Nanoparticle

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(Redirected from Nanoparticles) In nanotechnology, a particle is defined as a small object that behaves as a whole unit with respect to its transport and properties. Particles are further classified according to diameter.[1] Coarse particles cover a range between 10,000 and 2,500 nanometers. Fine particles are sized between 2,500 and 100 nanometers. Ultrafine particles, or nanoparticles , are between 1 and 100 nanometers in size. The reason for this double name of the same object is that, during the 1970-80s, when the first thorough fundamental studies with "nanoparticles" were underway in the USA (by Granqvist and Buhrman)[2] and Japan, (within an ERATO Project)[3] they were called "ultrafine particles" (UFP). However, during the 1990s before the National Nanotechnology Initiative was launched in the USA, the new name, "nanoparticle," had become fashionable (see, for example the same senior author's paper 20 years later addressing the same issue, lognormal distribution of sizes [4]). Nanoparticles may or may not exhibit size-related properties that differ significantly from those observed in fine particles or bulk materials.[5][6] Although the size of most molecules would fit into the above outline, individual molecules are usually not referred to as nanoparticles. Nanoclusters have at least one dimension between 1 and 10 nanometers and a narrow size distribution. Nanopowders[7] are agglomerates of ultrafine particles, nanoparticles, or nanoclusters. Nanometer-sized single crystals, or single-domain ultrafine particles, are often referred to as nanocrystals. Nanoparticle research is currently an area of intense scientific interest due to a wide variety of potential applications in biomedical, optical and electronic fields.[8][9][10][11] The National Nanotechnology Initiative has led to generous public funding for nanoparticle research in the United States.

Contents
1 Background 2 Uniformity 3 Properties 4 Synthesis 4.1 Sol-gel 5 Colloids 6 Morphology 7 Characterization 8 Functionalization 8.1 Surface coating for biological applications 9 Safety 10 Laser applications 11 Medicinal applications 12 See also 13 References 14 External links

) that extend the upper limit are occasionally considered. and c) images of prepared mesoporous silica nanoparticles with mean outer diameter: (a) 20nm. and (c) 80nm. b.[15] TEM (a. glazed pottery. The solution they found was using luster. ultrafiltration. SEM (d) image corresponding to (b). in general. atmosphere.[16] . stable dispersion.or copper-colored metallic glitter. The luster can still be visible if the film has resisted atmospheric oxidation and other weathering. together with vinegar. the use of the prefix nano is accepted for dimensions smaller than 500 nm. The technique originated in the Islamic world. The luster originated within the film itself. As Muslims were not allowed to use gold in artistic representations. and clay on the surface of previouslyNote 1: Modified from definitions of nanoparticle and nanogel in [refs. pottery from the Middle Ages and Renaissance often retain a distinct gold. These nanoparticles were IUPAC definition created by the artisans by adding copper and silver salts and oxides Particle of any shape with dimensions in the 1 × 10–9 and 1 × 10–7 m range. ochre. The insets are a high magnification of mesoporous silica particle. they had to find a way to create a similar effect without using real gold. nanoparticles are considered a discovery of modern science.Background Although. provided reference to the definition is indicated. which contained silver and copper nanoparticles dispersed homogeneously in the glassy matrix of the ceramic glaze. [12] Luster technique showed that ancient craftsmen had a rather sophisticated empirical knowledge of materials. causing the copper and silver ions to migrate into the outer layers of the glaze. Even these days. Note 4: Tubes and fibers with only two dimensions below 100 nm are also nanoparticles. [13][14]]. The object was Note 2: The basis of the 100-nm limit is the fact that novel properties that then placed into a kiln and heated differentiate particles from the bulk material typically develop at a critical to about 600 °C in a reducing length scale of under 100 nm. There the reducing atmosphere reduced the ions back to metals. Note 3: Because other phenomena (transparency or turbidity. which then came together forming the nanoparticles that give the colour and optical effects. This luster is caused by a metallic film that was applied to the transparent surface of a glazing. they actually have a very long history. Nanoparticles were used by artisans as far back as the 9th century in Mesopotamia for generating a glittering effect on the surface of pots[citation needed]. In the heat the glaze would soften. etc. (b) 45nm..

The degree of order appears to be limited by the time and space allowed for longer-range correlations to be established. and military sectors requires the use of high-purity ceramics." [17][18][19] Uniformity The chemical processing and synthesis of high-performance technological components for the private. thus becoming the strength-controlling flaws. result in a size distribution appearing lognormal. In a subsequent paper. [20] [21] [22] In addition. [23][24] [25] Inert gas evaporation and inert gas deposition [2][3] are free many of these defects due to the distillation (cf. Differential stresses that develop as a result of non-uniform drying shrinkage are directly related to the rate at which the solvent can be removed. provide the first step in developing a more rigorous understanding of the mechanisms involved in microstructural evolution in high performance materials and components. therefore. Such defective polycrystalline colloidal structures would appear to be the basic elements of submicrometer colloidal materials science and. and thus highly dependent upon the distribution of porosity. Differential stresses arising from inhomogeneous densification have also been shown to result in the propagation of internal cracks. rather than using particle size distributions that will maximize the green density. appear desirable to process a material in such a way that it is physically uniform with regard to the distribution of components and porosity. the author (Turner) points out that: "It is well known that when thin leaves of gold or silver are mounted upon glass and heated to a temperature that is well below a red heat (~500 °C). of the optical properties of nanometer-scale metals in his classic 1857 paper. therefore.Michael Faraday provided the first description. due to the combination of drift and diffusion. Uncontrolled agglomeration of powders due to attractive van der Waals forces can also give rise to in microstructural inhomogeneities. while the electrical resistivity is enormously increased.[4] It would. the irregular particle sizes and shapes in a typical powder often lead to non-uniform packing morphologies that result in packing density variations in the powder compact. glass-ceramics. for example. reflection is correspondingly diminished. and can yield to crack propagation in the unfired body if not relieved. yielding inhomogeneous densification. and material composites.[3] However.[3] The reason why modern gas evaporation techniques can produce a relatively narrow size distribution is that aggregation can be avoided. Such stresses have been associated with a plastic-to-brittle transition in consolidated bodies. Monodisperse nanoparticles and colloids provide this potential. polymers. Some pores and other structural defects associated with density variations have been shown to play a detrimental role in the sintering process by growing and thus limiting end-point densities. purification) nature of the process and having enough time to form single crystal particles. random residence times in the growth zone. even in this case. in scientific terms. however even their nonaggreated deposits have lognormal size distribution. industrial. which is typical with nanoparticles. The containment of a uniformly dispersed assembly of strongly interacting particles in suspension requires total control over interparticle forces. may therefore be stabilized sufficiently to ensure a high degree of order in the colloidal crystal or polycrystalline colloidal solid that results from aggregation. In condensed bodies formed from fine powders. a remarkable change of properties takes place. The result is that white light is now freely transmitted. [27] [28] Properties . [26] Monodisperse powders of colloidal silica. whereby the continuity of the metallic film is destroyed. any fluctuations in packing density in the compact as it is prepared for the kiln are often amplified during the sintering process.

the percentage of atoms at the surface is insignificant in relation to the number of atoms in the bulk of the material. and material of the particles.[31][32][33] Silicon nanopowder 1 kg of particles of 1 mm3 has the same surface area as 1 mg of particles of 1 nm3 Other size-dependent property changes include quantum confinement in semiconductor particles. Gold nanoparticles melt at much lower temperatures (~300 °C for 2. Nanoparticles of yellow gold and grey silicon are red in color. In both solar PV and solar thermal applications. A bulk material should have constant physical properties regardless of its size. and.Nanoparticles are of great scientific interest as they are. controlling the size. The high surface area to volume ratio of nanoparticles provides a tremendous driving force for diffusion. Thus. which dominates the contributions made by the small bulk of the material. this does not affect the density of the final product. Ferromagnetic materials smaller than 10 nm can switch their magnetisation direction using room temperature thermal energy. Zinc oxide particles have been found to have superior UV blocking properties compared to its bulk substitute.5 nm size) than the gold slabs (1064 °C). the properties of materials change as their size approaches the nanoscale and as the percentage of atoms at the surface of a material becomes significant.[29] For example gold nanoparticles appear deep-red to black in solution. Moreover. thus making them unsuitable for memory storage.[36] and is completely photostable. the presence of titanium dioxide nanoparticles imparts what we call the self-cleaning effect. What would appear ironic is that the changes in physical properties are not always desirable. nanoparticles have been found to impart some extra properties to various day to day products. shape. Nanoparticles often possess unexpected optical properties as they are small enough to confine their electrons and produce quantum effects.[35] Suspensions of nanoparticles are possible since the interaction of the particle surface with the solvent is strong enough to overcome density differences. which otherwise usually result in a material either sinking or floating in a liquid. a bridge between bulk materials and atomic or molecular structures. This is one of the reasons why it is often used in the preparation of sunscreen lotions. the size being nano-range. over shorter time scales than for larger particles.[37] . the particles cannot be observed. For example.[30] Absorption of solar radiation is much higher in materials composed of nanoparticles than it is in thin films of continuous sheets of material. though flow difficulties and the tendency of nanoparticles to agglomerate complicates matters.. it is possible to control solar absorption. The interesting and sometimes unexpected properties of nanoparticles are therefore largely due to the large surface area of the material. but at the nano-scale size-dependent properties are often observed. Sintering can take place at lower temperatures. especially at elevated temperatures. surface plasmon resonance[34] in some metal particles and superparamagnetism in magnetic materials. In theory. in effect. For bulk materials larger than one micrometer (or micron).

In the arc plasma reactors. dc arc plasma. Nanoparticles with one half hydrophilic and the other half hydrophobic are termed Janus particles and are particularly effective for stabilizing emulsions. leading to stronger plastics. The working frequency is typically between 200 kHz and 40 MHz. Nanoparticles have also been attached to textile fibers in order to create smart and functional clothing. A prototype nanoparticle of semi-solid nature is the liposome. carbours/carbides. energy coupling to the plasma is accomplished through the electromagnetic field generated by the induction coil. In pyrolysis. macro.[38] Metal. As the residence time of the injected feed droplets in the plasma is very short. reducing. A thermal plasma can also deliver the energy necessary to cause vaporization of small micrometer-size particles. a planetary ball mill. a vaporous precursor (liquid or gas) is forced through an orifice at high pressure and burned. dielectric. it is important that the droplet sizes are small enough in order to obtain complete evaporation. Such nanoscale particles are used in biomedical applications as drug carriers or imaging agents. verifiable by a higher glass transition temperature and other mechanical property tests. for example synthesis of various ceramic nanoparticles such as oxides. These nanoparticles are hard. and semiconductor nanoparticles have been formed. Pyrolysis often results in aggregates and agglomerates rather than single primary particles. The resulting particles are air classified to recover nanoparticles. The resulting mixture of plasma gas and silica vapour can be rapidly cooled by quenching with oxygen. In attrition. and nitrides of Ti and Si (see Induction plasma technology).[39] Nanoparticles made of semiconducting material may also be labeled quantum dots if they are small enough (typically sub 10 nm) that quantization of electronic energy levels occurs. thus ensuring the quality of the fumed silica produced. Semi-solid and soft nanoparticles have been manufactured. as well as hybrid structures (e. Nanoparticles are formed upon cooling while exiting the plasma region. The main types of the thermal plasma torches used to produce nanoparticles are dc plasma jet. Various types of liposome nanoparticles are currently used clinically as delivery systems for anticancer drugs and vaccines. and other corrosive atmospheres. core–shell nanoparticles). The RF plasma method has been used to synthesize different nanoparticle materials. .or micro-scale particles are ground in a ball mill. The resulting solid (a version of soot) is air classified to recover oxide particles from by-product gases.Clay nanoparticles when incorporated into polymer matrices increase reinforcement. Laboratory units run at power levels in the order of 30–50 kW.000 K. silica sand can be vaporized with an arc plasma at atmospheric pressure. They can self-assemble at water/oil interfaces and act as solid surfactants. thus eliminating possible sources of contamination and allowing the operation of such plasma torches with a wide range of gases including inert. and radio frequency (RF) induction plasmas. The plasma gas does not come in contact with electrodes. In RF induction plasma torches.. the energy necessary for evaporation and reaction is provided by an electric arc formed between the anode and the cathode. or other size-reducing mechanism. The thermal plasma temperatures are in the order of 10. and impart their properties to the polymer (plastic).g. oxidizing. so that solid powder easily evaporates. For example. including both attrition and pyrolysis. Synthesis There are several methods for creating nanoparticles. whereas the large-scale industrial units have been tested at power levels up to 1 MW.

[41] Typical precursors are metal alkoxides and metal chlorides. reducing radicals will drop metallic ions down to the zero-valence state.. fibers. densification. cast into a suitable container with the desired shape (e. which undergo hydrolysis and polycondensation reactions to form either a network "elastic solid" or a colloidal suspension (or dispersion) – a system composed of discrete (often amorphous) submicrometer particles dispersed to various degrees in a host fluid. the volume fraction of particles (or particle density) may be so low that a significant amount of fluid may need to be removed initially for the gel-like properties to be recognized. One of the distinct advantages of using this methodology as opposed to the more traditional processing techniques is that densification is often achieved at a much lower temperature. Thus. Such methods are used primarily for the fabrication of materials (typically a metal oxide) starting from a chemical solution (sol. Formation of nanoparticles using the radiolysis method allows for tailoring of particle size and shape by adjusting precursor concentrations and gamma dose. a soluble metallic salt. glasses. or used to synthesize powders (e. and grain growth.g.Inert-gas condensation is frequently used to make nanoparticles from metals with low melting points. Once in the zero-valence state. a radical scavenger (often a secondary alcohol). This prevents it from dissociating or forming clusters with other particles. Radiolysis from gamma rays can create strongly active free radicals in solution. In this process. Centrifugation can also be used to accelerate the process of phase separation. by dip-coating or spin-coating). The rate at which the solvent can be removed is ultimately determined by the distribution of porosity in the gel. to obtain a monolithic ceramics. Removal of the remaining liquid (solvent) phase requires a drying process. membranes. nanospheres). In sufficient concentrations..[42] In the case of the colloid.[40] Sol-gel The sol-gel process is a wet-chemical technique (also known as chemical solution deposition) widely used recently in the fields of materials science and ceramic engineering. This can be accomplished in any number of ways. which is typically accompanied by a significant amount of shrinkage and densification. which acts as the precursor for an integrated network (or gel) of either discrete particles or network polymers. The supercooled metal vapor condenses into nanometer-size particles. and a surfactant (organic capping agent).g. The precursor sol can be either deposited on a substrate to form a film (e. short for solution). which can be entrained in the inert gas stream and deposited on a substrate or studied in situ. A chemical surfactant surrounds the particle during formation and regulates its growth. is often necessary in order to favor further polycondensation and enhance mechanical properties and structural stability via final sintering. microspheres. and then pour off the remaining liquid. the surfactant molecules stay attached to the particle. Formation of a metal oxide involves connecting the metal centers with oxo (M-O-M) or hydroxo (M-OH-M) bridges.g. the sol evolves toward the formation of a gellike diphasic system containing both a liquid phase and solid phase whose morphologies range from discrete particles to continuous polymer networks. The metal is vaporized in a vacuum chamber and then supercooled with an inert gas stream. The sol-gel approach is a cheap and . These including water. The most simple method is to allow time for sedimentation to occur. or firing process. The ultimate microstructure of the final component will clearly be strongly influenced by changes implemented during this phase of processing. metal atoms begin to coalesce into particles. This relatively simple technique uses a minimum number of chemicals. High gamma doses on the order of 104 Gray are required. therefore generating metal-oxo or metal-hydroxo polymers in solution. Nanoparticles can also be formed using radiation chemistry. Afterward. A scavenger chemical will preferentially interact with oxidizing radicals to prevent the re-oxidation of the metal. a thermal treatment. aerogels)..

. or from the innate crystallographic growth patterns of the materials themselves. whereas the shape of Nanostars of vanadium(IV) oxide anisotropic microcrystalline whiskers corresponds to their particular crystal habit. can be introduced in the sol and end up uniformly dispersed in the final product. all of which containing distinct solid (and/or liquid) particles that are dispersed to various degrees in a liquid medium.[47] nanoboxes [48] and more have appeared in the literature.[43][44] Colloids The term colloid is used primarily to describe a broad range of solid–liquid (and/or liquid–liquid) mixtures. Einstein proved the existence of water molecules by concluding that this erratic particle behavior could adequately be described using the theory of Brownian motion. then their irregular motion in suspension can be attributed to the collective bombardment of a myriad of thermally agitated molecules in the liquid suspending medium. These morphologies sometimes arise spontaneously as an effect of a templating or directing agent present in the synthesis such as miscellar emulsions or anodized alumina pores.g. dynamic . or as a means of producing very thin films of metal oxides for various purposes. (bio)sensors.[46] nanoreefs. such as organic dyes and rare earth metals. Sol-gel derived materials have diverse applications in optics. Characterization Nanoparticle characterization is necessary to establish understanding and control of nanoparticle synthesis and applications. such as long carbon nanotubes used to bridge an electrical junction. Amorphous particles usually adopt a spherical shape (due to their microstructural isotropy). and cups are just a few of the shapes that have been grown. nanoparticles are often referred to as clusters. At the small end of the size range. Even small quantities of dopants. if they are small enough to be colloids. Nanospheres. as described originally by Albert Einstein in his dissertation. medicine (e.low-temperature technique that allows for the fine control of the product’s chemical composition. Characterization is done by using a variety of different techniques. energy.. It can be used in ceramics processing and manufacturing as an investment casting material. The term is specific to the size of the individual particles. chromatography) technology. The study of fine particles is called micromeritics.g. space. mainly drawn from materials science. SEM). electronics. But. If the particles are large enough then their dynamic behavior in any given period of time in suspension would be governed by forces of gravity and sedimentation. This critical size range (or particle diameter) typically ranges from nanometers (10−9 m) to micrometers (10−6 m). fibers.[45] Morphology Scientists have taken to naming their particles after the realworld shapes that they might represent. which are larger than atomic dimensions but small enough to exhibit Brownian motion. Common techniques are electron microscopy (TEM. controlled drug release) and separation (e. or just a scientific curiosity like the stars shown at right.[49] Some of these morphologies may serve a purpose. atomic force microscopy (AFM). Spheres. with sedimentation being a possible long-term result. rods.

Functionalization The surface coating of nanoparticles is crucial to determining their properties. the surface coating should be polar to give high aqueous solubility and prevent nanoparticle aggregation. matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF). solubility. streptavidin or peptides. This could result in regulatory bodies. aptamers. this method. See also Nanomedicine#Nanoparticle targeting Red blood cell coatings can help nanoparticles evade the immune system. highly charged coatings promote non-specific binding.[52] specific organelles within the cell. Multivalent nanoparticles. ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. Monovalent nanoparticles. These targeting agents should ideally be covalently linked to the nanoparticle and should be present in a controlled number per nanoparticle. and give stronger anchoring. whereas polyethylene glycol linked to terminal hydroxyl or methoxy groups repel non-specific interactions. both medically and environmentally. and Regulation of nanotechnology Nanoparticles present possible dangers. dual polarisation interferometry and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). While the theory has been known for over a century (see Robert Brown).[50][51] Nanoparticles can be linked to biological molecules that can act as address tags.[59][60] Most of these are due to the high surface to volume ratio. to direct the nanoparticles to specific sites within the body. and their interactions with biological systems are relatively unknown. pre-reformulation version of the medicine. In serum or on the cell surface. the technology for Nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) allows direct tracking of the Brownian motion. powder X-ray diffraction (XRD). Fine particles.[61] They are also able to pass through cell membranes in organisms.[54] Common address tags are monoclonal antibodies. allows the sizing of individual nanoparticles in solution. are relying on safety data produced during clinical studies of the earlier. which can activate cellular signaling pathways.[53] or to follow specifically the movement of individual protein or RNA molecules in living cells. bearing a single binding site.[63] There are concerns that pharmaceutical companies. missing new side effects that are specific to the nano-reformulation.[62] A recent study looking at the effects of ZnO nanoparticles on human immune cells has found varying levels of susceptibility to cytotoxicity. Functionalized nanomaterial-based catalysts can be used for catalysis of many known organic reactions. can cluster receptors.light scattering (DLS).[64] . In particular. the surface coating can regulate stability. Surface coating for biological applications For biological applications.[58] Safety See also: Nanotoxicology.[55][56][57] avoid clustering and so are preferable for tracking the behavior of individual proteins. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). seeking regulatory approval for nano-reformulations of existing medicines. which can make the particles very reactive or catalytic. therefore. and targeting. such as the FDA. x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). A coating that is multivalent or polymeric confers high stability. bearing multiple targeting groups.

and fuel additives. and best practices to discover the acute health effects of carbon nanotubes and identify methods to predict them.[70] Researchers attribute the reduction in beam divergence to improved dn/dT characteristics of the organic-inorganic dye-doped nanocomposite. EPA’s chemical safety research is assessing the environmental. energy.[69] Iron: While nano-scale iron is being investigated for many uses. models. and other items where antimicrobial properties are desirable. In collaboration with the U. is being piloted at a number of sites across the country. test methods.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission. which strongly affects their transport. food packaging. supported by EPA research. EPA research will provide data. Depending on the type of particle. EPA is researching this topic to better understand how much nano-silver children come in contact with in their environments.[69] Titanium dioxide: Nano titanium dioxide is currently used in many products. and exposure in aquatic environments. This use. Many applications of engineered cerium oxide nanoparticles naturally disperse themselves into the environment.[68] As of 2013 the Environmental Protection Agency was investigating the safety of the following nanoparticles:[69] Carbon Nanotubes: Carbon materials have a wide range of uses. ranging from composites for use in vehicles and sports equipment to integrated circuits for electronic components. In past research. The interactions between nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes and natural organic matter strongly influence both their aggregation and deposition.[67] Concern has also been raised over the health effects of respirable nanoparticles from certain combustion processes. EPA is studying certain products to see whether they transfer nano-size silver particles in real-world scenarios. There is ongoing exposure to new diesel emissions using fuel additives containing CeO2 nanoparticles. and the environmental and public health impacts of this new technology are unknown. transformation. it may be found in sunscreens.[65] However considerable research has demonstrated that zinc nanoparticles are not absorbed into the bloodstream in vivo. carbon nanotubes exhibited some toxicological impacts that will be evaluated in various environmental settings in current EPA chemical safety research.Whether cosmetics and sunscreens containing nanomaterials pose health risks remains largely unknown at this stage. cosmetics.[69] Laser applications The use of nanoparticle distributions in laser dye-doped poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) laser gain media was demonstrated in 2003 and it has been shown to improve conversion efficiencies and to decrease laser beam divergence. including “smart fluids” for uses such as optics polishing and as a better-absorbed iron nutrient supplement.[69] Cerium oxide: Nanoscale cerium oxide is used in electronics. which increases the risk of exposure.[66] Diesel nanoparticles have been found to damage the cardiovascular system in a mouse model. . and paints and coatings. The optimum composition reported by these researchers is 30% w/w of SiO 2 (~ 12 nm) in dye-doped PMMA. It is also being investigated for use in removing contaminants from drinking water. biomedical supplies.[69] Nano Silver: Nano silver is being incorporated into textiles and other materials to eliminate bacteria and odor from clothing. one of its more prominent current uses is to remove contamination from groundwater. and health implications of nanotechnology-enabled diesel fuel additives. ecological.

Medicinal applications Liposome Dendrimer Iron oxide nanoparticles Nanomedicine Polymer-drug conjugate Polymeric nanoparticle See also Ceramic engineering Coating Colloid Colloid-facilitated transport Colloidal crystal Colloidal gold Eigencolloid Fungal-derived nanoparticles Gallium selenide Indium selenide Liposome Magnetic immunoassay Magnetic nanoparticles Micromeritics Nanobiotechnology Nanocrystalline silicon Nanogeoscience Nanomaterials Nanomedicine Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis Nanotechnology Photonic crystal Plasmon Platinum nanoparticles Quantum dot Silicon Silver Nano Sol-gel Transparent materials References .

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