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Arabic & Translation Studies Division

INTRODUCTION TO INTERPRETING
Student Handbook

This is a first draft of STTI104 Introduction to Interpreting


Student Handbook (Fall 13)

All rights reserved. No part of this handbook may be reprinted or reproduced or utilized in any form or by any electronic, mechanical or other means, including photocopying
and recording, or in any information or retrieving system without permission in writing from the Arabic and Translation Studies Division, School of Continuing Education, The
American University in Cairo.
2007

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Forward
Changes in how professional translators practice their profession have been
recently frequent. They are not only derived by the growth of the young
discipline of translation, which is the success story of the 1980s, but also by
changes in the world around us such globalized societies and economies, the
spread of internet, and the need for intercultural communication, not to mention
the changes in the geography of translation with the move of the multi-million
industry towards the Middle East and the Arabic language. Translation in the
era of globalization requires interdisciplinary approach to translation that
stresses the need for a translator with background knowledge in various fields.
This necessitates training the learners in more than one field of specialization,
and hence a career certificate which focuses on the specializations of legal, UN
and economic translation on the one hand, and a career certificate which
includes journalistic, literary and audio-visual translation on the other hand.
Taking a quick path unto automation and digitalization, the translation
profession nowadays looks into practical techniques to help translators produce
more and waste less. The new course Technology for Translators and
Interpreters in the Foundation Certificate in Translation and Interpreting with a
focus on CAT tools and translation software programs does not only train
learners on computer-assisted translation, but takes them directly into the online translation environment. To satisfy a need for the translator as intercultural
communicator, also derived from globalization and the spread of new
technologies, new courses such as literary translation and audiovisual
translation were offered in a Career Certificate in Media and Literary
Translation.
The changes in the translation market have been given due focus in the
advanced courses such as Advanced Translation Problem-Solving Strategies
and Translation Portfolio and Project, which focus on topics such as translation
market and environment, project management in translation, code of ethics etc.
Learners in the Professional Diploma in Translation and the Professional
Diploma in Translation and Interpreting are nourished from day one on the
highest standards of professionalism of translation as an activity in the market
of service, of translation as a translator/client relationship and translation as a
mental process.
Furthermore, the translation diploma at ATS can be viewed as comprising three
stages. The first stage (The Foundation Certificate in Translation and
Interpreting) develops all basic translation skills required to produce an
acceptable translation including command of the language, familiarity with
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culture, computer skills and e-tools for translators, background knowledge, and
contrastive and transfer skills between the source and the target languages.
Finishing this stage, a trainee can produce a good translation of a general text
but not necessarily of a specialized text such as legal, UN and journalistic texts.
The second stage (The Career Certificate in Legal and UN Translation and The
Career Certificate in Literary and Audiovisual Translation) focus on the textspecific features in translation so that a trainee can be able to produce a
translation in a specialized field. After the career certificate, the trainee can
produce a sound translation in a certain specialization, but he may not be aware
of many factors related to the environment of translation such as certain code of
ethics, rates, project management etc. The diploma is the level of
professionalism which makes the trainee ready to go to the market after being
enlightened on many issues related to translation theory and the translation
market.

Dr. Hussein Ali


Director, Arabic and Translation Studies Division

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The American University in Cairo


School of Continuing Education
Arabic and Translation Studies Division
CURRICULUM DESIGN FORM
Course Title: Introduction to Interpreting
Course Code: STTI 104
Course Type: (Regular / Customized): Regular/Customized
Number of Continuing Education Units (CEUs): 3.0 1
Target Audience:
Learners with limited experience, knowledge sets and/or skills of interpreting
Course Pre-requisites (if any):
None
Course Description:
This course provides an overview of interpreting typology and training on the major techniques in the
different types of interpreting with focus on interpreting as a tool for enhancing the speed of the
mental translation process.
Learning outcomes:
By the end of this course, learners will be able to
1. explain the differences among the different types of interpreting;
2. scan a page of print for main ideas;
3. reproduce main ideas in the target language while scanning;
4. interpret texts of up to 250 words at sight;
5. interpret consecutively up to 1 minute; and
6. interpret simultaneously up to 2 minutes.
Instructional Materials:
1. Introduction to Interpreting. ATS Student Workbook. (Updated Every Term)
2. Mizuno, A. (2005). Process model for simultaneous interpreting and working memory
[Electronic version]. Meta, 50(2), Retrieved Oct. 1-9, 2005, from
http://www.erudit.org/revue/meta/2005/v50/n2/0110ar.html
3. Schaffner, C. (2004). Translation research and interpreting research. UK: Multiligual matters.

Offered as customized; the number of CEUs depends on client's request.

Syllabus / Training Outline:


Serial* Title/subtitle
1
Typology of Interpreting
Introduction and Assignments

Assignment
Selected readings on theories of interpreting

(At sight) General texts

Translate texts on:


- Mass media
- - Child Labour
Prepare some texts on:
- Technology
- Ethics of translation

(At sight) General texts


Quiz

Translate Texts on:


- technology
- Ethics of Translation
Prepare some texts on population and food

(At sight) Population & food


Quiz

Translate Texts on population and food


Prepare some texts on;
- World War II
- Water Crisis

(At sight) Environment


Quiz

Translate Texts on:


- World War II
- Water Crisis
Prepare some texts on management.

(At sight) Management


Quiz

Translate texts on management.


Prepare some texts on diplomacy.

(At sight) Diplomacy


Quiz

Translate texts on diplomacy.


Prepare some texts on elections.

(At sight) Elections


Quiz

Translate texts on elections.


Prepare some texts on economics.

(At sight) Economics


Quiz

Translate texts on economics.

10

Consecutive interpreting

11

Simultaneous interpreting

12

Final Exam

Instructional Methods:
Learners will experience interactive, practice and skill-based learning.

Session: In this course one session equals 2.5 contact hours.

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Assessment of Learning outcomes


Frequency** : Seven assessments and a final exam.
Type: At sight Interpreting

An ongoing assessment scheme will be implemented with the class teacher as follows:
Session 01 and 02:
Sessions 03 to 09:
Sessions 12:
Sessions 03 - 09
Session 12: Final

No assessment
5 points for a written quiz
5 points for oral production
End-of-term Examination
70 points
30 points
_____________
Total
100 points

For further information or Inquiries: Please see the Assistant Division Director for Regular Programs
in Room 617 SCE, or call 2797-6873, or email m_shorbargy@aucegypt.edu

**

Exact dates will be announced in class two sessions before the quiz, exam, or project is due.

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Classroom Guidelines for SCE Learners


CLASSROOM GUIDELINES FOR SCE


LEARNERS
Attendance Policy:
You must attend at least 75% of the class
sessions. Failure to do so will result in
failing the course, although you will be
allowed to attend classes.

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Punctuality Policy:
You are expected to arrive on time for all
scheduled
classes
and
laboratory
sessions.
You will be considered late if you enter the
class any time after the start of instruction.
You are allowed to be late twice without
penalty. All successive instances of
tardiness will be counted as absences,
although you will be allowed to attend the
class.
Grading System:
Learners are assessed throughout the
term by tests, quizzes, assignments,
projects or other means of evaluation.
End-of-term achievement tests measure
learners overall performance in the
course.
The final grade in each course is based
on learners performance on continual
assessment measures and the final test.
Final course grades are NOT based on
attendance, since in accordance with
SCEs attendance policy, learners must
attend at least 75% of the class sessions
in order to be allowed to take the final
examination.
At the end of each term, final course
grades are posted on the divisional
bulletin boards along with learners ID
numbers, NOT their names. Accordingly,
the ID number is necessary to know your
course grade.
Incomplete Grade:
An incomplete grade (I) for any scheduled
course may be given at the discretion of
the course instructor only to learners who
have attended the course, but cannot sit
for the final examination or cannot
complete course requirements due to
circumstances beyond their control.
In order to record the final course grade,
all requirements should be completed
before the end of the second week of the
following term. Failure to change an
incomplete grade will result in the final
grade being recorded as "F".

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Learner Evaluation of Instruction:


Learner evaluation of instruction is very
important. Based upon your response and
comments, changes can be made.
Please take these evaluations seriously
and answer all the questions honestly.
Remember that instructors are not
permitted to see their evaluation results
until after your grades are posted.
SCE values your input.

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Learner Petitions and Grievances:


You may appeal to a division
administrator in any aspect pertaining to
class instruction, learning environment, or
administration processes.
You may seek resolution at higher
administrative levels if the matter is not
resolved. The decision of the Associate
Dean for Instructional Affairs is final.
Anonymous complaints or petitions will be
completely disregarded. All petitions are
handled with discretion, protecting your
best interests.
Cheating:
Cheating is not acceptable in an institution
dedicated to learning. Cheating includes
giving or receiving information during an
examination, using unauthorized material
during an examination, and other acts of
academic
dishonesty,
including
plagiarism.
If you are caught cheating on the final
examination, your final course grade will
be recorded as F.
The penalty for a second offense is
automatic suspension from studying at
SCE for one 12-week term and failing the
course.
In instances of a third offense, you will be
permanently dismissed from SCE.

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Harassment:
SCE does not tolerate any form of
harassment, including sexual harassment.
Sexual harassment is any conduct of a
sexual nature that significantly impairs a
persons ability or opportunity to perform
his or her job or educational pursuits.
SCE is committed to providing a secure
educational and work environment for its
learners,
instructors,
staff,
and
administrators.

Photocopying:
Photocopying textbooks and original
content including computer software is a
violation
of
AUC
copyright
and
photocopying policies and thus will not be
allowed in SCE classes.

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Smoking:
Smoking is not allowed in any SCE
building, including classes, lounges,
workspaces, single-occupancy offices,
balconies, stairwells, open-areas within
buildings, and outside the entrance of
buildings.
Cellular / Mobile Phone:
SCE prohibits the use of cellular/mobile
phones in the classroom and during the
administration of entrance and end-ofterm testing sessions.
You should turn off your phone during any
class time and/or testing session.
Misconduct:
Acceptable adult behavior is expected of
SCE learners in the classroom and on
university campuses.
Breach of such behavior will be reported
by the instructor to the Division Director,
and learners involved will be referred to
the Learner Disciplinary Committee.

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Table of Contents
Session Title: One ..................................................................................................................... 1
Theory of Translation and Interpreting .................................................................................. 2
Session Title: Two .................................................................................................................... 5
The Concept of Mass Media .................................................................................................. 6
The Electronic Media:............................................................................................................ 7
............................................................................................................... 9
Session Title: Three ................................................................................................................ 10
General Topic....................................................................................................................... 11
................................................................................................................ 12
Session Title: Four .................................................................................................................. 14
Population's Role in the Current Food Crisis; ..................................................................... 15
Focus on East Africa ............................................................................................................ 15
East Africa and Food Security ............................................................................................. 15
Population and the Current Food Crisis ............................................................................... 15
................................................................................... 16
Demography......................................................................................................................... 17
Session Title: Five .................................................................................................................. 23
Environment after World War II.......................................................................................... 24
...................................................................................................................... 25
....................................................................................................................................... 26
Session Title: Six .................................................................................................................... 35
What is Management?.......................................................................................................... 36
.................................................................................................................. 37
Expressions of Management ................................................................................................ 38
Session Title: Seven ................................................................................................................ 40
.................................................................................................................................. 42
......................................................................................... 44
Diplomacy and International Relations Terminology.......................................................... 45
Session Title: Eight ................................................................................................................. 53
Elections in the world .......................................................................................................... 54
......................................................... 55
................................................................................................................................. 57
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...................................................................................................... 58
Elections, Parliament & Parties Terminology Elections...................................................... 59
Session Title: Nine .................................................................................................................. 69
The need of information. Accounting as an information ................................................... 70
...................................................................................................................... 71
................................................................................ 73
Expressions .......................................................................................................................... 74
Session Title: Ten ................................................................................................................... 75
Session Title: Eleven .............................................................................................................. 76
Session Title: Twelve ............................................................................................................. 77

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Arabic and Translation Studies Division

Certificate Title: Foundation Certificate in Translation and Interpreting


Course Title: Introduction to Interpreting
Session Title: One
Description of session and main activities:
Students learn how to differentiate among different types of interpreting, mainly
at sight, consecutive and simultaneous interpreting. They also practice samples
of each. Later, the learners will take one session of simultaneous interpreting in
the simultaneous interpreting lab. In this session, however, they practice
chuchotage as a kind of simultaneous interpreting. Translation is practiced from
Arabic into English and vice versa.
Learning outcomes:
By the end of the class session, students will be able to
- differentiate among different types of interpreting;
- perform basic techniques and processes of consecutive interpreting
accurately; and
- perform basic techniques and processes of simultaneous interpreting
accurately.
Material:
-

Selected readings on theories of interpreting


General texts for interpreting

Introduction to Interpreting

Page 1

Arabic and Translation Studies Division

Theory of Translation and Interpreting


Introduction:
At sight translation is often an important part of the interpreter training; because it
appears to be such a simple task, not much attention is devoted to it. In fact, sight
translation is just as difficult as simultaneous interpretation, and involves some of the
same mental processes. In the case of sight translation, the input is visual (the written
word) rather than oral (the spoken word), but the interpreter still has to process a
thought in the source language and generate the target language version of that
thought while simultaneously processing the next source language thought, and so on.
Some interpreters find sight translation more difficult than the other modes of
interpreting because they have more trouble focusing on meaning rather than words-the essence of proper interpretation--when the message is written in black and white
on a piece of paper. Reading comprehension is an important element of sight
translation, and the need to improve and maintain reading comprehension is one
reason why interpreters should read as much and as widely as possible.
Another aspect of sight translation that should be emphasized is delivery. It is very
important that the interpreter speak loudly and enunciate clearly, with proper
intonation and voice modulation. Smooth pacing is also essential; sudden starts and
stops and long pauses while the interpreter figures out a difficult translation problem
are distracting to the listener. Ideally, a sight translation should sound as if the
interpreter were merely reading a document written in the target language.
In sight translation, the interpreter may have to interpret carefully prepared written
language into oral language, often without the opportunity to carefully prepare it.
Since formal written language usually involves longer, more complex sentences than
oral language, the task of interpreting the text can be more challenging, particularly in
the areas of appropriate and natural expression and grammatical coordination. Also,
the interpreter has to move to a different system of organizational cues, moving from
punctuation to the use of pauses and intonation, and this involves segmenting the
ideas in a way that is often quite different from the way ideas are organized in writing.
Another reason why sight translation is difficult is because professional interpreters
perform it less frequently than other modes of interpreting.
Professional interpreters typically recognize three modes of interpreting: consecutive
interpreting, simultaneous interpreting, and sight translation. Among these three
modes of interpreting, some interpreters find sight translation to be the most difficult,
but this is possibly because they perform the other modes of interpreting more
frequently.

Introduction to Interpreting

Page 2

Arabic and Translation Studies Division

Elements of Sight Translation


1. Conservation: the interpreter should conserve the register of the source language
text (complex vs. simple, formal vs. informal)
2. Written language:
Written material is more densely packed with information than spoken
language.
Punctuation may serve the function of intonation.
3. Reading Comprehension: Interpreters must be adept at grasping the meaning of
written texts and understanding the material explicitly and implicitly
(interrelationships of ideas)
4. Prediction: Interpreters should be versed in the various writing styleslegal
documents, personal and business correspondence, technical reports so they can be
alert to common constructions that may pose translation problems.
Process of Sight Translation
1. Scan the document to determine the subject matter, context, style, and country of
origin.
2. Make a mental note of common pitfalls unique to the source language.
3. Skim the passages quickly and identify key features, commas, parentheses, etc.
4. Translate sentence by sentence, focusing on one unit of meaning at a time.
5. Maintain a steady pace, translating as smoothly as possible.
General Strategies for At Sight Translation
1- Reading Comprehension: is an important element of sight translation. Interpreters
should read as much and as widely as possible.
2- Pacing: The interpreter must translate the document quickly without omitting
anything. Going too fast results in translation error or in sudden stops and long
pauses while the interpreter figures out a difficult translation problem. That sort of
jerkiness can be distracting to the listener. But going too slowly is disruptive for
both speakers and listeners. The interpreter should be familiar with the
terminology and phrasing of the type of documents being interpreted so that the
interprtation sounds as if the interpreter were merely reading a document written in
the target language.
Detailed Steps for Practicing
Translate as smoothly as possible.
Look up and keep a glossary of any difficult terms.
Practice out loud always, with or without an audience.
Record yourself on audio (or videotape) so that you know how you sound (and
look) to your audience.
Practice with a variety of type faces and formats.

Introduction to Interpreting

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Arabic and Translation Studies Division

Challenges of At Sight Translation


1. Time constraints
2. Distractions
3. Lack of time to look up a term
Specialized texts:
They are produced by technical or specialist writers , or more specifically, texts
which relate to technological subject areas or texts which deal with the practical
application of very specialized information. All in all, translating specialized texts
requires a high level of subject knowledge and mastery of the relevant
terminology and writing conventions. Generally, there are some features that
characterize specialized texts as the followings:
Specialized texts:
often contain bullets, and numbered items.
often contain short sentences.
contain no humor.
use specific terminology.
Semi-specialized texts; The author of this sort of text also has the purpose of
explaining a specific topic, but a technical text's language and structure distinguish it
from other types as it contains specific terminology to address the text's issues, and
avoids colloquial terms, humor and critical language. Like specialized texts, vague
terms and figurative language have no place in that kind of text, while authors use
few, if any, interrogative and imperative sentences.
General texts; the author handles a general topic, and the text's linguistic structure
contains no specific terms to cover the text's issues and may include colloquial
expression. Such texts can also include figurative language and different styles of
sentences.
Sources:
http://www.cgu.edu/pages/905.asp
http://www.classicalco-op.com/co_op_new/ce_tiki/tikihttp://ar.onehourtranslation.com/translation/translation-knowleadge-base/conceptback-translation-definition-and-what-it-used-for#sthash.X904eO3s.dpuf
http://www.geocities.com/~tolk/lic/LIC990329p4.htm
http://www.openstarts.units.it/dspace/bitstream/10077/2443/1/01.pdf
https://www.google.com.eg/#fp=d79654f60af1bc0f&q=At+sight+translation
http://repositori.uji.es/xmlui/bitstream/handle/10234/19393/31449.pdf?...1
http://www.legallanguage.com/legal-articles/shortcomings-sight-translation/
Introduction to Interpreting

Page 4

Arabic and Translation Studies Division

Certificate Title: Foundation Certificate in Translation and Interpreting


Course Title: Introduction to Interpreting
Session Title: Two
Description of session and main activities:
A practical session of at sight interpreting using general texts on the paragraph
level. Translation is practiced from Arabic into English and vice versa.
Learning outcomes:
By the end of the class session, students will be able to
1. paraphrase a paragraph for meaning in the source language; and
2. reproduce the meaning in the target language while scanning.
Material:
Selected readings on theories of interpreting
General texts for interpreting

Introduction to Interpreting

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Arabic and Translation Studies Division


English Text 2.1

The Concept of Mass Media


Mass media can be defined as the media used for addressing or communicating with
the masses. Anything that serves the source for communication amongst a large audience
is included in the category of mass media.
Mass media is a broad term under which includes every thing or anything that
conveys a message to the masses is included. From news papers to books, from radios to
televisions, form the mobile phones to ipods and to the internet, all are included in the
category of mass media.
Though the term was coined in the 1920s when the radio and the television were
revolutionizing the world into modern times, the concept of mass media is as old as the
human civilization itself.
Media like our lives do today. We can not live without mass media as it surrounds us
like a shadow.
The mass media is used by the masses for the following basic purposes:
To get news and information
For entertainment i.e. music, movies, sports and drama
For communicating with other people.
Serving the above purposes, below given are three broad categories of mass media:
Publishing Media:
The publishing media is the oldest form of mass media. This media includes books,
news papers and magazine. The concept of books is not new.
It is believed that the first ever book in the world was printed in 863 AD in China.
Though it was the first book to be officially published, many historians claim that books
has been released way before this time.
News papers are also not new. They were developed during the 17thcentury in
England and by the 19thcentury were common mass media.
The publishing media or the print media is now are the only source of mass
communication any more therefore there has been a decline in its popularity but still is a
very important source of mass media still popular amongst the huge masses.

Introduction to Interpreting

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Arabic and Translation Studies Division


Broadcasting Media:
The broadcasting media includes radio and television.
These two media are probably the most highlighted inventions of the 20th century.
The invention of radio changed the face of the earth forever.
People could now hear news form around the world live sitting at their homes.

Where radio initiated the concept of audio mass communication, television


revolutionized the visual form of communication. Now the people could not only hear
the news but they could also see it.
Although drama and plays had been popular even before the concept of any
particular mass media, they were revolutionized into movies, films, and tele serials to be
displayed on TV.
Sports were also recorded or broadcasted live via radios and televisions making the
life of people easy who had to go to stadiums and buy tickets to watch a match of their
favorite sport.
Similarly music videos, soaps, various talk shows started to become popular on
televisions.
Today the broadcasting media is the most popular media amongst the masses.
News channels cover a story and an event within seconds of their occurring, keeping
people updated minute by minute details of all the important events occurring in the
world.
The Electronic Media:
The electronic media is the new age media which includes computers, mobile
phones, internet, ipods, CD players, tape recorders etc.
The electronic media is what our world revolves around today. Internet is believed to
be the services of the services.
It is the media which connects the entire globe. It is the wonder of the modern world
on which our modern age largely depends on.
If you want to search for something Google finds it for you in less than a second,
through emails you can get connected to some one form another part of the world in just
few seconds.

Introduction to Interpreting

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Arabic and Translation Studies Division


Another marvel of the modern age is the mobile phone. Mobile phones were first
introduced in 1979 in Japan but they werent popular amongst the masses until the mid
90s.
Within the span of ten to fifteen years mobile phones have become so popular that
the young generation can actually not live without it. Today mobile phones are not just
simple portable telephones but they are more of computers.
Cassette players which have now been revolutionized into ipods and CD players
were also an important invention.
The most important invention of them all is perhaps the computers which not only
turned the electronic media around but also changed the face of modern technology.
Without computers internet would have been impossible.
http://hassam.hubpages.com/hub/Types-Of-Mass-Media

Introduction to Interpreting

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Arabic and Translation Studies Division


Arabic Text 2.1





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Page 9

Introduction to Interpreting

Arabic and Translation Studies Division

Certificate Title: Foundation Certificate in Translation and Interpreting


Course Title: Introduction to Interpreting
Session Title: Three
Description of session and main activities:
A practical session of at sight interpreting using general texts on the paragraph
level. Translation is practiced from Arabic into English and vice versa.

Learning outcomes:
By the end of the class session, students will be able to
1. paraphrase a paragraph for meaning in the source language; and
2. reproduce the meaning in the target language while scanning.

Material:
Selected readings on theories of interpreting
General texts for interpreting
Assignments:
Prepare texts on Population and Food for session four.
Learners should read widely on Population and Food. They should not only
collect the key terminology in the field, but also get all necessary background
knowledge to compensate for any shortage of comprehension. At the beginning
of the next session, learners will take a quiz of terminology on Population and
Food. The quiz consists of key terms that learners will most likely encounter
while reading on the subject. The objective of the quiz is to translate 60% of
the terms correctly, i.e. 60% enables the learner to get the full mark.
The quiz is out of 5 marks; it consists of 50 key terms to translate in 30 minutes.
Another 5 marks are given for the oral production of the learner during the
session.

Introduction to Interpreting

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Arabic and Translation Studies Division


English Text 3.1

General Topic
Technology

Technology is the making, modification, usage, and knowledge of tools, machines,


techniques, crafts, systems, and methods of organization, in order to solve a problem, improve
a preexisting solution to a problem, achieve a goal, handle an applied input/output relation or
perform a specific function. It can also refer to the collection of such tools, including
machinery, modifications, arrangements and procedures. Technologies significantly affect
human as well as other animal species' ability to control and adapt to their natural
environments. The term can either be applied generally or to specific areas: examples
include construction technology, medical technology, and information technology.
The human species' use of technology began with the conversion of natural resources
into simple tools. The pre historical discovery of the ability to control fire increased the
available sources of food and the invention of the wheel helped humans in travelling in and
controlling their environment. Recent technological developments, including the printing
press, the telephone, and the Internet, have lessened physical barriers to communication and
allowed humans to interact freely on a global scale. However, not all technology has been used
for peaceful purposes; the development of weapons of ever-increasing destructive power has
progressed throughout history, from clubs to nuclear weapons.
Technology has affected society and its surroundings in a number of ways. In many
societies, technology has helped develop more advanced economies (including today's global
economy) and has allowed the rise of a leisure class. Many technological processes produce
unwanted by-products, known as pollution, and deplete natural resources, to the detriment of
the Earth and

its environment.

Various

implementations

of

technology

influence

the values of a society and new technology often raises new ethical questions. Examples
include the rise of the notion of efficiency in terms of human productivity, a term originally
applied only to machines, and the challenge of traditional norms.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Technology

Introduction to Interpreting

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Arabic and Translation Studies Division


Arabic Text 3.1




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Introduction to Interpreting

Arabic and Translation Studies Division

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Page 13

Introduction to Interpreting

Arabic and Translation Studies Division

Certificate Title: Foundation Certificate in Translation and Interpreting


Course Title: Introduction to Interpreting
Session Title: Four
Description of session and main activities:
A practical session of at sight interpreting on the paragraph level, using texts on
Population and Food. Translation is practiced from Arabic into English and vice
versa.

Learning outcomes:
By the end of the class session, students will be able to
1. paraphrase a paragraph for meaning in the source language; and
2. reproduce the meaning in the target language while scanning.

Material:
Selected readings on theories of interpreting
Texts on Population and Food

Assignments :
Prepare texts on Environment for session five.
Learners should read widely on Environment. They should not only collect the
key terminology in the field, but also get all necessary background knowledge to
compensate for any shortage of comprehension. At the beginning of the next
session, learners will take a quiz of terminology on Environment. The quiz
consists of key terms that learners will most likely encounter while reading on the
subject. The objective of the quiz is to translate 60% of the terms correctly, i.e.
60% enables the learner to get the full mark.
The quiz is out of 5 marks; it consists of 50 key terms to translate in 30 minutes.
Another 5 marks are given for the oral production of the learner during the
session.

Introduction to Interpreting

Page 14

Arabic and Translation Studies Division


English Text 4.1

Population's Role in the Current Food Crisis;


Focus on East Africa
East Africa and Food Security
East Africa, which includes Burundi, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Somalia,
Tanzania, and Uganda, imports fertilizers and food and contains some of the poorest
countries in the world. Periodic drought, dependence on rain-fed agriculture, low
agricultural productivity, and frequent conflict undermine local food production,
contribute to food insecurity, and create greater dependence on food aid. For example, the
December 2007 post-election conflict in Kenya disrupted production and trade and
displaced farmers and laborers, which caused the normally food-secure regions of Central
and Western Kenya to become food insecure. The conflict resulted in a post-harvest loss of
300,000 metric tons of maize.4 While East Africa is not as dependent on food imports
(such as rice) as West Africa, this combination of factors makes most countries in East
Africa especially vulnerable to higher global food prices. Recent research in nine
developing countries found that higher prices of staple food commodities were associated
with a significant increase in poverty.5 This increasing poverty and food security have led
to an immediate need for food aid in several East African countries. Unfortunately,
however, food aid volumes are near a 50-year low and the higher food prices mean that
money dedicated to food aid simply doesn't provide as much food as in the past.6
One might expect higher food prices to benefit rural farmers and lead to higher
incomes and increased production, but in East Africa this isn't necessarily the case. It is
difficult for small farmers to increase production in response to higher prices for several
reasons, including: lack of available land, inadequate irrigation, rising fertilizer prices,
inability to get insurance and loans, and reluctance to risk investment with no guaranteed
return. In fact, despite the higher prices of the foods they are producing, farmers in some
parts of East Africa have actually planted less this year.7
In recent history, East Africa has been one of the most food-insecure regions in the
world. Food security, which is defined as "when all people at all times have both physical
and economic access to sufficient food to meet their dietary needs for a productive and
healthy life,"8 is a broad and complex measure.
Population and the Current Food Crisis
The majority of recent reports on the food crisis focus principally on population
growth and an increasing demand for food. Population growth, however, is one of several
demographic factors likely contributing to the current food crisis. Urbanization, the growth
of the middle class and associated changes in consumption patterns, migration and wage
employment, large family size, and HIV/AIDS are all contributing factors as well.
http://www.prb.org/Articles/2008/foodsecurityeastafrica.aspx

Introduction to Interpreting

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Arabic and Translation Studies Division


Arabic Text 4.1




" ".
59 ( ) 2
)...( .

22
921 . 2959
.

2 311

.

211 .
911 9131
.
2
.


.
)...( .

.


.

)...( .
.
( 512)
www.majalla.com/arb/2011/11/article5522951
2 2199

Page 16

Introduction to Interpreting

Arabic and Translation Studies Division

Demography
Prepared by
Iman Ibrahim
Khaled Samra
Mahmoud Omar
Nermeen Yehia

Rania Fawzy
Rosette Francis
Sally Mohamed Emam
Sherine Nabih

A.

Demography

1.

Aboriginals

2.

Demographic statistics

3.

Pilot survey

4.

Intercensal population estimates

B.

Statistics

5.

Statistical chart

6.

Epidemiological statistics

7.

Statistics on migrants

8.

Statistical estimation

C.

Rates

9.

Annual migration rate

10.

Illegitimate birth rate

11.

Infant mortality rate

12.

Remarriage rate

13.

Reproduction rate

14.

Morbidity rate

15.

Age-specific fertility rates

16.

Age-specific birth rates

17.

Crude death rate

18.

Optimum rate of growth

19.

Neo-natal mortality rate

20.

Depopulation/ Population decline

Introduction to Interpreting

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Arabic and Translation Studies Division


21.

Working population

22.

Unoccupied population

23.

Self employed

24.

Population census

25.

Overpopulation

26.

Actual / De facto population

27.

De jure population

) (

28.

Agricultural population

29.

Drifts of population

30.

Population density

31.

Population explosion

32.

Population forecast

33.

Population mobility

/ /

34.

Adventitious rural population

35.

Age distribution in a population

36.

Population statistics

37.

Population growth

38.

Redistribution of population

39.

Population cluster

40.

Young population

41.

Old population

) (

42.

Urban population

43.

Population at risk

44.

Agespecific mortality

45.

Age group/ bracket

46.

Birth record/ register


Birth registration

47.

Stillbirth (n.)

48.

Dependent children

Introduction to Interpreting

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Arabic and Translation Studies Division


49.

Child/ family allowance

50.

Adolescence

51.

Adult

52.

Age of majority

53.

Adult mortality

54.

Minor

55.

The Aged/ The Elderly

56.

Dependent elderly

57.

Pensioners

58.

Old age/ Senescence

59.

Long-lived person

60.

Centenarians

D.

Gender and female

61.

Birth attendant/ Midwife

62.

Female circumcision

63.

Female genital mutilation (FGM)

64.

Infibulation

65.

Incrimination

66.

Decriminalization of abortion

67.

Legal abortion

68.

Gender bias

69.

70.

Lactating mother / Nursing mother / breastnursing


Menopause

71.

Menopausal age

72.

Multigravida

73.

Family planning program

74.

Head of the household

75.

Married life

76.

Sterility

) (

Introduction to Interpreting

Page 19

Arabic and Translation Studies Division


( )

Infertility

Sterilization

77.

Conception

78.

A barren woman

79.

Fecundity

80.

Average parity

81.

Biological family

82.

Nuclear family

83.

Bread winner

84.

Civil marriage

85.

( Consensual marriage

86.

Common law marriage

87.

Dowry

88.

Endogamy

89.

()

Foster parents

90.

Child adoption

91.

Marital status

92.

Widower
Widow

93.

Polyandry

94.

Monogamy

95.

Polygamy

96.

Post-natal care

97.

Pre-marital examinations

98.

Spouse

99.

Sibling

100.

/ ()

Spacing of children

101.

Social Security Record

102.

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Introduction to Interpreting

Arabic and Translation Studies Division


103.

Family disintegration

104.

Kinship

105.

Internal migration

106.

Rural-urban migration

107.

Emigration

108.

Immigration (

109.

Labor migration

110.

Brain drain

111.

Forced migration

112.
113.

Displacement
Evacuation

Evacuees

114.

Repatriation

115.

Resettlement

116.

Communicable disease

117.

Endemic disease

118.

Epidemic disease

119.

Genetic disease

120.

Annual death probability

121.

Religious minority

122.

Ethnic minority

123.

Built-up area

124.

Informally - built area

125.

126.

Concealed (much less frequent)/ Disguised


unemployment
Cosmopolitan society

127.

Public housing

128.

Residential density

129.

Urbanization

Introduction to Interpreting

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Arabic and Translation Studies Division


130.

Social mobility

131.

Social stratification

132.

Socialization

133.

Occupational qualifications

Squatter

/) (

134.

Introduction to Interpreting

Page 22

Arabic and Translation Studies Division


Certificate Title: Foundation Certificate in Translation and Interpreting
Course Title: Introduction to Interpreting
Session Title: Five
Description of session and main activities:
A practical session of at sight interpreting using texts of about 250 words on
Environment. Translation is practiced from Arabic into English and vice versa.
Learning outcomes:
By the end of the class session, students will be able to
reproduce meaning in the target language while scanning a 250-word text.

Material:
Selected readings on theories of interpreting.
Texts on environment.

Assignments:
Prepare texts on Management for session six.
Learners should read widely on Management. They should not only collect the
key terminology in the field, but also get all necessary background knowledge to
compensate for any shortage of comprehension. At the beginning of the next
session, learners will take a quiz of terminology on Management. The quiz
consists of key terms that learners will most likely encounter while reading on the
subject . The objective of the quiz is to translate 60% of the terms correctly, i.e.
60% enables the learner to get the full mark.
The quiz is out of 5 marks; it consists of 50 key terms to translate in 30 minutes.
Another 5 marks are given for the oral production of the learner during the
session.

Introduction to Interpreting

Page 23

Arabic and Translation Studies Division


English Text 5.1

Environment after World War II

Refugees: When warfare causes the mass movement of people, the resulting impacts on the
environment can be catastrophic. Widespread deforestation, unchecked hunting, soil
erosion and contamination of land and water by human waste occur when thousands of
humans are forced to settle in a new area. During the Rwandan conflict in 1994, much of
that country's Akagera National Park was opened to refugees; as a result, local populations
of animals like the roan antelope and the eland became extinct.
Infrastructure Collapse: Among the first and most vulnerable targets of attack in a
military campaign are the enemy's roads, bridges, utilities and other infrastructure. While
these don't form part of the natural environment, the destruction of wastewater treatment
plants, for example, severely degrades regional water quality. During the 1990s fighting
in Croatia, chemical manufacturing plants were bombed; because treatment facilities for
chemical spills weren't functioning, toxins flowed downstream unchecked until the conflict
ended.
Increased Production: Even in regions not directly affected by warfare, increased
production in manufacturing, agriculture and other industries that support a war effort can
wreak havoc on the natural environment. During World War I, former wilderness areas of
the United States came under cultivation for wheat, cotton and other crops, while vast
stands of timber were clear-cut to meet wartime demand for wood products. Timber in
Liberia, oil in Sudan and diamonds in Sierra Leone are all exploited by military factions.
"These provide a revenue stream that is used to buy weapons," said Bruch.
Scorched Earth Practices: The destruction of one's own homeland is a time-honored,
albeit tragic, wartime custom. The term "scorched earth" originally applied to burning
crops and buildings that might feed and shelter the enemy, but it's now applied to any
environmentally destructive strategy. To thwart invading Japanese troops during the
Second Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945), Chinese authorities dynamited a dike on the
Yellow River, drowning thousands of Japanese soldiers -- and thousands of Chinese
peasants, while also flooding millions of square miles of land.

Introduction to Interpreting

Page 24

Arabic and Translation Studies Division


Arabic Text 5.1



) : (Water Crisis ): (Water Shortage
.
.
.
:
992 .
2.3
.
.

.
2117
" : " "

".

.


.
.
.

Page 25

Introduction to Interpreting

Arabic and Translation Studies Division


Arabic Text 5.2

:
-:
....
..
.
.

.

. .
http://ar.wikipedia.org
( 915)

Page 26

Introduction to Interpreting

Arabic and Translation Studies Division

Environment and Ecology


Prepared by
Ahmed Abdel Moneim
Dalia Raouf
Hanan El Sanhoury
Marwa Farouk Hassan

Mohamed El Husseiny
Ms. Rosette Francis
Nermeen Yehia
Rania Magdy

Ecology

1.

Ministry of Environmental Affairs

2.

Ecosystem

3.

Ecosphere

4.

Ecoclimate

5.

Ecodevelopment

6.

Ecologist

7.

Ecology

8.

Earth Charter

9.

Earth Day

) (

10.

Abyssal environment

11.

Aquatic life

12.

Affordable water

13.

Running water

14.

Groundwater

15.

Coastal area/ Littoral zone

16.

Coastal waters

17.

Ocean floor

18.

Sea bed

19.

Fisheries

20.

Shellfishery

21.

Fish shoal

22.

Juvenile fish

23.

Juvenile water

A.

Introduction to Interpreting

Page 27

Arabic and Translation Studies Division


24.

River-borne sediments

25.

Climatology

26.

Agro climatology

27.

Ambient air

28.

Ambient temperature

29.

and Fauna Flora

) /(

30.

Forestry

31.

Arable land/ Cultivable land

32.

Seasonal crops

33.

Vegetarian

34.

Glaciology

35.

Ice cap

36.

Ontology

37.

Biodiversity

38.

Metabolism

39.

Acclimatization

40.

Wild animals

41.

Wildlife

42.

Captive animals

43.

Semi-captive animals

44.

Cattle grazing

45.

Sedimentary rocks

Climate Changes

46.

Adverse climate change

47.

Global climate change

48.

Air mass

49.

Cyclone

50.

Hurricane

) (

51.

Smog

) (

52.

Dust storm

53.

Sand storm

B.

Introduction to Interpreting

Page 28

Arabic and Translation Studies Division


54.

Wind storm

55.

Easterlies

56.

Westerlies

57.

Monsoon winds

58.

Storm abated

59.

Equator

60.

Dew

61.

Humidity

62.

Mist

63.

Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA)

64.

Environmental friendly

65.

Green belt

66.

Conservation of nature

67.

Clean technology

68.

Clearing up pollution

69.

Air-quality control

70.

Decontamination/ Depollution

71.

Desalination

) (

72.

Detoxication

) (

73.

Disaster management

74.

Pollution control

75.

Restoration of soil

76.

Afforestation

) (

77.

Ozone hole

78.

Ozone-friendly technology

79.

Energy conservation law

80.

Green car

81.

Biofuel

82.

Smokeless fuel

83.

Zero Emission Vehicle

84.

Collection of household refuse

85.

Sorting of refuse

86.

Sanitary landfill

87.

Rational Waste Management

Introduction to Interpreting

Page 29

Arabic and Translation Studies Division


88.

Hygienic waste disposal

89.

Rationalization of hunting animals

90.

Hazard prediction

Natural Phenomena

91.

Age-old forests

92.

Air current

93.

Beach erosion

94.

Land erosion

95.

Coral reefs

96.

Deglaciation

97.

Desertification

98.

Ebb and tide

99.

Marshlands

100.

Pristine area

101.

Quick sands

102.

Sand dunes

103.

Sand flats

104.

Uplands

105.

Vortex

106.

Water falls

Natural Disasters

107.

Biodeterioration

108.

Bush fire

109.

Conflagration

110.

Disaster-prone area

111.

Disaster-stricken area

112.

Distressed area

113.

Drought- prone area

114.

Endangered natural resources

115.

Endangered species

116.

Extinct species

()

117.

Famine

C.

D.

Introduction to Interpreting

Page 30

Arabic and Translation Studies Division


Environmental Abuse

118.

Environment degradation

119.

Agrochemicals

120.

Deforestation

121.

Soil degradation

122.

Over grazing

123.

Overcropping

124.

Overfertilization

125.

Overfishing

126.

Air pollution load

127.

Airborne contaminant = Air pollutant

128.

Airborne emissions

129.

Airborne particles

130.

Airborne pollutants

131.

Airborne pollution

132.

Breakdown of wastes

133.

Build up of pollutants

134.

Disposal of wastes

( )

135.

Dump

) (

136.

Dumping at sea

137.

Effluent discharge

138.

Incineration of wastes

139.

Refuse/ Garbage collection

140.

Contaminant
Contamination

) (

141.

Contaminated food

142.

Dust deposit

143.

144.

Emission trading
Jump to: navigation, search
Energy- intensive technology

145.

Noxious emissions

146.

Off-gases

147.

Off-odor

148.

Exhausts

E.

Introduction to Interpreting

Page 31

Arabic and Translation Studies Division


149.

Fossil fuel

150.

Fumes

151.

Fumigation)

152.

Vapors

153.

Global Warming

154.

Greenhouse effect

Greenhouse gases

156.

Radiation

157.

Carcinogen

158.

Carbon release

159.

Cement plants

160.

Combustion residue

161.

Depletion of Ozone Layer

162.

Sanitary drainage

163.

Sewer

164.

Toxics

165.

Thermal pollution

166.

Marine pollution

167.

Oil spill

Miscellaneous

168.

Pumping station

169.

Organic components

170.

Hygiene

155.

F.

Introduction to Interpreting

Page 32

Arabic and Translation Studies Division

Environment and Ecology


1.

Deforestation

2.

Recycling

3.

Wetlands

4.

Asbestos

5.

Infrared Radiation

6.

Ultraviolet Radiation UV

7.

Aerosols

8.

Global Warming

9.

Cleaner Production

10. Environment
11. Eutrophication
12. Bioaccumulation
13. Biodiversity
14. Drought
15. Sanitary Landfilling
16. Dioxins
17. Over Grazing
18. Organic Farming

19. Food Chain

20. Renewable Energy

21. Algea
22. Biogas

23. Atmosphere

24. Biosphere

25. Hydrosphere

26. Lithosphere

27. Composting

28. Environmental Disasters


29. Pesticides
30. Natural Park
31. Environmental Auditing
Introduction to Interpreting


Page 33

Arabic and Translation Studies Division


32. Acid Rain
33. Hazardous Substances and Wastes
34. Phytoplankton
35. Ecosystem

36. Stabilization of organic matters

37. Environmental Risk Assessment

38. Environmental Impact Assessment


39. Ozone Layer
40. Greenhouse Effect

41. CFCs

42. PCBs

43. End of Pipe Treatment

Introduction to Interpreting

Page 34

Arabic and Translation Studies Division


Certificate Title: Foundation Certificate in Translation and Interpreting
Course Title: Introduction to Interpreting
Session Title: Six
Description of session and main activities:
A practical session of at sight interpreting using texts of about 250 words on
Management. Translation is practiced from Arabic into English and vice versa.

Learning outcomes:
By the end of the class session, students will be able to
reproduce meaning in the target language while scanning a 250-word text.

Material:
Selected readings on theories of interpreting.
Texts on management.
Assignments:
Prepare texts on Diplomacy for session seven.
Learners should read widely on Diplomacy. They should not only collect the
key terminology in the field, but also get all necessary background knowledge to
compensate for any shortage of comprehension. At the beginning of the next
session, learners will take a quiz of terminology on Diplomacy. The quiz
consists of key terms that learners will most likely encounter while reading on the
subject. The objective of the quiz is to translate 60% of the terms correctly, i.e.
60% enables the learner to get the full mark.
The quiz is out of 5 marks; it consists of 50 key terms to translate in 30 minutes.
Another 5 marks are given for the oral production of the learner during the
session.

Introduction to Interpreting

Page 35

Arabic and Translation Studies Division


English Text 6.1

What is Management?

As there is no universally accepted definition for management, it is


difficult to define it.
But a simple traditional definition, defines it as the "art of getting things
done by others". This definition brings in two elements namely
accomplishment of objectives, and direction of group activities towards the
goal. The weaknesses of this definition is that firstly it uses the word "art",
whereas management is not merely an art, but it is both art and science.
Secondly, the definition does not state the various functions of a manager
clearly.
A more elaborate definition given by George R. Terry, defines
management as a process "consisting of planning, organizing, actuating and
controlling, performed to determine and accomplish the objectives by the use
of people and resources." Firstly it considers management as a "process" i.e. a
systematic way of doing things. Secondly it states four management activities:
Planning, organizing, actuating, and controlling. Planning is thinking of an
actions in advance.
Organizing is coordination of the human and material resources of an
organization. Actuating is motivation and direction of subordinates.
Controlling means the attempt to ensure no deviation from the norm or plan.
Thirdly it states that manager uses people and other resources. For example a
manager who wants to increase the sales, might try not only to increase the
sales force, but also to increase advertising budget. And fourthly, it states that
management involves the act of achieving the organization's objectives.
http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Management_Concepts_and_Applications/Management

Introduction to Interpreting

Page 36

Arabic and Translation Studies Division


Arabic Text 6.1


:

.
.

. .


.
.
.
.
.

.
.


.
-
.

.

Page 37

Introduction to Interpreting

Arabic and Translation Studies Division

Expressions of Management
Management
1.

planning

2.

organizing

3.

directing

4.

controlling

5.

System analysis

6.

Iinputs

7.

Processes

8.

Outputs

9.

Feedback

10.

Educational policy

11.

Politics

12.

manager

13.

middle managers

14.

top management

15.

skill

16.

efficiency

17.

effectiveness

18.

humanism

19.

human relations approach

20.

Goals

21.

organization

22.

Organizational functions

23.

career

24.

performance

25.

productivity

26.

authority

27.

bureaucracy

28.

decision making

29.

Management by objective

30.

scientific Management

Introduction to Interpreting

) (




Page 38

Arabic and Translation Studies Division


31.

Management total quality (T.Q.M(

32.

control total quality (T.Q.C(

33.

centralization

34.

classical school

35.

leadership

36.

trans formational leadership

37.

systems theory

38.

contingency theory

39.

Information systems

40.

strategic planning

41.

organization structure

42.

delegation of authority

43.

Centralization and decentralization

44.

formalism

45.

informal

46.

organizational manual

47.

job description

48.

incentives

49.

communication

50.

barriers

51.

human resources

Introduction to Interpreting

Page 39

Arabic and Translation Studies Division

Certificate Title: Foundation Certificate in Translation and Interpreting


Course Title: Introduction to Interpreting
Session Title: Seven
Description of session and main activities:
A practical session of at sight interpreting using texts of about 250 words on
Diplomacy. Translation is practiced from Arabic into English and vice versa.

Learning outcomes:
By the end of the class session, students will be able to
reproduce meaning in the target language while scanning a 250 word text.

Material:
Selected readings on theories of interpreting.
Texts on diplomacy.

Assignments:
Prepare texts on Elections for session eight.
Learners should read widely on Elections. They should not only collect the key
terminology in the field, but also get all necessary background knowledge to
compensate for any shortage of comprehension. At the beginning of the next
session, learners will take a quiz of terminology on Elections. The quiz consists
of key terms that learners will most likely encounter while reading on the subject.
The objective of the quiz is to translate 60% of the terms correctly, i.e. 60%
enables the learner to get the full mark.
The quiz is out of 5 marks; it consists of 50 key terms to translate in 30 minutes.
Another 5 marks are given for the oral production of the learner during the
session.

Introduction to Interpreting

Page 40

Arabic and Translation Studies Division


English Text 7.1

The Functions of Diplomacy


The act of conducting negotiations between two persons, or two nations at a large
scope is essential to the upkeep of international affairs. Among the many functions of
diplomacy, some include preventing war and violence, and fortifying relations between
two nations. Diplomacy is most importantly used to complete a specific agenda. Therefore
without diplomacy, much of the worlds affairs would be abolished, international
organizations would not exist, and above all the world would be at a constant state of war.
It is for diplomacy that certain countries can exist in harmony.
There has not been a documented start of diplomacy; however there have been
instances ranging back to the 5th century where diplomacy arose in certain nations. Dating
back to 432 B.C, the Congress of Sparta was an illustration of diplomacy as organized by
the Greek City States. The origin of the word diploma comes from different sides of the
earth. In Greece diploma meant folded in two, while in Ancient Rome the word was
used to describe travel documents. Often times the word diplomacy is given many
meanings. Many times will the words policy and the word negotiation be seen as
synonyms; hence the word diplomacy and foreign diplomacy are deemed to be
similar. These synonyms of diplomacy are all faulty. While they may be very similar in
some cases, they are not the exactly the same.
While many are not able to find a clear beginning or creation of diplomacy,
modern diplomacy has become much more advanced and many aspects have changed over
the years. The Peace of Westphalia in 1648 created the first modern diplomatic congress
in addition to creating a new world order in central Europe based on state sovereignty.
Much of Europe began to change after the introduction of modern diplomacy. The New
World Order began to bloom in all of Central and Western Europe.
Great Britain argued for the balance of power which kept European diplomacy
alive for the next 200 years. Every country in Europe contributed a little to the diplomacy
the world has today. Many could argue that diplomacy is a product of society and history
itself. As countries progress different aspects are added to diplomacy. Separation of
powers, national interest, and a countrys sovereignty are only a few elements that were
added to modern diplomatic history. Therefore, diplomacy can be seen as an everchanging concept, the same way International Relations between countries fluctuate.

http://www.e-ir.info/2011/07/20/the-functions-of-diplomacy/

Introduction to Interpreting

Page 41

Arabic and Translation Studies Division


Arabic Text 7.1

:
.
( diploma
/ )
.

.
.
.

.

.
:


.
.

.

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Arabic and Translation Studies Division


Arabic Text 7.2


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Page 44

Introduction to Interpreting

Arabic and Translation Studies Division

Prepared by:
Marwa Anas
Marwa Farouk Hassan

Rania Magdy
Yasser Taha

Diplomacy and International Relations Terminology


A.
1.
2.

Diplomatic Relations and Missions

Diplomacy (n.)

3.

Courtesies of Diplomacy
Shuttle Diplomacy

4.

To practise diplomacy

) / (

5.

Diplomat (n.)

6.

Diplomatic affairs

7.

Diplomatic bag
Diplomatic pouch (Amr.)

8.

Diplomatic courier
Diplomatic Corps

9.

) (
/ /) (

10.

11.

Diplomatic channels
Diplomatic crisis

12.

Diplomatic correspondent

) (

13.

Diplomatic efforts

14.

Diplomatic entry visa

15.

Diplomatic exemption

16.

Diplomatic gallery

17.

Diplomatic hitch

18.

Diplomatic immunity

Introduction to Interpreting

Page 45

Arabic and Translation Studies Division


19.

Diplomatic Parlance (F.)

20.

Diplomatic privileges

21.

Diplomatic representation

22.

Diplomatic status

23.

Diplomatic ties

24.

To establish diplomatic relations

25.

To re-establish/ resume diplomatic relations

26.

- Break off diplomatic relations

27.

Suspension of diplomatic relations

28.

Freezing diplomatic relations

29.

Normalization of relations

Diplomatic corps

) (

31.

Statesman

32.

Statesmanship = Statecraft

) (

33.

Dean Of Diplomatic Corps

34.

Doyenne:

35.

Acting Secretary General

/ /

36.

Charge daffaires (F.)

37.

High Commissioner

38.

Persona grata (L.)

39.

Persona non grata (L.)

40.

Foreign community

41.

Extraordinary envoy

42.

Itinerant envoy (eye)

43.

Fact-finding mission

30.

Introduction to Interpreting

Page 46

Arabic and Translation Studies Division


44.

Agrement (F.)

/ /

45.

Ad referendum (L.)

46.

Unfriendly act

47.

Act of courtesy

48.

Exchange of courtesies

49.

To abide by the resolution

/ /

50.

Abidance by the law

/ /

51.

To accede to a treaty

52.

53.

Accession to an alliance
Entering into an alliance
Balance of power

54.

Tripartite representation

55.

Multiple representation

) (

56.

Accredited representative

57.

Common interests

58.

International solidarity

59.

Espionage (F.)

60.

Coup detat (F.)

) (

61.

Reformation of the government

62.

De facto recognition (L.)

63.

De jure recognition (L.)

64.

Fait accompli (F.)

65.

Status quo (L.)

66.

Striking force

67.

Force Majeure (F.)

68.

Goodwill mission

69.

Good offices

Introduction to Interpreting

Page 47

Arabic and Translation Studies Division

71.

In good faith
Bona fide
Hard-liner

72.

The Haves and Have-nots Countries

73.

Political impasse

74.

Mediation

) (

75.

Memorandum (memo) (L.)

76.

Subjects

77.

Native born citizen

78.

Acquired nationality

79.

Right of Asylum

80.

Square report

81.

Square refusal

82.

Discriminatory treatment

83.

Walkout

) (

70.

B.

Diplomatic Meetings

Audience: a formal meeting with a very


important person

85.

Audience room

86.

Ceremonials (Protocol)

/ /

87.

Ceremonial mission

88.

Protocol book

89.

Chief of protocol = master of ceremonies

90.

Red carpet reception

) (

Diplomatic Instruments and


Documents

Treaty of alliance

84.

C.
91.

Introduction to Interpreting

) /

Page 48

Arabic and Translation Studies Division


92.

Pact of non-aggression

93.

Credentials (from ambassadors to heads of


states)

Functions and Authorities

94.

Terms Of Reference (TOR)

95.

Prerogatives

96.

To grant a concession
To withdraw a concession

D.


97.

Absolute government

98.

Absolute power

99.

Ex-officio member (L.)

100.

Abuse of right

101.

Abuse of office

102.

Abuse of power

103.

Vested with full powers

104.

To curtail the powers

105.

Authorized official

106.

Central authority

107.

Concerned authority

108.

Constitutional authority

109.

Delegation of authority

110.

To exercise authority
To exercise patience

E.
111.

/ /

Ambassadorial Related Terms

Ambassador Extraordinary

Introduction to Interpreting

Page 49

Arabic and Translation Studies Division


Ambassador Plenipotentiary
Minister plenipotentiary

113.

Ambassador at large

114.

Roving ambassador

115.

Ambassadorial rank (order)

116.

To recall (summon) an ambassador

117.

To withdraw an ambassador

118.

Notification on arrival of an ambassador

119.

Offence against an ambassador

120.

Official residence of the ambassador

121.

Embassy Spokesperson

122.

Embassy Staff

123.

First Secretary of an embassy

F.
124.

Consulate
Consulate General

125.

Consul General

126.

Honorary Consul

127.

Vice-Consul

128.

Consular Agent

129.

Consular Corps

130.

Consular immunities

131.

Consular jurisdiction

132.

Consular privileges

G.
133.

Attach
Air Attach

134.

Commercial Attach

135.

Cultural Attach

112.

Introduction to Interpreting

Page 50

Arabic and Translation Studies Division


136.

Press Attach

137.

Naval Attach

138.

Military Attach

139.

Scientific Attach

International Policies

H.
140.

Policy of appeasement

141.

Policy of austerity

142.

Policy of deterrence

143.

Policy of fait accompli

144.

Policy of rapprochement (F.):

145.

Wait and see policy

146.

Dtente (F.):

/() (
)

Entente(F.): international understanding

()

I.

State of War

148.

Adverse attitude

149.

Adverse interests

150.

Adverse opinion

/ / /

151.

Aggravated assault

152.

Alliance for peace

153.

Breach of peace

154.

To bear the brunt

155.

Banishment/ Exile
Local banishment

156.

To impose a curfew

157.

Coalition government

158.

Colonialism

147.

Introduction to Interpreting

Page 51

Arabic and Translation Studies Division


159.

Grip of colonialism

160.

Decolonization

161.

To reach a compromise

162.

Deadlock
(Stalemate)

/ /

163.

World denunciation

164.

Deterioration of relations/ situation

165.

Treason

/) (

166.

War of extermination
(Genocide)

) (

167.

War reparations

168.

Repatriation of Prisoners Of War (POWs)

169.

Repatriation of refugees

170.

Redeployment of troops

) (

171.

Ethnic cleansing

Introduction to Interpreting

Page 52

Arabic and Translation Studies Division

Certificate Title: Foundation Certificate in Translation and Interpreting


Course Title: Introduction to Interpreting
Session Title: Eight
Description of session and main activities:
A practical session of at sight interpreting using texts of about 250 words on
Elections. Translation is practiced from Arabic into English and vice versa.

Learning outcomes:
By the end of the class session, students will be able to
reproduce meaning in the target language while scanning a 250-word text.

Material:
Selected readings on theories of interpreting
Texts on Elections

Assignments:
Prepare texts on Economics for session nine.
Learners should read widely on Economics. They should not only collect the key
terminology in the field, but also get all necessary background knowledge to
compensate for any shortage of comprehension. At the beginning of the next
session, learners will take a quiz of terminology on Economics. The quiz
consists of key terms that learners will most likely encounter while reading on the
subject. The objective of the quiz is to translate 60% of the terms correctly, i.e.
60% enables the learner to get the full mark.
The quiz is out of 5 marks; it consists of 50 key terms to translate in 30 minutes.
Another 5 marks are given for the oral production of the learner during the
session.

Introduction to Interpreting

Page 53

Arabic and Translation Studies Division


English Text 8.1

Elections in the world


Citizens determine their nations interactions with the world through elections,
collectively and even with individual acts. As globalizations forces buffet the world, seen
time and time again since the start of the 21stcentury, the internal politics of any state can
permanently alter course for other nations: the ruling Taliban in Afghanistan
allowed jihadists to plot air attacks on the US World Trade Center and Pentagon; rising
home prices in the US and unsustainable mortgages triggered a global credit crisis and
recession; budget mismanagement and debt in Greece spread panic which called for
austerity measures throughout the European Union; and the self-immolation of a hopeless
street vendor in Tunisia stirred thoughts of revolution and unrest throughout the Middle
East and beyond.
Citizen reactions are only magnified by rapid growth of satellite television
networks, cell phones, the internet, and social media like Facebook and Twitter. With a
click of button, thousands and then millions can view a politicians embarrassing slip of
tongue, widening inequality, pollutants crossing borders, work conditions of factories that
make favorite products, devastation left by natural disaster followed by spontaneous
generosity whether for victims of a hurricane in Louisiana or earthquake-tsunami victims
in Indonesia and Japan. Foreign policy in action viewed on global media prompts strong
citizen reactions, and elections mold foreign policy.
The electoral systems and forms of government are many and varied plurality,
majority or proportional representation; presidential and parliamentary. Yet citizens
expect their leaders to provide jobs, education and healthcare, while ensuring adequate
supplies of energy and clean water, overseeing fair pricing and regulations, and protecting
borders and culture. And of course, citizens expect leaders of other states to reciprocate in
their trade and other policies.
In 2012, election campaigns are underway for choosing leaders of Egypt, France,
Russia, Mexico, Turkey, the United States and other nations. While confronting elections,
the primary concern of these leaders is to satisfy their citizens demands, and yet that can
set them up against other countries interests.: Frances incumbent president seeks to
mollify citizens by announcing early withdrawal of troops from the NATO operation in
Afghanistan, enraging other members; US candidates, blaming China for a loss of jobs,
call for a protectionist stance; Russias candidates rail against corruption while trying to
present a positive outlook for foreign investors. In China, the leaders are selected by the
Communist Party which must also take into account public sentiments. The next set of
leaders in China must reassess past policies of lending to troubled economies in the West
and still deliver growth, jobs and improvements in the standard of living or risk unrest
This YaleGlobal special section presents articles that analyze the national election
campaigns and the consequences that so often reach beyond borders.
http://yaleglobal.yale.edu/content/world-elections-global-challenges
Introduction to Interpreting

Page 54

Arabic and Translation Studies Division


Arabic Text 8.1


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Page 55

Introduction to Interpreting

Arabic and Translation Studies Division


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Page 56

Introduction to Interpreting

Arabic and Translation Studies Division


Arabic Text 8.2

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( 92)

Page 57

Introduction to Interpreting

Arabic and Translation Studies Division


Arabic Text 8.3


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( 275)

Page 58

Introduction to Interpreting

Arabic and Translation Studies Division

Elections, Parliament & Parties Terminology Elections


Prepared by:
Dalia Raouf
Marwa Anas
Marwa Farouk Hassan
Mona Gobba

A.

Types of elections

1.

One- man- one- seat system

2.

Presidential elections

3.

Ticket/Slate Election System

4.

Municipal elections:

5.

Rigged elections

Rania Magdy
Samar Abul Nur
Sherine Nabih
Yasser Taha

6.

Election by acclamation

7.

Election by general consent

8.

Election by secret ballot

9.

Run-off vote

B.

Election supervision

10.

Electoral College

11.

Judicial supervision

C.

Before Elections

12.

Polling station

13.

Elector / Voter

Introduction to Interpreting

/







) (
/
Page 59

Arabic and Translation Studies Division




/
()
( )





/
(
... )
( )
()

Page 60

Election round

14.

To campaign for the election

15.

Platform

16.

Rally

17.

)Canvass (n.

18.

Stump Speeches

19.

Electioneering:

20.

)Electioneerer (n.

21.

He is fighting the election

22.

Poll

23.

Party Slates

24.

Turnout

25.

Proportional representation

26.

Independent candidate

27.

Labo(u)r

28.

Professional candidate/ Brackets

29.

Workers and Farmers

30.

Opponents

31.

To muzzle opposition

32.

Introduction to Interpreting

Arabic and Translation Studies Division


33.

Staunch Supporters

34.

Public protests

35.

Mobilization of the public


Mobilization of the masses

36.

Electorate

37.

To carry out an election

38.

To challenge the result of the elections

39.

To conclude the election

40.

To conduct the election

41.

To declare the election invalid

42.

To withdraw from an election

43.

Election day

44.

Election nominations

45.

Impartiality of elections
Neutrality of elections

46.

Integrity of elections

47.

Manipulation of elections

48.

Eligible for immediate election

49.

Disqualified for elections

50.

The election is valid

51.

Balloting

Introduction to Interpreting

/






/




/


/

Page 61

Arabic and Translation Studies Division

( )




( )

() ( )



( )



Ballot booth

52.

To cast ones ballot

53.

Valid ballot papers


Invalid ballot papers

54.

Ballot boycott

55.

)Vote (n.

56.

Voteless

57.

Voting card

58.

To cast ones vote

59.

Votes cast

60.

To put sth. To the vote:

61.

To vote sth down:

62.

To vote through:

63.

To Count the votes


Sorting votes
Sorting machines

64.





( / )
Page 62

To deprive the right to vote

65.

To Exercise ones right to vote

66.

To pool the votes

67.

To poll the majority of votes

68.

Introduction to Interpreting

Arabic and Translation Studies Division


69.

To vote on (a motion)

70.

To vote (somebody) in

71.

To vote (somebody) out

72.

To vote for
To vote in favor of

73.

To vote against

74.

To Vote article by article

75.

To vote by roll call


Roll = list of names

76.

To vote by secret ballot

77.

To vote by show (raise) of hands

78.

To vote by standing and sitting

79.

To abstain from voting

80.

Abstentions

81.

Casting vote:

82.

Dissenting vote

83.

List of voters

84.

Non-voting

85.

Members present and voting

86.

Nomination: 1)

87.

To close nominations

88.

To Second a nomination

Introduction to Interpreting

/
..
.. ()














/ / /


Page 63

Arabic and Translation Studies Division


89.

Nominee

90.

Null and void

91.

Candidacy/ Candidature:

92.

List/ Slates of candidates

93.

The Presidential Candidate

94.

To declare a candidacy in order

95.

To declare a candidacy out of order

96.

To waive his candidacy

97.

Chairman (president)/ chairperson/ chair

98.

Elected Chairperson

99.

Constituency

100.

Carving out the constituencies

101.

Motion:

102.

To vote on the motion

103.

Debatable motion
Undebatable motion

104.

Motion of confidence
Motion of non-confidence

105.

Procedural motion

106.

Substantive motion

Introduction to Interpreting


) (

Page 64

Arabic and Translation Studies Division

))
() ( /
)

Opinion poll:

107.

Referendum:

108.


() (
)

( )




( / /
)




/
( )

Page 65

Plebiscite:

109.

Questionnaire:

110.

)Rapporteur (F.

111.

Elective seats

112.

Unanimity

113.

Disguised unanimity

114.

D.

After Elections and Scrutinizing


Tie (usually singular):

115.

Nays

116.

Quorum

117.

To ascertain the quorum

118.

The teller

119.

( Scrutineer:

120.

Re-election

121.

By-election

122.

Winning the elections


Introduction to Interpreting

E.

Arabic and Translation Studies Division


123.

To win uncontested/ unopposed

124.

(win by a) Landslide

125.

Thin/ narrow majority

126.

Absolute majority

127.

Sweeping majority

128.

Overwhelming majority

129.

Consensus

F.

Parliament

130.

Member of Parliament (MP)

131.

Parliamentarian

132.

The Speaker: an official who controls


discussions in a parliament

133.

Dissolution of parliament

134.

Parliamentary immunity

135.

Parliamentary session

136.

Ad hoc committee

G.

Types (names) of Parliaments

137.

US Congress

138.

Congressional hearings

139.

Congressman

140.

The Senate:

141.

Senator

Introduction to Interpreting





) (
:

/





()
) (




Page 66

Arabic and Translation Studies Division


142.

House of Representatives

143.

House Member

144.

The British Parliament

145.

House of Commons (lower house):

146.

House of Lords (upper house):

147.

The French National Assembly

148.

(the west German) Bundestag

149.

The Peoples Assembly

150.

The Shura Consultative Council

151.

Duma

152.

The Diet

153.

Keneseth

H.

Constitution

154.

To abide by the Constitution

155.

Preamble of the Constitution

156.

Provisions of the Constitution

157.

Constitutional Act

158.

To Constitutionalise

159.

To amend the Constitution

160.

To introduce amendments

Introduction to Interpreting




) (





) (
) (





/ /



Page 67

Arabic and Translation Studies Division


161.

Appendix (a part at the end of a book


containing additional info.)

162.

Legislative action

163.

Legislation (law making)

164.

Legislator (law maker)

165.

Legislature

166.

Legitimacy

I.

Political Parties

167.

Liberal Party

168.

Ruling Party

169.

Opposition Party

170.

Marginal Parties

171.

Socialist Party

172.

Communist Party

173.

Centrist Party

174.

Right-wing


) (
/
) (
/

) / (





Left-wing

175.

Clandestine Party
Clandestine = secret

176.

Banned Party (outlawed)

177.

Party's Manifesto

J.

Miscellaneous

Introduction to Interpreting

Page 68

Arabic and Translation Studies Division

Certificate Title: Foundation Certificate in Translation and Interpreting


Course Title: Introduction to Interpreting
Session Title: Nine
Description of session and main activities:
A practical session of at sight interpreting using texts of about 250-words on
Economics. Translation is practiced from Arabic into English and vice versa.
Learning outcomes:
By the end of the class session, students will be able to
reproduce ideas in the target language while scanning a 250-word text.
Material:
Selected readings on theories of interpreting.
Texts on economics.

Introduction to Interpreting

Page 69

Arabic and Translation Studies Division

The need of information. Accounting as an information

Our economic environment is one where the production and distribution of goods
and services is primarily left to individuals or to a group of people. It is based on the
principle that these entrepreneurs can own property and conduct their business with the
view of making a profit from their efforts. All businesses need a system of planning and
maintaining information about their financial affairs.
Different types of information might be useful to people interested in the firm.
Information can be either quantitative or non-quantitative. Examples of
nonquantitative information are visual impressions, conversations, television programs,
newspaper stories. Quantitative information is such information that is expressed in
numbers.
Accounting is primarily concerned with quantitative information but it is one of
several types of quantitative information which is distinguished from the other types in
that it usually is expressed in monetary amounts (i.e. acquisition cost of purchased
equipment). Nonmonetary information is often included in accounting reports for reader's
understanding the report (i.e. number of employees or products sold).
Accounting information consists of operating information, financial accounting
and management accounting. Operating information is required to conduct an
organization's day-to-day activities. This information constitutes the largest quantity of
accounting information and provides the basic data for both management accounting and
financial accounting. (Example: In the stockroom the material list has to be known to
order new supply of depleted sorts).
Financial accounting provides information both for internal users (owners,
managers) as well as external users (shareholders, banks, trade partners,
government, investors, general public). Content of financial accounting reports is
identical for every entrepreneur (it is needed for comparison among firms and
sectors of industry) and users will not understand them without knowing the ground rules
of their preparation.
Management accounting information is shaped from summaries of operating and
other information. This information is used by persons who have to carry out their
management responsibilities and it is used in three management functions planning,
implementation and control.

Introduction to Interpreting

Page 70

Arabic and Translation Studies Division


Arabic Text 9.1


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Page 71

Introduction to Interpreting

Arabic and Translation Studies Division

91 .
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Page 72

Introduction to Interpreting

Arabic and Translation Studies Division


Arabic Text 9.2



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http://islamtoday.net
( 922)

Page 73

Introduction to Interpreting

Arabic and Translation Studies Division

Expressions
Entrepreneurs
planning and maintaining information
quantitative or -quantitative
monetary amounts
Nonmonetary information
financial accounting
management accounting
Operating information
internal user
external users

Introduction to Interpreting

Page 74

Arabic and Translation Studies Division

Certificate Title: Foundation Certificate in Translation and Interpreting


Course Title: Introduction to Interpreting
Session Title: Ten
Description of session and main activities:
A practical session of consecutive interpreting. Students should be able to
interpret consecutively up to one minute from Arabic into English and vice versa.
Learning outcomes:
By the end of the class session, students will be able to
1. take notes based on a one-minute text;
2. list key words reflecting the meaning of the text;
3. reformulate messages in the target language; and
4. interpret consecutively for up to one minute.
Material:
Selected texts.

Introduction to Interpreting

Page 75

Arabic and Translation Studies Division

Certificate Title: Foundation Certificate in Translation and Interpreting


Course Title: Introduction to Interpreting
Session Title: Eleven
Description of session and main activities:
A practical session of simultaneous interpreting . Students should be able to interpret
simultaneously up to two minutes from Arabic into English and vice versa. This session
should be conducted in the simultaneous interpreting lab.

Learning outcomes:
By the end of the class session, students will be able to
1. respond to input with good voice quality;
2. use adjustment strategies such as addition, inference, omission, and self-correction;
3. deliver at a steady rate; and
4. interpret simultaneously for up to two minutes.

Material:
Selected texts.

Introduction to Interpreting

Page 76

Arabic and Translation Studies Division

Certificate Title: Foundation Certificate in Translation and Interpreting


Course Title: Introduction to Interpreting
Session Title: Twelve
Description of session and main activities:
The final test.
The test will be conducted on a one-on-one basis.
Learners will choose, at random, a text of about 50 words out of 4 Arabic texts,
and another out of 4 English texts.
Learners will be asked to interpret each text at sight in not more than 5 minutes.
Learners should start interpreting within less than 30 seconds from the time
they receive the texts.
Each text will be evaluated out of 15 marks by the class instructor.
Grade distribution is as follows;
10 marks on accuracy
3 marks on voice clarity and intonation
1 marks on starting within 30 seconds
1 marks on finishing within the given time

Introduction to Interpreting

Page 77