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# CHAPTER 6 : MATHEMATICAL REASONING

6.1: STATEMENTS - is a sentence which is either true or false but not both 6.2 : Operations on statement Concept : The truth table for p and q p true true false false Q True False True False p and q true false false false

Concept : The truth table for p or q p true true false false Q True false true false p or q true true true false

6.3 : Implication Implication If p, then q where p is the antecedent and q is the consequent . If a compound statement consisting of if and only if , we can write its two implications as If p, then q and If q, then p (known as converse of an implication) 6.4 : Argument Argument : is the process in making a conclusion based on the premise. Premise is a given statement

6.5 : Deduction and Induction 6.5.1 Deduction : is making conclusion for a specific case based on a given general statement 6.5.2 Induction : is making generalization based on the pattern of a numerical sequence, or specific cases.

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Questions According to Examination Format 1) i: State whether the following statement is true or false.

9 > 6 and 42 = 8
ii : Complete the premise in the following argument. Premise 1 : If JKL is an equilateral triangle, then the value of its interior angle is 60 o Premise 2 : ______________________________________________________ Conclusion : The value of the interior angle of JKL is 60 o. iii : Write down two implications based on the following sentence.

## x > y if and only if x y > 0

Implication 1 : . Implication II : .

## 2) i : Is the sentence below a statement or a non-statement ?

5 is an even number
ii : Write down two implications based on the following sentence.

## PQR is a right-angled triangle if and only if PR2 = PQ2 + QR2

Implication 1 : . Implication II : iii : Based on the information below, make a general conclusion by induction regarding the sum of the interior angles of a triangle.

The sum of the interior angles of triangle ABC = 180o The sum of the interior angles of triangle JKL = 180o The sum of the interior angles of triangle PQR = 180o

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General conclusion : 3. a) Determine whether the following statement is true or false. b) Write two implications from the statement given below.

34 = 12 or

5 = 1.25 4

x = 4 if and only if x3 = 64
Implication I: Implication II: c) Complete the premise in the following argument. Premise 1 : If 2y = 10, then y = 5. Premise 2 : .. Conclusion : 2y 10. 4. a) Complete the conclusion in the following argument. Premise 1 : All regular hexagons have 6 equal sides. Premise 2 : ABCDEF is a regular hexagon. Conclusion : . b) Make a conclusion by induction for a list of numbers 9,29, 57, 93,that follow the patterns below : 9 = 4(2)2 7 29 = 4(3)2 7 57 = 4(4)2 7 93 = 4(5)2 7 c) Combine the two statements given below to form a true statement. i) 15 ( 5) = 5 ii) 32 is a multiple of 8. 5. a) Below are three statements : 42 = 8 3 = 0.75 : 4 : 5 < 2

## b) Complete the following argument. Premise 1 : If a = 6, then 5a = 30 . Premise 2 : 5a 30 Conclusion : .. .

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## 3r > 6 if and only if r > 2

SPM PAST YEAR QUESTIONS 2003 a) Is the sentence below a statement or non-statement? 4 is a prime number b) Write down two implications based on the following sentence;
P R if and only if R ' P '

The number of subsets in a set with 2 elements is 22. The number of subsets in a set with 3 elements is 23. The number of subsets in a set with 4 elements is 24.
c) Based on the information above, make a general conclusion by induction regarding the number of subsets in a set with k elements. (5 marks) Answer : a) Statement

b) Implication 1 : If P R , then R ' P ' Implication 2 : If R ' P ' , then P R c) The number of subsets in a set with k elements is 2 k 2004 (July) 1. a) State whether the following sentence is a statement or a non-statement. All multiples of 2 are divisible by 4. b.) Write down a true statement using both of the following statements: Statement 1: Statement 2:

5 2 = 10 10 10 = 100

c.) Write down two implications based on the following sentence: y < x if and only if y > -x (4 marks)

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## 2004 2. a) State whether the following statement is true or false.

8 > 7 or 32 = 6
b) Write down two implications based on the following sentence

## m3 = 1000 if and only if m = 10

c) Complete the premise in the following argument : Premise 1 : All hexagons have six sides. Premise 2 : . Conclusion : PQRSTU has six sides.

(5 marks)

## 2005 (July) 3. a) Determine whether the following sentence is a statement or non-statement.

2 m 2 + 5m 3 = 0
b) Write down the converse of the following implication, hence state whether the converse is true or false. If x is an odd number then 2x is an even number. c) Make a general conclusion by induction for a list of number 3, 17, 55, 129, which follows the following pattern:
3 = 2(1) 3 +1 17 = 2(2) 3 +1 55 = 2(3) 3 +1 129 = 2( 4) 3 +1

(5 marks)

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2005 4. a) State whether each of the following statement is true or false. i) 8 2 = 4 and 82 = 16. 12, 15,18} are divisible by 3 or the elements of set B = ii) The elements of set A = { are multiples of 4. b) Write down premise 2 to complete the following argument . Premise 1 :If x is greater than zero, then x is a positive number.. Premise 2 : . Conclusion : 6 is a positive number. c) Write down 2 implications based on the following sentence. 3m > 15 if and only if m > 5 Implication 1 : Implication 2 : (5 marks)

{4, 6, 8}

2006 (July) 5. a)State whether each of the following statements is true or false. (i)
3

64 = 4

## (ii.) -5 > - 8 and 0.03 = 3

10 1
ABC is 60 0 .

b) Write down two implications based on the following sentence. ABC is an equilateral triangle if and only if each of the interior angle of c.) Complete the premise in the following argument: Premise 1 Premise 2 Conclusion : . : 90 0 x 180 0. : sin x 0 is positive. (5 marks)

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Year 2006 (Nov) (a) Complete each of the following statements with the quantifier all or some so that it will become a true statement (i) (ii) of the prime numbers are odd numbers. ... pentagons have five sides.

(b) State the converse of the following statement and hence determine whether its converse is true or false.

## If x > 9 , then x > 5

(c) Complete the premise in the following argument: Premise 1 : If set K is a subset of set L, then K L = L Premise 2 : Conclusion: Set K is not a subset of set L Year 2007 (June) a) State whether the following statement is true or false. b) Write down Premise 2 to complete following argument: Some even numbersthe are multiples of 3 Premise 1 : If a quadrilateral is a trapezium, then it has two parallel sides. Premise 2 : .. Conclusion: ABCD is not a trapezium. c) Based on the information below, make a general conclusion by induction regarding the sum of interior angles of a polygon with n sides.

Sum of interior angles of a polygon with 3 sides is ( 3 2 ) x 1800 Sum of interior angles of a polygon with 4 sides is (4 2 ) x 1800 Sum of interior angles of a polygon with 5 sides is (5 2 ) x 1800

## c) Write down two implications based on the following statement:

a Matrix c b has an inverse if and only if ad bc 0 d

[6 marks]

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Year 2007 (Nov) a) Complete the following statement using quantifier all or some, to make it a true statement.

## ................................quadratic equations have two equal roots.

b) Write down Premise 2 to complete the following argument: Premise 1 : If M is a multiple of 6, then M is a multiple of 3. Premise 2 : .. Conclusion : 23 is not a multiple of 6. c) Make a general conclusion by induction for the sequence of numbers 7, 14, 27, which follows the following pattern. 7 = 3(2)1 + 1 14 = 3(2)2 + 2 27 = 3(2)3 + 3 = d) Write down two implications based on the following statement: p q > 0 if and only if p > q Implication 1 : Implication 2 : ... [6 marks]

Year 2008 (June) a) State whether the following compound statement is true or false. 7 x 7 = 49 and (-7)2 = 49 b) Write down two implications based on the following compound statement:

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KLM is an isosceles triangle if and only if two angles in c) Write down Premise 2 to complete the following argument:

## KLM are equal.

Premise 1: If PQRS is a cyclic quadrilateral, then the sum of the interior opposite angles of PQRS is 1800 . Premise 2: Conclusion: PQRS is not a cyclic quadrilateral. [5 marks]

Year 2008 (Nov) a) State whether the following compound statement is true or false: 53 = 125 and -6 < -7 b) Write down two implications based on the following compound statement: x3 = -64 if and only if x = -4.
2 n

c) It is given that the interior angle of a regular polygon of n sides is 1 x 1800 . Make one conclusion by deduction on the size of the interior angle of a regular hexagon. [5 marks]

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ANSWERS
Questions According to Examination Format 1. i: False ii : JKL is an equilateral triangle. iii : If x > y, then x y > 0 . If x y > 0, then x > y. 2. i : Statement

ii : 1 : If PQR is a right-angled triangle, then PR2 = PQ2 + QR2 2: If PR2 = PQ2 + QR2, then PQR is a right-angled triangle iii : The sum of the interior angles of all triangles = 180o
3. a) True

## b) If x = 4, then x3 = 64 If x3 = 64, then x = 4 c) y 5

4. a) ABCDEF has 6 equal sides.

5. a)

## 3 3 = 0.75 and 5 < 2 @ 42 = 8 or 5 < 2 @ 42 = 8 or = 0.75 4 4

PAST YEARS SPM QUESTIONS June 2004 1. a) Statement b) 5 2 = 10 or 10 10 = 100 c ) If y < x , then y > x If y > x , then y < x Nov 2004 2. a) True b) If m3 = 1000 , then m = 10 If m = 10, then m3 = 1000 c) PQRSTU is a hexagon. June 2005

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3.

## a) Statement b) If 2x is an even number, the x is an odd number. (True) c) 2n 3 +1, where n = 1, 2, 3

Nov 2005 4. a) i: False ii: True b) 6 is greater than zero. c) If 3m > 15, then m > 5. If m > 5, then m > 5.

June 2006 5. a) (i) True (ii) False b) If ABC is an equilateral triangle, then each of the interior angle of ABC is 60 0 , then ABC is 60
0

## ABC is an equilateral triangle.

c) If 90 0 x 180 0 , then sin x 0 is positive. 7. Nov 2006 a) (i) Some (ii) All b) If x > 5 , then x > 9 , False

c) K L L 8. June 2007

## a) True b) ABCD has no two parallel sides c) (n 2 ) x 1800 d) Implication 1 : If matrix

a c b has an inverse then ad bc 0 d a b has an inverse d

Implication 2 : If ad bc 0 then c
9. Nov 2007

a) Some b) 23 is not a multiple of 3 c) 3(2)n + n , n = 1, 2, 3, d) Implication 1 : If p q > 0 then p > q Implication 2 : If p > q then p q > 0

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## 10. June 2008

a) True b) Implication 1 : If KLM is an isosceles triangle, then two angles in KLM are equals. Implication 2 : If two angles in KLM are equals, then KLM is an isosceles triangle. c) The sum of the interior opposite angles of PQRS is not equal to 1800.
11. Nov 2008

## a) False b) Implication 1 : If x3 = -64 then x = -4 Implication 2 : If x = -4 then x3 = -64

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