their ktowledge of the surounding arcas. It is rapidly gro!r'ing and well managed. About 50 percent of the houses have running water. The difference can be seen irl compadng the global maps made by both the The different degree of knowledge of the surounding aleas results iû a . urban influences are small and result almost entirely from the migration of young people to industdal towns in order to enter ao employment. and the ûumber of old wooden houses is gradually decreasing. the identical blocks of flats. together with other Polish villages. The village is neither a popular holjday resort. about 22 kilometers from Babia Mountain. a shop selling household .goods. Jordanow. Ipages l0-17] cording to the traditional rural mentality. a purchasing centre of cattle for slaughter. the krowledge of the city is rather poor and random. Moreover.ÿ. The majority of the young trees planted ir the loca[ty have bêen broken. makes the dustbins (which are not emptied frequently eûough) togethff \. The village is on the river Skarÿa and its tdbutary ÿillages. since there is no eûtertainment available. and a nursery school. nor are there any hostels and boardilrg houses. namely: an eighteenthcentury residence of Prince Radziwill (preseofly occupied by the Forest In_ spectorate). Bystra Podhalanska is picturesquely situated. Topozysko. a library. Bystra Podhalanska is proud of its places of interest. A medium-size village. About 70 pe. there is a bus line serving the adjacent villages and the three nearest towlrs. There arc 488 separate farms. The_othei important functional points include a chulch and a cemetery. About 20 percent of the population are white-collar workers: teachers. The ÿillage is of agdcultulal character aûd has a resident population of 2. on the domestic system. and functionaries of the Forest Inspgctorate. Brick buildings prevai. a cafe. !ÿho saunter idly about. but lived elsewhere. and try to pick a quarlel with passersby. the central part ol Cracow). The topography is mountainous. a bakery. At present the area looks depressing. The village was supplied !ÿith electdc lights in 1958. At present most of the viuage houses haÿe vadous electric devices.. was selected for the rural research. Typical of the new district group is a spatial odentation based on a set of ilaces or transport routes familiar to the child. This seems to indicate that there is a harmony betweeû the techdcal progressand thelraditional culture. At the edge of the village is the local lailway station. III the rural environment this makes for a very thorough penetration of the entie village arca. mostly from employment in the Village Cooperative. The rate of development can be illustrated by the fact that eight houses (out of the total number of 4'16) werc built in the last two yeiüs.cent of the inhabitaûts of the Kozlowka locality lived in Cracow beforehand. yet the city centre children's knowledge of the area structure is accurate. planned to be completed in 1975.t in the village. Besides. in the city centre group this confines the urban groups with the actual plan of Cracow. a gradual modernization of the oldel buildings can be obserÿed. The other local institutiors are: the local administration of the Commule Cou[cil. Bystra Podhalanska is situated in the mountain range of Beskid ÿillage area. a health ssrvice rüysoki. and a mobile cinema. a considerable number of farms are engaged in the production of woodwork. and to the neighbodng town. Besides. a police station. a typical contemporary polish village. mostly small (up to 2 hectares in area). neighboring area. and in the Polish Raihoads. Besides. look most conspicuous in the open space betr. in factories outside the children's knowledge to the Old City (i. The architectural style characteristic to the highlands is preserved even in the ne\. Bystra Podhalanska. Makow Podhalanski and Sucha Beskidzka. The lack of courtyards. Therefore.t36 Excerpts from the Natioûal ReportS 137 cooperative buildings. afld some very old trees. in the Agricultural Cooperative. In the new district group. which emphasizes the regional individuality Jordanow. This seems to result from the confinement of their daily activities (particularly for the city centre and new district groups) to a small. It takes at least thirty-five mirutes to get to the city by one of four buses or t\ro tmm lines. an Agdcultural Cooperative. An asphalt road runs tfuough Bystia Podhalanska. and in about 20 percent there are bathrooms afld toilets. while 30 percent were employed in Cracow. mostly coniferous. Farmirg is the only source of income for 20 percent of the populatio[. a Forest Inspectorate. The following State institutions and enterprises are in the village: a saw mill.

The latter is most intense iII the village group. as weu as or the attractiÿeness of somc objects for the subjects themselves (places of amusemeflts and outdoor ties). garden. usually diÿ tinguish in the latter mostly the places known from their own expedence. to the public.ldren's hold chores are usually much more extensive than elsewhere.e. or. since the flats are so small.249.rlrrg pfu*.s own home. parallel to that of adults but not shared with them. both in the village and in the city centre. the situation seems to be essèntiauy similar (the children are maintained by iheir pare[ts ard are completely dependent on them). As they help their parents. while in the city centre only four subjects (one gful and three boÿO. All the subjects forced to fight for subjects rcspotded that the streets belong to evelybody. Frequency of responses Fâvoulite Place responses concerning favoudte places are shown. The new district childreû. a sports field or meadow. a desk. or a selection of places particularly important for the subjects is made. The difference between the environments is highly significant (X2 =11.Jhrgér sense of secuity or their larget need for motorial games. based Open space (playgouods or the street) is mentioned most frequently as the favoudte place. P > O. a bookshelf. the subjects are responsible for a tiny part of their home at the most. who have the best dwelling conditions. in wfrictr they ao not like to be: . The secolld most favourite place in all the groups is the subject. Ipages 104-1051 4 4 A friend's home Place of amusement 6 3 New place None -13 tI 4 I I The subjects listed tfr" fono. or farmyard. which probably results from the childlen's participation in the woik of their families.t. where the children have their specific mode of life.138 ÊxÇerpts from the Natioûal Reports Poland t 39 Childlen of the area with a low density of important objects and institutions (the villace) usually distinguish all the latter as places important in the ment.Ol.rt. a traditional picture of CraÇow as a town of monuments aod universities). df = 2). Village Girls Boys City Centre New District Total Girls 17 7 Girls Boys Girls Boys I Owr home School Green area Street 623 3594 I 382 927 222 -31 l-2 3 I 25 The subjects had no sense r"". The places important for the ÿillage childreû ate those connected with theil daily actiÿities. ln the village they meltioned: the house. sit still. lt mày be concluded that the sense of owûership is really a sense of responsibi. houses in which the child pays a visit with his parents (which is boring) ( l0 cases) .e. school-because there one has to learû. they participatô in the community life and perÇeive all the important objects that determine both the ÿillage living standard and its social status. while "p of amusement" refeff to youth clubs and cinemas. In the area with a high density of important objects (i. IIl ihe city centre. In the new distdct group. fifteen subjects (nine girls and §x boys) perceive some place as the urban group. In the vilage. Ipages 92-94] In the table below the term "green areas" includes: a park.tity for a place. the subjects' own home is mentioned almost as frequently as is the open space. own home-when the child has to work or learn according to his parents' orders (11 cases) . at the most. and sightseeing. but the dwelling standard is 1l 3 better. in the city centre because of the small flats).. the subjects mention their o1trIl home twice less frequenfly than they mention the green areas. in all the goups. whose knowledge of the city is mther poor.ind in the new distdct seven (fiye gûls and two boys). be attentive. In the city centre. important strcets). and are scattered all over the area. ping. The differencis between groups are concerned solely with the sense of ownership. being in danger of bad marks (13 responses) . the city centre). a part of a toom. the impodant places are distinguished on the basis of both observation aûd itformation (i. In the new distd. an armchair. This interpretation is supported by the fact that. The fact that boys mention open space twice as fiequently as gùls may be explained either by the former.. they literally become 'Toint managers" of the house or a pa o] it. Their image of the city has some "festive" featurcs: they perceive it as a place of entertainment. whele the dwelling standard is relatiÿely lo!ÿer (in the village because of the large families.e. whole systems of important points are distinguished (i.. to their spatial freedom: no cases of "rplace were found in any of the groups.. As these chi. and that there are no "nobody's" places in the area. Ipages 99-100] In the new district.. the perception of the important places of the city i3 or the childrcn's "festive" activity. attractive shop. It seems to be preferIed because it gives them a seilse of personal freedom.

in the city centre the number of subjects disturbed by some envionmental factor is almost four times larger than that of subjects making no complaint about their suroundings. The differences between the envionments is significant (X2 = 19. coyered with dust or mud. Except for that.e. as hooligans may be encountered there (lO cases) boring places.956. and noise. the objects and events perceiÿed as being disturbing obviously vary depending on the environment. since it is easy to lose one's way there (4 responses) a visit to a doctor since "it is always unpleasant" (4 cases) [page l07l A number of the subjects perceived no troublesome elements in their envûonment. One building usually contains seventy to eighty flats. latter buildings is only about a thitd smaller than that of a new district block of flats. since it's difficult to move.disturbed ones. than do the children of the city centie. ln all the environments an aversion to drunken people is a common attitude. and the general density of population is considembly larger there. Contiariwise. little known places. [pages I l4-116] The specific chaûges which n""" in the environment within the subjects'memory may be classified as"""rr*O follows: Frequency of Responses Type of Change Perceived Dùty streets and 5 1 Road coflstruction -22l5 42 2 Lack of places amusement of I 3 Village 5 City Centre New District Total Boys 78 34 Badly supplied shops Queues in shops Breaks in the water Gùls Boys Girls Boys cirls Boys Girls 4 A build-up 2 2 An impiovement 35 l8 34 21 10 9 6 . I ionment lVhich Distuib the Subjects None Village City Centrc New District Total Gùls Boys Girls Boys Gûls Boys Gills Boys l5 l0 82432 t4 2 1 I Drunker people Roads in bad condition Intense traffic 7 5 Combustion buildings Noise gases 2tl-56-1243 t1)l 2 5 3 6 2 I 4 3 In the village. traffic. although the latter's dwelling standald is much worse. In the rural envitonment. and an accident may happeû therc (3 responses) a forest and a cemetery. in which "nothing happens" (6 cases) shops where oIIe has to wait in a queue (5 cases) busy streets. In the city centre. depending on seasoo. the subjects of the ne!ÿ district have a greater sense of lack of room and of being overcrowded.P ) 0. The cubage of th.. and their floor area-both considerably smaller in the new buildings.01. In the new districi. Thus. the disturbances are pollution. being sad and gloomy places (3 responses) strange. The data obtained ale reprcsented in the following table: Frequeocy of Responses Elements of the Envi. the obstacles lesult from an insufficient supply of the necessary services. the number of subjects whose everyday life is not disturbed is over twice as large as that of children vr'ho perceive some troublesome elements in their enÿironment. ioads in bad condition (i. while a traditional dwelling house in the city centre will contain fifteen to twenty flats. The different cubage per apartment results from both the height of the flats. <lf = 2).---''Nr-140 Excercts from the National Reports Poland l4l places which must be passed thlough. as only the main roads are asphalted) are perceiÿed as the principal disturbance. and are also connected with a sense of overpopulation. In the new distdct group the flumber of subjects fully accepting their environment is five times smaller than that of the. The latter might be explained by the type of housing in the new district.7 l1 1 37 72 37 82 34 6 supply OYerpopulation C)ther 32 23 A deterioration An increase in population density None I I 3 2 3 3 2 I 3 2t 3- 3 3 . but iÿhich are dargelous. while others ûamed one or several disturbing ones. which is interesting.

Moreover. This interpretation of the data may be suppo ed by the children's responses to the question as to how they would imagine other people's attitu. Distdbutioû of responses concerning the expected changes is the following in Frequency of Responses Type of Change Expected Village City Centre New District Total Boys 29 69 5 on the increase of the agdcultuml productioû. years.. a number of subjects expect aû eradication of some elements the three enÿiJonmelrts: (demolition of old buildings. since the buildup of their area has not yet been finished. i. aûd those who would like to move only to another part of the city or to ânother house: Frequency of Responses Expected Place Resideûce 23 3 l- lpa es 12'7-1281 of ct Total Cirls Boys GiÎls Boys Girls Boys Girls Village City Centre New Dist Boys 27 4 5 The same 6 9 3 t2 3 11 57 23 6 Corelation coefficients between the expected and desfued changes in the eûYironment are as follows: the village group 0. Ipages 132-134] An improvement Girls Boys Girls Boys Girls Boys Girls I 33 ls 13 l2 l5 6 A build-up An eradication A detedoration An ùrcrease of population None 24 31 3 5 5 32 1 33 59 7 6 I I 2 3 2 when interviewed a number .u. Oûly four subjects. h the city centre fourteen subjects out of twenty-five belieÿe that a number of people (usually adults) would not be pleased with their changes. The area is hardly susceptible to change. being full of old. iû the city their environment within the next ten ceotre.". [pages 119-120] As changes are likely to happen in Almost all the lespondents tni"f. It may be that in the village and the city centre the children seem to regard their destes as mere revedes. an expectation of an improvement (city renewal.e. Howevei.142 Excerpts from the National Reports Polând 143 it appears from the data presented above.97 The city centre children see almost no possibility of realizing their proposed changes. twelve out of tweflty-eight interviewed) share this opinion: they think that the changes they desire would meet with disagreement and resistance from drunkards. tfr"t "uri. The new distdct children seem to indulge in wishful thinking. almost half of the subjects (i. whele they would live in the irext ten yeals. modern and aesthetic housiûg. oi a deterioration of the existing state. belieÿe that nothing will change. Being arvare that in the ruml areas efforts arc concentlated mostly Another house Another part of the city Another village I I -lt4 24 I ) 6 4 3 2 A[other city Don't knoÿ 63 2l -15- 7 . the village childlen perceive only a small chance that their desires may be realized. unwilling taxpayers. better transport system). Generally the subjects can be divided into those who expect to live in another city or village. In the village. and conservatives who cling to tradition. expecting any changes iû their enyironments to be consistent with those hitherto introduced. The responses concerning expected change fall into similar categories a§ those refeüed to in perceivad change.e. while th€ chaûges observed are not always for the better. prohibition or limitatiofl of vehicular traffic)..des might be towards their proposed changes..40 the city centre group O-2O the new dfutdct group O. But the new district childlen are convinced of the reality of thetu propositions. could not aûswer the question as to "n. The remainder optinistically expect a general contentedness. the majority seemed to have rather precise plans concerning their future place of residence. In the new district. only seven subjects out of thirty doubt that their proposed changes would be accepted by the adults. or a build-up (of new buildings of various types).. as they expect that the development of thet area will change its direction according to their desires. 1lordetached buildings. about a fifth of the subjects from the city centle do not perceive any changes in their environment.

as these flats are both comfo able and spacious.l opportunities of satisfying their physical needs (of playiûg. The attractiveness of a place of residence may depend. although their living conditions are apparently much worse. . or even to the countryside. fiesh air (6) the possibility of owring a swimming pool (6) the dght to own a house (4) isolation from people (4) lack of vehicular traffic (4) quiet (3) the city centre (19 responses) because of: the nearness of all important places (8) convenient shopping (5) monuments (4) enteftaiûmeots (4) the comfort of liYing (3) If ùa[fic (2) the children's acceptance of their area.).' lpaees I41-143] The children named different pla"". under a half of the interviewed subjects expect to live in the same place. Two-thirds of the children of the village arca expect to live in their village in the future. The new flats with seYeml looms (3) spacious streets (2) good lighting (2) . two rcsponses. etc." as the subjects had been told so by their parents. amoûg children. lawns (l) houses built in the because of: peiod b€tweer the two wals (7 responses) the solidity of the buildinss (3) the large flats (3) soundproof flats (2) . one response each.. In the new district. the opportunities of an interesting a new housing because of: job (l) district (8 responses) tation. while the children of the city centre and of the village more often wish to stay in their present hab! area. The United States is regarded as a coultry of high incomes and of technical progress. it appears that the quality of housing conditions (i. The remainder either plan to move to houses tvith lalger apartments. the degree of moderl conveniences and the number of persons in the flat) is inversely related to the degrce of acceptance of the resideûtial the expressed desile to live in the same place in the future is an index of .rgrs io blossom. on the environmeota.illa in a suburban distdct (19 responses) because of: geenery ( 13) a smau number of people (2) . The following were mentioned as the best places to live in (with the reasors for the choice): ' cou[tryside (30 responses) because of: dist ct children. lack of vehiculai traffic (3) cleadioess (2) open space (2) esthetic values (l) a \.e. freedom. or in one of the nearby villages.144 Excerpts from the National Reports Polând 145 The city centle children do not expect a change of resideflce. it is understarldable that it is mostly gfuls who expect they will have to move to the city. rather than on their dwelling standard itself. entertainment. some of them plan to live in a new house they are going to build for themselves. or (more often) to other. least frequently expect to live in the same area in the future. Pads. Tokyo. Ary possibte Çhaûge would consist in a move to houses built in the pedod between the two war§. *n"" urn"O about the best place to tive in. mostly in secondary technical schools. thet appdent disincliflation to change their abode can be explained either because the area is so attlactive that it compensates for the lack of comfort in the flats. most often they wish to live in the same place. nine children mentioned various places abroad: the Mediteranean coaEt receiÿed four responses. As it is much more difficult for girls with a secondary education to get an appropriate job in a village. Paris. lawns (2) a because little torvû (4 of: responses) fresh greenery (4) air (l l) quiet (3) contact with people (3) the opportunities of getting a job (2) houses larger than in the countryside (2) Besides. the United States. in contrast to when they described their future place of rcsidencs. Most of them expect to remain afteMards ifl the village. and Vietna were described as "beautiful cities. flo. finding an occupation either thele. fresh air (3) .vish to migate to the city (mostly girls) iû order to find an attractive job.About a third of them '. and suû. older parts of the city. security. All the children are going to continue their studies after primary school. ot that the extremely small area of the flats in any new housing is perceived as being wolse than the lack of modern conveniences in their present spacious flats. The children imagine the Mediterranean coast to be a land of evergreen trces. who have the highest dwelling standard. Considedng the very low dwelling standard of the majodty of the children. and Vieua.. Tokyo.

In the new district. beiûg considered to be symbols of social statu§. while in urban areas limitations are concerned with the children's personal security (prevention from road aÇcidents. The latter have similar function for the village children as that of the city for the new distiict subjects. and the accessibility of mass media. slightly enlarged by some other streets. and very poor in the city centre area. bus stops. determined by the perception In the city centrc. the social and economic status of their parents. The children's time budgets are influenced both by their dwelling standard and by the degree of parental control. ly the extent of their duties. In the urban area practically the only requirement imposed on the children by their parcnts consisted in receiving good marks at school. etc. particular. the renewal is possible.).146 Excerpts from the National Reports Poland 147 The frequency of response concelning the best place to live was for the particular study areas: Frequency of Response Best Place to as follows Villaee 8 4 l0 3 City Centie New District Total Boys 20 8 Live In The countryside Girls Boys Girls Boys Girls Boys Girls A suburbar villa The city center 5 3 433 5 2 5 2 6 2 2 5 6 2 ) l0 1l 9 l0 The degree of parentâl control is different in the vadous environments. avemge in the village. as all their needs may be satisfied there. besides their school lessons. or pe$ons behaving improperly). Therefore. and information received from the adults. and stight in the new district (parents \À/aste much time in the journeys to work). almost all modern housing requirements are met. In the rural area all the distinguishable points (shop§. as they had to help in farm work. Differences between the areas were also found with respect to the childreû's dwelling standard: rathe! high in the new district. fe\rer places were distinguished. thence they knew a little less of various urbanistic environments. as they are able to specify their occupations in almost evely minute of the day. The housirg standards of the last cefltury are still in force there. All public facilities and services are mertioned frequently. Maps of the whole city drawn by these children coüectly represent their own district. which allows some renewal and rebuilding. being relatively high in the village (where the parents ûlo§tly perform their work at home). hooligans. developmett is average. All the childreo were attending elementaly schools \ÿith the same pro. all of them wele getting some extraschool forms of education and v/ere travelling in the couûtry. These differences seem to re§ult from the degree of development of the envilonment. The new district children's knowledge of their environment is considerably childrcn regardless of sex were considerably more burdened with duties. This difference seems to be insignificant. etc. The interviewed groups differ with respect to theii modes of life. they know very well their own area by means of their daily activity. In the rural area the restdctions are imposed to prevent the children from any negative influences (contacts with alcoholics. help at cooking. i. differentiated. ho!ÿever. Their importa[ce wa§ of the adults (to whom monuments and relic . In the rural area. in the neighboring viltages. as the urban children have had only shod trips to bordering coulltries. The children go out of the nearby area infrequently. No such time can be found among the village children. The groups differ also with respect to places considered to be functionally important. aûd pmctically did not limit the children's possibilities of penetration of their envirooments. considerably smaller in the city centre area (parcnts work out of home). the children were granted a considerable personal freedorn: restdctions imposed by the adults were few. their maps of the whole city usuaUy represent a precise plan of their local area. The rural area children gather their k[owledge of the environment mostly by means of their daily actiÿities.). In the city centre. while the city centre is rather unfamiliar to them. In the rural area. an "empty time" appears iû the time budgets. the childrcn's kûowledge of both the neare§t and surrounding areas is based on information supplemented by the subject's experience acquired from their daily and "festive" activities. offices) ale iegarded as important ones. Only infrequently the subjects (mostly girls) were asked to do some household chores (cleaning up. while in the city ceûtre no radical A new housing distdct IIIterwal housing A little town Abroad Ipages 143-145 ] I 6 2 tl -l 62 43 3l 63 The groups were homogeneous with regard to their intellectual development. In all the study areas. ln the urban environment where the adults are absent from horne for the better part of the day (the îew district) or where the children share the same room with the adults (the city centre). while the iest of the city is confined to a small fragment along the transpod loute they use to get to the city centre. being known partially by meaûs of "festive" activities and partially through the mass media. None of the village children has eÿer beer abroad.e. as the area is highly built up.. Their "festive" activities usually take place beyond the area. This "empty time" is spent without any particular occupation. gram.

Th" ne* distri"t children for the most part want to change their place of rcsidence. The children indicate no sign of acieptance of their en_ vironment: they have no sense of freedom. the viaduct oi Poniatowski Bddge is a part of the town's central artery of east to west communication. congested housing. conveDient transport routes to shop_ ping and entertainment centerc.the transport system. now taki[g place in postwar Poland. an elongated district situated oo the left bank of the Vistula. dense. the local traffic is enlarged by a busy a ery of communication running along the Vistula. and on the west by a steep escarpment. as they determine the ÿillage status.400 vehicles per hour ( 1973 data). and ioliution are con_ . botweefl two bddges: the Poniatowski Bridge and tho Slasko-Dabrowski Bridge (see Figure 4).. These are mostly tenement houses. houses. and of the Poniatowski Bridge and the railway b dge. both types of perception were found: the children mentioned as impoita[t all the distinguishable places in their local area (shops. III the new district area. in describing the best place to live in. the escarpment used to be a very distinct diÿiding line between this area and the lest of the town. Iû a highly built up city centre area. an additional desired clange fre_ features are reflected in environmental changes descdbed by the children. However. In both urban groups the basic desired chalges consist of: a reorganization Children of all the environments. monu_ ments. and rather chaotic quently suggested is to provide the distdct with places of amusement. and pirceive a lack of amusements. The rural area children usually wish to remain in their village. Iû the new district. repair shops. attractive shops). Fomerly. men_ tiôn such features as plaoting.). infânts' nurseries. to allow gteater persônal security and to eliminate noise and air pollution. The lattei is mentioned as frequently as trans_ port reorganization. In the houses in the neighborhood of this viaduct the intensity of noise is estimated about 96 db when the windows ale opefled and 90 db when closed. the planting of many trees. comfortable flats. and the establishment of recreational and spods ceflters. Besidès. inhabited mostly by craftsmen and small shopkeepers. Ao €xceptioû consisted in the boys paying more attention to places of amusement and open afu activities. of restoration oi its old_fashioned cÀaracter by means of substituting horse-dlawn cabs foi the vehicular tmffic ârd the intloductiol of gas lighting in the streets.148 Excerpts from the National Repo s Poland 149 populated. The children feel endangered by the intense vehicular traffic. Formerly it was a poor district. and so do the city centre subjects. separatiflg Po\üisle from the city centre. many buildings here surviÿed the war. Buildings of historic chaJacter. This admfuation is expressed in frequent plans of renewal for the Old City district. No essential differences rMere found between boys and girls as far as perception of aIId feelings toward their environments are concerned. The childr€û's attitude towards their environmeût is also revealed in their plaos for the future. and services. These ideal housing. In the rush hoù the intensity of traffic amounts here to 4. noise. they feel the area rs over- Generally it can be said that the children positively evaluate the buildup of housing. is rather complicated. and large. Those living ir a less built up area believe that the direction of progress will be consistent with theit needs. buildings are importanl). heavy traffic. two to six storeys high. In the new district. preferably to a villa or to a ÿillage house. Moreover. this division is gradually declining. including several tram and bus lines. facilities. The children emphasize the lack of greenery and places suitable for open-air activity._ srdered to be lypical of the city centre area. and almost no dangers (except for natural ones). which are gradually being transfoimed lor recreation. The village children regaJd the various public facilities to be the most typical elements of their area. The distdct included in the research is in the neighborhood of Solec and Dobra streets. fresh air. perceive no restrictions imposed upon their activity. . [pages l5+161] The Warmw Region The first group of subjects lives in Powisle. and greelrery. and other but it lacks cultural and recreational centers. but the social dangeis (particularly from drunken men) are perceived more often.ldings now located on the escarpment itself. Powisle still remains rather isolated. The distdct is sufficiently provided with shops. across the bridge or the other side of the Vistula.ldren descdbe their envfuonment as beautiful. the children sho\ù an admiration for monuments anal buildings of historic value. These chi. The access to services. with attached. Powide is an old Warsaw district. etc. modem blocks of flats are most frequently mentioned as typical of the area. as well as a further inciease of thi village status. They consider that thet realization will not be possible in the nearest future. In distinction to other districts of lvalsaw. but dirty_and noisy. as these green areas are situated immediately at the river side. the opeû areas. The dist ct is bounded on the east by the dver. In this area. For the viltage children a fu her development of public services and tacili_ ties is most desirable. There is no space for playgrounds or sportsfields in the traditional. In the uibar groups. it requires crossing busy streets with heavy traffic. while in their image of the whole city plaiei connected with theù "festive. places for ope[-air games. There are a few high blocks of flats built receûtly among the old houses. of. This may result from their larger amount of leisure time than that of stuls. The city centre subjects'attitude toward their area seems to be an ambiÿalent one: they describe the latter as beautiful. The children expect fuither developüeût. activities prevaited (places of amusement. With development of tmnsport and the bui. the children are mther skeptical about their desires. presently the occupations and liÿing standards of the inhabitants is much more differentiated. as well as by the children's own activities (places of amusement and outdoor activity).

i. in ar area which provides them with the level of stimulation approversus 7. less differentiated. and in- ... and an hour less on iecreatioo..2.7 hours per day. white in powisle area the children more frequeltly indicate some special interests. it has been mentioned as an example of ao excellelt project. The fotlowing relatiors were found between the children's mode of life and pressed their personality type: ' The children living in an elvironment adequate to their individual personality.. Long-distance and suburban shuttle tmins speed through the viaduct every several minutes.7 hours pe! 'reek 5. There are several convenient bus and tram lines. 10. 6. Recreational activities are less specific in case of the Zatrasie children (they seem to engage ilr more "messing around" in their spare time). The routine activity area is not determined by any objective boundaries. are situated or Buildings in the district are various. Ipages 180-183] The Zatrasie children sleep n"rr r. and are simi. respectively). formal. Dwelling mentioned by the subjects (78 versus 88.. Zatrasie is entirely ne$. from two to eight by the proportions: 7. Open space is seldom mentioned as an advantage of the environment.e. There is no traffic within the district.'the result of a search for an optimal architectural solution. and green areas. or a sport ctub. playgrounds. It occupies the site enclosed by the triangle of Broniewski.150 Excerpts from the National Reports Poland l5l Figure 7). but Iittle free space. There are numerous walks. 9. etc. 5." The Zatrasie distdct is situated about 5 kilometers from the city centre. The children who are uoderstimulated (i. and Elblaska strcets. Much attention was paid to the problem of noise. pdate to their type of reactiyity. respectively. such as pursuing a hobby. i. the highly reactive ones. 2. arly changes are for the better. The difference is expressed in the proportion of l3 to 33 percent.5 to I I percent. with its owrl system of shops and services.e. Nearress to the city centre is regarded as a merit.model dist!ict.3 hours the periphery of the district. The functional image of the envfonment is houses are the prevailiûg elemert. according to carefully designed plans. in opposition to "stone deserts" or "concrete unilorms. The other source of noise is the iailway viaduct. Therefore the intensity of noise is ÿery low. respectively.9 hours per week ' . This is expressed versus storeys high. as expressed in terms of the number of various activities 7.). a youth club. The routine activity area is closed within the district boundaries. which allow one to get to the city centre in fifteen to t\À/enty minutes. But it is not exactly observed. The difference is ex- Recreational activities in Zatrasie are more frequently individual. These activities are generally organized by the childrer's families. spend more time on studying than the children for whom the envûooment is inadequate: 9. considerable source of noise is the tram line on the viaduct. garages and parking. Krasioski. Recreational activities are less diversified among the Zatrasie children thaû amolg Powisle ones. and is a closed urban unit. laid out in 196'l-1968 in an open space. An identification with the area. There is a weak sense of any limitation af activity. The overstimulated children.e. owned by inhabitants of the ground floor. Ipages 208-210] versus 9.3.1 hours. spend less time on studying and more on recreational activities than any other subjects."r. A stiong sense of security.. and 6. 8. spend a little more time on studying ".e. which leads across the rivet close to the Poniatowski Bridge (the distance bet\ryeen the two viaducts ranges from 100 to 250 meters). Within the capital. Perception of Powisle by lts Children l. Some houses have small individual gardens. with the Powisle subjects. who live in the area offering a strong stimulation (i. 3. Powiste). 4. 3. the ones who have a low reactiyity leÿel and live in the quiet distdct of Zatrasie) sleep longer thar the other subjects: 9. I 1 The children do not perceiÿe their locatity in the terms: interesting-uninteresting. There is a regulation limitiûg the speed of the trams to 30 km/hour (which reduces the noise intensity to 78 db with wiûdows closed). sport fields. The environment is perceived as a rather unvarying one. The functional benefits of the environment are connected with the children's needs. 2. No differences were found in the way of spending time on Sundays ard holidays.5. in a suburban area.8 hours versus 8.lar in all the groups. as well as bus and tram lines. Open space is frequently mentioned as a benefit of the environment. whüe in Powisle they are more organized and formal (ia a special hterests school. it is the most extreme contradiction to the Powisle district. arranged around a central square. The locality is perceived in relation to other districts.. Zatrasie is the second urban area selected for the rcsearch in Warsaw (see A in the percent of time spent in formally oryanized recreational activities. It is a . no relations with the rest of the town are perceived. The locality is perceived as a separate unit. In arclitectural publications. as compared (the diflerence is insignificant) Perception of Zatrasie by Its Children l. The environment is not perceived as noisy.

the realistic spatial organization of the district prevails in the child's pictule. as they correspond to the rcal layout oi housing along the streets. The more the functional qualities of environment correspond to the inhabitant's needs." ûew.bad'. while Po!ÿisle supplies possibilities of con- tacts with culture. impersonal and fortuitous contacts."jl"ï. neutral or even negative emotionally.) Structural elements of the environment appear mote often in the drawings of Zatrasie childrcn than in powisle group (in the proportion ZSg to ZZi). it is generally im- 6. Such an identification is more difficult in open enviroflThe functional differentiation of the envfuonment is another important A functionally differentiated environment. Thus the techntque may be useful foi comparative studies. tendencies wete more frequent. A lack of identification with the area. de:ï-"ryId*r': lached layout does. . Besides. like an open one. district there wer€ tendencies to material.bad'. l.vere outside of the child.î: Jiïî îîï"1 li""#. a seose of connection with the enÿironmert. enriches experience. Closed.. Powisle is apparertly less secure thafl Zatrasie. The picture of the exisiing state in Powisle is richer and more differentiated than iri Zatrasie. The differcntiation between "closed" and "open" enviionments seems to bo significant. The enÿtonment is perceived as an interesting one. In this respect Powisle is of better "quality" than Zatrasie. seems to develop more easily in a closed meIIts.good.n both the groups. ' a larger percent of persons were known who r.ts2 Exceryts from the National Reportt Polard 153 4. in keeping with the town-plarnin. while in the . The technique allows us to uncover the essential categodes used in perception. family. and plagùed with intense traffic aod noise. I. while the Zatrasie children think'of their habitation às a collection of houses. In the powisle drawingi. Finally.centrifugal'. The functional benefits of the environment do not pertain to children's activities exclusiÿely.. the linear system anà iis oerivatives dominate. with regârd to or qualitative aspects of their percepiion. lpages 227-2291 In the "bad..n. dwelling place. The functional content of an enyionment seems to be equally significant. At the same time. elements are of varied functions. possessing few places in which children can spend their spare time. seems to be contloyersial. which are apparently connected with activity and development.r'""nU".âi: in studying children's perception of the enviroÀent. The children's manner of perceiving the two environments has revealed some other important features of the environment (besides the level of stimulation and the inagnitude of open space).' district thcrc werc stroflg€r tendencies to personal relations that were more durable and emo_ tionally positive. the -powisle chiidren -percerve their distdct rather as an area of their life and activity. "centripetal" interpersonal telations were more pro_ nounced in the "good" planned area. has sh"#. The prevailin8 7. A weaker sense of secudty. while Powisle is disadvautageous. while iû the . which has no intemal traffic. old one . Although proving somewhat. fn" oniÿ ex"eption are the opportunities fo! motorial games. Zatrasie offers open space designed for children. In other words.both quantitative . characteristic. intentions. both Zatrasie and Powisle have a number of important functions. and opeo space as well.n" O. Generally speaking.i?. 33 and 37. in the . The enviroûment is perceived as noisy." old borough . merical comparisons bet\reen children oi vadous environments. which are actualiy iarger in Zatrasie. I the followiûg compa sons can be made with the irterpersonal contacts listed by children living in the "good. The frequency of occurence of the vadous functional elements in the drawings is different in the two environments. and the smaller their expansion beyond it.-or they are chaotic. As far as the needs of children aged thhteen to fourteen are concerned. ' a larger percent of these contacts were based on matÊrial principles. oi personal contacts. planûed pedpheral district: ' more names of persons known to the child werc listed in the city centre district. The environment is perceived as changeable. partlcutàrty A detailed analysis of the children chanse s t o it. 5. 8. but the latter is rather distant from their dwellings. the characteiization of an environment in the dimension of securedangerous seems to be impoltant. as well asio make nuthe desircd jilffi some. pr_oportion 198 to 134). There is a stronger sense of limitation of activity. 9. there ale also chaûges for the worse. as a system oi appro_ priate opportunities. It seems that the traditional aûangement along the streJis àetermines perception and imagination more strongliy than the modern. ln the light of the data. ' there was a stronger tendency to neutral or negative evaluations in these interpersonal rclations. the preliminary assumption that Zatrasie is an environment beneficial for the actiÿity and development of children üviûg therc. the larger is the people's activity within the area. and oot intended only for children. In Zatrasie. (See Figs.s school. thus limiting and homogenizing experience.. 10. In Zatiasie. which may lead to action for the latter's benefit. The open erÿfonments facilitate expansion and hence eruich and individualize the experiences of children.itre opportunities for motorial activity prevail over other forms of activity. lpage 2421 and small area. The functional image of the envùonment is differentiated. isolated envirolments make expansion difficult. either a closed system is found in the drawings. and were fortuitous. while functional elements are more frequènt u-ong tnè powisle children (in the.

The number of items located within the centro that girls identified was double the number that boys listed. ii"-". and is a §table community. bânks. it i§ the highest city in North America' The Las Cruces Mountains separate Toluca from Mexico City to the ea§t. museums. The interYiews were conducted by Edward Johnson. The climate of Toluca is temperate. But the one area outside of thg colonia which the children knew best was the central city." type§cript. none of which were identified by the girls. and the summer months are humid with some amounts of rain falting almost daily The city of Toluca is divided into various colonias or neighborhoods' Colonia Universldad is located at the south-central edge of the city. on the §outh by a heavily traveled r to appear and the deûsity has increased to the point where there is now almost no vacant land available. and streets which were nothing mote than dirt roads haye beell paved and provided with sidewa. did not concentlate as much on details of the celrtro. during which period electricity. lpa*es'l-l2l (See Figs. a national park. The landscape !ÿithin the city itself i§ highest point a. this same patterrl of identification emerged. churches. 79 percent of the total usable latd is io single family housing. but they also neglected some of the striking features within the colonia. They mentioned the sports area. and markets while the boys spoke of things such as the social secudty building. I O and begun 1 1. The colooia is approximately two kilometers from the central core. and Marianna Krabachei. J.000 iiviru wittrin the urbàn core."i" . As far as the children's cultural life is concerned. Mexico. "Children's Perceptions of 1975' tir" Ëruiron-"nt. One of the areas they mentioned frequertly was the Calvario. on the west by a prepalatory school and exteniive school sporting fields. and lo!ÿ deusity housing. It is air area which has undergone rapid change in the past four or five tife. with as many non-ce[tro references as those to the centro itself. Michael Calzada. The boys. Johnson and D. They identiiied such places as the potales.lks and cutbs. apartments have The studies in Mexico were conducted by students from the University of Southern California. J. and Colonia San Agustin in the municipality of Ecatepec. school play§ the . and to the west. pr. a small areas that were actually located outside of it. Twenty children. Tridib Banerjee. the tange of items they identified and talked about during the interview was significa[tly broader.000 with 1 15. What did leceive much attention frcm the gùls. detailing the stores within them and naming the actual items sold there. l7l-172] Mexico yea$. such as Alameda Park. They also took great cate in drawing the zocalo area.yti"uUv ü"u aefinea.'bààËrea on the east bv a privaie secondary school. which is the mountain ridie -in include§ the the Repubtic of Mexico.h l. a Toluca volcano. Their rnaps !. and the new market. A Case Study in Toluca. Kûschner.154 Excerpts from the National Report§ Mexico 155 cultural. summer thefu nnprogmmmed time.) The boys'maps contained much bloader descriptions of the colonia. They would repeatedly mention sports fields and schools since it was in these areas where they spent much of . the University.of" in Zatrasie. The great majodty of the childrel stated that thefu favorite place was somewhere outside of the colonia. and Club Toluca-a private recreational area. ten boys and ten gùls. Not only did they fail to expand the colonia as the boys did. were the houses and stores. specific stores. The hilty Calvado Park is the only elevated arca. Despite the fact that gfuls concertrated on the centro when mapping. on the far outskirts of Mexico City. Hous€s aûd storcs were mentioned by the girls tllrce times as ofter as by the boys. Calvario Park. the military base sports field.ÿ maps of the entire city. The studies in Ecatepec were linked to a larger study of migration into Mexico City. The girls would mention the plaza. illustrating Repofled io: E. The wiûter months are dry. drainage facilities and sewers haye been provided for the ftst time. Toluca i§ 64 km§ we§t of Mexico City At an elevaiion at ZSf+ mete$. They were completed in 1975' Toluc{ Toluca is a metropolis consisti[g of an urban core and surounding §emi-rural oueblos. The work was supported by the Comité Mexicano del Hombre y la Biosfera (MAB) and the Instituto de Desarollo Urbano y Regional of Toluca. Dennis Kirshner. a hiltop park within which is located a museum. the volcano.dte the names of places they knew within the city.ià. rühen asked to $. One boy reported once playing soccer ilr one of these sports fields until foul o'clock in the moming. a chulch. werê interviewed in each location: the Colonia Universidad in the provincial capital of Toluca. drinking water. or the spots center. school. the movies. The chi_ldren are unanimous in their estimation that all.lmost flat.ta is held annually in celebratiot of the patron saint of the colonia. on the other hand. A rew primary school and an adjacent park were constructed.vere broader in scope. Both studies emphasized the differences of behavior and perception between boys and girls. while iû Powisle it is ody oûe of the factors in theit cultural artedal by-pass. Ipages 168. The gids were much more Iimited in the range of items mentioned. Although the area has maintained its single family resideltial character.r The toùl population of the municipalitv is 240. Many of the lamilies have Iived iI! the area fifteen or more yeals' An elaboràte fie. of the changes have been for the better. schools. The girls rcfeûed to this area almost exclusively despite being asked to dra\. The girls concentrated on detailed items. most of which is classified as being of "low" quality and "economical" constiuction' club. the plaza of Jagua$ located near Calÿado Park. while the boys refered to the centro in general. the centro. the bus terminal. devoting much attention to the palace buildings. supervised by Dr.

41..' Banco Commercio was important because it is . [pages l5-22] sigdficantly beyond the home and stores. The photos require the least amount of distinction for an area to be identified.156 Exceipts from the National Repolts Mexico l5'7 zoo. and is one of the fevr' gleen spaces within the city. The childrèn would explain "they are the center of goÿernme[t activities. These are cudous findings. the Legislative palace... despite the fact that they repeatedly drew items that were located on either sid€ of this strcet. and also mentioned it as an important ing a few streets.. which everyone kîew and the alea on the eastern fringe of the city which no one knew. since oûly a casual association is necessary for identification. The architecture of these two buildind is almost exacfly alike.. generally failed to make any refere[ce to it in their maps. allow an arca of less absolute distinction to be identified.. in view ot the troad range of items from which one can choose. Of all the places mentioned in maps and interyiews. Neither boys nor gùls had any trcuble corectly idefltifying photos ol this area dudng the photo recognition test and it was the overwhelmiûg choice of all the childrer when asked to identify pretty place§ withit the city.. but." "it gets water for people. aod recârding on the map what they saw as they traveled. ot a notable Ilumber mentioned the place. Very few children attempted to reprcsent this area. The girl§ consistently identified the photos and occasionally mentioned it dudng free recatl. The similarity _asked to identify impotant places.Within_ from each other. contilxally recuring obr"*rrr. schools. locating their house or school along the streèt." the Blanco Departme[t Store because you can.. lpages 24-211 The spontaneous mapping of the clty. stores." they are the places . has neither. session or drew it in their cognitive maps. relative to the street and their house. turoing the map as they mentally turned the corner. it can be seen that differences exist. parks. For example. ol a notable number did not mention the place.where goÿernmeût lives and works. in pa icular the governmental palaces. They would usually begin by dtaw- ? = the M responses were mixed = drawn on the map I = mentioned in the interview as a place they knew P = recogûized the photo ." artrareness TABLE I ldeotity of Places Centro PI M Boys Calvado YYY Park PI M Y?'! Y? N Uniÿersity Area New Market Tolucan Industuial Area PI Y? Y? M ? PI M PI M v?'l YNN Gùls N NN NN Y = yes.) One part of the colonia which almost everyone neglected was the eastern street edge.. The children would continue their gddtoo and ignore this [onrectilinear intrusion. or a notable number did not drav/ the place building within the city.One of _these buildings. calling it the library. requùes the aæa to be highly distinctive to the child ill order to be identified. This street was diagonal to all the rest and upset the grid-like pat_ tern. the geogaphical range of areas kno\ün to the 8i11§ appears to be The most obvious factor. contàins a public Iibrarÿ and has two fountains in front of it.. When shifting attention to another street. (See Fig. With the exceptions of the centro. a notable number kûew the photo of the place. Refering to the data in Table I which sho!ÿs collective respoû§es for boy§ and gûts. The evidence supports the hypothesis that the formerly restrictive cultur€ is now permitting a larger range of enyironmental awareness for girls as well as boys. while the other. the boy§ consistently identilied photos of the Câlvado area. the meaning. It was as if they \rere mentally walkin! along. you . They reither drew nor melltiored the palace of in appearance of the buildirgs was not enough to give them equal meaning. This nonsymmetrical area was the only point of children draw their maps. they would turn the map to maintain their orieltation along the street they were iepresenting. which restdct the range of possible responses. and playing fieldi in sequence." you go there to . Also. The easternmost blocks were tdangles ot truncateà triangles instead of squaies or rectangles. The fact that tlle children frequently used the library within the Legislative Palace and that it was near J unique physical landmark h the iorm of the fountain gave the Legislative palaie a special Justice.. even though other green spaces were also mentioned. and various gazebos. the children ÿ/ould generally mertion buildings. and then proceeding to locate other houses. It also runs contrary to what one would expect of the lower class Mexican culture ]vhich requires the to girls to remain immersed in the home environment. in contrast to the bills at the government office. the intensity of the image the boys possess of the city seems to be only slightty §tronger than that of the girls.take care of things. or a notable number drew the place on a map N = ûo. the Calvario was one of those leferenced mo§t often. was their of streets. a ootable number did not know the photo of the place. The interÿiew questioûs.. ln their city maps the children repeatedly represented the Legislative a lot. the pahte of Justice. but only occasionally mentioned it dudng the interÿie\. The park afford§ a beautiful view of the surtoundiûgs. contlary the impression ore gets aftel an examination of the maps and interyiew responses where the gitls emphasize houses and stores.big with lots of money and many people. When spatial confusion within the coloniathe_ zocalo are two governmert palaces dùecfly across the plaza .

when naming "pretty places. Most of these duties arc performed by the girls. and science were mettiooed. shoppiflg. *" r-O"r. [Moieover. the child. in the sedes: pretty places. The resporses of the parents were similar. The children felt a need to "improve housing of the poor. which leayes them little time for activities of thefu own choice. atteodiog younger brothe$ and siste$. washing. 42. O". illustrating theil aspirations. for all the children §poke of continuing their education to a college degree. As with th€ girls. the volcano. permission -rr. It reveals a wide range ol household duties which the children are expected to perform.j When speaking most ofter. the streets have been a popular gathering place. observation showed that the parks. unpredictable and darting on the side streets. such as the neighborhood schools and libraries. A third traditional gathering place is the centro." The§e are used [pages 28-341 The chitdren spoke of moving a *n-" . looking." and to "provide more houses. When shown pictures. Parks are mentioned many times. rather than interest in them as possible play areas. drainage ditch on the west side of town. the home v/as the place mentioned lpages 44-461 In some playing fields. They repo spending most of their unproglammed time in parks. accounting. The danger is reflected in the children's respooses. what did you do yesterday.1S8 Excerpts from the National Reports Mexico ts9 portales because "there are morc things therc and places are identified as important because (See Fis. Uxisting green spaces are divided up with a specific use for each section. Parks ale also mentioned as the best place to be with friends. the Marquesa (a national park located between Toluca and Mexico City). Unfortulately. best place to be with friends. wide. There was a small storefront with pinball machines. utilized more often than parks. for education is seen by their working class parcnts as the only means for upward mobility. One child replied specifically that his career vould be in "something that needs a lot of education.en travel to fhe time-budget provided evidence o. spods fields. lpages 39-421 . [pages 35-38] more regularly. There ar€ a fe'. which is also aû effective deterent to unplogrammed use. This source of uncontrived "action space" remains untapped. and the country in general. But the majority of places rcfered to wete areas that were used Most children felt that the traffic was the most dangerous characteri§tic of their environment. Tladitionally. but lit e else where teenagers can hang out.) it of how they bdngs in tourism. aûd fountains. Alameda. They declare almost una[imously that this is one of the primary factors they would change il they had the power. Zaragoza (a smaller park east of the centro). veterinary medicine. trees.ÿood. Trees are beiry ptanted. of best place to be alone. However. Caree6 in law. Eÿen playing in the parks is rcst cted. A child would meûtion a padicular traffic circle near the edge of the colonia and the parent would name the same circle during a separate interÿiew.rn"" of the child's role in the household management. best place to be alonet draw the places you koow. although used. that is." Children were aware of the modernization and urbanization which was occurring. rO"." The children mention Calvario nearly unanimously. it is not useful for gathedng. there was no mention of going outside the city limits to agdcultural open spaces. which are sorely needed foi visual relief. Occasionally. playing fields. They include cooking. Another area of similar response was the question of dangerous places. One such area is along the Tollocan High!ÿay to Mexico City. Also obvious is the absence of youth gaûg activities of aoy sort. but they are either neglected or uprooted. \ÿere not used heavily enough to justify the amount of attention they were given in this questio[.Or"rned to use them. They also spoke of the importance of owning a house. an industrial strip \rith large lots. and walking. But their future plans for careeis reflected an optimism that was not supported by the statistics of the general census. but it did not maintain late hours and was not in business long. teaching. In the photo recognition test most childlen faited to recognize these areas. But in Toluca the traffic is formidable: heavy and fierce on the main streets. the children expressed fears of daoger within these areas.v scattered billiard rooms and dance floors in town. the streets are becoming more clowded while controls remain inadequate. They provide an excellent conduit for unprogmmmed activities. feeding the animals. or going to the movies. gathe ng fie\." One child was even willing to sacrifice Calvario Park because he felt the city "needs land for people" and "therefore [he] would put in more houses in its place. favodte place. The childrcn not only considered this danger as a deterent to playing in the streets but also indicated that it limited their mobility. but that rumbel declines as the use requirement implied in any given question increases. running erands of valious sorts. They pieferred modeln two-story homes to more tmditiolal colonial homes. In many cas€s the spaces are fenced off to discourage any use whatsoever. Discretionary activities are centered around theit house or the houses of friends. Green spaces were also the overwhelming choice as favodte places. and feeding adult members of the family. Green spaces arc referred to almost exclusively.n"" could get an advanced education or better job. Boys have more free time. where again some children would mention the same places that they identified as favodte places and pretty places. shrubs.landscaped with grass. while the centro is an attraction for visiting. [pages 49-s21 Some green areas had little effect as visual amenities. There is vtutually no mischievous crime in Toluca by gangs or individuals of any age. it appeaG they lack the time to ilvestigate the wild areas of Toluca: not many knew about the deep." One senses a great pressure on the children to go to school.

They aspire to more than the traditional roles of mother and housevi. The places they remembered wele unstructured open spaces. reasons mainly. the girls mentioned their own home or a friend's home as impofiant places more than the boys. Perhaps this invisibility is due to the restdcted activities that could take place there (iust as restricting feoces blocked the image of industdal areas). nantly housebound. The girls. and occupies an area of 55 square miles. available for everyone's use. architectural preferences. Parks should be designed to allow a variety of uses !ÿithin their bounda es. summer 1975. are knowledgeable of home. the i tial contact with the children in Toluca was through the schools. have more time for discretiona. being in the area zoned for development. Juan Paz.n" culture and knew Spaflish only "r. [pages 3-51 r .le the girls seemed to have oûly a general knowledge of main avenues. too.hile the "cademic boys mentioned schools li. with rains predominantly in the summer. so they have opportunities to see this green space while driving past it.000 inhabitants. Cortez took possession in 1527. The boys. was executed here.) The girls were interested . The boys were perhaps mor€ realistic. As a result.. They seem to be moying away ftom orientation around the 731 In 1960.y activities than was traditionally the case. a se es of nonverbal photo recognition tests were employed along with the interviews. [pages 63-681 Throughout this study . He passed it on to a daughter of Moctezuma II. July. but the gdd has a distinct axial direction due to the geediness of land developers who could thereby sell more land per lot. the fiûal study groups consisted of ten boys and ten gAns betvi. The narrower north-south streets ümit vehicular traffic. situated on two-thùds square miles of the dry bed of the dying lake. but they. the principal activiti€s are playing marbles or using the swings.h" . As a result of its heritage six major celebrations are held in the months of June. True. museums and tourist attractions located in Ecatepec. meanwhile.een the ages of twelve and fourteen years of age. with attitudes and values basically reflecting that status. In 1320 A. The boys knew specific loutes ard street names. and attitudes about dangerous places. The indust al areas were enclosed by fences and usually guarded. when questioned about places they koew or liked. August. trash pick-up) is also constrained by thi§. although still predomi- Ecatepec Ecatepec was founded on the shores of one of the once predominant lakes \a. to which they could not travel without passilg these industrial areas they claimed not to know. alluding to dreams or hopes of visiting places they had seen The research associates were flom .. and reached 216. *r"O""n*. 9300 feet above sea level.D. All of the gfuls considered the market an important place. Thoughout all the colonial period Ecatepec was a stopovet for viceroys before eûtering Mexico City.ra" as a second language. . Children over foufteen years of age were often found to be working full time to help support the family. but it is very small rvith no trees. Ecatapec. This procedure proved successful and provided valuable information which otherwise might have been lost.r. The girls seemed to romanticize theù worlds. whi. The growing community of San Agustin lies within this municipality. Ecatepec had a population of 40.i" . barren and stefile. The boys were very familiar with the surounding communiti€s of San Agustin white the girls seldom mentioned these colonias.815.rrrr". it was integated into the Aztec dominions. Ecatepec. grow ttued of malbles and surings all the time. "The Envionment and Child Repolted in: M. F. which thus beÇomes a primary concern of the inhabitants. 12 and 13." arld "The Environmental Girls. Perceptions of Adolescent Boys and Perception. Ecatepec extends north flom Mexico City and the Federal District. There are numelous other historical landmarks. A ce[sus taken in 1973 estimates 700. Calzada "r.hich form the north uratershed of the La Siefia de Guadalupe. and the cultural differcûces did not appear to be a serious handicap. San Àgustin.160 Excerpts from the National Reports Mexico l6l Mexico City via the Tollocan. water trucks. u. All the children are becoming aware of financial social arld politiÇal forces and of the changing quality of the environment. Mexico. San Agustin was laid out on a grid.r Like all the lake settlements." typescdpt. Ipage areas outside of the home environment and haye almost as wide a wande ng tange as boys. It is recommended that it be included within the core research techniques for all future studies of this natue. when only one-half of the boys thought so.408 in 1970. the children mentioned other places that were even further along the same Tollocan. and the accessibility of services (electric power lines. Ecatepec sutvived primarily on subsistence agriculture until 1946 when the governor established a tax for industrial development. and the contrived manner in which it is sectioned off. it was involÿed in intensive intertribal warfare. However. These tests cross-checked the information regarding range and general knowledge of the city. To compensate for any latent language barders. The climate is subhumid temperate. José Maria Morelos y Pavon. In addition. Therc is a park within the colonia.ith the playgxounds in mind. Half of the children didn't dlaw the park in theil maps although they drew the adjaÇent school. Public transport serÿice to and from the area is also limited. Lastly.ife and speak of technical o! professional careers. [pages 77-80] orhad heard about. In the colonia park."h.. after seÿeral meetings a relaxed rapport was established. she having marded the Spaniard. and September. Mexico's hero. the palk was desigûed for younggr children. Therefore. (See Figs."a that the cultural envimment of the "ula"rr"" Colonia Universidad children is changing. began to flourish and presently thele are 600 industrial installations there. Children under twelve years of age had difficutty understanding the questions and aiticulating answers..

and Jyen slanted. but would rtot know its exact location.were many suggestions for improvement in San Agustin.ÿards womeo's libemtion. The low ecooomic background of their pare[ts will rot allow them in most cases to attain this goal. The outdoor activities of girls occupied a median of 2. it appears that there is a trcnd away from being "home-bound" like their mothers and grandmothers. while the boys spend only l. when boys. At least at this adolescent age the girls interviewed appeared to want to be a part of the general trend were depicted as a box or a si*pi" shown as the focal point of their daily lives.h-". The gùls tend to sleep rine hours a day. Many of the interviewees would prefer to tive in an area with Are there pretty places trees aûd open spaces. and surprisingly diffeient than tha{ of the younger girls.. the boys eat mostly two meals a day. ffr"i. spending only 1.iÀ"".rot characteristic. eight hours.iànla'o"-iîit . 1""a tr"tfi" ugnts on n€hways. Ouflying""ry aréas *"i" in except for the older girls of fifteen who traveted to "ot-iàU"f"a tfre i"O"ral T":l :ul":r orstflct daüy.25 hours per day. io .r"r. maps. [pages 6-7] after mariage. In contlast. Boys needed to haye permission to go places aloûe. The main east-west avenues make definire divisions ot ifr" rn"pr. with labels on individuaf . rney D€ronged. more governmett schools where one does not iay. $r:re. Again the gùls indicated an interest in food and shopping by meotioning the market. The girls appeàr more community conscioüs and humanitarian. ""i.traction. the boys "rr'. to build a community i""rËutiÀ-""îàr.""-. The tâitiiteria ana markets \ÿere often drawû in detail. listing similar .ir^ srze pflvate (home was seldom drawrl in detail and was not distinct tne "_::lT". spending 2. All planned " "rpirutions to have professional careers which would demand a high level of educatioûal attainme4t.?5 hours... Seven of the girls interviewed stated that they would not give up their careers An additional question dealt aleas.)--" Distinctive characteristics of the male image-maps'*"r". these are their aspiratiors. The boys listed street improvements above all. Ipage 5] Girls spent a median of 2. crossings on the main avenue Lourdes. a-nà to tut"t rnem and most street names in detail. The central business orsrrrct." . .ho\v the playing to include the biroering coiàni"r.. É"ir. i.ks ulàut *fr.parents financia y). . "from o. -most .t fl"r" was a limited cognitive awareness. childrcn. to give land to the poor. The young girls were seldom observed playing in the streets. riàiir. The boys' evenings were largely devoted to the outdoor activities until approximately 9:00 p. Str""t.75 hours.r" lpases 9-l2l ". ô-rientalion' was otten inaccurate. and playgrounds. All of the young girls interviewed needed to have permission to go places throughout the day. For example."rpJr. unà g"." Other boys mentioned bordedng colonias as having pretty tree aieas. but did not appear to be as sheltered by their The daily schedule question . Public serÿices were more frequenfly futefeà anà àepi"i"a. s"r orr.on the boys.qftell left unlabeled. buses. whereas the boys were u""ur"à urrà n orrtedgeable about street names and locations.25 hours as a median per day.5 hours a day doing chores and erands.. ÀrintinÉ water. except with an escolt. The homes of the gids and their friends were often made àiriing"lJuUf" ulno"g the others.In- parents.. More thao half of the gtuls hoped to become bilingual or executive secretades.ovement I?l "r"Sr9h or rrarrlc rs emphasized while the north_south side streets are underplayed. and the east_west . supedor schools (past secondary). Girls would not have tho permission to be outside in the evening. Ipages 5-6] l .t *m.ther houses on their maps).familiar *itfi À"ïu*n centric area but not with ou ying ateas.orunti" qr"iitl"r. tsee Fig 43.5 hours per day on homework."r""U be very i[formative.s shared by the maps of both sexes. The gills tend towards eating three meals a day.rirti".ioi"r. supermarketr. Houses often_had more detail. lhejr cognition of the environment proved to be very rich.a"rrr. as they reach unknown streets was usually accurate. to be aware of important tanà-àits. [pages S_91 fascilating autu provea to Ue ttre image maps drawn by the "oU""r"O gereral. unà"r"rrpt Iflo.m. r" X.t62 Excerpts from the Nationai Reports Mexico 163 Itre asked the adolescents if they could remember any changes in their area. education for people to care for the parks and keep the streets clear.*i:. Nevertheless. Girls would recognize the existence ""oot a laûdmark.Ààf to help. Othe! girls tended to mention public places such as the market. The boys mentioned the need for more games forihildren. own school was a focal point shown wiitr much detail. As for the girls.:. ti of the children.o""". but study times were different. church. They use the strcets for soccer and other games. Most of the Inup. whereas the girli placed Unamu."ofr. p"iL. The few responses from the males reflected the idea that work is the responsibility of the husband. A girl would be. the girls followed a number of puti"r* -*t i"i *". In many cases the maps had affective o. In many cases there was a focus orl the home. There y":. r""to "lade out" on the ed-ges. The main ttansportation as Lourdes Avenue) are prcdominant. School times ayeraged to four hours a day for both sexes. and boys 1.'brt uJaing *"n lrtor" suggestions for the benefit of the general comÀunitÿ and those in need. or wherc they would fit into the scheûe of the map. *t i"'t ào not ln san Agustir. Their layout of the important places and Th€ There.5-2 hours in eating. to help poor children go ià . The girls spend 3.their. while boys' outdoor hours were 4.5-3 hours to do so. Four boys ard four sirls simply said "no. lpages 7-8] *itf.

and Lynch. 1968." Enÿironment and Behaÿior 3:4 (19'71)- Hart. Penn.: Free Press. John. and Ross. pp." American Institttte of Planne6 Joumsl3S:2 (1972). "Images of Place. Summer 1966. and Lintell. tions. October 19." lournal of the Ameticon Instilute of Hanners 34 (1968). Klackenbery. 105-121. Cobb. Demonstrativbâuansnahmen des Bundesministeriums fur Stâdtebau und nungswesen. Behaÿiot in Public Places. September 1970. Fall Chombart de Lauwe." Daedalzs 88. "Espace villageois. 187 (1968). 1976..Ill. Roger." Reÿue lrançaise de socioloqie 16t539-559 (197 5)- Barker. University of Birmingham. t oh- Draper.. "The Compiehension of the Everyday Physical Envûoîment. "Environmental Quality of the City Stteet. "Enfant-en-jeu. "Where Leaining Happens. "The Development of Children in a Swedish Urban CommiJîity. Reginald. Glencoe. 1959. Golledge. E.. et al.D." Centrc for Urban and Regional Studies. Goffman. suppl.. dans l'imagerie enfantin. 29-37 . esp4ce urbaine. 197 3. of Envûoflmelrt." Paris: Centre nationale de la recherche scientifique. Worcester. Gaston. Sttoudsburg. . Donald. Grey. 1972. "Personal Construct Theory in the Measurement of Environme rûal lmages. thesis. Essays on Environmental PerÇeption. "The Ecology of Imagination in Childhood. 1974. Mass. -.." Ph.: Dowde[. Arthur. G. Seattle: Unive$ity of Washington Press. Stephen. Ernest. 'trowding among Hunter4atherers: The lKung Bushmen. and Education. "Kinder in Neuen Stadten. Clark University. Bachelard. 1976. Kenneth. 1963. Roger. University of Birmingham. vot. "A Checklist of Sources on Enÿironmental Perception. Robert. and Sa[e. Goodey. The Poetics of Space.BIBLIOGRAPHY Appleyard. "What Poor Children Know about Buildings. Coles. People ond Doyrntown. Mark." Jourrwl of Social Issues Carr. Kevin. 1964. 1976. New York: Odon Piess. Marie-Jose." Science." Connection. "On the Nature 24:4 (1963)." Daedalu§. Gary. 1 l. Department oi Geography. pp. Barbichon. Communica- Harrison. Research Memo No. and Moore. "The Child's Landscape in a New England Town." Acta paedittica scand. Bdan. Hutchinson. Guy. 1970. Enÿironmental Knov. Craik." Ceûtte for Urban and Regional Studies. Patricia." Bad Godesburg.

60 of study sample. 102. 1972. 157 Barbichon. 85 Agdcütural coopela- to childrcn's actiüty." paper presented to the American Ortho-Psychiatric Association. James.J. in Ecatepec. in Toluca. 58 io Cracow. "An Experiment ir Playground Design. 1970. N. M. 49 Assault.Bibliography Index Accessibility. Englewood Cliffs." Journal of the in Toluca. Sprir. Ittelson. 107 restdction on activity tt4 ment. 157 Ayata. 162 in Toluca. The Kegan Paul. I 13 in San Agustin. New Yolk: Braziller.95. Spivack.D. 24-25 and destructiveness. in Melbourne. Cambddge. I holiday. Stea. places childrcn's perceptions of. thesis. Southworth. See also Borcdofir toward o1d houses.. children . *T'he Openness of Open Space. Roger. in A. 7 and spatial world. See also Melbourne Avedda Lourdes.92 Actitg out. MIT. 5 l-57. 129 defidog. Anglo." iî Arts of the Enÿirontuent. Ladd.s favorite places and spatial woi1d. 103-104 Attitudes.23 Melbourne.Perronal Space. See dho Flats in Cracow. "From the Outside Looking in at the Inside Looking Out. 109 daity. 105-119.52 child's perception of. actiYities ban[ed. 165 Barriers. 82 Apartments.55. (see also l3 Tridib. 98. 57 children's beautiful l0 in." Argentidan study. 2l 99. observation of. 165 for children.. 140 of parents. Leanne. 66-6'7 Beùavioral diagrams. 98 Adolescents.8l. See a/§o Interpe$onal Lowenthal. Maurer. 1969. March 1967. MIT. Enyironmental Man of environ- Rapoport. peripheral city. l0-l l2 Moore. 1970. 100 134 Basztowa Street. The Imqge ol the Cirl.: Prentice-Hall. in Toluca. 197 O. Kevin. Guy. D. Antonio. 132 66.95. pp. Harold. Florence. 68.38-39. Robert. 1960.). Roger. I Baredee.sts See Rosas loumal of the American Institute of Planners 22:3 (1956). Michael. in Melbourne suburbs. child's plan of. Kevin. 35. 160 to movement. and Ptychology. "The Landscape of Fantasy and the Real Live Playground. 92. Jean. Alvin.g 1961 spatial and tempoml patterns of.3-12. Robin. and Mexican-American Children. and Baxter. 52 Behavior. Colonia San Awareness Agustin. T4 in Las Rosas. on plandng team.e. 1972. I antary l 38-39 faÿodte places of. Ë nÿ ironme Rivlir. New York: Holt Rinehart. 8-9. James. in Sommer. 55 Piaget. children's stories. "The Child in the City: Urbanity and the Urban . 120-131. Cracow. "Publications in Envûonmental Perception. (8 vols. and Riel. 120 Baxter. [to which may be added rnany perceptive novels. 155 Appleyard.See also Fences children's use of. David. and Downs.4l." MCP Thesis.: The MIT Press. 158 AEe Bystra Podhalanska. and tives. 154 Banks." Ph. 136 Animals. Donald." nt Sy ste ms. 136 of children. London: Routledge Children boredom of. language. 108 towald wastelands. Mayer.99 132." Landand scape. See a/so Barriers American Institute of Planners 38 (1972).. Washington. 106 Bddges. 58 Acquaintances. 165 Ballarat Road. P. 8." Enÿionment and Behaÿiot 414 (1972). childret's. 12. 101 See also Fayoite rclations li. 136 central city vs. drio Las . New Yolk: Amedcan Geographical Society. 49 children's images o1. Mass. 3l 136-137 . memoirs of childhoodl oI gils. 166 Beautiful places. Robert. environment for. 58 Braybrooke-Maidstone area. 1967. 35 home neighborhood in. 8. "Blâck Youths View Their E iroûments. 75. in Powisle. -. Amos. problems of. 92 Actiÿity.9. 135 Battro. See d/ro Bôredom of adolescents. Busiîess district. 60 time budgets of. obstacles to. David. 124 in Melboume sububs. I 18 reduction of. 108-l16. 7. Gaston. 165 Barker. 58 Attitudes towaid chânge. Departmert of Urban Studies and Planning. 136 Bus terminal." Lukashok. of. See also Festive prefercnces for. Parr. Di.39-44 in Melbourne subwbs. 73 (ree afuo Barriers) t5t Bicycle dding. "lmages of the Neighborhood and City Among Black. Lynch. Department of Urbaû Studies and Planning. Child\ Conception of the l|orld. G.C. 136 open space of. children's. Scer.53-55 toward children. and Lynch. 25-28 Australiaû study. "Some Childhood Memories of the City. pp.48 rural setting of. 93 90. 55. 34 locale of. childrent attitudes toward. in Melbourne suburbs. 163 Bus serÿice Household chores) space use of.ies..98 places in. in Anthropologist. 155 in Toluca.. "An Urban Service for Childler Based on an Aralysis of Cambridgeport Boys' Conception and Use of the City. "Observations Regarding Man-Environment Stùd. 86 toward crowding. 149 Proshansky. Witliam. Gyotgy ed. Kepes." I'nrironment and Behaÿiot 2 (1970). 76 Bachelard. 105. 1929.94.

152 health and. . 22 1I Kleparski market square. of childlell. children's perceptions child's view of. 89 obstacles to action '73 Cleaûliness ill Las Rosas.98.7 in Melbourne of.See ako School§ iû city. 54 road. 123. 2l touI§ Çonducted by. 12. 3944 144-t4s Courtyards. 101 evaluation of. 166 Downton. 105 tio[. Construction new. 37. Council houses. 45 routes to. 138-139. See also Kleparski housine housing project childrcn's images of. 158 Eliasz.5'7.67 in..77 Dialogue. 23 "opedng" up city spatial behaÿior of. I 19 Crowding. Patdcia. techoique. 141. children in.142 of. Melbourne. Stephen.98. Competition . See afuo Adolesceûts of. t4t. in Las Rosas. l04. 165 Cars. 152 in Toluca. See also Corflict observation of. Eduardo. 52 Las Rosas.29 Ecology.54. 6l-63 48-51. in Toluca. 58 safety of children in. 98. See dlso Environment acceptance ts4 tous. 102 children's beautiful places in. 165 Chdstmas pageant. 9. 128 Cathedral.90. midsteriums fui Stàdtebau und of action for childrcn streets of. in Cracow. I l5 Chapultepec Park. 128 Caseros Street. 137-138 housing projects iû. of Las Rosas. 139-140 Chombart de Lauwe. 144 awareness of. t25 Calvario Park. 161 obser tion of. 148 children's. 102 ûent. Kozlowka l0 Design. 140 describing. 23 Children. 1 I suggestions for maps Cracow. 142 in Melbourne in attitudes toward. area. 14. See also Maps EducatioIl. 95 significance of. I l6 borcdom of. group.l Cabildo. 39 ch. 165 Coles. 41. Michael.76 City centels childreh's attitudes 146 Community children's perceptiofl contacts ir.65 disturbing elements "gangs" of. children's attitudes toward. 134.38. 47 identification with.24 restdction on. l5 improvement. in Las Rosas. I 13 6. 98 time budgets of. as favodte place. in Cracow. 53 childreû's attitudes towa . Kenneth. 105 with. 99 dmwings of enÿiron- opening of. t3l Dluga Street. 137 children's maps of. in Salta. 49 Climate. 147 maps dra\4'n by. 88 knowlçdge of environment o1.1O. 9. 8l t20.144-145.124 ChuÎches 3t. 140 "Core. 99 ment of.82 Dangerous places. suburbs. 57 Community c€lebra- children's perceptions of.168 Index Index 169 Bystra Podhalanska (continued) school yard in. 159 toward. 130 view of. 42 attitudes toward.5T-58 daily activity of. 125 prefercnces for. 10. 132 historical development of. Comité Mexicano del Hombre y la Biosfela (MAB). See olso Safety children's perceptions aLro Colonia §an Agustin change Eûvironment in Ecatepec. 153 favorite places of. l0l children's favodte places in. of Las Rosas. attitudes o1.82 towald. Andrzej. 9. in Melbourne suburbs. l0l of. l1 streets of. 60 meIltal impiove- 10. in Las Rosas. 159 Change spatial range of. 1or. range l5 124 Centro. l9 irdiYidual interÿiews with. I I 5 CultrEe. 165 Colonia San Agustir. 134 Doors. 9. 13-15 Craik.84 and environmental residents of.66 prefeûed by Cracow children. '79. 58 children's. 154 Car.. 165 Cross-cultural approach. 90. 39 children's knowledge of. 85 health of. 148 Dwellings child's image of. 8 improvements of. . l6l -163. in memories of.55 Diagrams. 142 \ÿo$t place§ for. of. 100 deYelopmeût of.3. 53. tiated. 16l environmental. 71 9. Marie-Jose. 98 in home.98 to space use.l4O childreu's image of. Robert.30. 57 . l6l Toluca. 2t-22 of.77 Drunks children's attitudes children's perceptions of. 162-163 typical street in. 97. importance of. 58 problems of. 8. Poland. 15 sumounding lakebed of. interüews beautiful. 157 change in. iû Las Rosas. 38 in Cmcow.24. of action fol children's knowledge Mexico City. 103 residents of. 135 Countryside. 38.ildren's view of. 133-134 map of." of interview. of. 140 30 Comparative studies. 120 Engineers. 81. 88-93 critical qualities of. Mexico. and environ- lunctionally differcn. 58 center-city. Peter. 9 133-149. 99 City of Sunshine. childlen's images of.78 Eoterprises. of action for 4t DËper. 39 in Toluca. 57 in. 38. I14. 104. l4l. 24-25 as leaming grourd. ir.28. 165 childret's maps of.91.95-96 strcss caused by. 161 playgourds of. 165 Drawitrr6s. 154 Cobb. 125. 126. 80 Discussions.t.38 as clients. 86 Australian. 130 * .4s expected vs. of Polish viuages.46 residents of. desired. 12. Roget. 130 Development. 93. 120 145 Cities gùls'activity 21-22 range children's maps of. 154 Calzada. 154-160 aerial Yiew of. 97 of gtuls'activity in. 58 experiential learning.89 in Powisle. 145 standards for. 8. l3l Ellis. 158 Demonstratiybauansnahmen des Bundeÿ Wohrrungwesen. 124. ?7 classification understanding reeds of. 49 suburbs.8. 23 Maps attractiveness of. range Downs. See alrc Ecatepec children's maps of. 129. 75 of Toluca. 97. 95 significance of. 100 of. 23 l3-15 . streets children in. See hostile. reaction to. 6. h. 147 Ecatepec. 24 attitudes toward. '72. in Ecatepec. 142 Coloda Universidad. 66 toward.

38.cow woject. See afuo Barriers in Las Rosas.2l settlemeît. 154 Çhildren's images of. Hart.99-101 language problems of. of in Ecatepec. 101 Residence length of. 64. 37 playgrounds in. 11-7 9. observation of children on. 159. in Toluca. 126 Historic buildings. I 14 Farms. See also Parks. See zko Infrastructure. 146 in Melboume suburbs. 74. 23 entrance to. observation of . children's view of. Kozlowka housing project. Fountains. Sexuâl 1 l3 Grotto. 165 Goverllment buildings attitudes to. in Las Rosas. 38 open space of.129 65 Las Rosas. 95 Polish. I l3 in Toluca. Ernest. Reginald.t70 Christmas pageart. See dLro Kleparski housing area. Index t7l Industrial area children's imâgos of. of children.dmarks. 158 Housing cooperatives. houses coûstructed on. mental structure o1. Experiential leaming. 122 residerts of. 91.57 in Powisle. 131 power to effect. See aLro Dwellings. 101 inside home. 95 Flats.84 children's environmental ideals of. Holy places Freedom. t33-134 Kozlowka housing use of unprogrammed space in. Melbourne.e$. See alro t22. 138 in Cracow. 6. 100 Factories. 137 Instituto de Desarollo Urbano y Regional of Toluca. 120. 159 "Hoods. 148 History. 95 151 Dwelüngs. Streets in Melboume. l3 I u§er control Güdelines.§ee a/. in Toluca. female.52 Ittelson.26 housing in. 144 Ideal. Powisle housing areal Zatra§ie housing project range of action 99-101. 166 Lakebed. 159 Field studies. Trees childrent preferences childrcn's plans of.7 3 l3 tion of. 80 Greenery.55-56. l7 in Toluca. l6l in Toluca. Faÿorits places. 165 in Toluca. 154 Interpersonal relations view of. 8l in environment.97 Environrnental image. 72 Iron arcade. 138 Grey. 31 Gardens. 75 indiYidual. Landscaping.84 Image of locality. 165 of Polish villages.49. 149 preferred by Cracow tion. 165 Kleparski housing area. Deûris.45-48 Homes.&ard. 9. 150 Gesture. 166 Kirshner. in Las Rosas. Residence of. 134-136 Krabacher. 156. 1s4 use of unprogrammed space in. 122 images of. 83 Ladd. 31. Roger. See alto Beautiful places in Cracow.50 market square. 92. 101 Guemes monument. Exploration. I 15 paretts. 152 Interyie\ryers. 139. Intervie\ÿs mapping of. 101 defûine. l5 of actiYity for children in. 88-91. See Interyiews. 159 Hills. 160 Festive activities. 154-155 in Melbowlre suburbs. 29 Lar]. ment. in Cracow. by children. 24 in Cracow. Florence. technique of. 65-66 differences and childrcn's time leaming from. 54 tinued) Holidays children's view of. spatial. 9. 165 Golledge. I I streets of. 54 preferred by Cracow children. 93 Holidays activity dudng. 158 Housing. Se€ drJo budget. 30 Group discussions. 144-145. in Las Rosas. 64. 145 in Toluca. 148. 148 2848 ako Cra. 157 81-99 Guttman Scale. John. Officials local. 93 8l 49 Future. 85 questiors for. 145 qualiiy of. 120 t20-t3t childrcn's beautiful children's favodte places in. preference for. 32 layout o1. See 4Ào perceptions of. 80 Las Rosas. n€ar Cracow.See also Ctacow 120-123 Etotto of. 84 . 165 Goodey. l0l Harrison. 123 Goffman. enÿironmental. Trees in Las Rosas.98. notations for. 15 Lezde§. 138-139 in Toluca. Arthur. of Las Rosas. 155. Gyorgy. See abo for. 75 perception of. 156 in Melbourne suburbs. 53 children's perceptions children's perceptions of. 103-104 shaping of. 33 children in. Brian. 132 in Powisle. 157 Graphic languages. I 14 Identificatio n Klackelberg. Experiential starvation. . t23. 4. eÿaluation ol. 52 Housing projects. See also Beautifü places. 107 99-105 in Melbourne suburbs.6T-76. 22 for. 163 Laûdscaping. 138 ldentity with space. Edwald. for." child's descriptiofl of. 165 Highways. 25 social. 5 Flo$. 50 of.9. 139 in Melbourne.92. Housing attractiveness of. dried up. 105 in Powisle. in Cracow. 48 plan of. 26. l8 mnge EnYironment (con- improYemelt of. 128 in Zatrasie. 4t. Flo\ÿers.156 on street. §ee arso Barrier Friends. 88 substance of. Madaûra. 25 58 Garbage dump. places in. 57 Larguage children's identifica- optional questions Expectations planning for. 136 Favodte places. 21. 24 Envüonmental chaûge.en's time bnd5et. Aigentina. 166 Joh[son. 81.91-93 with parents and officials.14 for childrent 28-31 map of. l3l in Ecatepec. 102. See also A. 57 lnstitutioûs 57-5 8 lor children's welfare. William. 48-51. 9l children's prefereûces of with commudty. and child develop- evaluation of.çtivlty. contact with.7.l34. and child. 135 baüiers of. 93 local history for. territodal. children's attitudes toward. 154 Kepes. See dfuo children. aerial view of. children's. 160 gnphiÇ. G. 130 Happiest day.. Greenery. 89 nonverbal techniques o1. Exhibition. 159 Fences. 28. 61 . Home region. 86 Homework. 57 plaÇes. 49 l2l Holy places childien's attitudes toward. §ee a/sa Research group discussions in. I 123 l6 revised recommended. 10. 56 influence of children o1l.ùonmental protec- in iote ols of. 124 Household chores. in Las Rosas. 12s. in Toluca. children's perceptions of. 4. 75.12 En\. 107 interior plans of. See cko apartments o Research ginal recommended.

149 in Zatrasie housing project. 154-163. of parcnts. 4l 14'. 79. house. tO6. 163 61 Miclo-enYirorment old. Mark.85 156 discussions with.8.83 Lukashok.t'7 2 IIIdex Index t73 Lewin. 163 wastelands in. 154-155 in Toluca. 16. l5 ldentification Wastelands by Cracow children. l0 squash courts toward.7 See a/. See also Residence choice of. 152 in Zatrasie. 25 Neatness.90 sequerces in. 55 Motion pictures. 18 in Powisle. 54 interdisciplinary team for. Jean. ûatural. 152 in San Agustin. 100 Photogrid.7'. 108. 166 Boredom children's attitudes attitudes of. 100 children's image. 124 in Melbourne suburbs. Playgrounds demand fol.93 ground. 165.87 of Melbourne. l7 96-98 interüews with.l19 for Melbourne awareness of. 8l Bruybrooke-Maid- ir.ùerl. 156 Mawer. l0 attitudes tolvard.92 "Model district. 6. 108. image Patch!ÿork. See al. of 2848 60 from.Toluca Mexico City. toward. 155 of typical activities. Parks children's attitudes Mapmaking children's. See also Acquaintances Noise mental structwe of elvironmental image. 106. 89 Maps strcet Cleaûliness h Las Rosas. 166 Low-income groups in Cracow.75 Natwe stdps. 123. general views of.124 NatuÉlistic studies. 104 Motor bike dding. 103. 75. 121. 129 Parents absence from home of.25. 166 settlement Lynch. children's attitudes Research of.86 of neighborhood. toward. 104 of Saû Agustiû. 107. 12 Places Longitudiûal studies. 99.104 6. 25 lor obsening behavior.76. sense child's perception of. 133. 108. 14. 43 use r20.4r. of Las Rosas. children's beautiful places in.99.56 childrcn's. 58 Explomtion geographic range of. 154 Maidstone area.ocale.33. 165 Living Creche. building in. 46 of Toluca. evaluatior of. 98. See d/. Gary.66 20. I15. 85 "Opening. 136 in Toluca. 26 in. 66 Names. 6'. Mexico. 5 Austmlian.See alro Greenery 8 Orieûtâtiôr. 37. 104 Minibike tmck for chiidren's play. 88 Ownership and children's play. 54 in Ecatepec. 157 Lintell. Lowenthal.97. 136 Moore. 65 Plants.14'l of. r0'7 . I l9 Markets in Ecatepec.7'. Robiû. 102-103 technique of. 134 Play. 23 (ree 4lro Barriers) in Las Rosas. 68. 132 Library. 160 rest ctions 55-56. 84. 6l lor interviews. T5. 158 Paint. 115 ir Powisle.24. children's knowledge children's perceptions 6t street. 156. 104 childhood of. l5 9. planning iû. 124 I. See al. E.82 Mountains. 104 of behaior. 161 Photo recognition tests. 108. 135 demand for. 154-155 photog d of. 117 Planûing child care.89. it. 48-49 children's maps of. 103-104 expectations of. in Toluca. 57 children's favorite places in. . 90. 165 Moore. See dko Actiyity. 27 .l-19 in study sample. 155. See also suburbs. Nature. 155. 62 of spatial behavior. I l0-l storle area 106 l2 Modernization iû Craco\r. 81.9. 166 Participation. 47 housing and parks in. in Toluca.istic. See dÀo Network. 14 suburbs of. 82 maps of. 166 MAB program. child's perception of. 130 in Ecatepec. 81 q uality of. of identicâl blôcks of flats. l6l in Kolowka housing project. Keün. 105. 166 139 38. 5-5 t2s identification of. 85 planners. 62 in Melbourne suburbs. children's. 162 S€e 9l dko instructions for. in Tolucâ. t 0s-163 National Shooting Range. observation of. l5 in Cracow. 39. Manner. 135 emphasis on. 133-134 19 in Toluca. 44 child's own area in. Learûing. emphasis on. t6t of children. in Las Rosas. David. 93 Madbymong River.73 time budget of children in. 146 recording of. 108 Melbourne.93 Planty. 105.t Piagetian analysis. 20 unprogrammed space u§es 105-l l9 on.I 08 Memories 125 of. l50 Observation tt6. social. 103-104 Mexican studies. 118 ir Powisle. t00 Planners 96-98 intelvie\rs with.85. 96 memories of.99 general üew of.. 95 106 Greenery. f rom environment. 148 in Melbourne suburbs. suburbs. 136 Movement barriers to. Natioûal reports. Austraüa behaÿioral diagrams Models.34 childlen's maps of.82 restdctions on children of. 99 drawn. Alün. 145 Locality. 166 Videotapes to observe behavior. of Cracow.91. 66-67 4. 140 in Cracow." of city. of studies. 96 in Toluca. 160 Piaget. 9.86. in Las Rosas. 1 Neighborhoods Bystra. and interviews. A. Open space. 31. in Salta. 104 data for.4. 80 Officials attitudes of. 72 western suburbs 105. in Melbourne suburbs. 81 extended use aerial. Robert. in Melbourne subrubs. Kurt. o1.7 children's city. 23 . 100 of. See also Ecatepec. 113. l6l Kleparski squarc. 90 Plans. 107 for study. l6 Playgrounds of.63. 130 parental boundaries of areas children's. 158 Monotony. 97. old.4. 146 Patks. See also Greenery.56.44 outline base. TT in Melbourne of. 86 of typical actiÿities. 24 residents of. 55 mnge ol activity for chil." 150 '41 10 /. in Cracow.98 PhotogIaphs of childhood. 159 . 156 identification with. 149. 150 Playing fields in Ecatepec.

28. Home attractiveness of. 148 in Melbourne of 92. as holy place.58 paucity of. 83 ll5. §ee also Kozlowka housing project. 49 differeoces ll8 155.. 146 recording of. 149-150 Vistula River. 107. 155 vs. in Melbourne suburbs. t4t.eet. 146. 162 Prison buitding. in Cracow. l3l Poland study. 124.98 adaptir. children's perception of.56-57. Zatrasie 10. 80 pitfalls of. See also Las Rosas in Toluca. 155. of children. 146 demand for. 56 1r1 children's pelceptions of. l6l Qualit y. 154 and favorite places. 93 Signs. 53 children's perceptiolls Proshansky. 166 Southworth. 22 swimming pools. observations of. envhonmental.g. Research toward. See aÀo Research aedal view of. 142 Sommer. . 59 in Cracow. 22 Slums. 86 preferences for. identification with. 108 Residence. in Ecatepec. 166 Recreational faci.84 Sidewalks budget in. 82 2t. low. 136 Slawkowska Street. of Colonia San Agustin San Bemaldo Convent. 149 in Toluca. 135 atti[udes toward. future place of. 124 place.99-105 revised. 54 in Ecatepec. Spatial behavior. 125.66 chi-ld's need for.22 Stores. 9. See arJo Interviews 158 to7 . iû children's time b]ud.56-5i "l Research guide change. Portales. See atso childrcn's preferences for. 100 image children's adaptation to. Population in Craco\r. 140 Roles.58 Iearning from. 44. 52 children's attitude Stimulation. \2O-131. Maria. Study choice of subject and city. Mayer. 96. 82 local teams.See d/. §ee a/ro Beautiful places in San Agustin. Michael. 40. 58 concern area.52 Prrÿacy. 55 in prefered place of residence. 134. 99 location of previous. children's time l5l. 120. §ee a/so Sexual t43 Spivack.l53 in Cmcow. 115 Socio-economic status. l3 Standard of living. I46 Residential histo.54 improvement of. 5 ln I oluca. ll9 PoLish Airlines (LOT). 163 expedential learning 162 Sidewalk dwellers. Privacv children's need for. See dÀo Officials i Planners. See a/. in in Zatrasie housing project. 53 in Powisle. high . flats in. See ako Streets bad. I 14 Smells. Philip. 149 Stardardization. in identify of places. 156 Queues.52 children's attitudes Poücy. 140 Quiet. children's perceptions of. Leanne.lities.75 Poo. 52 children's favorite places Holy places traditional. 102 6l .78. suburbs. in Las Rosas.. Questions.54 settlements of. Amos. 98 in Las Rosas. See a/. See 6l 140 emphasis on. for. 128 Plazas in Las Rosas. 12. 119 stress caused by. 61 . 162 Satisfaction with environment. 133 in Las Rosas. in 118 Serüces suburbs. 166 Space Dwellings. See also Patks: Playgrounds Rural settlements. 60 Rynek. i4. 166 Stereo-pairs. 123. 161 and image maps. in Toluca. suburbs. l3l -153 Police station. 5. 148 San Agustin. 5 Saddest day. 82 policy implications Cracow.8l-99 Reserves. Poland. for in attitudes to]vard change. Harold. 157 Stimulus seekers. Political leaders.l20. 133 kinds of. ' 'lvarsaw Railwaymen's House. 58 interview. in Ecatepec. 84 interviewing in Melboume children. 166 Roads.49 138 149-154. 150 Research. 83 Sexual differences alrc Low- income groups Socio-spatial units.86 134 Projective method. 45 mnge of actioo for childrcn tn. in Cracow. 158 Powisle housing area. 154 Settlements. Stimuli for children. in Lâs Rosas. 103 in Melboume Skarzynska. in Melbowne suburbs. David. §ee a/. 160.57. 128 in Totuca. tt4 length of.]. 146 Salta. T2 Reveries. 5. See Skawa River. 134 Salta. t30 155 view of. 148 new. 156.79 local. Krystyna.48. 166 Psychological tests. 22 . 24 Sampling. 9. 126 San Francisco Chùch. See a/. sensory. 134 . 166 Sports center. 49 children's images of. 101 Safety. Philip church. and expectations.y. chiidren's.60 extension of. l5l children's need for. children's interviews. woodland. children's view of.9l-92 Pollution. 85 132 Spring..98.89 Pretty places. 134 Sacredness. family.55 Stea. 131 Schools in hood. 155 in Villa Las Rosas. 165 of. 149-150 Pretesting. 89. 133 Sawicka. iinplications for Ownership children's perceptions of. 135. 139. 148 st. See a/§o Parks 9 children's beautifut places in. 138 and household chores. 148 prefereûce in Cracow. 84 Solec Street (Powisle). 128 Sarre. See also methodology. 132. 155 and pelceptions of attacks upon. See also Lowincome groups free land for. l2l in Cracow.99.Sleep. Robert. l6l preferences for. enÿironment. 95.ÿo Bystm Podhalanska children in. 25. See afuo Interviewsi Officials interÿiews with. I l7 toward. 92. l2 in study sample.44 Las Rosas. 163 in image of neighbor- 102-103 Rivlin. of poor. 134 Rapoport. t 35. T-8. 155 Population density. 144 mnge of.123 Self-development. o1. in Toluca. in Cracow. in foi.174 Ifldex Index t7s in. | in attitudes toward trouble§ome elements. 85 in time budget. 10. 149 in sample study. 114 l3l Cracow. I 60. 86. 90 original. 125 San Bemardo hilt (Las Rosas).. in Toluca. as holy housi[g project housing projects in. 75 Public transportatiôn. 125 and mapmaking. Argentina.

children's knowledge of. 21 138 Traffic. Mexico City. Poland. 56 alro Wastelands Values. 93. See aho Timing. center of. 7 6 Utopias. 57 in Melbourne.157 with. 36 of Las Rosas. l6 streets of. See Holidays activity during. 148 in Ecatepec.92. See d/Jo Field studies. 49. Melbowne. 135 Zatrasie housing project.155. 108. I s'7 perceptions UNESCO 58 Ugly places. t01. obseryation of. 156 view of. 13-15 intelviews on. 1s9 Time. 159 Transportation bus seryice. 9.96. §ee Las Rosas Wellare workers. 54 I 13.udget iî.9. 123 Szustrowa. in Salta.49. 151 Sullounding areas. 150 Zocalo. Poland. Parks iers 108 initiation of. interdisciplirary. 159 use children's favorit e places in. inteIviews in. 52 in San Agustin. Swimming pool Universidad cer. overhead. See dlso Holidays actiüty dudng. 49. 150. in Las Rosas. childre11's.8. l8 range of actiÿity §Pace t. 131 University. 9.56 as extension of home. 159 children's maps ol. 95 21 in Zatrasie. 14. children on. 13-15 children's. Maria.74 of Ecatepec children. 147 Travel. unprogrammed. l5 t28 Volcano.ia in Cracow. 6'. 26. Videolapes 8 children's.48 Tamka strcet.92 Weekdays. 100 Troes. 84 subjects selected for. 158. §ee a/so Greenery. 152 in Toluca. 24 use of urplogrammed Warszawa. 7 open space of. 95. 149-1s0 Voice. 58. of street Teache§. See also Climâte children's perceptions dirty. 15 Taperecording. 151. 6. sigrificance of. 10. Polish. 59 Television and children's time budget.48 playgrounds in. 149 in Toluca. in Toluca. 53 children's attitudes tovÿard. 159 lÿValking. 16. 15 Department of Social for project) Palace of Culture in.78 Tours for children. 48 for recreation. 148 in Ecatepec. 109 Study. 95. 107. 137 Bystra PodhalaIIska safety of children in. 107 iI1 Powisle. See Open space children's âttrâction in Colonia San Agustin. 150 range of action for children in. 149. 140 TeIIitory learning from.truL plaza o1.20 160. Mexico 5 7 Zatrasie . 163 extended use of. 15. 56. 17 Melbourne. See also Zakopane. 15. See also Cololl. 161. 155. 52 in Las Rosas. 149-154. 128 User control. in Las Rosas.76 of. interviews with.86 children's perceptions in Melbourne suburbs. 78 Wires. observation of 102 in Warsza\râ. 148 demand for. 158 in Bystra Podhalanska. l3l (tee also Zatrasie housing on children's welfare.79 in. See a/.7 significance of. 162 Yards. 43 children's beautiful places in. children's sexual differences in.82 local research. See dko Ba risidity of. problems of.25-28 community identification with. 159. 21-22 View. Research selection of sociospatial units for.58 intervie\À/er's. 28. in Las Rosas.23 . 137 Susüowska. l3l parks in.98 t02 in Powi§le. 128 Women's liberatioû.9 in Colonia Universidad. 140 city . Sciences of. I 16 as holy places. ll5 to observe behavior.83 research teams of. 153 b. housing projects in. 157. 105 construction of. 129 Village cooperatives. 10. 10. 36. 93 childrcn's use of. 5. 131. See also ftom city. 162 ol Melboume range of. 136 Villages. l5 Tomaszewski. 21 . of streets of. Uriburu Museum.t'7 6 Index Index 117 Streets Teâm children's preferences for.22 of. Teresa. 162 in Toluca. 154. 155. of typical activities. Mexico.72. 56 Weather. 83 children. 115 Vistula River. 88 to. 160 childrcn's images of. tO2 Toluca. Sunday.38. 6. I I children in. 102 enyirorment. 150 streetscapes. 16. preference for. in Melboume suburbs. Tadeusz. 1s8 Time budgets. 31 ako Walszaÿta Powisle housing afea childrcn's perception childrcn's time l3l in for Melboume children. 59 in Cracow. 84 Suburbs. S8 unplogmmmed space rcle o1. in Melbourne suburbs. 113. 136 in Cracow. 100. l6 residents of. §ee a/so Attitudes of children. 39. r 62 of Tolucan children. 40 38 114 children's images of. 163 hazard reduction for. 161. 95 attitudes to\À/ard. 11 strcet play in. 23. 23 residents of. 49 Vacant lots. 163 limitations to.9. l3-15 Zona Rosa. 9. 108 Warszawa.103. in Toluca. children's of.40 interviews.42 in Ecatepec. 146 Villa Las Rosas. 96 o1. 123.

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