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INFECTIOUS DISEASES MOST

19

most common cause of FUO

infections (then, neoplasms)

19

most frequent cause of FUO in the elderly

multisystem disease (giant-cell arteritis being the leading etiologic entity

19

most common infection causing FUO in the elderly

TB

31

most common reason for visits to primary care providers

 

URTI

31

most common cause of URI

rhinovirus

31

most commonly involved sinus in sinusitis

maxillary sinus (ethmoid, frontal, sphenoid)

31

most common pathogens in sinusitis

S.

pneumoniae and nontypable H. influenzae

31

most often involved in tooth pain in sinusitis

upper molars

31

most common pathogen in perichondritis

P.

aeruginosa and S. aureus

31

most common pathogen in otitis externa

P.

aeruginosa and S. aureus

31

most common cause of chronic otitis externa

primarily by repeated local irritation, most commonly arising from persistent drainage from chronic middle-ear infection

31

most common causative viruses in otitis media

RSV, influenza virus, rhinovirus, enterovirus

31

most important bacterial cause

S.

pneumoniae

31

most common presenting symptom of oropharyngeal infections

sore throat

31

most frequent reasons for ambulatory care visits by adults and children

sore throat

31

most important source of concern in acute pharyngitis

infection with group A beta-hemolytic strep (S. pyogenes)

31

most common identifiable cause of acute pharyngitis

respiratory viruses (rhinoviruses and coronaviruses)

31

most commonly involved in infection of the oral cavity

HSV or Candida species

31

most commonly affected teeth in Ludwig's angina (fulminant cellulitis)

lower second and third molars

31

most common cause of death in Ludwig's angina

asphyxiation

31

most common cause of epiglottitis

group A streptococcus

31

most common consequence of extension of infection

acute pharyngitis

31

most common pathogens in deep infections

group A beta hemolytic strep and S. aureus

113

most common sites of entry

mucosal surfaces (respiratory, alimentary, urogenital tracts) and the skin

114

most common isolate in asplenic patients with bacterial sepsis

S.

pneumoniae (50-70%) (also H. influenzae and N.

meningitidis)

115

most commonly transmits Babesia

Ixodes scapularis (also transmits Borrelia burgdorferi - Lyme disease; and Ehrlichia)

115

most common cause of necrotizing fasciitis

group A streptococci alone and a mixed facultative and anaerobic flora

115

most common infectious disease emergencies involving CNS

bacterial meningitis

115

most common location of spinal epidural abscesses

thoracic or lumbar spine

115

most common etiologic agents of spinal epidural abscesses

staphylococci

115

most cost effective health intervention available

 

vaccine

116

most common extraneous allergen

egg protein derived fro the growth of measles, mumps,

   

influenza, and yellow fever viruses in embryonated eggs

117

most common vaccine-preventable infection in travelers

influenza

117

most important determinant of risk for GI illnesses in travelling

destination

117

most frequently identified pathogens causing travelers' diarrhea

toxigenic E. coli, and enteroaggregative E. coli

117

most frequent causes of persistent diarrhea after travel

postinfectious sequelae such as lactose intolerance or irritable bowel syndrome

117

most common diagnoses in patients who require emergency department evaluation for symptoms occurring during airline flights

chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

117

most common medical problems encountered by travelers after their return home

diarrhea, fever, respiratory illness and skin disease

117

most common skin conditions affecting travelers after their return home

pyoderma, sunburn, insect bite, skin ulcers, cutaneous larva migrans

117

IE

most commonly involves

heart valves, but may also occur on the low-pressure side of the ventricular septum at the site of a defect, on the mural endocardium where it is damaged by aberrant jets of blood or foreign bodies, or on intracardiac devices themselves

118

cardiac conditions most commonly resulting in NBTE

mitral regurgitation, aortic stenosis, aortic regurgitation, VSD, complex congenital heart disease

118

most common with aortic valve infection

extension

118

most widely accepted to predispose to endocarditis

dental treatments

118

most commonly affected by herpes zoster

immunosuppressed individuals and elderly patients

119

most commonly affected by streptococcal lesions

children 2-5 years of age

119

most common cause of localized folliculitis

Staph aureus

119

most commonly affected by erysipelas

infants and elderly adults

119

most common way by which P. aeruginosa is introduced into the deep tissues

when person steps on a nail

119

most commonly affected by gram-negative bacillary cellulitis due to P. aeruginosa

among hospitalized, immunocompromised hosts

119

gram-positive aerobic rod Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae is most often associated with

fish and domestic swine and causes cellulitis primarily in bone renderers and fishmongers

119

most commonly involved in spontaneous nontraumatic gangrene among patints with neutropenia, GI malignancy, diverticulosis, or recent radiation therapy to the abdomen

Clostridium septicum

119

most common cause of osteomyelitis

pyogenic bacteria and mycobacteria

120

most common site of infection(osteomyelitis) in older adults and

spine (vertebrae as most common site of hematogenous osteomyelitis)

IV

drug users

120

most commonly involed in tuberculous spondylitis (Pott's)

thoracic spine

120

Primary bacterial peritonitis most commonly occurs in conjunction with

cirrhosis of the liver (frequently the result of alcoholism)

121

most common manifestation of PBP

fever

121

most common organisms in PBP

 

E.coli

121

most common reason for discontinuation of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis

peritonitis

121

most common organism in CAPD peritonitis

Staph spp.

121

most common pathogen in overt exit-site infections in CAPD peritonitis

Staph aureus

121

anaerobe most frequently isolated from intraabdominal infections, especially prominent in abscesses

B.

fragilis

121

most common anaerobic bloodstream isolate

B.

fragilis

121

most often cause of intraperitoneal abscesses result from

fecal spillage from a colonic source, such as an inflamed appendix

121

organ most subject to the development of abscesses

 

liver

121

most common source of liver abscess

disease of the biliary tract (previously ruptured appendix)

121

most common presenting sign of liver abscess

 

fever

121

single most reliable laboratory finding in liver abscess

elevated serum concentration of alkaline phosphatase

121

most reliable methods for diagnosing liver abscesses

imaging studies, include US,CT, indium-labeled WBC or gallium scan, and MRI

121

most frequently isolated in liver abscesses

B.

fragilis

121

most common associated infection in splenic abscesses

bacterial endocarditis

121

most sensitive diagnostic tool in splenic infections

CT scan of the abdomen

121

most common bacterial isolates from splenic abscesses

Streptococcal spp., then S. aureus

121

most important factor in successful treatment of splenic abscesses

early diagnosis

121

most common etiology of perinephric and renal abscesses

now UTI, previously hematogenous in origin usually complicating prolonged bacteremia with S. aureus

121

most important risk factor in perinephric abscesses

concomitant nephrolithiasis obstructing urinary flow

121

most frequently encountered organisms in perinephric and renal abscesses

E.

coli, Proteus spp, Klebsiella spp,

121

most useful diagnostic modalities in perinephric and renal abscesses

renal ultrasonography and abdominal CT

121

most likely to be isolated when psoas abscess arises from hematogenous spread or a contiguous focus of osteomyelitis

S.

aureus

121

most likely etiology of psoas abscess when it has an intraabdominal or pelvic source

mixed enteric flora

121

most useful diagnostic technique in psoas abscesses

CT

121

most common disease worldwide

acute upper respiratory illnesses (second: acute gastrointestinal illnesses

122

most common travel-related illness

traveler's diarrhea

122

most common isolates from persons with the classic secretory traveler's diarrhea syndrome

enterotoxigenic and enteroaggregative E. coli

122

most common AGE among children <2

rotavirus

122

one of the most common manifestations of nosocomial infections

 

diarrhea

122

most common pathogens isolated from visibly bloody stools

E.

coli O157:H7

122

most commonly diagnosed diarrheal illness acquired in the hospital

Clostridium difficile associated disease (CDAD)

123

CDAD most frequently occurs in

hospitals and nursing homes

123

most common manifestation caused by C. difficile

 

Diarrhea

123

most sensitive test for CDAD

stool culture for C. difficile

123

most common sexually transmitted pathogen in US

genital HPV

124

most frequent cause of acute epdidymitis in sexually active men under 35

C.

trachomatis and less commonly N. gonorrhoeae

124

most common manifestation of serious bacterial infections in women

mucopurulent cervicitis

124

most often cause of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

N.

gonorrhoeae

124

most common cause of genital ulceration in most developing countries

genital herpes

124

most useful when ulcers are painful and purulent, especially if inguinal lymphadenopathy with fluctuance or overlying erythema is noted

demonstration of H. ducreyi by culture or by PCR test

124

most common cause of perianal ulcers and inguinal lymphadenopathy

HSV

124

most often etiology of sexually acquired proctocolitis

Campylobacter or Shigella spp.

124

CANNOT ACCESS

 

125

CANNOT ACCESS

 

126

most common aminoglycoside resistance mechanism

inactivation of antibiotic

127

most common mechanism for resistance to beta-lactams

destruction of the drug by beta-lactamases

127

most common mechanism of tetracycline resistance in G(-) bacteria

plasmid-encoded active-efflux pump that is inserted into the cytoplasmic membrane and extrudes antibiotic from the cell

127

most prevalent mechanism of resistance to trimethoprim and the sulfonamides in both G(+) and G(-) bacteria

acquisition of plasmid-encoded genes that produce a new, drug- insensitive target-specifically an insensitive dihydrofolate reductase for trimethoprim and an altered dihydropteroate synthetase for sulfonamides

127

most often mechanism of resistance to chloramphenicol

plasmid-encoded enzyme, chloramphenicol acetyltransferase, inactivates the compound by acetylation

127

most common mechanism for resistance to macrolides, ketolides, lincosamides, and streptogramins

plasmid-encoded enzyme that methylates ribosomal RNA, interfering with binding of antibiotics to their target

127

most common mechanism of resistance to quinolones

development of one or more mutations in target DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV that prevent the antibacterial agent from interfering with the enzymes' activity

127

most important factor in choosing initial therapy for an infection in which the susceptibility of the specific pathogen(s) is not

information on local resistance rates

 

known

 

127

most important interaction involving tetracyclines

reduced absorption when these drugs are coadministered with divalent and trivalent cations, such as antacids, iron compounds, or dairy products

127

most affected age group by invasive pneumococcal disease in absence of vaccination

children <2 years old

128

most common cause of pneumococcal bacteremia in adults

pneumonia

128

most common respiratory tract infection by Strep. pneumo

otitis media, acute sinusitis, tracheobronchitis, pneumonia, empyema

128

most common CNS infection by Strep. pneumo

meningitis, brain abscess

128

most common cardiac infection by strep. pneumo

endocarditis, pericarditis

128

most common soft tissue/skeletal infection by Strep. pneumo

septic arthritis, osteomyelitis, cellulitis

128

(other) most common infections by Strep. pneumo

peritonitis, endometritis, primary bacteremia

128

most common isolate in otitis media and sinusitis

S.

pneumoniae (or second to nontypable H. influenzae

128

most commonly affected by Pneumococcal pneumonia

extremes of age

128

most common cause of CAP

S.

pneumoniae

128

most common complication of pneumococcal pneumonia

empyema

128

most common cause of bacterial meningitis in adults

S.

pneumoniae

128

most often affected by Cellulitis

people with CTD or HIV infection

128

most common diagnosis leading to an antibiotic prescription in the US

acute otitis media

128

most common cause of surgical wound infections

S.

aureus

129

second most common cause of primary bacteremia

S.

aureus

129

most common cause of bacteremia

 

CoNS

129

most frequent site of human colonization of S. aureus

anterior nares (also skin, vagina, axilla, perineum, oropharynx)

129

most human S. aureus infection are due to

capsular types 5 and 8

129

most often location of carbuncles

lower neck

129

most common cause of bone infections

S.

aureus

129

most often involved in hematogenous osteomyelitis in children

long bones

129

most often seen in patients with endocarditis, those undergoing hemodialysis, diabetics, and injection drug users

vertebral bone infections

129

most common cause of epidural abscess

S.

aureus

129

most common cause of septic arthritis in native joints

S.

aureus

129

most commonly involved joints in septic arthritis

knees, shoulders, hips and phalanges

129

most common precedent of community-acquired respiratory tract infections due to S. aureus

viral infections or septic pulmonary emboli

129

most common cause of viral infections that precede S. aureus infections

Influenza

129

most often seen in injection drug users

acute right-sided tricuspid valvular S. aureus endocarditis

129

most common endocarditis caused by S. aureus

nosocomial endocarditis

129

most common causes of food-borne outbreaks of infection in

S.

aureus

 

the US

 

129

most often affected by SSSS

newborns and children

129

most common cause of prosthetic-device infections

Coagulase-negative staphylococcal infections (CoNS)

129

most common human pathogen overall in CoNS

S.

epidermidis

129

most abundant bacterial species on the skin that is part of normal flora

S.

epidermidis

129

most common cause of bacterial endocarditis

Viridans streptococci

130

most sensitive and specific means of definitive diagnosis

culture of a throat specimen

130

most often cause of erysipelas

beta-hemolytic streptococci

130

most common associated infection with streptococcal TSS

soft tissue infection (necrotizing fasciitis, myositis, cellulitis)

130

most common manifestation of late-onset infection

meningitis

130

most common manifestation of GBS infection in pregnancy and parturition

peripartum fever

130

most common form of human infection with S. suis

cellulitis of the hand

130

most frequently cause pharyngeal diphtheria

toxigenic strains

131

most commonly cause cutaneous disease (diphtheria)

nontoxigenic strains

131

most often location of pseudomembranous lesion of diphtheria

tonsillopharyngeal region

131

most often characterization of cutaneous diphtheria

punched-out ulcerative lesions with necrotic sloughing or pseudomembrane formation

131

most common site affected by cutaneous diphtheria

extremities

131

most commonly causes (Rhodococcus equi)

pulmonary infections

131

most common manifestation of R. equi

nodular cavitary pneumonia of the upper lobes (similar to TB or nocardiosis)

131

most important determinant of the pathogenesis of Listeria monocytogenes

beta-hemolysin, listeriolysin O (LLO)

132

most common clinical syndromes of Listeria infections

meningitis and septicemia

132

most often affected by granulomatosis infantiseptica

skin, liver, spleen

132

most common form of tetanus

generalized tetanus

133

elaborates the most potent bacterial toxin known

Clostridium botulinum

134

most common form of botulism

intestinal botulism in infants (infant botulism)

134

most clinically important species of Clostridium

C.

perfringens

135

most abundant species of Clostridium

C.

ramosum (next, C. perfringens)

135

most common of the clostridial species isolated from tissue infections and bacteremias

C.

perfringens

135

2nd or 3rd most common cause of food poisoning in the US

C.

perfringens, type A

135

most commonly isolated Clostridium species in intraabdominal infections

C.

ramosum, C. perfringens, C. bifermentans

135

most often affected by emphysematous cholecystitis

diabetic patients

135

most commonly affected by spreading cellulitis and fasciitis due to Clostrium

patients with carcinoma, esp. sigmoid or the cecum

135

most often site Clostridia are cultured

wounds in the absence of clinical signs of sepsis

135

most common cause of gas gangrene

C.

perfringens

135

most commonly affected by transient clostridial bacteremia

predisposing focus in the GI tract, biliary tract, or uterus

135

most common species in rapidly fatal clostridial sepsis

C.

septicum

135

most important factors in the treatment of gas gangrene

expert surgical and medical management and control of complications

135

most common cause of sporadic disease of meningococcal disease

serogroup B

136

perhaps the most rapidly lethal form of septic shock experienced by humans

fulminant meningococcemia

136

most distinctive feature of meningococcemia

 

rash

136

most useful clinical finding in meningococcal disease

petechial or purpuric rash

136

most common clinical manifestation of gonorrhea in males

acute urethritis

137

most common form of gonorrhea in neonates

ophthalmia neonatorum

137

most common manifestation of systemic infection or DGI in newborn

septic arthritis

137

most common manifestation of gonococcal infection in children beyond infancy

gonococcal vulvovaginitis

137

third most common bacterial isolate from middle-ear fluid of children with otitis media

M.

catarrhalis

138

most commonly isolated species of Moraxella

M.

nonliquefaciens (ears, nose, throat) and M. osloensis (blood),

M.

urethralis (urine)

138

most clinically relevant strain of H. influenzae

type b and nontypable strains

139

most serious manifestation of infection with Hib

meningitis

139

most common features at presentation of Hib infection

fever and altered CNS function

139

most common complication of Hib

subdural effusion

139

most common location of cellulitis in Hib infection

head or neck

139

3 most common causes of childhood otitis media

nontypable H. influenzae, S. pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis

139

most reliable method for establishing diagnosis of Hib infection

recovery of organism in culture

139

most common Haemophilus species isolated from cases of HACEK endocarditis

H.

aphrophilus and H. parainfluenzae

140

most frequently affected by Cardiobacterium hominis

aortic valve

140

most frequent site affected by Eikenella corrodens

sites of infection in conjunction with other bacterial species

140

3rd most common cause of septic arthritis in children <24 months

Kingella kingae

140

most often affected by Pasteurella infections

skin and soft tissue (mostly caused by cats)

140

most often affected by Agrobacterium radiobacter

immunocompromised hosts, esp. individuals with malignancy or HIV infection

140

most commonly affected by Plesiomonas shigelloides

immunocompromised hosts

140

most commonly implicated Legionella serogroups in human infections

serogroups 1,4,6

141

most common Legionella species

L.

pneumophila, L. micdadei, L. bozemanii, L. dumoffii, L.

   

longbeachae

141

most common symptomes of Pontiac fever

malaise, fatigue, myalgia (in 97%)

141

most common neurologic abnormalities

confusion or changes in mental status

141

most common extrapulmonary site of legionellosis

heart

141

most sensitive option for visualization of Legionella organism in tissues

DFA stain

141

most consistent and prominent feature of Pertussis

violent cough

142

most important Bordetella species causing human disease

Bordetella pertussis

142

most important virulence factor of B. pertussis

pertussis toxin, composed of B oligomer-binding subunit and an enzymatically active A protomer that ADP-ribosylates a guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory protein (G protein) in target cells

142

most common cause of septic shock (?)

GNB

143

accounts for most extraintestinal infections due to GNB and are the most virulent pathogens

E.

coli, (Klebsiella, Proteus)

143

most reliable active beta lactam agent against ESBL-expressing strains

carbapenems

143

most common enteric gram (-) species to cause extraintestinal infection in ambulatory, LTCF, and hospital setting

E.

coli

143

most frequently infected by ExPEC

urinary tract

143

single most common pathogen for all UTI syndrome/host group combinations

E.

coli

143

most common acute UTI syndrome

uncomplicated cystitis (dysuria, frequency, and suprapubic pain)

143

second most common site of extraintestinal infection due to E. coli

abdomen/pelvis

143

most common cause of HAP

GNB

143

most commonly isolated GNB in HAP

E.

coli

143

most common blood isolates of clinical significance

E.

coli and Staph aureus

143

most common source of E. coli bacteremia

urinary tract

143

most common food source of STEC/EHEC strains

ground beef (contaminated during processing)

143

4th most commonly reported cause of bacterial diarrhea

 

O157:H7

143

most common agent of traveler's diarrhea

ETEC

143

most common method currently used to detect STEC/EHEC

screening for E. coli strains that do not ferment sorbitol

143

most important Klebsiella species from a medical standpoint

K.

pneumoniae

143

most common clinical syndromes with Klebsiella

Pneumonia, UTI, abdominal infection, surgical site infection, soft tissue infection, bacteremia

143

most frequently affected by Klebsiella cellulitis or soft tissue infection

devitalized tissue and immunocompromised hosts

143

most common site of Proteus infection

urinary tract

143

most strains of Proteus are

lactose negative, produce H2S, with swarming motility

143

responsible for most Enterobacter infections

E.

cloacae and E. aerogenes

143

most common syndromes in Enterobacter infections

Pneumonia, UTI (particularly catheter-related), IV device

   

infection, surgical site infection, abdominal infection

143

most strains of enterobacter are

lactose positive and indole negative

143

most common spread of Serratia infection

sporadic infection

143

most common sites of Serratia infection and source of bacteremia

respiratory tract, GU tract, IV devices, surgical wounds

143

most common species causing Citrobacter infections

C.

freundii and C. koseri

143

most common sources of Morganella and Providencia infection

surgical sites and soft tissue

143

most common symptom of Edwardsiella infection

self-limiting watery diarrhea (severe colitis also occurs)

143

most common extraintestinal infection in Edwardsiella infection

wound infection due to direct inoculation (often freshwater, marine, snake related injuries)

143

responsible for most Acinetobacter infections

A.

baumannii-calcoaceticus complex

143

most common source of bacteremia in Acinetobacter infection

respiratory tract and IV devices

143

most convenient biopsy-based test for H. pylori infection

biopsy urease test

144

most specific (but may be insensitive) for H. pylori

microbiologic culture

144

most consistently accurate test for H. pylori

urea breath test

144

2 most important factors in successful H. pylori treatment

patient's close compliance with the regimen and the use of drugs to which H. pylori has not acquired resistance

144

most common cause of G(-) bacteremia in neutropenic patients

Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection

145

most common contributing factor to respiratory failure in CF and responsible for majority of deaths among CF

Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection

145

most important factor in disease causation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

inflammatory response to many products of P. aeruginosa

145

most common of all infections by P. aeruginosa

respiratory infections

145

1st or 2nd most common cause of VAP

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

145

most common types of eye disease in P. aeruginosa and often associated with contact lenses

Keratitis and corneal ulcers

145

most devastating of P. aeruginosa eye infections

P.

aeruginosa endophthalmitis secondary to bacteremia

145

most serious form of pseudomonas infection affecting ear

malignant otitis externa and necrotizing otitis externa

145

most common type of P. Aeruginosa infection in AIDS patients

pneumonia with/without bacteremia

145

most virulent among pseudomonads

Burkholderia pseudomallei

145

most commonly diagnosed form of melioidosis

acute pulmonary infections

145

most prominent symptom of enteric fever

prolonged fever

146

most common period when GI bleeding and intestinal perforation occurs

third and fourth week of illness

146

most common transmission of salmonellosis

animal food products, especially eggs, poultry, undercooked ground meat, dairy products, and fresh produce contaminated with animal waste

146

most common cause of resistance of Salmonella to nalidixic acid and fluoroquinolones

point mutations in the DNA gyrase genes gyrA and gyrB

146

most common with S. choleraesuis and S. Dublin

bacteremia and metastatic infection

146

most commonly affected sites with Salmonella osteomyelitis

femur, tibia, humerus, lumbar vertebrae

146

most frequently affected by reactive arthritis (Reiter's syndrome) following NTS gastroenteritis

persons with HLA-B27 histocompatibility antigen

146

most common transmission of Shigella

person to person (most efficiently by fecal-oral route)

147

most efficient form of rehydration

oral rehydration therapy

147

most common mode of acquisition of C. jejuni

ingestion of contaminated poultry that has not been sufficiently cooked

148

most common among compromised hosts

systemic infections due to C. fetus

148

most common enteric pathogen

C.

jejuni

148

most common signs and symptoms of intestinal phase

diarrhea, abdominal pain, fever

148

most prominent symptom in C. jejuni infection

abdominal pain

148

most common natural habitat of Vibrio species

tidal rivers and bays under conditions of moderate salinity

149

most common means of acquisition of V. cholerae

ingestion of water contaminated by human feces

149

most common environmental isolate and predominant cause of clinical cholera in areas in which it appeared

O139 Bengal; in SE Asia V. Cholerae O1 remains dominant

149

most important of noncholera vibrio

V.

parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus

149

most common cause of severe vibrio infections in the US

V.

vulnificus

149

most often affected by primary sepsis by V. vulnificus

patients with cirrhosis or hemochromatosis

149

most salt-tolerant of the vibrios

V.

alginolyticus

149

most frequently implicated sources of Brucellosis

dairy products, especially soft cheeses, unpasteurized milk and ice cream

150

most frequently targeted by Brucella infection

reticuloendothelial system, musculoskeletal tissues, genitourinary system

150

most common focal features in Brucellosis

musculoskeletal pain and physical findings in the peripheral and axial skeleton

150

most commonly affected by osteomyelitis in Brucellosis

lumbar and low thoracic vertebrae

150

most common individual joints affected by Brucellosis

knee, hip, sacroiliac, shoulder, sternoclavicular joints

150

most effective combination for Brucellosis

Streptomycin and Tetracycline

150

most common clinical syndrome in Tularemia infection

ulcerative lesion at site of inoculation, with regional lymphadenopathy and lymphadenitis

151

most common vectors of Francisella tularensis

tabanid flies

151

most common portal of entry for human infection with Tularemia

skin or mucous membranes either directly-through the bite of ticks, other arthropods or other animals; or via inapparent abrasions

151

most common form of tularemia in adults

inguinal/femoral lymphadenopathy

151

most frequent method of confirming tularemia

agglutination testing

151

most commonly used methods to detect antibody to F. tularensis

microagglutination and tube agglutination

151

most common mode of transmission of plague

flea bite and direct contact with infected animal, especially exposure to an infected domestic cat

152

most commonly involved in bubonic plague

femoral and inguinal nodes (next, axillary and cervical nodes)

152

most life-threatening form of plague

pneumonic plague

152

most frequent acute clinical manifestations of Yersinia infection

enteritis or ileitis; mesenteric adenitis and terminal ileitis

152

most common mode of identifying pathogenic Y. enterocolitica isolates

biotyping based on biochemical profiles and serotyping according to somatic O and H antigens

152

most commonly affected by mesenteric adenitis and terminal ileitis

older children and young adults

152

most commonly affected by nonsuppurative sequelae of yersiniosis

 

adults

152

most commonly affected area by intestinal inflammation

distal ileum and less commonly ascending colon

152

most common presentation of Yersinia enterocolitica infection

acute diarrhea from enteritis or enterocolitis

152

most commonly affected in reactive arthritis from Yersinia enterocolitica infection

knees and ankles

152

most common clinical presentation of Y. pseudotuberculosis infection

fever and abdominal pain caused by mesenteric adenitis

152

most commonly used tests to support diagnosis of yersiniosis

agglutination tests or ELISAs

152

most specific diagnosis test in Yersinia infection

isolation of pathogenic Yersinia strain from feces

152

most often involved in disseminated disease of Bartonella infection

nervous system, visceral organs, bone

153

most common manifestation of Bartonella infections in HIV- infected persons

bacillary angiomatosis

153

most often presentation of bacillary angiomatosis

painless cutaneous lesions

153

most often used test to diagnose urban trench fever

serologic studies or by isolating B. quintana

153

most common extragenital manifestation of donovanosis

oral donovanosis, presents as pain or bleeding in the mouth, lesions on the lips, or extensive swelling of the gums and palate

154

most common presentation of nocardiosis

pneumonia and disseminated disease

155

most commonly isolated from clinical material and associated with invasive disease

Nocardia asteroides

155

most common form of nocardial disease in respiratory tract

pneumonia

155

most common site of dissemination of nocardiosis

brain (skin, supporting structures, kidneys, bone, muscle

155

most common isolate in transcutaneous inoculation

N.

brasiliensis (N. asteroides in cooler climates)

155

most misdiagnosed disease

Actinomycosis

156

most common species causing Actinomycosis

A.

israelii, (A. naeslundii, A. odontolyticus, A. viscosus, A.

meyeri, A. gerencseriae, Propionibacterium propionicum)

156

most frequent site of Actinomycosis

oral, cervical, facial site, usually as a soft tissue swelling, abscess, or mass lesion

156

most common association of Actinomycosis involvement of the pelvis

 

IUCD

156

most common symptoms of pelvic involvement of actinomycosis

fever, weight loss, abdominal pain, abnormal vaginal bleeding or discharge

156

most common CNS involvement in actinomycosis

single or multiple brain abscesses

156

most commonly affected in disseminated actinomycosis

lungs and liver

156

most commonly used for diagnosis of actinomycosis

microscopic identification of sulfur granules

156

most common anaerobic infections of the CNS

brain abscess and subdural empyema

157

most frequently isolated from infections with mixed anaerobic organisms

B.

fragilis group

157

most important clinical isolate in mixed infections

B.

fragilis

157

most frequent isolates in female genital tract infections

organisms normally colonizing the vagina

157

most extensively studied virulence factor of the nonsporulating anaerobes

capsular polysaccharide complex of B. fragilis

157

most commonly isolated from intraabdominal infections and bacteremia

B.

fragilis

157

most commonly precedes necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis

debilitating illness or affects severely malnourished children

157

most common metastasis of Lemierre's syndrome (acute oropharyngeal infection)

lung

157

most common isolates in aspiration pneumonia

pigmented and nonpigmented Prevotella spp, Peptostreptococcus spp, Bacteroides spp, Fusobacterium spp. and anaerobic cocci

157

most common isolates of intraabdominal infections

E.

coli and B. fragilis

157

most frequent sites of injury to skin, bone, soft tissue, by trauma, ischemia, or surgery

sites prone to contamination with feces or with upper airway secretions

157

most frequently isolated organism in soft tissue or skin infection

Bacteroides spp, Peptostreptococci, enterococci, clostridia, Proteus spp.

157

most common cause of anaerobic infections in bone

actinomycosis (also, bacteroides spp, Fusobacterium spp., Clostridium spp

157

most reliable culture specimen in patients with osteomyelitis

bone biopsy

157

most common isolates of anaerobic septic arthritis

Fusobacterium

157

single most common anaerobic isolate from bloodstream

B.

fragilis

157

most common and important agent of human disease among the pathogenic species of M. tuberculosis complex

M.

tuberculosis

158

most common path of transmission of M. tuberculosis

 

droplet

158

one of the most important factors in the transmission of tubercle bacilli

crowding in poorly ventilated rooms

158

most potent risk factor for TB among infected individuals

HIV co-infection

158

most commonly involved in primary TB

middle and lower lung zones

158

most common hematologic findings in TB

mild anemia and leukocytosis

158

most common extrapulmonary site of involvement in TB

lymph nodes, pleura, genitourinary tract, bones and joints, meninges, peritoneum, and pericardium

158

most common presentation of extrapulmonary TB

LN disease

158

most common site of LN TB

posterior cervical and supraclavicular sites (scrofula)

158

most commonly affect in skeletal TB

Spine (40%), Hips (13%), knees (10%); weight-bearing joints

158

most common site of spinal TB in children

upper thoracic spine

158

most commonly involved in GI TB

terminal ileum and cecum

158

one of the most common diseases among HIV-infected persons

TB

 

worldwide

 

158

most common form of extrapulmonary TB in HIV-infected persons

lymphatic, disseminated, pleural, pericardial

158

most widely used screening for latent TB infection

PPD or tuberculin skin test

158

most important impediment to cure in TB

lack of adherence to treatment

158

most common adverse reaction of significance in TB treatment

 

hepatitis

158

most common drug resistance in North America and Europe

Isoniazid resistance

158

most commonly affected by most severe form lepromatous form of leprosy

twice as common in men than women

159

most affected nerves in leprosy

ulnar, posterior auricular, peroneal, posterior tibial nerves

159

most common form of leprosy

tuberculous leprosy (in India and Africa); Borderline Tuberculous (in SE Asia)

159

most commonly affected nerve trunk in leprosy

ulnar nerve at the elbow (results in clawing of the 4th and 5th fingers, loss of dorsal interosseous musculature in affected hand and loss of sensation)

159

most dramatic manifestation of nerve affectation

footdrop, when the peroneal nerve is involved

159

most characteristic microscopic feature of type 1 lepra lesions

 

edema

159

most common features of erythema nodosum leprosum

crops of painful erythematous papules that resolve spontaneously in a few days to a week but may recur; malaise; and fever

159

most frequent complication of leprous neuropathy

plantar ulceration

159

most common site of nerve abscesses in leprosy (ENL)

 

ulnar

159

most common presentation of leprosy

characteristic skin lesions and skin histopathology

159

most commonly involved species in cutaneous disease of nontuberculous mycobacterial infection

M.

abscessus, fortuitum, chelonae, marinum, ulcerans

160

most common cause of pulmonary disease

MAC organisms (esp. M. intracellulare)

160

most commonly isolated in disseminated disease

M.

avium and M. kansasii

160

second most common cause of lung disease due to NTM in the US

M.

kansasii

160

most common clinical manifestation with infection with M. abscessus, chelonae, fortuitum

disseminated cutaneous disease

160

next most common manifestation with infection with M. abscessus, chelonae, fortuitum

pulmonary infection

160

most important and potent anti TB agent

Rifampin

161

most common adverse event of Rifampin

 

GI upset

161

2 most important adverse effects of isoniazid therapy

hepatotoxicity and peripheral neuropathy

161

most serious adverse effect of Ethambutol

retrobulbar optic neuritis

161

most common cause of ethambutol resistance in M. tuberculosis

missense mutations in embB gene

161

most common and most serious adverse effects of streptomycin

ototoxicity and renal failure

161

most useful in prophylaxis of disseminated MAC infection

Rifabutin

161

most common adverse effects of rifabutin

GI (dose-related)

161

most active quinolones against M. tuberculosis

Levofloxacin and moxifloxacin

161

most useful in treatment of multidrug-resistant TB

ethionamide

161

most active agent for treatment of leprosy

rifampin

161

second most active drug in leprosy treatment

dapsone

161

2 most common causes of NTM pulmonary infection

MAC organisms and M. kansasii

161

most common side effects of Azithromycin

GI symptoms and reversible hearing loss

161

most important for patients with syphilis of <1 yr duration

identification and examination of sexual contacts

162

most common types of tertiary disease of syphilis

gumma, cardiovascular syphilis, symptomatic neurosyphilis (tabes dorsalis and paresis)

162

most important factor in increased mortality in syphilis

cardiovascular syphilis

162

most common presentation of meningovascular syphilis

stroke syndrome involving MCA of a relatively young adult

162

most frequently involved bones in skeletal gumma

long bones

162

most common clinical problem in congenital syphilis

healthy appearing baby born to mother with (+) serologic test

162

most common early manifestation in congenital syphilis

bone changes (61%), hepatosplenomegaly (50%), lymphadenopathy (32%), anemia (34%), jaundice (30%), thrombocytopenia, leukocytosis

162

most widely used nontreponemal antibody tests for syphilis

RPR and VDRL tests

162

most widely used agent for treatment of early syphilis

Pen G benzathine

162

most sensitive index of response to treatment in neurosyphilis

CSF pleocytosis

162

most benign of the treponemal infections

Pinta (caused by T. carateum)

163

most often location of initial papule

extremities or face and is pruritic

163

most important reservoir of leptospirosis

rodents, especially rats

164

most important known pathogenic properties of leptospires

adhesion to cell surfaces and cellular toxicity

164

most common finding on PE of leptospirosis infection

fever with conjunctival suffusion

164

most severe form of leptospirosis

Weil's syndrome

164

most common radiographic finding in leptospirosis

patchy alveolar pattern that corresponds to scattered alveolar hemorrhage

164

most often affected lobes in leptospirosis (Weil's syndrome)

lower lobes in the periphery of the lung fields

164

most common cause of TBRF in sub-Saharan Africa

Borrelia duttoni

165

most common vector-borne infection in the US and Europe

Lyme disease

166

most common abnormality in early infection: stage 2 (disseminated infection) of Lyme disease

fluctuating degree of AV block (1st, Wenckebach, or complete

166

most common form of chronic CNS involvement in Lyme disease

subtle encephalopathy affecting memory, mood, or sleep

166

most common form of peripheral neuropathy in Lyme disease

axonal polyneuropathy

166

most common infectious agents that cause facial palsy

HSV1 and VZV

166

most common symptoms during the first 3 days of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

fever, headache, malaise, myalgia, nausea, vomiting, anorexia

167

most important epidemiologic factor in RMSF

history of exposure to a potentially tick-infested environment within 12 days preceding disease onset during a season of possible tick activity

167

most common serologic test for confirmation of the diagnosis

indirect immunofluorescence assay

167

most frequently imported rickettsiosis in Europe and North America

African tick-bite fever

167

most common pulmonary sign of murine typhus

bibasilar rales

167

most commonly used diagnostic tool in Coxiella burnetti infection (Q fever)

serology

167

most prevalent genital mycoplasmas

M. hominis, U. urealyticum, U. parvum

168

most firmly implicated in the etiology of Nongonococcal urethritis

chlamydia trachomatis

168

most common bacterial STI in the US

Chlamydia trachomatis

169

foremost cause of epididymitis in sexually active heterosexual men <35 years of age

Chlamydia trachomatis

169

most common cause of epididymitis in men over 35

coliform bacteria and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

169

most commonly isolated pathogen from college women with dysuria, frequency, and pyuria

Chlamydia trachomatis (in the absence of infection with uropathogens such as coliforms and S. saprophyticus)

169

most common presentation of LGV in heterosexual men

inguinal syndrome, characterized by painful inguinal lymphadenopathy beginning 2-6wks after presumed exposure

169

most sensitive and specific chlamydial diagnostic methods available, most expensive as well

NAATs (nucleic acid amplification tests) using PCR, ligase chain reaction, TMA, and other techniques

169

most commonly infected with Psittaci infections

Psittacine birds (parrots, parakeets, budgerigars)

169

most common mode of transmission of Psittacosis

respiratory route

169

most effective cell line for isolation of C. pneumoniae

HL cells

169

most common viral infections are spread by

direct contact, by ingestion of contaminated water or food, or by inhalation of aerosolized particles

170

most frequently encountered toxicities with orally administered oseltamivir

nausea, GI discomfort, vomiting

171

most widespread use of acyclovir

treatment of genital HSV infections

171

most common mechanism of resistance to acyclovir

deficiency of the virus-induced thymidine kinase

171

most frequently encountered form of toxicity with acyclovir

renal dysfunction

171

most commonly employed dosage for initial IV therapy

5mg/kg q12 for 14-21 days, followed by IV maintenance dose of 5mg/kg/day or 5x per week

171

most common initial dosage of foscarnet

60mg/kg q8 for 14-21days followed by maintenance dose of 90- 120mg/kg once a day

171

most common hematologic abnormality with foscarnet

anemia

171

most common IFN monotherapy regimen

IFN alpha2b or alpha2a at 3million units 2x/week for 12-

18months

171

most effective regimen for treatment of chronic hepatitis C

combination of SC pegylated IFN and oral ribavirin

171

most commonly used assays in HSV

those that measure antibodies to glycoprotein G to HSV1 (gG1) and HSV2 (gG2)

172

most persons acquire HSV1 infection before

third decade

172

most common clinical manifestations of 1st episode of HSV1 infection

gingivostomatitis and pharyngitis

172

most common clinical manifestation of reactivation of HSV1

recurrent herpes labialis

172

most common age group affected by HSV pharyngitis and gingivostomatitis

children and young adults

172

most common infections in patients with AIDS

persistent ulcerative HSV infections

172

most common cause of corneal blindness in the US

HSV infection of eye

172

most commonly identified cause of recurrent lymphocytic meningitis (Mollaret's meningitis)

HSV

172

most commonly involved with HSV infection of visceral organs

distal esophagus

172

most sensitive lab technique for HSV diagnosis

HSV DNA detection by PCR

172

most frequently used for treatment of HSV infections

Acyclovir

172

most common period of reactivation of latent VZV

sixth decade of life

173

most commonly affected by chickenpox

children 5-9 yrs old

173

most common extracutaneous site of involvement in children with varicella

CNS

173

most common infectious complication of varicella

secondary bacterial superinfection of the skin (usually S. pyogenes or S. aureus)

173

most serious complication following chickenpox infection

Varicella pneumonia

173

most frequently involved dermatomes in Herpes zoster

T3-L3

173

most debilitating complication of herpes zoster

pain associated with acute neuritis and postherpetic neuralgia

173

most frequently employed serologic tools for assessing host response (VZV)

immunofluorescent detection of antibodies to VZV membrane antigens, the fluorescent antibody to membrane antigen (FAMA) test, immune adherence hemagglutination, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

173

most sensitive tests for VZV

FAMA and ELISA

173

most commonly affected by EBV infection

early childhood, with second peak during late adolescence

174

most common in the 1st 2 weeks of illness of EBV

fever usually low-grade

174

most prominent during 1st 2 weeks of EBV

lymphadenopathy and pharyngitis

174

most often location of lymphadenopathy

posterior cervical nodes, but may be generalized

174

most patients treated with ampicillin develop

macular rash

174

most often cause of deaths in infectious mononucleosis

CNS complications, splenic rupture, upper airway obstruction, or bacterial superinfection

174

most useful for the diagnosis of acute infectious mononucleosis

IgM antibody to VCA

174

most common cause of heterophile-negative mononucleosis

CMV

174

most common presentation of congenital CMV infection

petechiae, hepatosplenomegaly, jaundice

175

most common clinical manifestation of CMV infection in normal hosts beyond neonatal period

heterophile antibody-negative mononucleosis syndrome

175

most common and important viral pathogen complicating organ transplantation

CMV

175

most common human disease resulting from poxvirus infection

molluscum contangiosum

176

NONE

 

177

most often affected population by common warts (verruca

young children

 

vulgaris)

 

178

most often affected by plantar warts (verruca plantaris)

adolescents and young adults

178

(one of the) most common sexually transmitted diseases in the US

anogenital warts (condyloma acuminatum)

178

most common transmission of anogenital HPV infections

direct contact with infectious lesions

178

most commonly affected by flat warts (verruca plana)

children occurring on face, neck, chest, and flexor surfaces of forearms, and legs

178

most common site affected by anogenital warts in circumcised men

penile shaft

178

most sensitive and specific methods of virologic diagnosis

PCR or hybrid capture assay

178

most common clinical manifestation of rhinovirus infection

common cold

179

most commonly affected in SARS (seen on CXR)

peripheral and lower lung fields or interstitial infiltrates

179

most commonly associated with HRSV infection in adults

common cold-like syndrome

179

most common symptoms of HRSV

common cold, with rhinorrhea, sore throat, and cough

179

Most common for Adenovirus

infants and children, mostly from fall to spring

179

most common clinical syndrome of Adenovirus

acute upper respiratory tract infection

179

most common types of Adenovirus causing epidemic keratoconjunctivitis

type 8, 19, 37

179

most extensively studied of the orthomyxoviridae

Influenzae A and B

180

most extensive and severe outbreaks are caused by

Influenza A viruses

180

most frequent populations affected by Influenza B outbreaks

schools and military camps (also institutions for elderly)

180

most serious complication of influenza B infection

Reye's syndrome

180

most prominent high-risk conditions in influenza

chronic cardiac and pulmonary diseases and old age

180

most important mediators of immunity

antibodies to hemagglutinin

180

most frequent characterization of influenza

abrupt onset of systemic symptoms (headache, feverishness, chills, myalgia, malaise) and respiratory tract signs (cough and sore throat)

180

most commonly involved in myalgias from influenza

legs and lumbosacral area

180

most frequently affected by complications of influenza

patients >64 years old and those with certain chronic disorders, including cardiac or pulmonary disease, DM, hemoglobinopathies, renal dysfunction, and immunosuppression

180

most significant complication of influenza

pneumonia: "primary" influenza viral pneumonia, secondary bacterial pneumonia, or mixed

180

most common bacterial pathogen in pneumonia secondary to influenza

Strep. pneumo, S. aureus, and H. influenzae

180

most frequently affected by secondary bacterial pneumonia

high-risk individuals with chronic pulmonary and cardiac disease and in elderly

180

most common pneumonic complications during outbreaks of influenza

mixed features of viral and bacterial pneumonia

180

most commonly affected by acute myositis in influenza infection

legs

180

most important Oncovirinae in humans

human T cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV) type I

181

most important Lentivirinae in humans

HIV

181

most common outcome of HTLV-I infection

latent carriage of randomly integrated provirus in CD4+ T cells

181

most infected cells express (HTLV)

no viral gene products

181

most HTLV-I transformed cell lines are

result of infection of a normal host T cell in vitro

181

most common transmission of HTLV

perinatally

181

most likely etiologic cause of epidemic

sexual contact and blood or blood products

182

most common cause of HIV disease throughout the world

HIV-1

182

most likely source of original human infection

Pan troglodytes troglodytes species of chimpanzees

182

responsible for most of the HIV-1 infections in the world

group M (major)

182

HIV-1 O group (outlier) is most closely related to

viruses found in Cameroonian gorillas

182

most common form (or subtype) worldwide

subtype C viruses of the M group

182

accounts for most infections in south and southeast asia

CRF01_AE

182

most common mode of infection of HIV worldwide

heterosexual transmission

182

most common period of maternal transmission to the fetus

during perinatal period

182

most influential factor in (improvement in morbidity/mortality)

increased use of potent ARV drugs,

182

most common opportunistic infection in HIV-infected individuals

mycobacterium tuberculosis

182

most consistent and potent inducers of HIV expression

proinflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha, IL1beta, IL6

182

most dramatic example of a genetic factor influencing HIV infection and/or pathogenesis

HIV cellular co-receptor CCR5

182

most potent agonist of CCR5 and HIV-suppressive chemokine for R5 strains of HIV-1

CCL3L1 gene that encodes MIP-1alphaP

182

one of the most potent chemokines that attracts and activates mononuclear phagocytes

CCL2

182

most commonly used confirmatory test in HIV

Western blot

182

most common patterns of cross-reactivity

antibodies that react with p24 and/or p55

182

2 most commonly used techniques in HIV

RT-PCR assay and the bDNA assay

182

most severe cases occur in (HIV)

patients with lower CD4+ T cell counts

182

most commonly involved in sinusitis related to HIV

maxillary sinuses

182

one of the most frequent complications of HIV infection

pulmonary disease

182

most common manifestation of pulmonary disease in HIV

pneumonia

182

most common cause of pneumonia

bacterial infections and the unicellular fungus P. jiroveci infection

182

single most common cause of pneumonia in patients with HIV infeciton in the US

Pneumocystic pneumonia

182

most common finding on chest x-ray for PCP

either normal film, if suspected early; or a faint bilateral interstitial infiltrate

182

most common age group affected by active TB in HIV patients

25-44 years old

182

most commonly affected by IRIS

in patients initiating ARV or anti-TB therapy at the same time, occurs several weeks following initiation of therapy, seen more frequently in patients with advanced HIV disease

182

most common atypical mycobacterial infection in HIV

M. avium or M intracellulare species - MAC

182

most common presentation of MAC infection

disseminated disease with fever, weight loss, night sweats

182

most common pattern of CXR in MAC

bilateral, lower lobe infiltrate suggestive of miliary spread

182

most common presenting signs of Rhodococcus equi infection in HIV

fever and cough

182

most common pulmonary manifestation of histoplasmosis occurs in

in the setting of disseminated disease, presumably due to reactivation

182

most common clinically significant finding in HIV (CVS-wise)

dilated cardiomyopathy associated with CHF, referred to as HIV- associated cardiomyopathy

182

most frequent cause of oropharyngeal and GI disease in HIV

due to secondary infections

182

most common location of thrush of oral candidiasis

soft palate

182

most frequently isolated in diarrhea in HIV

C. jejuni

182

most common opportunistic protozoa that infect the GI tract and cause diarrhea in HIV

Cryptosporidia, microsporidia, and Isospora belli

182

most likely to involve the liver in HIV (among fungal opportunistic infections)

C. immitis and Histoplasma capsulatum

182

most commonly a consequence of drug toxicity, notably secondary to pentamidine or dideoxynucleosides

pancreatic injury

182

one of the most common drug-induced renal complications

indinavir-associated renal calculi

182

most common presentation of syphilis in HIV

condylomata lata, a form of secondary syphilis

182

most commonly used in managing lipid abnormalities in HIV

gemfibrozil and atorvastatin

182

most common occurrence of lactic acidosis associated with ARV therapy in HIV

with nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors

182

most significant allergic reactions occuring in HIV-infected patients

drug allergies

182

most commonly affected by IRIS

patients starting therapy with CD4+ T cell counts <50cells/microliter who have a precipitous drop in HIV RNA levels following the initiation of HAART

182

most common hematologic abnormality in HIV-infected patients

anemia

182

most frequently affected by neutropenia

patients with severely advanced HIV disease and in patients receiving any of a number of potentially myelosuppresive therapies

182

most effective medical approach to HIV

use of HAART

182

most prevalent dermatologic disorder in HIV patients

folliculitis

182

most severe form of neurologic problem in HIV

AIDS dementia complex or HIV encephalopathy

182

most common cause of seizure in HIV

cerebral mass lesions (from toxoplasmosis, Lymphoma, then cryptococcal meningitis)

182

most common cause of focal neurologic deficits in HIV patients

toxoplasmosis, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, CNS lymphoma

182

one of the most common causes of secondary CNS infections in patients with AIDS

toxoplasmosis

182

most common areas with toxoplasmosis

Caribbean and France

182

most common clinical presentation of cerebral toxoplasmosis in HIV

fever, headache, focal neurologic deficits

182

most common peripheral neuropathy in HIV

distal sensory polyneuropathy, may be a direct consequence of HIV infection or a side effect of dideoxynucleoside therapy

182

most common abnormal findings on fundoscopic examination in HIV

cotton-wool spots

182

one of the most devastating consequences of HIV infection

CMV

retinitis

182

most common presentation in HIV patients of Histoplasmosis

disseminated disease presumably due to reactivation

182

third most common AIDS-defining illness in Thailand, following TB and Cryptococcosis